Karbala

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For other uses, see Karbala (disambiguation). Karbala_sentence_0

"Kerbela" redirects here. Karbala_sentence_1

For the moth genus, see Kerbela (moth). Karbala_sentence_2

Karbala_table_infobox_0

KarbalaKarbala_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryKarbala_header_cell_0_1_0 IraqKarbala_cell_0_1_1
GovernorateKarbala_header_cell_0_2_0 KarbalaKarbala_cell_0_2_1
SettledKarbala_header_cell_0_3_0 690 CEKarbala_cell_0_3_1
Population (2014)Karbala_header_cell_0_4_0
TotalKarbala_header_cell_0_5_0 690,100Karbala_cell_0_5_1

Karbala or Kerbala (Arabic: كَرْبَلَاء‎, romanized: Karbalāʾ [karbaˈlaːʔ, /ˈkɑːrbələ/ KAR-bə-lə, also US: /ˌkɑːrbəˈlɑː/ KAR-bə-LAH;) is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh, also known as Razzaza Lake. Karbala_sentence_3

Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 700,000 people (2015). Karbala_sentence_4

The city, best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, or the shrines of Imam Husayn and Abbas, is considered a holy city for Shi'ite Muslims, in the same way as Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. Karbala_sentence_5

Tens of millions of Shi'ite Muslims visit the site twice a year, rivaling Mecca and Mashhad by the number of pilgrims annually. Karbala_sentence_6

The martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated annually by millions of Shi'ites. Karbala_sentence_7

Up to 8 million pilgrims visit the city to observe ʿĀshūrāʾ (the tenth day of the month of Muharram), which marks the anniversary of Husayn's death, but the main event is the Arbaʿīn (the 40th day after 'Ashura'), where up to 30 million visit the graves. Karbala_sentence_8

Most of the pilgrims travel on foot from all around Iraq and more than 56 countries. Karbala_sentence_9

Etymology Karbala_section_0

There are many opinions among different investigators, as to the origin of the word "Karbala". Karbala_sentence_10

Some have pointed out that "Karbala" has a connection to the "Karbalato" language, while others attempt to derive the meaning of word "Karbala" by analyzing its spelling and language. Karbala_sentence_11

They conclude that it originates from the Arabic word "Kar Babel" which was a group of ancient Babylonian villages that included Nainawa, Al-Ghadiriyya, Karbella (Karb Illu. Karbala_sentence_12

as in Arba Illu [Arbil]), Al-Nawaweess, and Al-Heer. Karbala_sentence_13

This last name is today known as Al-Hair and is where Husayn ibn Ali's grave is located. Karbala_sentence_14

The investigator Yaqut al-Hamawi had pointed out that the meaning of "Karbala" could have several explanations, one of which is that the place where Husayn ibn Ali was martyred is made of soft earth—"Al-Karbalat". Karbala_sentence_15

According to Shi'ite belief, the archangel Gabriel narrated the true meaning of the name Karbalā’ to Muhammad: a combination of karb (Arabic: كَرْب‎, the land which will cause many agonies) and balā’ (Arabic: بَلَاء‎, afflictions)." Karbala_sentence_16

Climate Karbala_section_1

Karbala experiences a hot desert climate (BWh in the Köppen climate classification) with extremely hot, long, dry summers and mild winters. Karbala_sentence_17

Almost all of the yearly precipitation is received between November and April, though no month is wet. Karbala_sentence_18

History Karbala_section_2

Battle of Karbala Karbala_section_3

Main article: Battle of Karbala Karbala_sentence_19

The Battle of Karbala was fought on the bare deserts on the way to Kufa on October 10, 680  (10 Muharram 61 AH). Karbala_sentence_20

Both Husayn ibn Ali and his brother Abbas ibn Ali were buried by the local Banī Asad tribe, at what later became known as the Mashhad Al-Husayn. Karbala_sentence_21

The battle itself occurred as a result of Husain's refusal of Yazid I's demand for allegiance to his caliphate. Karbala_sentence_22

The Kufan governor, Ubaydallah ibn Ziyad, sent thirty thousand horsemen against Husayn as he traveled to Kufa. Karbala_sentence_23

The horsemen, under 'Umar ibn Sa'd, were ordered to deny Husayn and his followers water in order to force Husayn to agree to give an oath of allegiance. Karbala_sentence_24

On the 9th of Muharram, Husayn refused, and asked to be given the night to pray. Karbala_sentence_25

On 10 Muharram, Husayn ibn Ali prayed the morning prayer and led his troops into battle along with his brother Abbas. Karbala_sentence_26

Many of Husayn's followers, including all of his present sons Ali Akbar, Ali Asghar (six months old) and his nephews Qassim, Aun and Muhammad were killed. Karbala_sentence_27

In 63 AH (682 ), Yazid ibn Mu'awiya released the surviving members of Husayn's family from prison. Karbala_sentence_28

On their way to Mecca, they stopped at the site of the battle. Karbala_sentence_29

There is record of Sulayman ibn Surad going on pilgrimage to the site as early as 65 AH (685 CE). Karbala_sentence_30

The city began as a tomb and shrine to Husayn and grew as a city in order to meet the needs of pilgrims. Karbala_sentence_31

The city and tombs were greatly expanded by successive Muslim rulers, but suffered repeated destruction from attacking armies. Karbala_sentence_32

The original shrine was destroyed by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850 but was rebuilt in its present form around 979, only to be partly destroyed by fire in 1086 and rebuilt yet again. Karbala_sentence_33

Early modern Karbala_section_4

Like Najaf, the city suffered from severe water shortages that were only resolved in the early 18th century by building a dam at the head of the Husayniyya Canal. Karbala_sentence_34

In 1737, the city replaced Isfahan in Iran as the main centre of Shia scholarship. Karbala_sentence_35

In the mid-eighteenth century it was dominated by the dean of scholarship, Yusuf Al Bahrani, a key proponent of the Akhbari tradition of Shia thought, until his death in 1772, after which the more state-centric Usuli school became more influential. Karbala_sentence_36

The Wahhabi sack of Karbala occurred in 21 April 1802 (1216 Hijri) (1801), under the rule of Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad the second ruler of the First Saudi State, when 12,000 Wahhabi Muslims from Najd attacked the city of Karbala. Karbala_sentence_37

The attack was coincident with the anniversary of Ghadir Khum event, or 10 Muharram. Karbala_sentence_38

This fight left 3,000–5,000 deaths and the dome of the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib, was destroyed. Karbala_sentence_39

The fight lasted for 8 hours. Karbala_sentence_40

After the First Saudi State invasion, the city enjoyed semi-autonomy during Ottoman rule, governed by a group of gangs and mafia variously allied with members of the 'ulama. Karbala_sentence_41

In order to reassert their authority, the Ottoman army laid siege to the city. Karbala_sentence_42

On January 13, 1843 Ottoman troops entered the city. Karbala_sentence_43

Many of the city leaders fled leaving defense of the city largely to tradespeople. Karbala_sentence_44

About 3,000 Arabs were killed in the city, and another 2,000 outside the walls (this represented about 15% of the city's normal population). Karbala_sentence_45

The Turks lost 400 men. Karbala_sentence_46

This prompted many students and scholars to move to Najaf, which became the main Shia religious centre. Karbala_sentence_47

Between 1850 and 1903, Karbala enjoyed a generous influx of money through the Oudh Bequest. Karbala_sentence_48

The Shia-ruled Indian Province of Awadh, known by the British as Oudh, had always sent money and pilgrims to the holy city. Karbala_sentence_49

The Oudh money, 10 million rupees, originated in 1825 from the Awadh Nawab Ghazi-ud-Din Haider. Karbala_sentence_50

One third was to go to his wives, and the other two-thirds went to holy cities of Karbala and Najaf. Karbala_sentence_51

When his wives died in 1850, the money piled up with interest in the hands of the British East India Company. Karbala_sentence_52

The EIC sent the money to Karbala and Najaf per the wives' wishes, in the hopes of influencing the Ulama in Britain's favor. Karbala_sentence_53

This effort to curry favor is generally considered to have been a failure. Karbala_sentence_54

In 1915, Karbala was the scene of an uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Karbala_sentence_55

In 1928, an important drainage project was carried out to relieve the city of unhealthy swamps, formed between Hussainiya and the Bani Hassan Canals on the Euphrates. Karbala_sentence_56

Defense of the City Hall in Karbala - a series of skirmishes fought from April 3 to April 6, 2004 between the Iraqi rebels of the Mahdi Army trying to conquer the city hall and the defending Polish and Bulgarian soldiers from the Multinational Division Central-South Karbala_sentence_57

In 2003 following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the Karbala town council attempted to elected United States Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Matthew Lopez as Mayor. Karbala_sentence_58

Ostensibly so that his marines, contractors, and funds couldn't leave. Karbala_sentence_59

On April 14, 2007, a car bomb exploded about 600 ft (180 m) from the shrine, killing 47 and wounding over 150. Karbala_sentence_60

On January 19, 2008, 2 million Iraqi Shia pilgrims marched through Karbala city, Iraq to commemorate Ashura. Karbala_sentence_61

20,000 Iraqi troops and police guarded the event amid tensions due to clashes between Iraqi troops and Shia which left 263 people dead (in Basra and Nasiriya). Karbala_sentence_62

Religious tourism Karbala_section_5

Karbala, alongside Najaf, is considered a thriving tourist destination for Shia Muslims and the tourism industry in the city boomed after the end of Saddam Hussein's rule. Karbala_sentence_63

Some religious tourism attractions include: Karbala_sentence_64

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Airports Karbala_section_6

Airports in Karbala include: Karbala_sentence_65

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Religious beliefs Karbala_section_7

Mesopotamia in the Quran Karbala_section_8

See also: Dhul-Kifl, Harut and Marut, Idris (prophet), Noah in Islam, and Tower of Babel in Islamic tradition Karbala_sentence_66

Some Shi'ites consider this verse of the Quran to refer to Iraq, land of the Shi'ite sacred sites of Kufah, Najaf, Karbala, Kadhimiyyah and Samarra, since the Monotheistic preachers Ibrāhīm (Abraham) and Lūṭ (Lot), who are regarded as Prophets in Islam, are believed to have lived in the ancient Iraqi city of Kutha Rabba, before going to "The Blessed Land". Karbala_sentence_67

Aside from the story of Abraham and Lot in Polytheistic Mesopotamia, there are passages in the Quran about Mount Judi, Babil ("Babylon") and Qaryat Yunus ("Town of Jonah"). Karbala_sentence_68

Hadith Karbala_section_9

There are many Shia traditions which narrate the status of Karbala: Karbala_sentence_69

Thus the tomb of the martyred Imam has acquired this great significance in Shi'ite tradition because the Imam and his fellow martyrs are seen as models of jihad in the way of God. Karbala_sentence_70

Shi'ites believe that Karbala is one of the holiest places on Earth according to the following traditions (among others): Karbala_sentence_71

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  • In this regard, Ja'far al-Sadiq narrates, 'Allah, the Almighty, has made the dust of my ancestor's grave – Imam Husain (r.a) as a cure for every sickness and safety from every fear.'Karbala_item_4_9
  • It is narrated from Ja'far that: "The earth of the pure and holy grave of Husayn ibn ‘Ali (r.a) is a pure and blessed musk. For those who consume it, it is a cure for every ailment, and if our enemy uses it then he will melt the way fat melts, when you intend to consume that pure earth recite the following supplication"Karbala_item_4_10
  • The famous quote: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala."Karbala_item_4_11

Culture Karbala_section_10

Sports Karbala_section_11

Karbalaa FC is a football club based in Karbala. Karbala_sentence_72

Media Karbala_section_12

There are many references in books in films to "Karbala", generally referring to Husayn's death at the Battle of Karbala. Karbala_sentence_73

Husayn is often depicted on a white horse impaled by arrows. Karbala_sentence_74

There are films and documentaries about the events of Karbala in both animated and realistic form (see external links "Karbala: When the Skies Wept Blood"; "Safar-e-Karbala"). Karbala_sentence_75

Video footage of the actual city exists in a British documentary entitled "Saddam's Killing Fields." Karbala_sentence_76

The documentary shows the March 1991 destruction of the city by Saddam's army through the video camera of two brothers who lived in the city. Karbala_sentence_77

University Karbala_section_13

Main article: Ahlulbait University College Karbala_sentence_78

Hawza are the Islamic education institutions that are run collectively by mujtahid or Allamas to teach Shia Muslims and guide them through the rigorous journey of becoming and Alim. Karbala_sentence_79

In terms of the hawaz in Karbala, After the death of a renowned Alama, the Sayyid Muhammad, the leadership in terms of teacher shifted to taqlid to mujtahid. Karbala_sentence_80

This was a significant factor that lead to the leadership of Ulama to reside in Karbala and as well as Najaf. Karbala_sentence_81

Initially Karbala's hawza (Islamic education institution) consisted mostly of Iranians and Turkish Ulama. Karbala_sentence_82

After the death of Sharif-ul-Ulama Mazandarani in 1830 and the repression of the shia population by the Ottomans in 1843 both played an important role in the relocation of many Ulamas and thus Najaf becoming the center of Shia Islamic leadership in education. Karbala_sentence_83

As of now, there are two universities in Karbala. Karbala_sentence_84

University of Karbala, which was inaugurated on March 1, 2002, is one of the top most universities in Iraq regarding academic administration, human resources, and scientific research. Karbala_sentence_85

The Ahl Al Bayt University was founded in September 2003 by Dr. Mohsen Baqir Mohammed-Salih Al-Qazwini. Karbala_sentence_86

The university has six major colleges: College of Law, Arts, Islamic Sciences, Medical & Health Technology, Pharmacy and Dentistry. Karbala_sentence_87

Warith al-Anbiya University in Karbala, has recently been established under a project of Husayn Holy Shrine, having the faculties of engineering, administration, economics, law and pathology, which is ready to receive students for the first academic year 2017–2018. Karbala_sentence_88

Indian subcontinent Karbala_section_14

In the Indian subcontinent, Karbala, apart from meaning the city of Karbala (which is usually referred to as Karbala-e-Mualla meaning Karbala the exalted), also means local grounds where commemorative processions end and/or ta'zīya are buried during Ashura or Arba'een, usually such grounds will have shabeeh (copy) of Rauza or some other structures. Karbala_sentence_89

In South Asia where ta'zīya refer to specifically to the miniature mausoleums used in processions held in Muharram. Karbala_sentence_90

It all started from the fact that the great distance of India from Karbala prevented Indian Shi'is being buried near the tomb of Husayn or making frequent pilgrimages (ziyarat) to the tomb. Karbala_sentence_91

This is the reason why Indian Shi'is established local karbalas on the subcontinent by bringing soil from Karbala and sprinkling it on lots designated as future cemeteries. Karbala_sentence_92

Once the karbalas were established on the subcontinent, the next step was to bring Husayn's tomb-shrine to India. Karbala_sentence_93

This was established by building replicas of Husayn's mausoleum called ta'zīya to be carried in Muharram processions. Karbala_sentence_94

Thousands of ta'zīyas in various shapes and sizes are made every year for the months of mourning of Muharram and Safar; and are carried in processions and may be buried at the end of Ashura or Arba'een. Karbala_sentence_95

See also Karbala_section_15

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karbala.