King

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For other uses, see King (disambiguation). King_sentence_0

King, or king regnant, is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. King_sentence_1

The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king. King_sentence_2

King_unordered_list_0

  • In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish , etc.).King_item_0_0
  • In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus.King_item_0_1
  • In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire).King_item_0_2
  • In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Islamic world, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc.King_item_0_3

The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead. King_sentence_3

Etymology King_section_0

Further information: Rex (title) and Knyaz King_sentence_4

The English term is derived from the Anglo-Saxon cyning, which in turn is derived from the Common Germanic *kuningaz. King_sentence_5

The Common Germanic term was borrowed into Estonian and Finnish at an early time, surviving in these languages as . King_sentence_6

The English term "King" translates, and is considered equivalent to, Latin rēx and its equivalents in the various European languages. King_sentence_7

The Germanic term is notably different from the word for "King" in other Indo-European languages (*rēks "ruler"; Latin rēx, Sanskrit rājan and Irish ríg, but see Gothic reiks and, e.g., modern German Reich and modern Dutch rijk). King_sentence_8

It is a derivation from the term *kunjom "kin" (Old English ) by the -inga- suffix. King_sentence_9

The literal meaning is that of a "scion of the [noble] kin", or perhaps "son or descendant of one of noble birth" (OED). King_sentence_10

History King_section_1

The English word is of Germanic origin, and historically refers to Germanic kingship, in the pre-Christian period a type of tribal kingship. King_sentence_11

The monarchies of Europe in the Christian Middle Ages derived their claim from Christianisation and the divine right of kings, partly influenced by the notion of sacral kingship inherited from Germanic antiquity. King_sentence_12

The Early Middle Ages begin with a fragmentation of the former Western Roman Empire into barbarian kingdoms. King_sentence_13

In Western Europe, the kingdom of the Franks developed into the Carolingian Empire by the 8th century, and the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England were unified into the kingdom of England by the 10th century. King_sentence_14

With the breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, the system of feudalism places kings at the head of a pyramid of relationships between liege lords and vassals, dependent on the regional rule of barons, and the intermediate positions of counts (or earls) and dukes. King_sentence_15

The core of European feudal manorialism in the High Middle Ages were the territories of the former Carolingian Empire, i.e. the kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire (centered on the nominal kingdoms of Germany and Italy). King_sentence_16

In the course of the European Middle Ages, the European kingdoms underwent a general trend of centralisation of power, so that by the Late Middle Ages there were a number of large and powerful kingdoms in Europe, which would develop into the great powers of Europe in the Early Modern period. King_sentence_17

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Contemporary kings King_section_2

Further information: List of current sovereign monarchs, List of current reigning monarchies, and List of current constituent monarchs King_sentence_18

Currently (as of 2016), fifteen kings are recognized as the heads of state of sovereign states (i.e. English king is used as official translation of the respective native titles held by the monarchs). King_sentence_19

Most of these are heads of state of constitutional monarchies; kings ruling over absolute monarchies are the King of Saudi Arabia, the King of Bahrain and the King of Eswatini. King_sentence_20

King_table_general_0

MonarchKing_header_cell_0_0_0 HouseKing_header_cell_0_0_1 TitleKing_header_cell_0_0_2 KingdomKing_header_cell_0_0_3 est.King_header_cell_0_0_4
Harald V King of NorwayKing_cell_0_1_0 GlücksburgKing_cell_0_1_1 kongeKing_cell_0_1_2 Kingdom of NorwayKing_cell_0_1_3 11th c.King_cell_0_1_4
Carl XVI Gustaf King of SwedenKing_cell_0_2_0 BernadotteKing_cell_0_2_1 konungKing_cell_0_2_2 Kingdom of SwedenKing_cell_0_2_3 12th c.King_cell_0_2_4
Felipe VI King of SpainKing_cell_0_3_0 BourbonKing_cell_0_3_1 reyKing_cell_0_3_2 Kingdom of SpainKing_cell_0_3_3 1978 / 1479King_cell_0_3_4
Willem-Alexander King of the NetherlandsKing_cell_0_4_0 Orange-NassauKing_cell_0_4_1 koningKing_cell_0_4_2 Kingdom of the NetherlandsKing_cell_0_4_3 1815King_cell_0_4_4
Philippe King of the BelgiansKing_cell_0_5_0 Saxe-Coburg and GothaKing_cell_0_5_1 koning / roi / KönigKing_cell_0_5_2 Kingdom of BelgiumKing_cell_0_5_3 1830King_cell_0_5_4
Salman King of Saudi ArabiaKing_cell_0_6_0 SaudKing_cell_0_6_1 ملك malikKing_cell_0_6_2 Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaKing_cell_0_6_3 1932King_cell_0_6_4
Abdullah II King of JordanKing_cell_0_7_0 HashimKing_cell_0_7_1 ملك malikKing_cell_0_7_2 Hashemite Kingdom of JordanKing_cell_0_7_3 1946King_cell_0_7_4
Mohammed VI King of MoroccoKing_cell_0_8_0 AlaouiKing_cell_0_8_1 ملك malikKing_cell_0_8_2 Kingdom of MoroccoKing_cell_0_8_3 1956King_cell_0_8_4
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa King of BahrainKing_cell_0_9_0 KhalifaKing_cell_0_9_1 ملك malikKing_cell_0_9_2 Kingdom of BahrainKing_cell_0_9_3 1971King_cell_0_9_4
Vajiralongkorn King of ThailandKing_cell_0_10_0 ChakriKing_cell_0_10_1 กษัตริย์ kasatKing_cell_0_10_2 Kingdom of ThailandKing_cell_0_10_3 1782King_cell_0_10_4
Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck King of BhutanKing_cell_0_11_0 WangchuckKing_cell_0_11_1 འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་པོ་ druk gyalpoKing_cell_0_11_2 Kingdom of BhutanKing_cell_0_11_3 1907King_cell_0_11_4
Norodom Sihamoni King of CambodiaKing_cell_0_12_0 NorodomKing_cell_0_12_1 ស្ដេច sdacKing_cell_0_12_2 Kingdom of CambodiaKing_cell_0_12_3 1993 / 1953King_cell_0_12_4
Tupou VI King of TongaKing_cell_0_13_0 TupouKing_cell_0_13_1 king / tu'iKing_cell_0_13_2 Kingdom of TongaKing_cell_0_13_3 1970King_cell_0_13_4
Letsie III King of LesothoKing_cell_0_14_0 MosheshKing_cell_0_14_1 king / morenaKing_cell_0_14_2 Kingdom of LesothoKing_cell_0_14_3 1966King_cell_0_14_4
Mswati III King of EswatiniKing_cell_0_15_0 DlaminiKing_cell_0_15_1 ngwenyamaKing_cell_0_15_2 Kingdom of EswatiniKing_cell_0_15_3 1968King_cell_0_15_4

See also King_section_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King.