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This article is about the city in Japan. Kyoto_sentence_0

For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). Kyoto_sentence_1




CountryKyoto_header_cell_0_1_0 JapanKyoto_cell_0_1_1
RegionKyoto_header_cell_0_2_0 KansaiKyoto_cell_0_2_1
PrefectureKyoto_header_cell_0_3_0 Kyoto PrefectureKyoto_cell_0_3_1
FoundedKyoto_header_cell_0_4_0 794Kyoto_cell_0_4_1
TypeKyoto_header_cell_0_6_0 Mayor–councilKyoto_cell_0_6_1
BodyKyoto_header_cell_0_7_0 Kyoto City AssemblyKyoto_cell_0_7_1
MayorKyoto_header_cell_0_8_0 Daisaku KadokawaKyoto_cell_0_8_1
Designated cityKyoto_header_cell_0_10_0 827.83 km (319.63 sq mi)Kyoto_cell_0_10_1
Highest elevationKyoto_header_cell_0_11_0 971 m (3,186 ft)Kyoto_cell_0_11_1
Lowest elevationKyoto_header_cell_0_12_0 9 m (30 ft)Kyoto_cell_0_12_1
Population (October 1, 2015)Kyoto_header_cell_0_13_0
Designated cityKyoto_header_cell_0_14_0 1,475,183Kyoto_cell_0_14_1
Estimate (2018)Kyoto_header_cell_0_15_0 1,468,980Kyoto_cell_0_15_1
RankKyoto_header_cell_0_16_0 9th, JapanKyoto_cell_0_16_1
DensityKyoto_header_cell_0_17_0 1,800/km (4,600/sq mi)Kyoto_cell_0_17_1
Metro (2015)Kyoto_header_cell_0_18_0 2,801,044 (JP: 4th)Kyoto_cell_0_18_1
Time zoneKyoto_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)Kyoto_cell_0_19_1
- TreeKyoto_header_cell_0_20_0 Weeping Willow, Japanese Maple and KatsuraKyoto_cell_0_20_1
- FlowerKyoto_header_cell_0_21_0 Camellia, Azalea and Sugar CherryKyoto_cell_0_21_1
WebsiteKyoto_header_cell_0_22_0 Kyoto_cell_0_22_1


Japanese nameKyoto_header_cell_1_1_0
KanjiKyoto_header_cell_1_2_0 京都Kyoto_cell_1_2_1
HiraganaKyoto_header_cell_1_3_0 きょうとKyoto_cell_1_3_1
KatakanaKyoto_header_cell_1_4_0 キョウトKyoto_cell_1_4_1
TranscriptionsRomanizationKyōtoRevised HepburnKyoutoKyoto_cell_1_5_0
RomanizationKyoto_header_cell_1_7_0 KyōtoKyoto_cell_1_7_1
Revised HepburnKyoto_header_cell_1_8_0 KyoutoKyoto_cell_1_8_1

Kyoto (/ˈkjoʊtoʊ/; Japanese: 京都, Kyōto [kʲoꜜːto (listen)), officially Kyoto City (京都市, Kyōto-shi, [kʲoːtoꜜɕi (listen)), is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Kyoto_sentence_2

Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kobe. Kyoto_sentence_3

As of 2018, the city had a population of 1.47 million. Kyoto_sentence_4

In 794, Kyoto (then known as Heian-kyō) was chosen as the new seat of Japan's imperial court. Kyoto_sentence_5

The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an. Kyoto_sentence_6

The Imperial Palace faced south, resulting in Ukyō (the right sector of the capital) being on the west while Sakyō (the left sector) is on the east. Kyoto_sentence_7

The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, and Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Kyoto_sentence_8

The emperors of Japan ruled from Kyoto in the following eleven centuries until 1869, when the court relocated to Tokyo. Kyoto_sentence_9

The city was devastated during the Ōnin War in the 15th century and went into an extended period of decline, but gradually revived under the Tokugawa shogunate (1600–1868) and flourished as a major city in Japan. Kyoto_sentence_10

The modern municipality of Kyoto was established in 1889. Kyoto_sentence_11

The city was spared from large-scale destruction during World War II and as a result, its prewar cultural heritage has mostly been preserved. Kyoto_sentence_12

Kyoto is considered the cultural capital of Japan and a major tourist destination. Kyoto_sentence_13

It is home to numerous Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, palaces and gardens, some of which are listed collectively by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Kyoto_sentence_14

Prominent landmarks include the Kyoto Imperial Palace, Kiyomizu-dera, Kinkaku-ji, Ginkaku-ji and the Katsura Imperial Villa. Kyoto_sentence_15

Kyoto is also a center of higher learning, with Kyoto University being an institution of international renown. Kyoto_sentence_16

Name Kyoto_section_0

In Japanese, Kyoto was previously called Kyō (京), Miyako (都), or Kyō no Miyako (京の都). Kyoto_sentence_17

In the 11th century, the city was renamed "Kyōto" (京都, "capital city"), from the Middle Chinese kiang-tuo (cf. Kyoto_sentence_18

Mandarin jīngdū). Kyoto_sentence_19

After the city of Edo was renamed "Tōkyō" (東京, meaning "Eastern Capital") in 1868 and the seat of the emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as "Saikyō" (西京, meaning "Western Capital"). Kyoto_sentence_20

Kyoto is also sometimes called the thousand-year capital (千年の都). Kyoto_sentence_21

The National Diet never officially passed any law designating a capital. Kyoto_sentence_22

Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto, Miaco and Meaco, utilised mainly by Dutch cartographers. Kyoto_sentence_23

Another term commonly used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi (), "capital". Kyoto_sentence_24


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History Kyoto_section_1

See also: Timeline of Kyoto Kyoto_sentence_25

Origins Kyoto_section_2

Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in the area of Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the region before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established. Kyoto_sentence_26

Heian-kyō Kyoto_section_3

Main article: Heian-kyō Kyoto_sentence_27

During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. Kyoto_sentence_28

His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province. Kyoto_sentence_29

The new city, Heian-kyō (平安京, "tranquility and peace capital"), a scaled replica of the then Chinese Tang dynasty capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Kyoto_sentence_30

Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto (Muromachi shogunate) or in other cities such as Kamakura (Kamakura shogunate) and Edo (Tokugawa shogunate), Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration. Kyoto_sentence_31

The city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, and did not really recover until the mid-16th century. Kyoto_sentence_32

During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, and power was divided among the military families. Kyoto_sentence_33

Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, and came to involve the court nobility (kuge) and religious factions as well. Kyoto_sentence_34

Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, and numerous buildings burned. Kyoto_sentence_35

The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. Kyoto_sentence_36

In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Kyoto_sentence_37

Hideyoshi also built earthwork walls called odoi (御土居) encircling the city. Kyoto_sentence_38

Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Kyoto_sentence_39

Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo. Kyoto_sentence_40


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Modern Kyoto Kyoto_section_4

The Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. Kyoto_sentence_41

The subsequent move of the emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy. Kyoto_sentence_42

The modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. Kyoto_sentence_43

The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city. Kyoto_sentence_44

The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. Kyoto_sentence_45

There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to possibly persuade the emperor to surrender. Kyoto_sentence_46

In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki. Kyoto_sentence_47

The city was largely spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. Kyoto_sentence_48

As a result, Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. Kyoto_sentence_49

However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto_sentence_50

Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. Kyoto_sentence_51

In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference that resulted in the protocol on greenhouse gas emissions. Kyoto_sentence_52


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Geography Kyoto_section_5

Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro (or Kyoto) Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. Kyoto_sentence_53

The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama, Kitayama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) above sea level. Kyoto_sentence_54

This interior positioning results in hot summers and cold winters. Kyoto_sentence_55

There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, and the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto_sentence_56

Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres (319.7 sq mi). Kyoto_sentence_57

Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a far greener feel. Kyoto_sentence_58

Surrounding areas do not follow the same grid pattern as the center of the city, though streets throughout Kyoto share the distinction of having names. Kyoto_sentence_59

Kyoto sits atop a large natural water table that provides the city with ample freshwater wells. Kyoto_sentence_60

Due to large-scale urbanization, the amount of rain draining into the table is dwindling and wells across the area are drying at an increasing rate. Kyoto_sentence_61

Demographics Kyoto_section_6

Historically, Kyoto was the largest city in Japan, later surpassed by Osaka and Edo (Tokyo) towards the end of the 16th century. Kyoto_sentence_62

In the pre-war years, Kyoto traded places with Kobe and Nagoya ranking as the 4th and 5th largest city. Kyoto_sentence_63

In 1947, it went back to being 3rd. Kyoto_sentence_64

By 1960 it had fallen to 5th again, and by 1990 it had fallen to 7th, in 2015 it is now 9th. Kyoto_sentence_65

Climate Kyoto_section_7

Kyoto has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), featuring a marked seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation. Kyoto_sentence_66

Summers are hot and humid, but winters are relatively cold with occasional snowfall. Kyoto_sentence_67

Kyoto's rain season begins around the middle of June and lasts until the end of July, yielding to a hot and sunny latter half of the summer. Kyoto_sentence_68

Kyoto, along with most of the Pacific coast and central areas of Japan is prone to typhoons during September and October. Kyoto_sentence_69

Politics and government Kyoto_section_8

The directly elected executive mayor in Kyoto as of 2013 is Daisaku Kadokawa, an independent supported by Democratic Party of Japan, Liberal Democratic Party, New Komeito Party, Your Party and Social Democratic Party. Kyoto_sentence_70

The legislative city assembly has 69 elected members. Kyoto_sentence_71

Kyoto City Assembly Kyoto_section_9


Political partyKyoto_header_cell_2_0_0 Number of seatsKyoto_header_cell_2_0_1
Liberal Democratic PartyKyoto_cell_2_1_0 22Kyoto_cell_2_1_1
Japanese Communist PartyKyoto_cell_2_2_0 14Kyoto_cell_2_2_1
Democratic Party of JapanKyoto_cell_2_3_0 13Kyoto_cell_2_3_1
New Komeito PartyKyoto_cell_2_4_0 12Kyoto_cell_2_4_1
Kyoto PartyKyoto_cell_2_5_0 4Kyoto_cell_2_5_1
IndependentKyoto_cell_2_6_0 2Kyoto_cell_2_6_1
VacantKyoto_cell_2_7_0 2Kyoto_cell_2_7_1

Elections Kyoto_section_10


Wards Kyoto_section_11

Main article: Wards of Kyoto Kyoto_sentence_72

Kyoto has eleven wards (区, ku). Kyoto_sentence_73

Together, they make up the city of Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_74

Like other cities in Japan, Kyoto has a single mayor and a city council. Kyoto_sentence_75


Wards of KyotoKyoto_header_cell_3_0_0
Kyoto_header_cell_3_1_0 Place NameKyoto_header_cell_3_1_1 Kyoto_header_cell_3_1_3 Kyoto_header_cell_3_1_4 Kyoto_header_cell_3_1_5 Map of KyotoKyoto_header_cell_3_1_6
RōmajiKyoto_header_cell_3_2_0 KanjiKyoto_header_cell_3_2_1 PopulationKyoto_header_cell_3_2_2 Land area in kmKyoto_header_cell_3_2_3 Pop. density

per kmKyoto_header_cell_3_2_4

1Kyoto_cell_3_3_0 Fushimi-kuKyoto_cell_3_3_1 伏見区Kyoto_cell_3_3_2 280,655Kyoto_cell_3_3_3 61.66Kyoto_cell_3_3_4 4,600Kyoto_cell_3_3_5 Kyoto_cell_3_3_6
2Kyoto_cell_3_4_0 Higashiyama-kuKyoto_cell_3_4_1 東山区Kyoto_cell_3_4_2 39,044Kyoto_cell_3_4_3 7.48Kyoto_cell_3_4_4 5,200Kyoto_cell_3_4_5
3Kyoto_cell_3_5_0 Kamigyō-kuKyoto_cell_3_5_1 上京区Kyoto_cell_3_5_2 85,113Kyoto_cell_3_5_3 7.03Kyoto_cell_3_5_4 12,000Kyoto_cell_3_5_5
4Kyoto_cell_3_6_0 Kita-kuKyoto_cell_3_6_1 北区Kyoto_cell_3_6_2 119,474Kyoto_cell_3_6_3 94.88Kyoto_cell_3_6_4 1,300Kyoto_cell_3_6_5
5Kyoto_cell_3_7_0 Minami-kuKyoto_cell_3_7_1 南区Kyoto_cell_3_7_2 99,927Kyoto_cell_3_7_3 15.81Kyoto_cell_3_7_4 6,300Kyoto_cell_3_7_5
6Kyoto_cell_3_8_0 Nakagyō-ku - (administrative center)Kyoto_cell_3_8_1 中京区Kyoto_cell_3_8_2 110,430Kyoto_cell_3_8_3 7.41Kyoto_cell_3_8_4 15,000Kyoto_cell_3_8_5
7Kyoto_cell_3_9_0 Nishikyō-kuKyoto_cell_3_9_1 西京区Kyoto_cell_3_9_2 150,962Kyoto_cell_3_9_3 59.24Kyoto_cell_3_9_4 2,500Kyoto_cell_3_9_5
8Kyoto_cell_3_10_0 Sakyo-kuKyoto_cell_3_10_1 左京区Kyoto_cell_3_10_2 168,266Kyoto_cell_3_10_3 246.77Kyoto_cell_3_10_4 680Kyoto_cell_3_10_5
9Kyoto_cell_3_11_0 Shimogyō-kuKyoto_cell_3_11_1 下京区Kyoto_cell_3_11_2 82,668Kyoto_cell_3_11_3 6.78Kyoto_cell_3_11_4 12,000Kyoto_cell_3_11_5
10Kyoto_cell_3_12_0 Ukyō-kuKyoto_cell_3_12_1 右京区Kyoto_cell_3_12_2 204,262Kyoto_cell_3_12_3 292.07Kyoto_cell_3_12_4 700Kyoto_cell_3_12_5
11Kyoto_cell_3_13_0 Yamashina-kuKyoto_cell_3_13_1 山科区Kyoto_cell_3_13_2 135,471Kyoto_cell_3_13_3 28.7Kyoto_cell_3_13_4 4,700Kyoto_cell_3_13_5

Culture Kyoto_section_12

Although ravaged by wars, fires, and earthquakes during its eleven centuries as the imperial capital, Kyoto was not entirely destroyed in WWII. Kyoto_sentence_76

It was removed from the atomic bomb target list (which it had headed) by the personal intervention of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, as Stimson wanted to save this cultural center, which he knew from his honeymoon and later diplomatic visits. Kyoto_sentence_77

Kyoto has been, and still remains, Japan's cultural center. Kyoto_sentence_78

The government of Japan is relocating the Agency for Cultural Affairs to Kyoto in 2021. Kyoto_sentence_79

With its 2,000 religious places – 1,600 Buddhist temples and 400 Shinto shrines, as well as palaces, gardens and architecture intact – it is one of the best preserved cities in Japan. Kyoto_sentence_80

Among the most famous temples in Japan are Kiyomizu-dera, a magnificent wooden temple supported by pillars off the slope of a mountain; Kinkaku-ji, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion; Ginkaku-ji, the Temple of the Silver Pavilion; and Ryōan-ji, famous for its rock garden. Kyoto_sentence_81

The Heian Jingū is a Shinto shrine, built in 1895, celebrating the imperial family and commemorating the first and last emperors to reside in Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_82

Three special sites have connections to the imperial family: the Kyoto Gyoen area including the Kyoto Imperial Palace and Sentō Imperial Palace, homes of the emperors of Japan for many centuries; Katsura Imperial Villa, one of the nation's finest architectural treasures; and Shugaku-in Imperial Villa, one of its best Japanese gardens. Kyoto_sentence_83

In addition, the temple of Sennyu-ji houses the tombs of the emperors from Shijō to Kōmei. Kyoto_sentence_84

Other sites in Kyoto include Arashiyama, the Gion and Pontochō geisha quarters, the Philosopher's Walk, and the canals that line some of the older streets. Kyoto_sentence_85

The "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto" are listed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Kyoto_sentence_86

These include the Kamo Shrines (Kami and Shimo), Kyō-ō-Gokokuji (Tō-ji), Kiyomizu-dera, Daigo-ji, Ninna-ji, Saihō-ji (Kokedera), Tenryū-ji, Rokuon-ji (Kinkaku-ji), Jishō-ji (Ginkaku-ji), Ryōan-ji, Hongan-ji, Kōzan-ji and the Nijō Castle, primarily built by the Tokugawa shōguns. Kyoto_sentence_87

Other sites outside the city are also on the list. Kyoto_sentence_88

Kyoto is renowned for its abundance of delicious Japanese foods and cuisine. Kyoto_sentence_89

The special circumstances of Kyoto as a city away from the sea and home to many Buddhist temples resulted in the development of a variety of vegetables peculiar to the Kyoto area (京野菜, kyō-yasai). Kyoto_sentence_90

The oldest restaurant in Kyoto is Honke Owariya which was founded in 1465. Kyoto_sentence_91

Japan's television and film industry has its center in Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_92

Many jidaigeki, action films featuring samurai, were shot at Toei Uzumasa Eigamura. Kyoto_sentence_93

A film set and theme park in one, Eigamura features replicas of traditional Japanese buildings, which are used for jidaigeki. Kyoto_sentence_94

Among the sets are a replica of the old Nihonbashi (the bridge at the entry to Edo), a traditional courthouse, a Meiji Period police box and part of the former Yoshiwara red-light district. Kyoto_sentence_95

Actual film shooting takes place occasionally, and visitors are welcome to observe the action. Kyoto_sentence_96

The dialect spoken in Kyoto is known as Kyō-kotoba or Kyōto-ben, a constituent dialect of the Kansai dialect. Kyoto_sentence_97

When Kyoto was the capital of Japan, the Kyoto dialect was the de facto standard Japanese and influenced the development of Tokyo dialect, the modern standard Japanese. Kyoto_sentence_98

Courtesans performing duties at Tokyo were referred to as "Edokko" (bourgois). Kyoto_sentence_99

Famous Kyoto expressions are a polite copula dosu, an honorific verb ending -haru, a greeting phrase okoshi-yasu "welcome", etc. Kyoto_sentence_100

Economy Kyoto_section_13


GDP (PPP) per capitaKyoto_table_caption_4
YearKyoto_header_cell_4_0_0 US$Kyoto_header_cell_4_0_1
1975Kyoto_cell_4_1_0 5,324Kyoto_cell_4_1_1
1980Kyoto_cell_4_2_0 9,523Kyoto_cell_4_2_1
1985Kyoto_cell_4_3_0 13,870Kyoto_cell_4_3_1
1990Kyoto_cell_4_4_0 20,413Kyoto_cell_4_4_1
1995Kyoto_cell_4_5_0 23,627Kyoto_cell_4_5_1
2000Kyoto_cell_4_6_0 26,978Kyoto_cell_4_6_1
2005Kyoto_cell_4_7_0 32,189Kyoto_cell_4_7_1
2010Kyoto_cell_4_8_0 36,306Kyoto_cell_4_8_1
2015Kyoto_cell_4_9_0 41,410Kyoto_cell_4_9_1

The key industry of Kyoto is information technology and electronics: the city is home to the headquarters of Nintendo, Intelligent Systems, SCREEN Holdings, Tose, Hatena, Omron, Kyocera, Shimadzu Corp., Rohm, Horiba, Nidec Corporation, Nichicon, Nissin Electric, and GS Yuasa. Kyoto_sentence_101

Tourists are hugely fond of Kyoto, contributing significantly to its economy. Kyoto_sentence_102

The cultural heritage sites of Kyoto are constantly visited by school groups from across Japan, and many foreign tourists also stop in Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_103

In 2014, the city government announced that a record number of tourists had visited Kyoto, and it was favoured as the world's best city by U.S. travel magazines. Kyoto_sentence_104

Traditional Japanese crafts are also major industry of Kyoto, most of which are run by artisans in their plants. Kyoto_sentence_105

Kyoto's kimono weavers are particularly renowned, and the city remains the premier center of kimono manufacturing. Kyoto_sentence_106

Such businesses, vibrant in past centuries, have declined in recent years as sales of traditional goods stagnate. Kyoto_sentence_107

Sake brewing is Kyoto's traditional industry. Kyoto_sentence_108

Gekkeikan and Takara Holdings are major sake brewers headquartered in Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_109

Other notable businesses headquartered in Kyoto includes Aiful, Ishida, MK, Nissen Holdings, Oh-sho, Sagawa Express, Volks and Wacoal. Kyoto_sentence_110

The concentration of population to the capital city area is 55%, which is highest among the prefectures. Kyoto_sentence_111

The economic difference between the coastal area and inland area including Kyoto basin is significant. Kyoto_sentence_112

Encompassing ¥10.12 trillion, Kyoto MEA has the fourth-largest economy in the country in 2010. Kyoto_sentence_113

Colleges and universities Kyoto_section_14

See also: Higher education in Japan Kyoto_sentence_114

Home to 40 institutions of higher education, Kyoto is one of the academic centers in Japan. Kyoto_sentence_115

Kyoto University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. Kyoto_sentence_116

According to the Times Higher Education top-ranking university, Kyoto University is ranked the second university in Japan after University of Tokyo, and 25th overall in the world as of 2010. Kyoto_sentence_117

The Kyoto Institute of Technology is also among the most famous universities in Japan and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture and design in the country. Kyoto_sentence_118

Popular private universities, such as Doshisha University and Ritsumeikan University are also located in the city. Kyoto_sentence_119

Kyoto also has a unique higher education network called the Consortium of Universities in Kyoto, which consists of three national, three public (prefectural and municipal), and 45 private universities, as well as the city and five other organizations. Kyoto_sentence_120

The combination does not offer a degree, but offers the courses as part of a degree at participating universities. Kyoto_sentence_121

In addition to Japanese universities and colleges, selected American universities, such as Stanford, also operates in the city for education and research. Kyoto_sentence_122

Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies (KCJS) is a combination of 14 American universities that sponsors a two-semester academic program for undergraduates who wish to do advanced work in Japanese language and cultural studies. Kyoto_sentence_123

Transportation Kyoto_section_15

See also: Transport in Keihanshin Kyoto_sentence_124

Airport Kyoto_section_16

See also: Kansai International Airport and Itami Airport Kyoto_sentence_125

Although Kyoto does not have its own large commercial airport, travelers can get to the city via nearby Itami Airport, Kobe Airport or Kansai International Airport. Kyoto_sentence_126

The Haruka Express operated by JR West carries passengers from Kansai Airport to Kyoto Station in 73 minutes. Kyoto_sentence_127

Osaka Airport Transport buses connect Itami Airport and Kyoto Station Hachijo Gate in 50 minutes and cost 1,310 yen (as of 2017) for a one-way trip. Kyoto_sentence_128

Some buses go further, make stops at major hotels and terminals in the downtown area. Kyoto_sentence_129

Other airports located further from the city is Nagoya Airfield located 135.5 KM away from the city. Kyoto_sentence_130

Buses Kyoto_section_17

Kyoto's municipal bus network is extensive. Kyoto_sentence_131

Private carriers also operate within the city. Kyoto_sentence_132

Many tourists join commuters on the public buses, or take tour buses. Kyoto_sentence_133

Kyoto's buses have announcements in English and electronic signs with stops written in the Latin alphabet. Kyoto_sentence_134

Most city buses have a fixed fare. Kyoto_sentence_135

A one-day bus pass and a combined unlimited train and bus pass are also available. Kyoto_sentence_136

These are especially useful for visiting many different points of interest within Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_137

The bus information center just outside the central station handles tickets and passes. Kyoto_sentence_138

The municipal transport company publishes a very useful leaflet called "Bus Navi." Kyoto_sentence_139

It contains a route map for the bus lines to most sights and fare information. Kyoto_sentence_140

This too is available at the information center in front of the main station. Kyoto_sentence_141

Buses operating on routes within the city, the region, and the nation stop at Kyoto Station. Kyoto_sentence_142

In addition to Kyoto Station, bus transfer is available at the intersections of Shijō Kawaramachi and Sanjō Keihan. Kyoto_sentence_143

The intersection of Karasuma Kitaōji to the north of downtown has a major bus terminal serving passengers who take the Karasuma Line running beneath Karasuma Street, Kyoto's main north–south street. Kyoto_sentence_144

Cycling Kyoto_section_18

Cycling is a very important form of personal transportation in the city. Kyoto_sentence_145

The geography and scale of the city are such that the city may be easily navigated on a bicycle. Kyoto_sentence_146

There are five bicycle rental stations and 21 EcoStations in central Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_147

Because of the large number of cyclists, permitted bicycle parking areas can be difficult to find. Kyoto_sentence_148

Bicycles parked in non-permitted areas are impounded. Kyoto_sentence_149

Roads Kyoto_section_19

Within Kyoto's ancient lanes, one-way system is prevalent and necessary for preservation of its character. Kyoto_sentence_150

The city is connected with other parts of Japan by the Meishin Expressway, which has two interchanges in the city: Kyoto Higashi (Kyoto East) in Yamashina-ku and Kyoto Minami (Kyoto South) in Fushimi-ku. Kyoto_sentence_151

The Kyoto-Jukan Expressway connects the city to northern regions of Kyoto Prefecture. Kyoto_sentence_152

The Daini Keihan Road is a new bypass (completed in 2010) to Osaka. Kyoto_sentence_153

Although Greater Kyoto has fewer toll-highways than other comparable Japanese cities, it is served with elevated dual and even triple-carriageway national roads. Kyoto_sentence_154

As of 2018, only 10.1 kilometres (6.3 miles) of the Hanshin Expressway Kyoto Route is in operation. Kyoto_sentence_155

There are nine national highways in the city of Kyoto: Route 1, Route 8, Route 9, Route 24, Route 162, Route 171, Route 367, Route 477 and Route 478. Kyoto_sentence_156

Rail Kyoto_section_20

See also: Keihan Electric Railway, Hankyu Railway, Kintetsu Railway, Keifuku Electric Railroad, and Eizan Electric Railway Kyoto_sentence_157

Just like other major cities in Japan, Kyoto is well served by rail transportation systems operated by several different companies and organizations. Kyoto_sentence_158

The city's main gateway terminal, Kyōto Station, which is one of the most popular stations in the country, connects The Tōkaidō Shinkansen bullet train Line (see below) with five JR West lines, a Kintetsu line and a municipal subway line. Kyoto_sentence_159

The Keihan, the Hankyu, and other rail networks also offer frequent services within the city and to other cities and suburbs in the Kinki region. Kyoto_sentence_160

There is a Railway Heritage site in Kyoto, where visitors can experience the range of Japanese railways in the JR Museum (formerly Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum, situated about the roundhouse. Kyoto_sentence_161

Subway Kyoto_section_21

Main article: Kyoto Municipal Subway Kyoto_sentence_162

The Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau operates the Kyoto Municipal Subway consisting of two lines: the Karasuma Line and the Tōzai Line. Kyoto_sentence_163

Karasuma Line Kyoto_section_22

Main article: Karasuma Line Kyoto_sentence_164

The Karasuma Line is coloured green, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "K". Kyoto_sentence_165

The line has following stations, from north to south: Kokusaikaikan (terminal) and Matsugasaki in Sakyō-ku; Kitayama and Kitaōji in Kita-ku; Kuramaguchi and Imadegawa in Kamigyō-ku; Marutamachi and Karasuma Oike in Nakagyō-ku; Shijō, Gojō and Kyōto in Shimogyō-ku; Kujō and Jūjō in Minami-ku; and Kuinabashi and Takeda (terminal) in Fushimi-ku. Kyoto_sentence_166

Between Kitaōji and Jūjō, trains run beneath the north-south Karasuma Street (, Karasuma-dori), hence the name. Kyoto_sentence_167

They link to the other subway line, the Tōzai Line, at Karasuma Oike. Kyoto_sentence_168

They also connect to the JR lines at Kyoto Station and the Hankyu Kyoto Line running cross-town beneath Shijō Street at the intersection of Shijō Karasuma, Kyoto's central business district. Kyoto_sentence_169

At Shijō Karasuma, the subway station is named Shijō, whereas Hankyu's station is called Karasuma. Kyoto_sentence_170

The Transportation Bureau and Kintetsu jointly operate through services, which continue to the Kintetsu Kyoto Line to Kintetsu Nara Station in Nara. Kyoto_sentence_171

The Karasuma Line and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line connect at Kyoto and Takeda. Kyoto_sentence_172

All the stations are located in the city proper. Kyoto_sentence_173

Tozai Line Kyoto_section_23

Main article: Tōzai Line (Kyoto) Kyoto_sentence_174

The Tōzai Line is coloured vermilion, and its stations are given numbers following the letter "T". Kyoto_sentence_175

This line runs from the southeastern area of the city, then east to west (i.e. tōzai in Japanese) through the Kyoto downtown area where trains run beneath the three east-west streets: Sanjō Street (, Sanjō-dori), Oike Street (, Oike-dori) and Oshikōji Street (, Oshikōji-dori). Kyoto_sentence_176

The line has following stations, from east to west: Rokujizō (terminal) in Uji; Ishida and Daigo in Fushimi-ku; Ono, Nagitsuji, Higashino, Yamashina and Misasagi in Yamashina-ku; Keage, Higashiyama and Sanjō Keihan in Higashiyama-ku; Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae, Karasuma Oike, Nijōjō-mae, Nijō and Nishiōji Oike in Nakagyō-ku; and Uzumasa Tenjingawa (terminal) in Ukyō-ku. Kyoto_sentence_177

The Keihan Keishin Line has been integrated into this line, and thus Keihan provides through services from Hamaōtsu in the neighbouring city of Ōtsu, the capital of Shiga Prefecture. Kyoto_sentence_178

The Tōzai Line connects to the Keihan lines at Rokujizō, Yamashina, Misasagi and Sanjō Keihan, to the JR lines at Nijō, Yamashina and Rokujizō, and to the Keifuku Electric Railroad at Uzumasa Tenjingawa. Kyoto_sentence_179

All the stations except Rokujizō are located in Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_180

High-speed rail Kyoto_section_24

Main articles: Tōkaidō Shinkansen and Sanyō Shinkansen Kyoto_sentence_181

See also: Central Japan Railway Company and West Japan Railway Company Kyoto_sentence_182

The Tōkaidō Shinkansen operated by JR Central provides high-speed rail service linking Kyoto with Nagoya, Yokohama and Tokyo to the east of Kyoto and with nearby Osaka and points west on the San'yō Shinkansen, such as Kobe, Okayama, Hiroshima, Kitakyushu, and Fukuoka. Kyoto_sentence_183

The trip from Tokyo takes about two hours and eighteen minutes. Kyoto_sentence_184

From Hakata in Fukuoka, Nozomi takes you to Kyoto in just over three hours. Kyoto_sentence_185

All trains including Nozomi stop at Kyoto Station, serving as a gateway to not only Kyoto Prefecture but also northeast Osaka, south Shiga and north Nara. Kyoto_sentence_186

Waterways Kyoto_section_25

Japanese trade and haulage traditionally took place by waterways, minimally impacting the environment up until the highway-systems built by Shogunates. Kyoto_sentence_187

There are a number of rivers, canals and other navigable waterways in Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_188

The Seta and Uji rivers, confluence into the (Yodo River), Kamogawa and Katsura river flow through Kyoto. Kyoto_sentence_189

Lake Biwa Canal was a significant infrastructural development. Kyoto_sentence_190

In present days, however, the waterways are no longer primarily used for passenger or goods transportation, other than limited sightseeing purpose such as Hozugawa Kudari boat on the Hozu River and Jukkoku bune sightseeing tour boat in Fushimi-ku area. Kyoto_sentence_191

Lake Biwa remains a popular place for recreational boating, also the site of a Birdman Rally where contraptions and contrivances are driven from land over the waterway. Kyoto_sentence_192

Tourism Kyoto_section_26

See also: Tourism in Japan Kyoto_sentence_193

Kyoto contains roughly 2,000 temples and shrines. Kyoto_sentence_194

UNESCO World Heritage Site Kyoto_section_27

See also: Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) Kyoto_sentence_195

About 20% of Japan's National Treasures and 14% of Important Cultural Properties exist in the city proper. Kyoto_sentence_196

The UNESCO World Heritage Site Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) includes 17 locations in Kyoto, Uji in Kyoto Prefecture, and Ōtsu in Shiga Prefecture. Kyoto_sentence_197

The site was designated as World Heritage in 1994. Kyoto_sentence_198


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Museums Kyoto_section_28

Festivals Kyoto_section_29

Kyoto is well known for its traditional festivals which have been held for over 1,000 years and are a major tourist attraction. Kyoto_sentence_199

The first is the Aoi Matsuri on May 15. Kyoto_sentence_200

Two months later (July 1 to 31) is the Gion Matsuri known as one of the 3 great festivals of Japan, culminating in a massive parade on July 17. Kyoto_sentence_201

Kyoto marks the Bon Festival with the Gozan no Okuribi, lighting fires on mountains to guide the spirits home (August 16). Kyoto_sentence_202

The October 22 Jidai Matsuri, Festival of the Ages, celebrates Kyoto's illustrious past. Kyoto_sentence_203


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Sports Kyoto_section_30

Football Kyoto_section_31

In football, Kyoto is represented by Kyoto Sanga FC who won the Emperor's Cup in 2002, and rose to J. Kyoto_sentence_204 League's Division 1 in 2005. Kyoto_sentence_205

Kyoto Sanga has a long history as an amateur non-company club, although it was only with the advent of professionalization that it was able to compete in the Japanese top division. Kyoto_sentence_206

Sanga Stadium by Kyocera is its home stadium. Kyoto_sentence_207

Amateur football clubs such as F.C. Kyoto BAMB 1993 and Kyoto Shiko Club (both breakaway factions of the original Kyoto Shiko club that became Kyoto Sanga) as well as unrelated AS Laranja Kyoto and Ococias Kyoto AC compete in the regional Kansai soccer league. Kyoto_sentence_208

Baseball Kyoto_section_32

Between 1951 and 1952 the Central League team Shochiku Robins played their franchised games at Kinugasa Ballpark (, Kinugasa Kyujo) in Kita-ku. Kyoto_sentence_209

In 2010, Nishikyogoku Stadium in Ukyo-ku became the home of a newly formed girls professional baseball team, the Kyoto Asto Dreams. Kyoto_sentence_210

Additionally, Kyoto's high school baseball teams are strong, with Heian and Toba in particular making strong showings recently at the annual tournament held in Koshien Stadium, Nishinomiya, near Osaka. Kyoto_sentence_211

Horse racing Kyoto_section_33

Kyoto Racecourse in Fushimi-ku is one of ten racecourses operated by the Japan Racing Association. Kyoto_sentence_212

It hosts notable horse races including the Kikuka-shō, Spring Tenno Sho, and Queen Elizabeth II Commemorative Cup. Kyoto_sentence_213

International relations Kyoto_section_34

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan Kyoto_sentence_214

Kyoto, having been the capital city of Japan, a seat of learning and culture, has long-established ties with other great cities around the world. Kyoto_sentence_215

Many foreign scholars, artists and writers have stayed in Kyoto over the centuries. Kyoto_sentence_216

Twin towns and sister cities Kyoto_section_35

The city of Kyoto has sister-city relationships with the following cities: Kyoto_sentence_217

Partner cities Kyoto_section_36

In addition to its sister city arrangements which involve multi-faceted cooperation, Kyoto has created a system of "partner cities" which focus on cooperation based on a particular topic. Kyoto_sentence_218

At present, Kyoto has partner-city arrangements with the following cities: Kyoto_sentence_219

See also Kyoto_section_37


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