Library of Congress Classification

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The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress in the United States. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_0

It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_1

LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books (and authors), which also defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "42037605" and "https://lccn.loc.gov/42037605". Library of Congress Classification_sentence_2

The Classification is also distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_3

Finally, the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7.J684 Wj 1982". Library of Congress Classification_sentence_4

The classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_5

With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, and the Putnam Classification System (developed while Putnam was head librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library). Library of Congress Classification_sentence_6

It was designed specifically for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_7

By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K (Law) and parts of B (Philosophy and Religion) were well developed. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_8

LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis; many of the classification decisions were driven by the practical needs of that library rather than epistemological considerations. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_9

Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_10

That is, it provides a guide to the books actually in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_11

In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_12

The National Library of Medicine classification system (NLM) uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_13

Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R for Medicine. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_14

Others use LCC's QP–QR schedules and include Medicine R. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_15

Classification Library of Congress Classification_section_0

Library of Congress Classification_table_general_0

LetterLibrary of Congress Classification_header_cell_0_0_0 Subject areaLibrary of Congress Classification_header_cell_0_0_1
ALibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_1_0 General WorksLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_1_1
BLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_2_0 Philosophy. Psychology. ReligionLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_2_1
CLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_3_0 Auxiliary Sciences of HistoryLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_3_1
DLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_4_0 World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc..Library of Congress Classification_cell_0_4_1
ELibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_5_0 History of AmericaLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_5_1
FLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_6_0 History of the AmericasLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_6_1
GLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_7_0 Geography, Anthropology, and RecreationLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_7_1
HLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_8_0 Social SciencesLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_8_1
JLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_9_0 Political ScienceLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_9_1
KLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_10_0 LawLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_10_1
LLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_11_0 EducationLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_11_1
MLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_12_0 MusicLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_12_1
NLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_13_0 Fine ArtsLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_13_1
PLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_14_0 Language and LiteratureLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_14_1
QLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_15_0 ScienceLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_15_1
RLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_16_0 MedicineLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_16_1
SLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_17_0 AgricultureLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_17_1
TLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_18_0 TechnologyLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_18_1
ULibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_19_0 Military ScienceLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_19_1
VLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_20_0 Naval ScienceLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_20_1
ZLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_21_0 Bibliography, Library Science, and General Information ResourcesLibrary of Congress Classification_cell_0_21_1

Class A – General Works Library of Congress Classification_section_1

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class A -- General Works Library of Congress Classification_sentence_16

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_0

Class B – Philosophy. Psychology. Religion Library of Congress Classification_section_2

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class B -- Philosophy, Psychology, Religion Library of Congress Classification_sentence_17

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_1

Class C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Library of Congress Classification_section_3

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class C -- Auxiliary Sciences of History Library of Congress Classification_sentence_18

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_2

Class D – World History and History of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc. Library of Congress Classification_section_4

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class D -- History, General and Old World Library of Congress Classification_sentence_19

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_3

Class E – History of America Library of Congress Classification_section_5

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class E -- History of America Library of Congress Classification_sentence_20

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_4

  • Class E does not have any subclasses.Library of Congress Classification_item_4_56

Class F – Local History of the Americas Library of Congress Classification_section_6

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class F -- Local History of the United States and British, Dutch, French, and Latin America Library of Congress Classification_sentence_21

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_5

  • Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not officially adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything elseLibrary of Congress Classification_item_5_57

Class G – Geography, Anthropology, Recreation Library of Congress Classification_section_7

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class G -- Geography. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_22 Anthropology. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_23 Recreation Library of Congress Classification_sentence_24

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_6

Class H – Social Sciences Library of Congress Classification_section_8

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class H -- Social sciences Library of Congress Classification_sentence_25

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_7

Class J – Political Science Library of Congress Classification_section_9

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class J -- Political science Library of Congress Classification_sentence_26

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_8

  • Subclass J – General legislative and executive papersLibrary of Congress Classification_item_8_84
  • Subclass JAPolitical science (General)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_85
  • Subclass JCPolitical theoryLibrary of Congress Classification_item_8_86
  • Subclass JFPolitical institutions and public administrationLibrary of Congress Classification_item_8_87
  • Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration (North America)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_88
  • Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration (United States)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_89
  • Subclass JL – Political institutions and public administration (Canada, Latin America, etc.)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_90
  • Subclass JN – Political institutions and public administration (Europe)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_91
  • Subclass JQ – Political institutions and public administration (Asia, Africa, Australia, Pacific Area, etc.)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_92
  • Subclass JS – Local government. Municipal governmentLibrary of Congress Classification_item_8_93
  • Subclass JV – Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migrationLibrary of Congress Classification_item_8_94
  • Subclass JXInternational law, see JZ and KZ (obsolete)Library of Congress Classification_item_8_95
  • Subclass JZInternational relationsLibrary of Congress Classification_item_8_96

Class K – Law Library of Congress Classification_section_10

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class K -- Law Library of Congress Classification_sentence_27

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_9

Class L – Education Library of Congress Classification_section_11

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class L -- Education Library of Congress Classification_sentence_28

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_10

Class M – Music Library of Congress Classification_section_12

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class M -- Music Library of Congress Classification_sentence_29

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_11

  • Subclass MMusicLibrary of Congress Classification_item_11_126
  • Subclass ML – Literature on musicLibrary of Congress Classification_item_11_127
  • Subclass MT – Instruction and studyLibrary of Congress Classification_item_11_128

Class N – Fine Arts Library of Congress Classification_section_13

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class N -- Fine Arts Library of Congress Classification_sentence_30

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_12

Class P – Language and Literature Library of Congress Classification_section_14

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class P -- Language and Literature Library of Congress Classification_sentence_31

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_13

Class Q – Science Library of Congress Classification_section_15

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class Q -- Science Library of Congress Classification_sentence_32

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_14

Class R – Medicine Library of Congress Classification_section_16

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class R -- Medicine Library of Congress Classification_sentence_33

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_15

Class S – Agriculture Library of Congress Classification_section_17

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class S -- Agriculture Library of Congress Classification_sentence_34

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_16

Class T – Technology Library of Congress Classification_section_18

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class T -- Technology Library of Congress Classification_sentence_35

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_17

Class U – Military Science Library of Congress Classification_section_19

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class U -- Military Science Library of Congress Classification_sentence_36

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_18

Class V – Naval Science Library of Congress Classification_section_20

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class V -- Naval Science Library of Congress Classification_sentence_37

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_19

Class Z – Bibliography, Library Science Library of Congress Classification_section_21

Main article: Library of Congress Classification:Class Z -- Bibliography. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_38 Library Science. Library of Congress Classification_sentence_39 Information resources Library of Congress Classification_sentence_40

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_20

  • Subclass Z – Books (General). Writing. Paleography. Book industries and trade. Libraries. BibliographyLibrary of Congress Classification_item_20_227
  • Subclass ZA – Information resources/materialsLibrary of Congress Classification_item_20_228

See also Library of Congress Classification_section_22

Library of Congress Classification_unordered_list_21


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library of Congress Classification.