Lamiaceae

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Lamiaceae_table_infobox_0

Mint familyLamiaceae_header_cell_0_0_0
Scientific classification LamiaceaeLamiaceae_header_cell_0_1_0
Kingdom:Lamiaceae_cell_0_2_0 PlantaeLamiaceae_cell_0_2_1
Clade:Lamiaceae_cell_0_3_0 TracheophytesLamiaceae_cell_0_3_1
Clade:Lamiaceae_cell_0_4_0 AngiospermsLamiaceae_cell_0_4_1
Clade:Lamiaceae_cell_0_5_0 EudicotsLamiaceae_cell_0_5_1
Clade:Lamiaceae_cell_0_6_0 AsteridsLamiaceae_cell_0_6_1
Order:Lamiaceae_cell_0_7_0 LamialesLamiaceae_cell_0_7_1
Family:Lamiaceae_cell_0_8_0 Lamiaceae

MartinovLamiaceae_cell_0_8_1

Type genusLamiaceae_header_cell_0_9_0
GeneraLamiaceae_header_cell_0_10_0

The Lamiaceae (/ˌleɪmiˈeɪsiaɪ, -iː/ LAY-mee-AY-see-e(y)e) or Labiatae are a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle or sage family. Lamiaceae_sentence_0

Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used culinary herbs like basil, mentha, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla. Lamiaceae_sentence_1

Some species are shrubs, trees (such as teak), or, rarely, vines. Lamiaceae_sentence_2

Many members of the family are widely cultivated, not only for their aromatic qualities, but also their ease of cultivation, since they are readily propagated by stem cuttings. Lamiaceae_sentence_3

Besides those grown for their edible leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage. Lamiaceae_sentence_4

Others are grown for seed, such as Salvia hispanica (chia), or for their edible tubers, such as Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus esculentus, Plectranthus rotundifolius, and Stachys affinis (Chinese artichoke). Lamiaceae_sentence_5

The family has a cosmopolitan distribution. Lamiaceae_sentence_6

The enlarged Lamiaceae contain about 236 genera and have been stated to contain 6,900 to 7,200 species, but the World Checklist lists 7,534. Lamiaceae_sentence_7

The largest genera are Salvia (900), Scutellaria (360), Stachys (300), Plectranthus (300), Hyptis (280), Teucrium (250), Vitex (250), Thymus (220), and Nepeta (200). Lamiaceae_sentence_8

Clerodendrum was once a genus of over 400 species, but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150. Lamiaceae_sentence_9

The family has traditionally been considered closely related to the Verbenaceae; in the 1990s, phylogenetic studies suggested that many genera classified in the Verbenaceae should be classified in the Lamiaceae or to other families in the order Lamiales. Lamiaceae_sentence_10

The alternative family name Labiatae refers to the fact that the flowers typically have petals fused into an upper lip and a lower lip (labia in Latin). Lamiaceae_sentence_11

The flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with five united petals and five united sepals. Lamiaceae_sentence_12

They are usually bisexual and verticillastrate (a flower cluster that looks like a whorl of flowers, but actually consists of two crowded clusters). Lamiaceae_sentence_13

Although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name Lamiaceae in referring to this family. Lamiaceae_sentence_14

The leaves emerge oppositely, each pair at right angles to the previous one (decussate) or whorled. Lamiaceae_sentence_15

The stems are frequently square in cross section, but this is not found in all members of the family, and is sometimes found in other plant families. Lamiaceae_sentence_16

Genera Lamiaceae_section_0

The last revision of the entire family was published in 2004. Lamiaceae_sentence_17

It described and provided keys to 236 genera. Lamiaceae_sentence_18

These are marked with an asterisk (*) in the list below. Lamiaceae_sentence_19

A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004. Lamiaceae_sentence_20

These are marked with a plus sign (+). Lamiaceae_sentence_21

Other genera have been synonymised. Lamiaceae_sentence_22

These are marked with a minus sign (-). Lamiaceae_sentence_23

The remaining genera in the list are mostly of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation. Lamiaceae_sentence_24

Few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family. Lamiaceae_sentence_25

Kew Gardens provides a list of genera that includes additional information. Lamiaceae_sentence_26

A list at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is frequently updated. Lamiaceae_sentence_27

Recent changes Lamiaceae_section_1

The circumscription of several genera has changed since 2004. Lamiaceae_sentence_28

Tsoongia, Paravitex, and Viticipremna have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex. Lamiaceae_sentence_29

Huxleya has been sunk into Volkameria. Lamiaceae_sentence_30

Kalaharia, Volkameria, Ovieda, and Tetraclea have been segregated from a formerly polyphyletic Clerodendrum. Lamiaceae_sentence_31

Rydingia has been separated from Leucas. Lamiaceae_sentence_32

The remaining Leucas is paraphyletic over four other genera. Lamiaceae_sentence_33

Subfamilies and tribes Lamiaceae_section_2

In 2004, the Lamiaceae were divided into seven subfamilies with 10 genera not placed in any of the subfamilies. Lamiaceae_sentence_34

The unplaced genera are: Tectona, Callicarpa, Hymenopyramis, Petraeovitex, Peronema, Garrettia, Cymaria, Acrymia, Holocheila, and Ombrocharis. Lamiaceae_sentence_35

The subfamilies are the Symphorematoideae, Viticoideae, Ajugoideae, Prostantheroideae, Nepetoideae, Scutellarioideae, and Lamioideae. Lamiaceae_sentence_36

The subfamily Viticoideae is probably not monophyletic. Lamiaceae_sentence_37

The Prostantheroideae and Nepetoideae are divided into tribes. Lamiaceae_sentence_38

These are shown in the phylogenetic tree below. Lamiaceae_sentence_39

Phylogeny Lamiaceae_section_3

Most of the genera of Lamiaceae have never been sampled for DNA for molecular phylogenetic studies. Lamiaceae_sentence_40

Most of those that have been are included in the following phylogenetic tree. Lamiaceae_sentence_41

The phylogeny depicted below is based on seven different sources. Lamiaceae_sentence_42


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamiaceae.