Latin America

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"Latinoamérica" redirects here. Latin America_sentence_0

For Latin Americans, see Latin Americans. Latin America_sentence_1

For the song, see Latinoamérica (song). Latin America_sentence_2

Latin America_table_infobox_0

Latin AmericaLatin America_table_caption_0
AreaLatin America_header_cell_0_0_0 20,111,457 km (7,765,077 sq mi)Latin America_cell_0_0_1
PopulationLatin America_header_cell_0_1_0 642,216,682 (2018 est.)Latin America_cell_0_1_1
Population densityLatin America_header_cell_0_2_0 31/km (80/sq mi)Latin America_cell_0_2_1
ReligionsLatin America_header_cell_0_3_0 Latin America_cell_0_3_1
DemonymLatin America_header_cell_0_4_0 Latin AmericanLatin America_cell_0_4_1
CountriesLatin America_header_cell_0_5_0 20Latin America_cell_0_5_1
DependenciesLatin America_header_cell_0_6_0 14Latin America_cell_0_6_1
LanguagesLatin America_header_cell_0_7_0 Romance languages

Others:

Quechua, Mayan languages, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, Haitian Creole, Italian, German, English, Dutch, Polish, Russian, Welsh, Yiddish, Greek, Chinese, Japanese, OthersLatin America_cell_0_7_1
Time zonesLatin America_header_cell_0_8_0 UTC−2 to UTC−8Latin America_cell_0_8_1
Largest citiesLatin America_header_cell_0_9_0 (Metro areas)
1. São Paulo
2. Mexico City
 3. Buenos Aires
4. Rio de Janeiro 
5. Bogotá 
6. Lima 
7. Santiago
8. Belo Horizonte 
9. Guadalajara 
10. MonterreyLatin America_cell_0_9_1
UN M49 codeLatin America_header_cell_0_10_0 419 – Latin America

019 – Americas 001 – WorldLatin America_cell_0_10_1

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, and French are predominantly spoken. Latin America_sentence_3

Some territories such as Quebec, where French is spoken, or areas of the United States where Spanish is predominantly spoken are not included due to the country being a part of Anglo America. Latin America_sentence_4

Haiti is sometimes included and sometimes excluded whereas Puerto Rico is always included despite belonging to the United States. Latin America_sentence_5

The term is broader than categories such as Hispanic America which specifically refers to Spanish-speaking countries or Ibero-America which specifically refers to both Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries. Latin America_sentence_6

The term is also more recent in origin. Latin America_sentence_7

The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of America. Latin America_sentence_8

Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics" (Iniciativa de la América. Latin America_sentence_9

Idea de un Congreso Federal de las Repúblicas), by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. Latin America_sentence_10

The term was further popularised by French emperor Napoleon III's government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to justify France's military involvement in Mexico and try to include French-speaking territories in the Americas such as French Canada, French Louisiana, or French Guiana, in the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed. Latin America_sentence_11

Including French-speaking territories, Latin America would consist of 20 countries and 14 dependent territories that cover an area that stretches from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego and includes much of the Caribbean. Latin America_sentence_12

It has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km (7,412,000 sq mi), almost 13% of the Earth's land surface area. Latin America_sentence_13

As of March 2, 2020, population of Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated at more than 652 million, and in 2019, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,188,250 million and a GDP PPP of 10,284,588 million USD. Latin America_sentence_14

Etymology and definitions Latin America_section_0

Origins Latin America_section_1

There is no universal agreement on the origin of the term Latin America. Latin America_sentence_15

Some historians believe that the term was created by geographers in the 16th century to refer to the parts of the New World colonized by Spain and Portugal, whose Romance languages derive from Latin. Latin America_sentence_16

Others argue that the term arose in 1860s France during the reign of Napoleon III, as part of the attempt to create a French empire in the Americas. Latin America_sentence_17

The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with "Latin Europe", ultimately overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Latin America_sentence_18

Historian John Leddy Phelan located the origins of the term Latin America in the French occupation of Mexico. Latin America_sentence_19

His argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France. Latin America_sentence_20

The idea of a "Latin race" was then taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. Latin America_sentence_21

French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called "Latin America" to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former Viceroyalties of Spain and colonies of Portugal. Latin America_sentence_22

This led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. Latin America_sentence_23

However, though Phelan thesis is still frequently mentioned in the U.S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, and the first use of the term was completely opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Latin America_sentence_24

Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina (Genesis of the Idea and the Name of Latin America, 1980), and Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria" (Bilbao and the Finding of Latin America: a Continental, Socialist and Libertarian Union, 1986). Latin America_sentence_25

As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism, Democracy, and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, and Aims McGuinness have revealed [that] the term 'Latin America' had already been used in 1856 by Central Americans and South Americans protesting U.S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Latin America_sentence_26

Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". Latin America_sentence_27

Now under the administration of the United States, by the late 1850s, the term was being used in local California newspapers such as El Clamor Público by Californios writing about América latina and latinoamérica, and identifying as latinos as the abbreviated term for their "hemispheric membership in la raza latina". Latin America_sentence_28

So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris. Latin America_sentence_29

The conference had the title "Initiative of the America. Latin America_sentence_30

Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." Latin America_sentence_31

The following year the Colombian writer also used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Latin America_sentence_32

Two events related with the U.S. played a central role in both works. Latin America_sentence_33

The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Invasion of Mexico or, in USA the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory. Latin America_sentence_34

The second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U.S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime recently established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year (1856–57) and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been already abolished for three decades Latin America_sentence_35

In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. Latin America_sentence_36

For Bilbao, "Latin America" was not a geographical concept, since he excluded Brazil, Paraguay and Mexico. Latin America_sentence_37

Both authors also ask for the union of all Latin American countries as the only way to defend their territories against further foreign U.S. interventions. Latin America_sentence_38

Both rejected also European imperialism, claiming that the return of European countries to non-democratic forms of government was another danger for Latin American countries, and used the same word to describe the state of European politics at the time: "despotism." Latin America_sentence_39

Several years later, during the French invasion of Mexico, Bilbao wrote another work, "Emancipation of the Spirit in America," where he asked all Latin American countries to support the Mexican cause against France, and rejected French imperialism in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas. Latin America_sentence_40

He asked Latin American intellectuals to search for their "intellectual emancipation" by abandoning all French ideas, claiming that France was: "Hypocrite, because she [France] calls herself protector of the Latin race just to subject it to her exploitation regime; treacherous, because she speaks of freedom and nationality, when, unable to conquer freedom for herself, she enslaves others instead!" Latin America_sentence_41

Therefore, as Michel Gobat puts it, the term Latin America itself had an "anti-imperial genesis," and their creators were far from supporting any form of imperialism in the region, or in any other place of the globe. Latin America_sentence_42

However, in France the term Latin America was used with the opposite intention. Latin America_sentence_43

It was employed by the French Empire of Napoleon III during the French invasion of Mexico as a way to include France among countries with influence in the Americas and to exclude Anglophone countries. Latin America_sentence_44

It played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France, transform France into a cultural and political leader of the area, and install Maximilian of Habsburg as emperor of the Second Mexican Empire. Latin America_sentence_45

This term was also used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America_sentence_46

Contemporary definitions Latin America_section_2

Latin America_unordered_list_0

  • Latin America is often used synonymously with Ibero-America ("Iberian America"), excluding the predominantly Dutch-, French- and English-speaking territories. Thus the countries of Haiti, Belize, Guyana and Suriname, and several French overseas departments, are excluded.Latin America_item_0_0
  • Latin America generally refers to territories in the Americas where the Spanish, Portuguese or French languages prevail, including: Mexico, most of Central and South America, and in the Caribbean, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish, Portuguese and French Empires.Latin America_item_0_1
  • The term is sometimes used more broadly to refer to all of the Americas south of the United States, thus including the Guianas (French Guiana, Guyana, and Suriname), the Anglophone Caribbean (and Belize); the Francophone Caribbean; and the Dutch Caribbean. This definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects (see, for example, dependency theory). Some sources avoid this simplification by using the alternative phrase "Latin America and the Caribbean", as in the United Nations geoscheme for the Americas.Latin America_item_0_2
  • In a more literal definition, which is close to the semantic origin, Latin America designates countries in the Americas where a Romance language (a language derived from Latin) predominates: Spanish, Portuguese, French, and the creole languages based upon these.Latin America_item_0_3

The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America_sentence_47

Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin America (e.g., highland Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Guatemala), Native American cultures and, to a lesser extent, Amerindian languages, are predominant, and in other areas, the influence of African cultures is strong (e.g., the Caribbean basin – including parts of Colombia and Venezuela). Latin America_sentence_48

The term is not without controversy. Latin America_sentence_49

Historian Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo explores at length the "allure and power" of the idea of Latin America. Latin America_sentence_50

He remarks at the outset, "The idea of 'Latin America' ought to have vanished with the obsolescence of racial theory... Latin America_sentence_51

But it is not easy to declare something dead when it can hardly be said to have existed," going on to say, "The term is here to stay, and it is important." Latin America_sentence_52

Following in the tradition of Chilean writer Francisco Bilbao, who excluded Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay from his early conceptualization of Latin America, Chilean historian Jaime Eyzaguirre has criticized the term Latin America for "disguising" and "diluting" the Spanish character of a region (i.e. Hispanic America) with the inclusion of nations that according to him do not share the same pattern of conquest and colonization. Latin America_sentence_53

Subregions and countries Latin America_section_3

Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, politics, demographics and culture. Latin America_sentence_54

If defined as all of the Americas south of the United States, the basic geographical subregions are North America, Central America, the Caribbean and South America; the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Cone, the Guianas and the Andean states. Latin America_sentence_55

It may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America. Latin America_sentence_56

Latin America_table_general_1

FlagLatin America_header_cell_1_0_0 ArmsLatin America_header_cell_1_0_1 CountryLatin America_header_cell_1_0_2 Capital(s)Latin America_header_cell_1_0_3 Name(s) in official language(s)Latin America_header_cell_1_0_4 Area

(km²)Latin America_header_cell_1_0_5

Population

(2018)Latin America_header_cell_1_0_6

Population density

(per km²)Latin America_header_cell_1_0_7

Time(s) zone(s)Latin America_header_cell_1_0_8 SubregionLatin America_header_cell_1_0_9
ArgentinaLatin America_cell_1_1_0 Latin America_cell_1_1_1 ArgentinaLatin America_cell_1_1_2 Buenos AiresLatin America_cell_1_1_3 ArgentinaLatin America_cell_1_1_4 2,780,400Latin America_cell_1_1_5 44,361,150Latin America_cell_1_1_6 14.4Latin America_cell_1_1_7 UTC/GMT -3 hoursLatin America_cell_1_1_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_1_9
BoliviaLatin America_cell_1_2_0 Latin America_cell_1_2_1 Bolivia (Plurinational State of)Latin America_cell_1_2_2 Sucre and La PazLatin America_cell_1_2_3 Bolivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya; VolíviaLatin America_cell_1_2_4 1,098,581Latin America_cell_1_2_5 11,353,142Latin America_cell_1_2_6 9Latin America_cell_1_2_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_2_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_2_9
BrazilLatin America_cell_1_3_0 Latin America_cell_1_3_1 BrazilLatin America_cell_1_3_2 BrasíliaLatin America_cell_1_3_3 BrasilLatin America_cell_1_3_4 8,515,767Latin America_cell_1_3_5 209,469,323Latin America_cell_1_3_6 23.6Latin America_cell_1_3_7 UTC/GMT -2 hours (Fernando de Noronha)

UTC/GMT -3 hours (Brasília) UTC/GMT -4 hours (Amazonas) UTC/GMT -5 hours (Acre)Latin America_cell_1_3_8

South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_3_9
ChileLatin America_cell_1_4_0 Latin America_cell_1_4_1 ChileLatin America_cell_1_4_2 SantiagoLatin America_cell_1_4_3 ChileLatin America_cell_1_4_4 756,096Latin America_cell_1_4_5 18,729,160Latin America_cell_1_4_6 23Latin America_cell_1_4_7 UTC/GMT -3 hours (Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica)

UTC/GMT -4 hours (Continental Chile) UTC/GMT -5 hours (Easter Island)Latin America_cell_1_4_8

South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_4_9
ColombiaLatin America_cell_1_5_0 Latin America_cell_1_5_1 ColombiaLatin America_cell_1_5_2 BogotáLatin America_cell_1_5_3 ColombiaLatin America_cell_1_5_4 1,141,748Latin America_cell_1_5_5 49,661,048Latin America_cell_1_5_6 41.5Latin America_cell_1_5_7 UTC/GMT -5 hoursLatin America_cell_1_5_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_5_9
Costa_RicaLatin America_cell_1_6_0 Latin America_cell_1_6_1 Costa RicaLatin America_cell_1_6_2 San JoséLatin America_cell_1_6_3 Costa RicaLatin America_cell_1_6_4 51,100Latin America_cell_1_6_5 4,999,441Latin America_cell_1_6_6 91.3Latin America_cell_1_6_7 UTC/GMT -6 hoursLatin America_cell_1_6_8 Central AmericaLatin America_cell_1_6_9
CubaLatin America_cell_1_7_0 Latin America_cell_1_7_1 CubaLatin America_cell_1_7_2 HavanaLatin America_cell_1_7_3 CubaLatin America_cell_1_7_4 109,884Latin America_cell_1_7_5 11,338,134Latin America_cell_1_7_6 100.6Latin America_cell_1_7_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_7_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_7_9
Dominican_RepublicLatin America_cell_1_8_0 Latin America_cell_1_8_1 Dominican RepublicLatin America_cell_1_8_2 Santo DomingoLatin America_cell_1_8_3 República DominicanaLatin America_cell_1_8_4 48,442Latin America_cell_1_8_5 10,627,141Latin America_cell_1_8_6 210.9Latin America_cell_1_8_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_8_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_8_9
EcuadorLatin America_cell_1_9_0 Latin America_cell_1_9_1 EcuadorLatin America_cell_1_9_2 QuitoLatin America_cell_1_9_3 EcuadorLatin America_cell_1_9_4 283,560Latin America_cell_1_9_5 17,084,358Latin America_cell_1_9_6 54.4Latin America_cell_1_9_7 UTC/GMT -5 hoursLatin America_cell_1_9_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_9_9
El_SalvadorLatin America_cell_1_10_0 Latin America_cell_1_10_1 El SalvadorLatin America_cell_1_10_2 San SalvadorLatin America_cell_1_10_3 El SalvadorLatin America_cell_1_10_4 21,040Latin America_cell_1_10_5 6,420,746Latin America_cell_1_10_6 290.3Latin America_cell_1_10_7 UTC/GMT -6 hoursLatin America_cell_1_10_8 Central AmericaLatin America_cell_1_10_9
French_GuianaLatin America_cell_1_11_0 Latin America_cell_1_11_1 French Guiana*Latin America_cell_1_11_2 CayenneLatin America_cell_1_11_3 GuyaneLatin America_cell_1_11_4 83,534Latin America_cell_1_11_5 282,938Latin America_cell_1_11_6 3Latin America_cell_1_11_7 UTC/GMT -3 hoursLatin America_cell_1_11_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_11_9
GuadeloupeLatin America_cell_1_12_0 Latin America_cell_1_12_1 Guadeloupe*Latin America_cell_1_12_2 Basse-TerreLatin America_cell_1_12_3 GuadeloupeLatin America_cell_1_12_4 1,628Latin America_cell_1_12_5 399,848Latin America_cell_1_12_6 250Latin America_cell_1_12_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_12_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_12_9
GuatemalaLatin America_cell_1_13_0 Latin America_cell_1_13_1 GuatemalaLatin America_cell_1_13_2 Guatemala CityLatin America_cell_1_13_3 GuatemalaLatin America_cell_1_13_4 108,889Latin America_cell_1_13_5 17,247,849Latin America_cell_1_13_6 129Latin America_cell_1_13_7 UTC/GMT -6 hoursLatin America_cell_1_13_8 Central AmericaLatin America_cell_1_13_9
HaitiLatin America_cell_1_14_0 Latin America_cell_1_14_1 HaitiLatin America_cell_1_14_2 Port-au-PrinceLatin America_cell_1_14_3 Haïti; AyitiLatin America_cell_1_14_4 27,750Latin America_cell_1_14_5 11,123,178Latin America_cell_1_14_6 350Latin America_cell_1_14_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_14_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_14_9
HondurasLatin America_cell_1_15_0 Latin America_cell_1_15_1 HondurasLatin America_cell_1_15_2 TegucigalpaLatin America_cell_1_15_3 HondurasLatin America_cell_1_15_4 112,492Latin America_cell_1_15_5 9,587,522Latin America_cell_1_15_6 76Latin America_cell_1_15_7 UTC/GMT -6 hoursLatin America_cell_1_15_8 Central AmericaLatin America_cell_1_15_9
MartiniqueLatin America_cell_1_16_0 Latin America_cell_1_16_1 Martinique*Latin America_cell_1_16_2 Fort-de-FranceLatin America_cell_1_16_3 MartiniqueLatin America_cell_1_16_4 1,128Latin America_cell_1_16_5 375,673Latin America_cell_1_16_6 340Latin America_cell_1_16_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_16_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_16_9
MexicoLatin America_cell_1_17_0 Latin America_cell_1_17_1 MexicoLatin America_cell_1_17_2 Mexico CityLatin America_cell_1_17_3 MéxicoLatin America_cell_1_17_4 1,964,375Latin America_cell_1_17_5 126,190,788Latin America_cell_1_17_6 57Latin America_cell_1_17_7 UTC/GMT -5 hours (Zona Sureste)

UTC/GMT -6 hours (Zona Centro) UTC/GMT -7 hours (Zona Pacífico) UTC/GMT -8 hours (Zona Noroeste)Latin America_cell_1_17_8

North AmericaLatin America_cell_1_17_9
NicaraguaLatin America_cell_1_18_0 Latin America_cell_1_18_1 NicaraguaLatin America_cell_1_18_2 ManaguaLatin America_cell_1_18_3 NicaraguaLatin America_cell_1_18_4 130,375Latin America_cell_1_18_5 6,465,501Latin America_cell_1_18_6 44.3Latin America_cell_1_18_7 UTC/GMT -6 hoursLatin America_cell_1_18_8 Central AmericaLatin America_cell_1_18_9
PanamaLatin America_cell_1_19_0 Latin America_cell_1_19_1 PanamaLatin America_cell_1_19_2 Panama CityLatin America_cell_1_19_3 PanamáLatin America_cell_1_19_4 75,517Latin America_cell_1_19_5 4,176,869Latin America_cell_1_19_6 54.2Latin America_cell_1_19_7 UTC/GMT -5 hoursLatin America_cell_1_19_8 Central AmericaLatin America_cell_1_19_9
ParaguayLatin America_cell_1_20_0 Latin America_cell_1_20_1 ParaguayLatin America_cell_1_20_2 AsunciónLatin America_cell_1_20_3 Paraguay; Tetã ParaguáiLatin America_cell_1_20_4 406,752Latin America_cell_1_20_5 6,956,066Latin America_cell_1_20_6 14.2Latin America_cell_1_20_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_20_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_20_9
PeruLatin America_cell_1_21_0 Latin America_cell_1_21_1 PeruLatin America_cell_1_21_2 LimaLatin America_cell_1_21_3 Perú; PiruwLatin America_cell_1_21_4 1,285,216Latin America_cell_1_21_5 31,989,260Latin America_cell_1_21_6 23Latin America_cell_1_21_7 UTC/GMT -5 hoursLatin America_cell_1_21_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_21_9
Puerto_RicoLatin America_cell_1_22_0 Latin America_cell_1_22_1 Puerto Rico*Latin America_cell_1_22_2 San JuanLatin America_cell_1_22_3 Puerto RicoLatin America_cell_1_22_4 9,104Latin America_cell_1_22_5 3,039,596Latin America_cell_1_22_6 397Latin America_cell_1_22_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_22_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_22_9
Saint_BarthélemyLatin America_cell_1_23_0 Latin America_cell_1_23_1 Saint Barthélemy*Latin America_cell_1_23_2 GustaviaLatin America_cell_1_23_3 Saint-BarthélemyLatin America_cell_1_23_4 25Latin America_cell_1_23_5 9,961Latin America_cell_1_23_6 398Latin America_cell_1_23_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_23_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_23_9
Collectivity_of_Saint_MartinLatin America_cell_1_24_0 Latin America_cell_1_24_1 Saint Martin*Latin America_cell_1_24_2 MarigotLatin America_cell_1_24_3 Saint-MartinLatin America_cell_1_24_4 53.2Latin America_cell_1_24_5 39,000Latin America_cell_1_24_6 733Latin America_cell_1_24_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_24_8 CaribbeanLatin America_cell_1_24_9
UruguayLatin America_cell_1_25_0 Latin America_cell_1_25_1 UruguayLatin America_cell_1_25_2 MontevideoLatin America_cell_1_25_3 UruguayLatin America_cell_1_25_4 176,215Latin America_cell_1_25_5 3,449,285Latin America_cell_1_25_6 18.87Latin America_cell_1_25_7 UTC/GMT -3 hoursLatin America_cell_1_25_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_25_9
VenezuelaLatin America_cell_1_26_0 Latin America_cell_1_26_1 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)Latin America_cell_1_26_2 CaracasLatin America_cell_1_26_3 VenezuelaLatin America_cell_1_26_4 916,445Latin America_cell_1_26_5 28,887,118Latin America_cell_1_26_6 31.59Latin America_cell_1_26_7 UTC/GMT -4 hoursLatin America_cell_1_26_8 South AmericaLatin America_cell_1_26_9
TotalLatin America_cell_1_27_0 Latin America_cell_1_27_1 Latin America_cell_1_27_2 Latin America_cell_1_27_3 Latin America_cell_1_27_4 20,111,699Latin America_cell_1_27_5 626,747,000Latin America_cell_1_27_6 Latin America_cell_1_27_7 Latin America_cell_1_27_8 Latin America_cell_1_27_9
  • Not a sovereign state Latin America_sentence_57

History Latin America_section_4

Main article: History of Latin America Latin America_sentence_58

See also: History of North America, History of South America, History of Central America, and History of the Caribbean Latin America_sentence_59

Pre-Columbian history Latin America_section_5

Main articles: Settlement of the Americas, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Pre-Columbian era Latin America_sentence_60

The earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Latin America_sentence_61

Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is some disputed evidence of even earlier occupation. Latin America_sentence_62

Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents. Latin America_sentence_63

By the first millennium CE, South America's vast rainforests, mountains, plains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Latin America_sentence_64

The earliest settlements in the Americas are of the Las Vegas Culture from about 8000 BCE and 4600 BCE, a sedentary group from the coast of Ecuador, the forefathers of the more known Valdivia culture, of the same era. Latin America_sentence_65

Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha (or "Muisca" or "Muysca") and the Tairona groups. Latin America_sentence_66

These groups are in the circum Caribbean region. Latin America_sentence_67

The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia were the three indigenous groups that settled most permanently. Latin America_sentence_68

The region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs, Maya, and Inca. Latin America_sentence_69

The golden age of the Maya began about 250, with the last two great civilizations, the Aztecs and Incas, emerging into prominence later on in the early fourteenth century and mid-fifteenth centuries, respectively. Latin America_sentence_70

The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, until its downfall in part by the Spanish invasion. Latin America_sentence_71

Iberian colonization Latin America_section_6

Main articles: European colonization of the Americas, Spanish colonization of the Americas, and Portuguese colonization of the Americas Latin America_sentence_72

See also: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas Latin America_sentence_73

With the arrival of the Spaniards and Portuguese, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, were deposed and/or co-opted.. Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elite's power in alliance with peoples who had been subjugated by this polity. Latin America_sentence_74

Francisco Pizarro eliminated the Incan rule in Peru. Latin America_sentence_75

Both Spain and Portugal colonized and settled the Americas, which along with the rest of the uncolonized world, was divided among them by the line of demarcation in 1494. Latin America_sentence_76

This treaty gave Spain all areas to the west, and Portugal all areas to the east (the Portuguese lands in South America subsequently becoming Brazil). Latin America_sentence_77

By the end of the sixteenth century Spain and Portugal controlled territory extending from Alaska to the southern tips of the Patagonia. Latin America_sentence_78

Iberian culture, customs and government were introduced with the settlers who widely intermarried with local populations. Latin America_sentence_79

The Catholic Religion was the only official religion in all territories under Spanish and Portuguese rule. Latin America_sentence_80

Epidemics of diseases which came with the Spaniards, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population. Latin America_sentence_81

Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, but some put the figures as high as 85% and as low as 25%. Latin America_sentence_82

Due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Latin America_sentence_83

Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations and mines until indigenous slavery was outlawed with the New Laws of 1542. Latin America_sentence_84

Unlike in English colonies, Intermixing between the indigenous peoples and Iberian colonists was very common and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry (mestizos) formed majorities in several colonies. Latin America_sentence_85

Slavery and forced labor in colonial Latin America Latin America_section_7

See also: Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Atlantic slave trade Latin America_sentence_86

Further information: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas Latin America_sentence_87

Indigenous peoples of the Americas in various colonies were forced to work in plantations and mines; along with African slaves who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries. Latin America_sentence_88

The Mita of Colonial Latin America was a system of forced labor imposed on the natives. Latin America_sentence_89

First established by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo (1569–1581), the Mita was upheld by laws that designated how large draft levies were and how much money the workers would receive that was based on how many shifts each individual worker performed. Latin America_sentence_90

Toledo established Mitas at Potosi and Huancavelica, where the Mitayos—the workers—would be reduced in number to a fraction of how many were originally assigned before the 1700s. Latin America_sentence_91

While several villages managed to resist the Mita, others offered payment to colonial administrators as a way out. Latin America_sentence_92

In exchange, free labor became available through volunteers, though the Mita was kept in place as workers like miners, for example, were paid low wages. Latin America_sentence_93

The Spanish Crown had not made any ruling on the Mita or approved of it when Toledo first established it in spite of the uncertainty of the practice since the Crown could have gained benefits from it. Latin America_sentence_94

However, the cortes of Spain later abolished it in 1812 once complaints of the Mita violating humanitarian rights were made. Latin America_sentence_95

Yet complaints also came from: governors; landowners; native leaders known as Kurakas; and even priests, each of whom preferred other methods of economic exploitation. Latin America_sentence_96

Despite its fall, the Mita made it to the 1800s. Latin America_sentence_97

Another important group of slaves to mention were the slaves brought over from Africa. Latin America_sentence_98

The first slaves came over with Christopher Columbus from the very beginning on his earliest voyages. Latin America_sentence_99

However in the few hundred years, the Atlantic Slave trade would begin delivering slaves, imported by Spain and other colonizers, by the millions. Latin America_sentence_100

Many of the large scale productions were run by forced slave labor. Latin America_sentence_101

They were a part of sugar and coffee production, farming (beans, rice, corn, fruit, etc.), Mining, whale oil and multiple other jobs. Latin America_sentence_102

Slaves were also house workers, servants, military soldiers, and much more. Latin America_sentence_103

To say the least these people were property and treated as such. Latin America_sentence_104

Though indigenous slaves existed, they were no match in quantity and lack of quality jobs when compared to the African slave. Latin America_sentence_105

The slave population was massive compared to the better known slave ownership in the United States. Latin America_sentence_106

After 1860 Brazil alone had imported over 4 million slaves, which only represented about 35% of the Atlantic slave trade. Latin America_sentence_107

Despite the large number of slaves in Latin America, there was not as much reproduction of slaves amongst the population. Latin America_sentence_108

Because most of the slaves then were African-born, they were more subject to rebellion. Latin America_sentence_109

The United States involvement in the slave trade is well known amongst North America, however it hides a larger and in some ways crueler operation in the south which had a much longer history. Latin America_sentence_110

Independence (1804–1825) Latin America_section_8

Main articles: Latin American wars of independence and Spanish American wars of independence Latin America_sentence_111

In 1804, Haiti became the first Latin American nation to gain independence, following a violent slave revolt led by Toussaint L'ouverture on the French colony of Saint-Domingue. Latin America_sentence_112

The victors abolished slavery. Latin America_sentence_113

Haitian independence inspired independence movements in Spanish America. Latin America_sentence_114

By the end of the eighteenth century, Spanish and Portuguese power waned on the global scene as other European powers took their place, notably Britain and France. Latin America_sentence_115

Resentment grew among the majority of the population in Latin America over the restrictions imposed by the Spanish government, as well as the dominance of native Spaniards (Iberian-born Peninsulares) in the major social and political institutions. Latin America_sentence_116

Napoleon's invasion of Spain in 1808 marked a turning point, compelling Criollo elites to form juntas that advocated independence. Latin America_sentence_117

Also, the newly independent Haiti, the second oldest nation in the New World after the United States, further fueled the independence movement by inspiring the leaders of the movement, such as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla of Mexico, Simón Bolívar of Venezuela and José de San Martín of Argentina, and by providing them with considerable munitions and troops. Latin America_sentence_118

Fighting soon broke out between juntas and the Spanish colonial authorities, with initial victories for the advocates of independence. Latin America_sentence_119

Eventually, these early movements were crushed by the royalist troops by 1810, including those of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in Mexico in the year 1810. Latin America_sentence_120

Later on Francisco de Miranda in Venezuela by 1812. Latin America_sentence_121

Under the leadership of a new generation of leaders, such as Simón Bolívar "The Liberator", José de San Martín of Argentina, and other Libertadores in South America, the independence movement regained strength, and by 1825, all Spanish America, except for Puerto Rico and Cuba, had gained independence from Spain. Latin America_sentence_122

In the same year in Mexico, a military officer, Agustín de Iturbide, led a coalition of conservatives and liberals who created a constitutional monarchy, with Iturbide as emperor. Latin America_sentence_123

This First Mexican Empire was short-lived, and was followed by the creation of a republic in 1823. Latin America_sentence_124

Independent Empire of Brazil Latin America_section_9

Main articles: Independence of Brazil and Empire of Brazil Latin America_sentence_125

The Brazilian War of Independence, which had already begun along other independent movements around the region, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province. Latin America_sentence_126

With the last Portuguese soldiers surrendering on March 8, 1824, Portugal officially recognized Brazil on August 29, 1825. Latin America_sentence_127

On April 7, 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissensions with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession, as well as unreconciled with the way that absolutists in Portugal had given to the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to reclaim his daughter's crown, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the regnal title of Dom Pedro II). Latin America_sentence_128

As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly. Latin America_sentence_129

In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, as the Cabanagem, the Malê Revolt, the Balaiada, the Sabinada, and the Ragamuffin War, which emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar of a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state. Latin America_sentence_130

This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the Praieira revolt, was overcome only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II in 1841. Latin America_sentence_131

During the last phase of the monarchy, an internal political debate was centered on the issue of slavery. Latin America_sentence_132

The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in 1850, as a result of the British' Aberdeen Act, but only in May 1888 after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, was the institution formally abolished. Latin America_sentence_133

On November 15, 1889, worn out by years of economic stagnation, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup. Latin America_sentence_134

Conservative–liberal conflicts in the 19th century Latin America_section_10

After the independence of many Latin American countries, there was a conflict between the people and the government, much of which can be reduced to the contrasting ideologies between liberalism and conservatism. Latin America_sentence_135

Conservatism was the dominant system of government prior to the revolutions and it was founded on having social classes, including governing by kings. Latin America_sentence_136

Liberalists wanted to see a change in the ruling systems, and to move away from monarchs and social classes to promote equality. Latin America_sentence_137

When liberal Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of Mexico in 1824, conservatists relied on their belief that the state had been better off before the new government came into power, so, by comparison, the old government was better in the eyes of the Conservatives. Latin America_sentence_138

Following this sentiment, the conservatives pushed to take control of the government, and they succeeded. Latin America_sentence_139

General Santa Anna was elected president in 1833. Latin America_sentence_140

The following decade, the Mexican–American War (1846–48) caused Mexico to lose a significant amount of territory to the United States. Latin America_sentence_141

This loss led to a rebellion by the enraged liberal forces against the conservative government. Latin America_sentence_142

In 1837, conservative Rafael Carrera conquered Guatemala and separated from the Central American Union. Latin America_sentence_143

The instability that followed the disintegration of the union led to the independence of the other Central American countries. Latin America_sentence_144

In Brazil, rural aristocrats were in conflict with the urban conservatives. Latin America_sentence_145

Portuguese control over Brazilian ports continued after Brazil's independence. Latin America_sentence_146

Following the conservative idea that the old government was better, urbanites tended to support conservatism because more opportunities were available to them as a result of the Portuguese presence. Latin America_sentence_147

Simón Bolívar became president of Gran Colombia in 1819 after the region gained independence from Spain. Latin America_sentence_148

He led a military-controlled state. Latin America_sentence_149

Citizens did not like the government's position under Bolívar: The people in the military were unhappy with their roles, and the civilians were of the opinion that the military had too much power. Latin America_sentence_150

After the dissolution of Gran Colombia, New Grenada continued to have conflicts between conservatives and liberals. Latin America_sentence_151

These conflicts were each concentrated in particular regions, with conservatives particularly in the southern mountains and the Valley of Cauca. Latin America_sentence_152

In the mid-1840s some leaders in Caracas organized a liberal opposition. Latin America_sentence_153

Antonio Leocadio Guzman was an active participant and journalist in this movement and gained much popularity among the people of Caracas. Latin America_sentence_154

In Argentina, the conflict manifested itself as a prolonged civil war between unitarianas (i.e. centralists) and federalists, which were in some aspects respectively analogous to liberals and conservatives in other countries. Latin America_sentence_155

Between 1832 and 1852, the country existed as a confederation, without a head of state, although the federalist governor of Buenos Aires province, Juan Manuel de Rosas, was given the powers of debt payment and international relations and exerted a growing hegemony over the country. Latin America_sentence_156

A national constitution was only enacted in 1853, reformed in 1860, and the country reorganized as a federal republic led by a liberal-conservative elite. Latin America_sentence_157

After Uruguay achieved its independence, in 1828, a similar polarization crystallized between blancos and colorados, where the agrarian conservative interests were pitted against the liberal commercial interests based in Montevideo, and which eventually resulted in the Guerra Grande civil war (1839–1851). Latin America_sentence_158

British influence in Latin America during the 19th century Latin America_section_11

Losing most of its North American colonies at the end of the 18th century left Great Britain in need of new markets to supply resources in the early 19th century. Latin America_sentence_159

In order to solve this problem, Great Britain turned to the Spanish colonies in South America for resources and markets. Latin America_sentence_160

In 1806 a small British force surprise attacked the capitol of the viceroyalty in Río de la Plata. Latin America_sentence_161

As a result, the local garrison protecting the capitol was destroyed in an attempt to defend against the British conquest. Latin America_sentence_162

The British were able to capture large amounts of precious metals, before a French naval force intervened on behalf of the Spanish King and took down the invading force. Latin America_sentence_163

However, this caused much turmoil in the area as militia took control of the area from the viceroy. Latin America_sentence_164

The next year the British attacked once again with a much larger force attempting to reach and conquer Montevideo. Latin America_sentence_165

They failed to reach Montevideo but succeeded in establishing an alliance with the locals. Latin America_sentence_166

As a result, the British were able to take control of the Indian markets. Latin America_sentence_167

This newly gained British dominance hindered the development of Latin American industries and strengthened the dependence on the world trade network. Latin America_sentence_168

Britain now replaced Spain as the region's largest trading partner. Latin America_sentence_169

Great Britain invested significant capital in Latin America to develop the area as a market for processed goods. Latin America_sentence_170

From the early 1820s to 1850, the post-independence economies of Latin American countries were lagging and stagnant. Latin America_sentence_171

Eventually, enhanced trade among Britain and Latin America led to state development such as infrastructure improvements. Latin America_sentence_172

These improvements included roads and railroads which grew the trades between countries and outside nations such as Great Britain. Latin America_sentence_173

By 1870, exports dramatically increased, attracting capital from abroad (including Europe and USA). Latin America_sentence_174

French involvement in Latin America during the 19th century Latin America_section_12

Between 1821 and 1910, Mexico battled through various civil wars between the established Conservative government and the Liberal reformists ("Mexico Timeline- Page 2)". Latin America_sentence_175

On May 8, 1827 Baron Damas, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Sebastián Camacho, a Mexican diplomat, signed an agreement called "The Declarations" which contained provisions regarding commerce and navigation between France and Mexico. Latin America_sentence_176

At this time the French government did not recognize Mexico as an independent entity. Latin America_sentence_177

It was not until 1861 that the liberalist rebels, led by Benito Juárez, took control of Mexico City, consolidating liberal rule. Latin America_sentence_178

However, the constant state of warfare left Mexico with a tremendous amount of debt owed to Spain, England, and France, all of whom funded the Mexican war effort (Neeno). Latin America_sentence_179

As newly appointed president, Benito Juárez suspended payment of debts for next two years, to focus on a rebuilding and stabilization initiative in Mexico under the new government. Latin America_sentence_180

On December 8, 1861, Spain, England and France landed in Veracruz to seize unpaid debts from Mexico. Latin America_sentence_181

However, Napoleon III, with intentions of establishing a French client state to further push his economic interests, pressured the other two powers to withdraw in 1862 (Greenspan; "French Intervention in Mexico…"). Latin America_sentence_182

France under Napoleon III remained and established Maximilian of Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, as Emperor of Mexico. Latin America_sentence_183

The march by the French to Mexico City enticed heavy resistance by the Mexican government, it resulted in open warfare. Latin America_sentence_184

The Battle of Puebla in 1862 in particular presented an important turning point in which Ignacio Zaragoza led the Mexican army to victory as they pushed back the French offensive ("Timeline of the Mexican Revolution"). Latin America_sentence_185

The victory came to symbolize Mexico's power and national resolve against foreign occupancy and as a result delayed France's later attack on Mexico City for an entire year (Cinco de Mayo (Mexican History)). Latin America_sentence_186

With heavy resistance by Mexican rebels and the fear of United States intervention against France, forced Napoleon III to withdraw from Mexico, leaving Maximilian to surrender, where he would be later executed by Mexican troops under the rule of Porfirio Díaz. Latin America_sentence_187

Napoleon III's desire to expand France's economic empire influenced the decision to seize territorial domain over the Central American region. Latin America_sentence_188

The port city of Veracruz, Mexico and France's desire to construct a new canal were of particular interest. Latin America_sentence_189

Bridging both New World and East Asian trade routes to the Atlantic were key to Napoleon III's economic goals to the mining of precious rocks and the expansion of France's textile industry. Latin America_sentence_190

Napoleon's fear of the United States' economic influence over the Pacific trade region, and in turn all New World economic activity, pushed France to intervene in Mexico under the pretense of collecting on Mexico's debt. Latin America_sentence_191

Eventually France began plans to build the Panama Canal in 1881 until 1904 when the United States took over and proceeded with its construction and implementation ("Read Our Story"). Latin America_sentence_192

American involvement in Latin America Latin America_section_13

Monroe Doctrine Latin America_section_14

The Monroe Doctrine was included in President James Monroe's 1823 annual message to Congress. Latin America_sentence_193

The doctrine warns European nations that the United States will no longer tolerate any new colonization of Latin American countries. Latin America_sentence_194

It was originally drafted to meet the present major concerns, but eventually became the precept of U.S. foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere. Latin America_sentence_195

The doctrine was put into effect in 1865 when the U.S. government supported Mexican president, Benito Juárez, diplomatically and militarily. Latin America_sentence_196

Some Latin American countries viewed the U.S. interventions, allowed by the Monroe Doctrine when the U.S. deems necessary, with suspicion. Latin America_sentence_197

Another important aspect of United States involvement in Latin America is the case of the filibuster William Walker. Latin America_sentence_198

In 1855, he traveled to Nicaragua hoping to overthrow the government and take the land for the United States. Latin America_sentence_199

With only the aid of 56 followers, he was able to take over the city of Granada, declaring himself commander of the army and installing Patricio Rivas as a puppet president. Latin America_sentence_200

However, Rivas's presidency ended when he fled Nicaragua; Walker rigged the following election to ensure that he became the next president. Latin America_sentence_201

His presidency did not last long, however, as he was met with much opposition from political groups in Nicaragua and neighbouring countries. Latin America_sentence_202

On May 1, 1857, Walker was forced by a coalition of Central American armies to surrender himself to a United States Navy officer who repatriated him and his followers. Latin America_sentence_203

When Walker subsequently returned to Central America in 1860, he was apprehended by the Honduran authorities and executed. Latin America_sentence_204

Mexican–American War (1846–48) Latin America_section_15

The Mexican–American War, another instance of U.S. involvement in Latin America, was a war between the United States and Mexico that started in April 1846 and lasted until February 1848. Latin America_sentence_205

The main cause of the war was the United States' annexation of Texas in 1845 and a dispute afterwards about whether the border between Mexico and the United States ended where Mexico claimed, at the Nueces River, or ended where the United States claimed, at the Rio Grande. Latin America_sentence_206

Peace was negotiated between the United States and Mexico with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which stated that Mexico was to cede land which would later become part of California and New Mexico as well as give up all claims to Texas, for which the United States would pay $15,000,000. Latin America_sentence_207

However, tensions between the two countries were still high and over the next six years things only got worse with raids along the border and attacks by Native Americans against Mexican citizens. Latin America_sentence_208

To defuse the situation, the United States agreed to purchase 29,670 squares miles of land from Mexico for $10,000,000 so a southern railroad could be built to connect the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. Latin America_sentence_209

This would become known as the Gadsden Purchase. Latin America_sentence_210

A critical component of U.S. intervention in Latin American affairs took form in the Spanish–American War, which drastically affected the futures of Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Americas, as well as Guam and the Philippines, by acquiring the majority of the last remaining Spanish colonial possessions. Latin America_sentence_211

From the "Big Stick" to the "Good Neighbor" policy Latin America_section_16

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the U.S. banana importing companies United Fruit Company, Cuyamel Fruit Company (both ancestors of Chiquita), and Standard Fruit Company (now Dole), acquired large amounts of land in Central American countries like Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Latin America_sentence_212

The companies gained leverage over the governments and a ruling elite in these countries by dominating their economies and paying kickbacks, and exploited local workers. Latin America_sentence_213

These countries came to be called banana republics. Latin America_sentence_214

Cubans, with the aid of Dominicans, launched a war for independence in 1868 and, over the next 30 years, suffered 279,000 losses in a brutal war against Spain that culminated in U.S. intervention. Latin America_sentence_215

The 1898 Spanish–American War resulted in the end of Spanish colonial presence in the Americas. Latin America_sentence_216

A period of frequent U.S. intervention in Latin America followed, with the acquisition of the Panama Canal Zone in 1903, the so-called Banana Wars in Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Honduras; the Caco Wars in Haiti; and the so-called Border War with Mexico. Latin America_sentence_217

Some 3,000 Latin Americans were killed between 1914 and 1933. Latin America_sentence_218

The U.S. press described the occupation of the Dominican Republic as an 'Anglo-Saxon crusade', carried out to keep the Latin Americans 'harmless against the ultimate consequences of their own misbehavior'. Latin America_sentence_219

After World War I, U.S. interventionism diminished, culminating in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Good Neighbor policy in 1933. Latin America_sentence_220

World wars (1914–1945) Latin America_section_17

See also: Pan-Americanism, Brazil during World War I, and Latin America during World War II Latin America_sentence_221

World War I and the Zimmermann Telegram Latin America_section_18

The Zimmermann Telegram was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire for Mexico to join an alliance with Germany in the event of the United States entering World War I against Germany. Latin America_sentence_222

The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Latin America_sentence_223

The revelation of the contents outraged the American public and swayed public opinion. Latin America_sentence_224

President Woodrow Wilson moved to arm American merchant ships to defend themselves against German submarines, which had started to attack them. Latin America_sentence_225

The news helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April of that year. Latin America_sentence_226

The message came as a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917. Latin America_sentence_227

The message was sent to the German ambassador of Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. Latin America_sentence_228

Zimmermann sent the telegram in anticipation of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany on February 1, an act which Germany presumed would lead to war. Latin America_sentence_229

The telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the U.S. appeared certain to enter the war, he was to approach the Mexican Government with a proposal for a military alliance, with funding from Germany. Latin America_sentence_230

As part of the alliance, Germany would assist Mexico in reconquering Texas and the Southwest. Latin America_sentence_231

Eckardt was instructed to urge Mexico to help broker an alliance between Germany and Japan. Latin America_sentence_232

Mexico, in the middle of the Mexican Revolution, far weaker militarily, economically and politically than the U.S., ignored the proposal; after the U.S. entered the war, it officially rejected it. Latin America_sentence_233

Brazil's participation in World War II Latin America_section_19

After World War I, in which Brazil was an ally of the United States, Great Britain, and France, the country realized it needed a more capable army but did not have the technology to create it. Latin America_sentence_234

In 1919, the French Military Mission was established by the French Commission in Brazil. Latin America_sentence_235

Their main goal was to contain the inner rebellions in Brazil. Latin America_sentence_236

They tried to assist the army by bringing them up to the European military standard but constant civil missions did not prepare them for World War II. Latin America_sentence_237

Brazil's President, Getúlio Vargas, wanted to industrialize Brazil, allowing it to be more competitive with other countries. Latin America_sentence_238

He reached out to Germany, Italy, France, and the United States to act as trade allies. Latin America_sentence_239

Many Italian and German people immigrated to Brazil many years before World War II began thus creating a Nazi influence. Latin America_sentence_240

The immigrants held high positions in government and the armed forces. Latin America_sentence_241

Brazil continued to try to remain neutral to the United States and Germany because it was trying to make sure it could continue to be a place of interest for both opposing countries. Latin America_sentence_242

Brazil attended continental meetings in Buenos Aires, Argentina (1936); Lima, Peru (1938); and Havana, Cuba (1940) that obligated them to agree to defend any part of the Americas if they were to be attacked. Latin America_sentence_243

Eventually, Brazil decided to stop trading with Germany once Germany started attacking offshore trading ships resulting in Germany declaring a blockade against the Americas in the Atlantic Ocean. Latin America_sentence_244

Furthermore, Germany also ensured that they would be attacking the Americas soon. Latin America_sentence_245

Once the German submarines attacked unarmed Brazilian trading ships, President Vargas met with the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt to discuss how they could retaliate. Latin America_sentence_246

On January 22, 1942, Brazil officially ended all relations with Germany, Japan, and Italy, becoming a part of the Allies. Latin America_sentence_247

The Brazilian Expeditionary Force was sent to Naples, Italy to fight for democracy. Latin America_sentence_248

Brazil was the only Latin American country to send troops to Europe. Latin America_sentence_249

Initially, Brazil wanted to only provide resources and shelter for the war to have a chance of gaining a high postwar status but ended up sending 25,000 men to fight. Latin America_sentence_250

However, it was not a secret that Vargas had an admiration for Hitler's Nazi Germany and its Führer. Latin America_sentence_251

He even let German Luftwaffe build secret air forces around Brazil. Latin America_sentence_252

This alliance with Germany became Brazil's second best trade alliance behind the United States. Latin America_sentence_253

It was recently found that 9,000 war criminals escaped to South America, including Croats, Ukrainians, Russians and other western Europeans who aided the Nazi war machine. Latin America_sentence_254

Most, perhaps as many as 5,000, went to Argentina; between 1,500 and 2,000 are thought to have made it to Brazil; around 500 to 1,000 to Chile; and the rest to Paraguay and Uruguay. Latin America_sentence_255

After World War II, the United States and Latin America continued to have a close relationship. Latin America_sentence_256

For example, USAID created family planning programs in Latin America combining the NGOs already in place, providing the women in largely Catholic areas access to contraception. Latin America_sentence_257

Mexico and World War II Latin America_section_20

Main article: History of Mexico Latin America_sentence_258

Mexico entered World War II in response to German attacks on Mexican ships. Latin America_sentence_259

The Potrero del Llano, originally an Italian tanker, had been seized in port by the Mexican government in April 1941 and renamed in honor of a region in Veracruz. Latin America_sentence_260

It was attacked and crippled by the German submarine U-564 on May 13, 1942. Latin America_sentence_261

The attack killed 13 of 35 crewmen. Latin America_sentence_262

On May 20, 1942, a second tanker, Faja de Oro, also a seized Italian ship, was attacked and sunk by the German submarine U-160, killing 10 of 37 crewmen. Latin America_sentence_263

In response, President Manuel Ávila Camacho and the Mexican government declared war on the Axis powers on May 22, 1942. Latin America_sentence_264

A large part of Mexico's contribution to the war came through an agreement January 1942 that allowed Mexican nationals living in the United States to join the American armed forces. Latin America_sentence_265

As many as 250,000 Mexicans served in this way. Latin America_sentence_266

In the final year of the war, Mexico sent one air squadron to serve under the Mexican flag: the Mexican Air Force's Escuadrón Aéreo de Pelea 201 (201st Fighter Squadron), which saw combat in the Philippines in the war against Imperial Japan. Latin America_sentence_267

Mexico was the only Latin-American country to send troops to the Asia-Pacific theatre of the war. Latin America_sentence_268

In addition to those in the armed forces, tens of thousands of Mexican men were hired as farm workers in the United States during the war years through the Bracero program, which continued and expanded in the decades after the war. Latin America_sentence_269

World War II helped spark an era of rapid industrialization known as the Mexican Miracle. Latin America_sentence_270

Mexico supplied the United States with more strategic raw materials than any other country, and American aid spurred the growth of industry. Latin America_sentence_271

President Ávila was able to use the increased revenue to improve the country's credit, invest in infrastructure, subsidize food, and raise wages. Latin America_sentence_272

World War II and the Caribbean Latin America_section_21

See also: Cuba during World War II and Puerto Ricans in World War II Latin America_sentence_273

President Federico Laredo Brú led Cuba when war broke out in Europe, though real power belonged to Fulgencio Batista as Chief of Staff of the army. Latin America_sentence_274

In 1940, Laredo Brú infamously denied entry to 900 Jewish refugees who arrived in Havana aboard the MS St. Louis. Latin America_sentence_275

After both the United States and Canada likewise refused to accept the refugees, they returned to Europe, where many were eventually murdered in the Holocaust. Latin America_sentence_276

Batista became president in his own right following the election of 1940. Latin America_sentence_277

He cooperated with the United States as it moved closer to war against the Axis. Latin America_sentence_278

Cuba declared war on Japan on December 8, 1941, and on Germany and Italy on December 11. Latin America_sentence_279

Cuba was an important participant in the Battle of the Caribbean and its navy gained a reputation for skill and efficiency. Latin America_sentence_280

The navy escorted hundreds of Allied ships through hostile waters, flew thousands of hours on convoy and patrol duty, and rescued over 200 victims of German U-Boat attacks from the sea. Latin America_sentence_281

Six Cuban merchant ships were sunk by U-boats, taking the lives of around eighty sailors. Latin America_sentence_282

On May 15, 1943, a squadron of Cuban submarine chasers sank the German submarine U-176 near Cayo Blanquizal. Latin America_sentence_283

Cuba received millions of dollars in American military aid through the Lend-Lease program, which included air bases, aircraft, weapons, and training. Latin America_sentence_284

The United States naval station at Guantanamo Bay also served as a base for convoys passing between the mainland United States and the Panama Canal or other points in the Caribbean. Latin America_sentence_285

The Dominican Republic declared war on Germany and Japan following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Nazi declaration of war on the US. Latin America_sentence_286

It did not directly contribute with troops, aircraft, or ships, however 112 Dominicans were integrated into the US military and fought in the war. Latin America_sentence_287

On May 3, 1942, German submarine U-125 sank Dominican ship San Rafael with 1 torpedo and 32 rounds from the deck gun 50 miles west off Jamaica; 1 was killed, 37 survived. Latin America_sentence_288

On May 21, 1942, German submarine U-156 sank Dominican ship Presidente Trujillo off Fort-de-France, Martinique; 24 were killed, 15 survived. Latin America_sentence_289

Rumors of pro-Nazi Dominicans supplying German U-boats with food, water and fuel abounded during the war. Latin America_sentence_290

Involvement in World War II Latin America_section_22

There was a Nazi influence in certain parts of the region, but Jewish migration from Europe during the war continued. Latin America_sentence_291

Only a few people recognized or knew about the Holocaust. Latin America_sentence_292

Furthermore, numerous military bases were built during the war by the United States, but some also by the Germans. Latin America_sentence_293

Even now, unexploded bombs from the second world war that need to be made safe still remain. Latin America_sentence_294

The only international conflicts since World War II have been the Football War between El Salvador and Honduras (1969), the Cenepa War between Ecuador and Peru (1995), along with Argentina's war with the United Kingdom for control of the Falkland Islands (1982). Latin America_sentence_295

The Falklands War left 649 Argentines (including 143 conscripted privates) dead and 1,188 wounded, while the UK lost 255 (88 Royal Navy, 27 Royal Marines, 16 Royal Fleet Auxiliary, 123 British Army, and 1 Royal Air Force) dead. Latin America_sentence_296

Cold War (1945–1992) Latin America_section_23

See also: Operation Condor, Organization of American States, Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, and Alliance for Progress Latin America_sentence_297

Economy Latin America_section_24

The Great Depression caused Latin America to grow at a slow rate, separating it from leading industrial democracies. Latin America_sentence_298

The two world wars and U.S. Depression also made Latin American countries favor internal economic development, leading Latin America to adopt the policy of import substitution industrialization. Latin America_sentence_299

Countries also renewed emphasis on exports. Latin America_sentence_300

Brazil began selling automobiles to other countries, and some Latin American countries set up plants to assemble imported parts, letting other countries take advantage of Latin America's low labor costs. Latin America_sentence_301

Colombia began to export flowers, emeralds and coffee grains and gold, becoming the world's second-leading flower exporter. Latin America_sentence_302

Economic integration was called for, to attain economies that could compete with the economies of the United States or Europe. Latin America_sentence_303

Starting in the 1960s with the Latin American Free Trade Association and Central American Common Market, Latin American countries worked toward economic integration. Latin America_sentence_304

In efforts to help regain global economic strength, the U.S. began to heavily assist countries involved in World War II at the expense of Latin America. Latin America_sentence_305

Markets that were previously unopposed as a result of the war in Latin America grew stagnant as the rest of the world no longer needed their goods. Latin America_sentence_306

Reforms Latin America_section_25

Large countries like Argentina called for reforms to lessen the disparity of wealth between the rich and the poor, which has been a long problem in Latin America that stunted economic growth. Latin America_sentence_307

Advances in public health caused an explosion of population growth, making it difficult to provide social services. Latin America_sentence_308

Education expanded, and social security systems introduced, but benefits usually went to the middle class, not the poor. Latin America_sentence_309

As a result, the disparity of wealth increased. Latin America_sentence_310

Increasing inflation and other factors caused countries to be unwilling to fund social development programs to help the poor. Latin America_sentence_311

Bureaucratic authoritarianism Latin America_section_26

Bureaucratic authoritarianism was practised in Brazil after 1964, in Argentina, and in Chile under Augusto Pinochet, in a response to harsh economic conditions. Latin America_sentence_312

It rested on the conviction that no democracy could take the harsh measures to curb inflation, reassure investors, and quicken economic growth quickly and effectively. Latin America_sentence_313

Though inflation fell sharply, industrial production dropped with the decline of official protection. Latin America_sentence_314

US relations Latin America_section_27

See also: Latin America–United States relations, Foreign interventions by the United States, and United States involvement in regime change in Latin America Latin America_sentence_315

After World War II and the beginning of a Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, US diplomats became interested in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and frequently waged proxy wars against the Soviet Union in these countries. Latin America_sentence_316

The US sought to stop the spread of communism. Latin America_sentence_317

Latin American countries generally sided with the US in the Cold War period, even though they were neglected since the US's concern with communism were focused in Europe and Asia, not Latin America. Latin America_sentence_318

Between 1946 and 1959 Latin America received only 2% of the United States foreign aid despite having poor conditions similar to the main recipients of The Marshall Plan. Latin America_sentence_319

Some Latin American governments also complained of the US support in the overthrow of some nationalist governments, and intervention through the CIA. Latin America_sentence_320

In 1947, the US Congress passed the National Security Act, which created the National Security Council in response to the United States's growing obsession with anti-communism. Latin America_sentence_321

In 1954, when Jacobo Arbenz of Guatemala accepted the support of communists and attacked holdings of the United Fruit Company, the US decided to assist Guatemalan counter-revolutionaries in overthrowing Arbenz. Latin America_sentence_322

These interventionist tactics featured the use of the CIA rather than the military, which was used in Latin America for the majority of the Cold War in events including the overthrow of Salvador Allende. Latin America_sentence_323

Latin America was more concerned with issues of economic development, while the United States focused on fighting communism, even though the presence of communism was small in Latin America. Latin America_sentence_324

Dominican dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo (r. 1930–61) achieved support from the US by becoming Latin America's leading anti-communist. Latin America_sentence_325

Trujillo extended his tyranny to the USA, and his regime committed multiple murders in New York City. Latin America_sentence_326

American officials had long recognized that the Dominican Republic's conduct under Trujillo was "below the level of recognized civilian nations, certainly not much above that of the communists." Latin America_sentence_327

But after Castro's seizure of power in 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower concluded that Trujillo had become a Cold War liability. Latin America_sentence_328

In 1960, Trujillo threatened to align with the Communist world in response to US and Latin American rejection of his regime. Latin America_sentence_329

La Voz Dominicana and Radio Caribe began attacking the US in Marxian terms, and the Dominican Communist party was legalized. Latin America_sentence_330

Trujillo also unsuccessfully attempted to establish contacts and relations with the Soviet Bloc. Latin America_sentence_331

In 1961, Trujillo was murdered with weapons supplied by the CIA. Latin America_sentence_332

Ramfis Trujillo, the dictator's son, remained in de facto control of the government for the next six months through his position as commander of the armed forces. Latin America_sentence_333

Trujillo's brothers, Hector Bienvenido and Jose Arismendi Trujillo, returned to the country and began immediately to plot against President Balaguer. Latin America_sentence_334

On November 18, 1961, as a planned coup became more evident, US Secretary of State Dean Rusk issued a warning that the United States would not "remain idle" if the Trujillos attempted to "reassert dictatorial domination" over the Dominican Republic. Latin America_sentence_335

Following this warning, and the arrival of a fourteen-vessel US naval task force within sight of Santo Domingo, Ramfis and his uncles fled the country on November 19 with $200 million from the Dominican treasury. Latin America_sentence_336

Cuban Revolution Latin America_section_28

Main article: Cuban Revolution Latin America_sentence_337

By 1959, Cuba was afflicted with a corrupt dictatorship under Batista, and Fidel Castro ousted Batista that year and set up the first communist state in the hemisphere. Latin America_sentence_338

The United States imposed a trade embargo on Cuba, and combined with Castro's expropriation of private enterprises, this was detrimental to the Cuban economy. Latin America_sentence_339

Around Latin America, rural guerrilla conflict and urban terrorism increased, inspired by the Cuban example. Latin America_sentence_340

The United States put down these rebellions by supporting Latin American countries in their counter-guerrilla operations through the Alliance for Progress launched by President John F. Kennedy. Latin America_sentence_341

This thrust appeared to be successful. Latin America_sentence_342

A Marxist, Salvador Allende, became president of Chile in 1970, but was overthrown three years later in a military coup backed by the United States. Latin America_sentence_343

Despite civil war, high crime and political instability, most Latin American countries eventually adopted bourgeois liberal democracies while Cuba maintained its socialist system. Latin America_sentence_344

Bay of Pigs Invasion Latin America_section_29

Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion Latin America_sentence_345

Encouraged by the success of Guatemala in the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, in 1960, the U.S. decided to support an attack on Cuba by anti-Castro rebels. Latin America_sentence_346

The Bay of Pigs invasion was an unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, financed by the U.S. through the CIA, to overthrow Fidel Castro. Latin America_sentence_347

The incident proved to be very embarrassing for the new Kennedy administration. Latin America_sentence_348

The failure of the invasion led to a Soviet-Cuban alliance. Latin America_sentence_349

Cuban Missile Crisis Latin America_section_30

Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis Latin America_sentence_350

In 1962, Cuba threatened the USA when it allowed Soviet missiles to be placed on the island, just 90 miles away from Florida; Cuba saw it as a way to defend the island, while the Americans saw it as a threat. Latin America_sentence_351

The ensuing Cuban Missile Crisis—the closest the world has ever come to total annihilation—almost saw a US invasion or bombing of Cuba, but it ended when the two sides agreed on the removal of missiles; the US removed theirs from Italy and Turkey, while the Soviets removed theirs from Cuba. Latin America_sentence_352

The crisis' end left Cuba blockaded by the US, which was also obligated to not invade Cuba. Latin America_sentence_353

In fact, they were allowed to keep Guantanamo Bay as a naval base as per an agreement with the previous government of Batista. Latin America_sentence_354

Alliance for Progress Latin America_section_31

President John F. Kennedy initiated the Alliance for Progress in 1961, to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America. Latin America_sentence_355

The Alliance would provide $20 billion for reform in Latin America, and counterinsurgency measures. Latin America_sentence_356

Instead, the reform failed because of the simplistic theory that guided it and the lack of experienced American experts who could understand Latin American customs. Latin America_sentence_357

Foreign interventions by Cuba Latin America_section_32

Main article: Foreign interventions by Cuba Latin America_sentence_358

Armed Cuban intervention overseas began on June 14, 1959 with an invasion of the Dominican Republic by a group of fifty-six men, who landed a C-56 transport aircraft at the military airport of the town of Constanza. Latin America_sentence_359

Upon their landing, the fifteen-man Dominican garrison began an ongoing gun battle with the invaders, until the survivors disappeared into the surrounding mountains. Latin America_sentence_360

Immediately after, the Dominican Air Force bombed the area around Constanza with British made Vampire jets in an unsuccessful attempt to kill the invaders, which instead killed civilians. Latin America_sentence_361

The invaders either died at the hands of machete-swinging peasants, or the military captured, tortured, and imprisoned them. Latin America_sentence_362

A week later, two yachts offloaded 186 invaders onto Chris-Craft launches for a landing on the north coast. Latin America_sentence_363

Dominican Air Force pilots fired rockets from their Vampire jets into the approaching launches, killing most of the invaders. Latin America_sentence_364

The survivors were brutally tortured and murdered. Latin America_sentence_365

From 1966 until the late 1980s, the Soviet government upgraded Cuba's military capabilities, and Castro saw to it that Cuba assisted with the independence struggles of several countries across the world, most notably Angola and Mozambique in southern Africa, and the anti-imperialist struggles of countries such as Syria, Algeria, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Vietnam. Latin America_sentence_366

South Africa developed nuclear weapons due to the threat to its security posed by the presence of large numbers of Cuban troops in Angola and Mozambique. Latin America_sentence_367

In November 1975, Cuba poured more than 65,000 troops into Angola in one of the fastest military mobilizations in history. Latin America_sentence_368

On November 10, 1975, Cuban forces defeated the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) in the Battle of Quifangondo. Latin America_sentence_369

On November 25, 1975, as the South African Defence Force (SADF) tried to cross a bridge, Cubans hidden along the banks of the river attacked, destroying seven armored cars and killing upwards of 90 enemy soldiers. Latin America_sentence_370

On March 27, 1976, the last South African troops withdrew from Angola. Latin America_sentence_371

In September 1977, 12 MiG-21s conducted strafing flights over Puerto Plata in Dominican Republic to warn then president Joaquín Balaguer against intercepting Cuban warships headed to or returning from Angola. Latin America_sentence_372

In 1988, Cuba returned to Angola with a vengeance. Latin America_sentence_373

The crisis began in 1987 with an assault by Soviet-equipped national army troops against the pro-Western rebel movement UNITA in southeastern Angola. Latin America_sentence_374

Soon, the SADF invaded to support the beleaguered US-backed faction and the Angolan offensive stalled. Latin America_sentence_375

Cuba reinforced its African ally with 55,000 troops, tanks, artillery and MiG-23s, prompting Pretoria to call up 140,000 reservists. Latin America_sentence_376

In June 1988, SADF armor and artillery engaged FAPLA-Cuban forces at Techipa, killing 290 Angolans and 10 Cubans. Latin America_sentence_377

In retaliation, Cuban warplanes hammered South African troops. Latin America_sentence_378

However, both sides quickly pulled back to avoid an escalation of hostilities. Latin America_sentence_379

The Battle of Cuito Cuanavale stalemated, and a peace treaty was signed in September 1988. Latin America_sentence_380

Within two years, the Cold War was over and Cuba's foreign policy shifted away from military intervention. Latin America_sentence_381

Nicaraguan Revolution Latin America_section_33

Following the American occupation of Nicaragua in 1912, as part of the Banana Wars, the Somoza family political dynasty came to power, and would rule Nicaragua until their ouster in 1979 during the Nicaraguan Revolution. Latin America_sentence_382

The era of Somoza family rule was characterized by strong U.S. support for the government and its military as well as a heavy reliance on U.S.-based multi-national corporations. Latin America_sentence_383

The Nicaraguan Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the Contra War which was waged between the FSLN and the Contras from 1981 to 1990. Latin America_sentence_384

The Revolution marked a significant period in Nicaraguan history and revealed the country as one of the major proxy war battlegrounds of the Cold War with the events in the country rising to international attention. Latin America_sentence_385

Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in 1978–79 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the 1980s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate. Latin America_sentence_386

During the 1980s both the FSLN (a leftist collection of political parties) and the Contras (a rightist collection of counter-revolutionary groups) received large amounts of aid from the Cold War super-powers (respectively, the Soviet Union and the United States). Latin America_sentence_387

Washington Consensus Latin America_section_34

Main article: Washington Consensus Latin America_sentence_388

See also: Free Trade Area of the Americas Latin America_sentence_389

The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and the US Department of the Treasury during the 1980s and 1990s. Latin America_sentence_390

In recent years, several Latin American countries led by socialist or other left wing governments – including Argentina and Venezuela – have campaigned for (and to some degree adopted) policies contrary to the Washington Consensus set of policies. Latin America_sentence_391

(Other Latin countries with governments of the left, including Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies.) Latin America_sentence_392

Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik, who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies. Latin America_sentence_393

The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty. Latin America_sentence_394

This politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by 1994 NAFTA, and elsewhere in the Americas through a series of like agreements. Latin America_sentence_395

The comprehensive Free Trade Area of the Americas project, however, was rejected by most South American countries at the 2005 4th Summit of the Americas. Latin America_sentence_396

Turn to the left Latin America_section_35

See also: Pink tide Latin America_sentence_397

In most countries, since the 2000s left-wing political parties have risen to power. Latin America_sentence_398

The presidencies of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, Ricardo Lagos and Michelle Bachelet in Chile, Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff in Brazil, Néstor Kirchner and his wife Cristina Fernández in Argentina, Tabaré Vázquez and José Mujica in Uruguay, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, Rafael Correa in Ecuador, Fernando Lugo in Paraguay, Manuel Zelaya in Honduras (removed from power by a coup d'état), Mauricio Funes and Salvador Sánchez Cerén in El Salvador are all part of this wave of left-wing politicians who often declare themselves socialists, Latin Americanists, or anti-imperialists (often implying opposition to US policies towards the region). Latin America_sentence_399

A development of this has been the creation of the eight-member ALBA alliance, or "The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America" (Spanish: Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) by some of the countries already mentioned. Latin America_sentence_400

By June 2014, Honduras (Juan Orlando Hernández), Guatemala (Otto Pérez Molina), and Panama (Ricardo Martinelli) had right-wing governments. Latin America_sentence_401

Return of social movements Latin America_section_36

In 1982, Mexico announced that it could not meet its foreign debt payment obligations, inaugurating a debt crisis that would "discredit" Latin American economies throughout the decade. Latin America_sentence_402

This debt crisis would lead to neoliberal reforms that would instigate many social movements in the region. Latin America_sentence_403

A "reversal of development" reigned over Latin America, seen through negative economic growth, declines in industrial production, and thus, falling living standards for the middle and lower classes. Latin America_sentence_404

Governments made financial security their primary policy goal over social security, enacting new neoliberal economic policies that implemented privatization of previously national industries and informalization of labor. Latin America_sentence_405

In an effort to bring more investors to these industries, these governments also embraced globalization through more open interactions with the international economy. Latin America_sentence_406

Significantly, as democracy spread across much of Latin America, the realm of government became more inclusive (a trend that proved conducive to social movements), the economic ventures remained exclusive to a few elite groups within society. Latin America_sentence_407

Neoliberal restructuring consistently redistributed income upward while denying political responsibility to provide social welfare rights, and though development projects took place throughout the region, both inequality and poverty increased. Latin America_sentence_408

Feeling excluded from these new projects, the lower classes took ownership of their own democracy through a revitalization of social movements in Latin America. Latin America_sentence_409

Both urban and rural populations had serious grievances as a result of the above economic and global trends and have voiced them in mass demonstrations. Latin America_sentence_410

Some of the largest and most violent of these have been protests against cuts in urban services, such as the Caracazo in Venezuela and the Argentinazo in Argentina. Latin America_sentence_411

Rural movements have made diverse demands related to unequal land distribution, displacement at the hands of development projects and dams, environmental and indigenous concerns, neoliberal agricultural restructuring, and insufficient means of livelihood. Latin America_sentence_412

These movements have benefited considerably from transnational support from conservationists and INGOs. Latin America_sentence_413

The Movement of Rural Landless Workers (MST) is perhaps the largest contemporary Latin American social movement. Latin America_sentence_414

As indigenous populations are primarily rural, indigenous movements account for a large portion of rural social movements, including the Zapatista rebellion in Mexico, the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), indigenous organizations in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia, pan-Mayan communities in Guatemala, and mobilization by the indigenous groups of Yanomami peoples in the Amazon, Kuna peoples in Panama, and Altiplano Aymara and Quechua peoples in Bolivia. Latin America_sentence_415

Other significant types of social movements include labor struggles and strikes, such as recovered factories in Argentina, as well as gender-based movements such as the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina and protests against maquila production, which is largely a women's issue because of how it draws on women for cheap labor. Latin America_sentence_416

Modern era Latin America_section_37

The 2000s commodities boom caused positive effects for many Latin American economies. Latin America_sentence_417

Another trend is the rapidly increasing importance of the relations with China. Latin America_sentence_418

With the end of the commodity boom in the 2010s, economic stagnation or recession resulted in some countries. Latin America_sentence_419

As a result, the left-wing governments of the Pink Tide lost support. Latin America_sentence_420

The worst-hit was Venezuela, which is facing severe social and economic upheaval. Latin America_sentence_421

The corruption scandal of Odebrecht, a Brazilian conglomerate, has raised allegations of corruption across the region's governments (see Operation Car Wash). Latin America_sentence_422

The bribery ring has become the largest corruption scandal in Latin American history. Latin America_sentence_423

As of July 2017, the highest ranking politicians charged were former Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (arrested) and former Peruvian presidents Ollanta Humala (arrested) and Alejandro Toledo (fugitive, fled to the US). Latin America_sentence_424

Demographics Latin America_section_38

Further information: Latin Americans Latin America_sentence_425

See also: Demographics of South America Latin America_sentence_426

Largest cities Latin America_section_39

The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in Latin America. Latin America_sentence_427

Latin America_table_general_2

CityLatin America_header_cell_2_0_0 CountryLatin America_header_cell_2_0_1 2017 populationLatin America_header_cell_2_0_2 2014 GDP (PPP, $million, USD)Latin America_header_cell_2_0_3 2014 GDP per capita, (USD)Latin America_header_cell_2_0_4
Mexico CityLatin America_cell_2_1_0 Mexico MexicoLatin America_cell_2_1_1 23,655,355Latin America_cell_2_1_2 $403,561Latin America_cell_2_1_3 $19,239Latin America_cell_2_1_4
São PauloLatin America_cell_2_2_0 Brazil BrazilLatin America_cell_2_2_1 23,467,354Latin America_cell_2_2_2 $430,510Latin America_cell_2_2_3 $20,650Latin America_cell_2_2_4
Buenos AiresLatin America_cell_2_3_0 Argentina ArgentinaLatin America_cell_2_3_1 15,564,354Latin America_cell_2_3_2 $315,885Latin America_cell_2_3_3 $23,606Latin America_cell_2_3_4
Rio de JaneiroLatin America_cell_2_4_0 Brazil BrazilLatin America_cell_2_4_1 14,440,345Latin America_cell_2_4_2 $176,630Latin America_cell_2_4_3 $14,176Latin America_cell_2_4_4
LimaLatin America_cell_2_5_0 Peru PeruLatin America_cell_2_5_1 10,804,609Latin America_cell_2_5_2 $176,447Latin America_cell_2_5_3 $16,530Latin America_cell_2_5_4
BogotáLatin America_cell_2_6_0 Colombia ColombiaLatin America_cell_2_6_1 9,900,800Latin America_cell_2_6_2 $199,150Latin America_cell_2_6_3 $19,497Latin America_cell_2_6_4
SantiagoLatin America_cell_2_7_0 Chile ChileLatin America_cell_2_7_1 7,164,400Latin America_cell_2_7_2 $171,436Latin America_cell_2_7_3 $23,290Latin America_cell_2_7_4
Belo HorizonteLatin America_cell_2_8_0 Brazil BrazilLatin America_cell_2_8_1 6,145,800Latin America_cell_2_8_2 $95,686Latin America_cell_2_8_3 $17,635Latin America_cell_2_8_4
GuadalajaraLatin America_cell_2_9_0 Mexico MexicoLatin America_cell_2_9_1 4,687,700Latin America_cell_2_9_2 $80,656Latin America_cell_2_9_3 $17,206Latin America_cell_2_9_4
MonterreyLatin America_cell_2_10_0 Mexico MexicoLatin America_cell_2_10_1 4,344,200Latin America_cell_2_10_2 $122,896Latin America_cell_2_10_3 $28,290Latin America_cell_2_10_4

Ethnic groups Latin America_section_40

Main articles: Ethnic groups in Latin America and Race and ethnicity in Latin America Latin America_sentence_428

The inhabitants of Latin America are of a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. Latin America_sentence_429

The specific composition varies from country to country: some have a predominance of European-Amerindian or more commonly referred to as Mestizo or Castizo depending on the admixture, population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations are primarily Mulatto. Latin America_sentence_430

Various black, Asian and Zambo (mixed black and Amerindian) minorities are also identified regularly. Latin America_sentence_431

People with European ancestry are the largest single group, and along with people of part-European ancestry, they combine to make up approximately 80% of the population, or even more. Latin America_sentence_432

According to Jon Aske: Latin America_sentence_433

Aske has also written that: Latin America_sentence_434

In his famous 1963 book The Rise of the West, William Hardy McNeill wrote that: Latin America_sentence_435

Thomas C. Wright, meanwhile, has written that: Latin America_sentence_436

Language Latin America_section_41

Spanish is the predominant language of Latin America. Latin America_sentence_437

It is spoken as first language by about 60% of the population. Latin America_sentence_438

Portuguese is spoken by about 30%, and about 10% speak other languages such as Quechua, Mayan languages, Guaraní, Aymara, Nahuatl, English, French, Dutch and Italian. Latin America_sentence_439

Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil (Brazilian Portuguese), the biggest and most populous country in the region. Latin America_sentence_440

Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries and territories on the Latin American mainland (Spanish language in the Americas), as well as in Cuba, Puerto Rico (where it is co-official with English), and the Dominican Republic. Latin America_sentence_441

French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique and Guiana. Latin America_sentence_442

It is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. Latin America_sentence_443

Dutch is the official language in Suriname, Aruba, Curaçao, and the Netherlands Antilles. Latin America_sentence_444

(As Dutch is a Germanic language, these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America.) Latin America_sentence_445

However, the native language of Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, is Papiamento, a creole language largely based on Portuguese and Spanish and has a considerable influence coming from the Dutch language and Portuguese-based creole languages. Latin America_sentence_446

Amerindian languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay and Mexico, and to a lesser degree, in Panama, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile amongst other countries. Latin America_sentence_447

In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent (e.g. Uruguay). Latin America_sentence_448

Mexico is possibly the only country that contains a wider variety of indigenous languages than any Latin American country, but the most spoken language is Nahuatl. Latin America_sentence_449

In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. Latin America_sentence_450

In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. Latin America_sentence_451

In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Latin America_sentence_452

Guaraní, along with Spanish, is an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. Latin America_sentence_453

In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Latin America_sentence_454

Colombia recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these languages. Latin America_sentence_455

Nahuatl is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Latin America_sentence_456

Other European languages spoken in Latin America include: English, by some groups in Puerto Rico, as well as in nearby countries that may or may not be considered Latin American, like Belize and Guyana, and spoken by descendants of British settlers in Argentina & Chile; German, in southern Brazil, southern Chile, portions of Argentina, Venezuela and Paraguay; Italian, in Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, and Uruguay; Ukrainian, Polish and Russian in southern Brazil and Argentina; and Welsh, in southern Argentina. Latin America_sentence_457

Yiddish and Hebrew are possible to be heard around Buenos Aires and São Paulo especially. Latin America_sentence_458

Non-European or Asian languages include Japanese in Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay, Korean in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Chile, Arabic in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, and Chile, and Chinese throughout South America. Latin America_sentence_459

In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. Latin America_sentence_460

The most widely spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with Amerindian, English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Latin America_sentence_461

Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues. Latin America_sentence_462

The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Belize mostly by the Garifuna people a mixed race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. Latin America_sentence_463

Primarily an Arawakan language, it has influences from Caribbean and European languages. Latin America_sentence_464

Archaeologists have deciphered over 15 pre-Columbian distinct writing systems from mesoamerican societies. Latin America_sentence_465

the ancient Maya had the most sophisticated textually written language, but since texts were largely confined to the religious and administrative elite, traditions were passed down orally. Latin America_sentence_466

oral traditions also prevailed in other major indigenous groups including, but not limited to the Aztecs and other Nahuatl speakers, Quechua and Aymara of the Andean regions, the Quiché of Central America, the Tupi-Guaraní in today's Brazil, the Guaraní in Paraguay and the Mapuche in Chile. Latin America_sentence_467

Religion Latin America_section_42

Main article: Religion in Latin America Latin America_sentence_468

The vast majority of Latin Americans are Christians (90%), mostly Roman Catholics belonging to the Latin Church. Latin America_sentence_469

About 70% of the Latin American population consider themselves Catholic. Latin America_sentence_470

In 2012 Latin America constitute in absolute terms the second world's largest Christian population, after Europe. Latin America_sentence_471

According to the detailed Pew multi-country survey in 2014, 69% of the Latin American population is Catholic and 19% is Protestant. Latin America_sentence_472

Protestants are 26% in Brazil and over 40% in much of Central America. Latin America_sentence_473

More than half of these are converts from Roman Catholicism. Latin America_sentence_474

Latin America_table_general_3

Religion in Latin America (2014)Latin America_table_caption_3
CountryLatin America_header_cell_3_0_0 Catholic (%)Latin America_header_cell_3_0_1 Protestant (%)Latin America_header_cell_3_0_2 Irreligion (%)Latin America_header_cell_3_0_3 Other (%)Latin America_header_cell_3_0_4
Paraguay ParaguayLatin America_cell_3_1_0 89Latin America_cell_3_1_1 7Latin America_cell_3_1_2 1Latin America_cell_3_1_3 2Latin America_cell_3_1_4
Mexico MexicoLatin America_cell_3_2_0 81Latin America_cell_3_2_1 9Latin America_cell_3_2_2 7Latin America_cell_3_2_3 4Latin America_cell_3_2_4
Colombia ColombiaLatin America_cell_3_3_0 79Latin America_cell_3_3_1 13Latin America_cell_3_3_2 6Latin America_cell_3_3_3 2Latin America_cell_3_3_4
Ecuador EcuadorLatin America_cell_3_4_0 79Latin America_cell_3_4_1 13Latin America_cell_3_4_2 5Latin America_cell_3_4_3 3Latin America_cell_3_4_4
Bolivia BoliviaLatin America_cell_3_5_0 77Latin America_cell_3_5_1 16Latin America_cell_3_5_2 4Latin America_cell_3_5_3 3Latin America_cell_3_5_4
Peru PeruLatin America_cell_3_6_0 76Latin America_cell_3_6_1 17Latin America_cell_3_6_2 4Latin America_cell_3_6_3 3Latin America_cell_3_6_4
Venezuela VenezuelaLatin America_cell_3_7_0 73Latin America_cell_3_7_1 17Latin America_cell_3_7_2 7Latin America_cell_3_7_3 4Latin America_cell_3_7_4
Argentina ArgentinaLatin America_cell_3_8_0 71Latin America_cell_3_8_1 15Latin America_cell_3_8_2 12Latin America_cell_3_8_3 3Latin America_cell_3_8_4
Panama PanamaLatin America_cell_3_9_0 70Latin America_cell_3_9_1 19Latin America_cell_3_9_2 7Latin America_cell_3_9_3 4Latin America_cell_3_9_4
Chile ChileLatin America_cell_3_10_0 64Latin America_cell_3_10_1 17Latin America_cell_3_10_2 16Latin America_cell_3_10_3 3Latin America_cell_3_10_4
Costa_Rica Costa RicaLatin America_cell_3_11_0 62Latin America_cell_3_11_1 25Latin America_cell_3_11_2 9Latin America_cell_3_11_3 4Latin America_cell_3_11_4
Brazil BrazilLatin America_cell_3_12_0 61Latin America_cell_3_12_1 26Latin America_cell_3_12_2 8Latin America_cell_3_12_3 5Latin America_cell_3_12_4
Dominican_Republic Dominican RepublicLatin America_cell_3_13_0 57Latin America_cell_3_13_1 23Latin America_cell_3_13_2 18Latin America_cell_3_13_3 2Latin America_cell_3_13_4
Puerto_Rico Puerto RicoLatin America_cell_3_14_0 56Latin America_cell_3_14_1 33Latin America_cell_3_14_2 8Latin America_cell_3_14_3 2Latin America_cell_3_14_4
El_Salvador El SalvadorLatin America_cell_3_15_0 50Latin America_cell_3_15_1 36Latin America_cell_3_15_2 12Latin America_cell_3_15_3 3Latin America_cell_3_15_4
Guatemala GuatemalaLatin America_cell_3_16_0 50Latin America_cell_3_16_1 41Latin America_cell_3_16_2 6Latin America_cell_3_16_3 3Latin America_cell_3_16_4
Nicaragua NicaraguaLatin America_cell_3_17_0 50Latin America_cell_3_17_1 40Latin America_cell_3_17_2 7Latin America_cell_3_17_3 4Latin America_cell_3_17_4
Honduras HondurasLatin America_cell_3_18_0 46Latin America_cell_3_18_1 41Latin America_cell_3_18_2 10Latin America_cell_3_18_3 2Latin America_cell_3_18_4
Uruguay UruguayLatin America_cell_3_19_0 42Latin America_cell_3_19_1 15Latin America_cell_3_19_2 37Latin America_cell_3_19_3 6Latin America_cell_3_19_4
TotalLatin America_cell_3_20_0 69Latin America_cell_3_20_1 19Latin America_cell_3_20_2 8Latin America_cell_3_20_3 3Latin America_cell_3_20_4

Migration Latin America_section_43

Due to economic, social and security developments that are affecting the region in recent decades, the focus is now the change from net immigration to net emigration. Latin America_sentence_475

About 10 million Mexicans live in the United States. Latin America_sentence_476

31.7 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2010, or roughly 10% of the population. Latin America_sentence_477

During the initial stage of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines which were around the 1600s, about 16,500 soldiers levied from Peru and Mexico were sent together with 600 Spanish officers to fight wars, settle, colonize and build cities and presidios in the Philippines. Latin America_sentence_478

These 16,500 Peruvians and Mexicans supplemented the Native Malay Population which then reached 667,612 people. Latin America_sentence_479

This initial group of Latin American soldier-settler founders had spread their genes among the sparsely populated Philippines. Latin America_sentence_480

This resulted into a spread of Latin American admixture among Filipinos as evidenced by a large number of Filipinos possessing Native American ancestry. Latin America_sentence_481

A Y-DNA compilation organized by the Genetic Company "Applied Biosystems" found that 13.33% of the Filipino Male Population sampled from across the country had Y-DNA of Latin American and Spanish origins. Latin America_sentence_482

Furthermore, according to a survey dated from 1870 conducted by German ethnologist Fedor Jagor of the population of Luzon island (Which holds half the citizens of the Philippines) 1/3rd of the people possess varying degrees of Spanish and Latin American ancestry. Latin America_sentence_483

According to the 2005 Colombian census or DANE, about 3,331,107 Colombians currently live abroad. Latin America_sentence_484

The number of Brazilians living overseas is estimated at about 2 million people. Latin America_sentence_485

An estimated 1.5 to two million Salvadorans reside in the United States. Latin America_sentence_486

At least 1.5 million Ecuadorians have gone abroad, mainly to the United States and Spain. Latin America_sentence_487

Approximately 1.5 million Dominicans live abroad, mostly in the United States. Latin America_sentence_488

More than 1.3 million Cubans live abroad, most of them in the United States. Latin America_sentence_489

It is estimated that over 800,000 Chileans live abroad, mainly in Argentina, the United States, Canada, Australia and Sweden. Latin America_sentence_490

An estimated 700,000 Bolivians were living in Argentina as of 2006 and another 33,000 in the United States. Latin America_sentence_491

Japanese Brazilian immigrants to Japan numbered 250,000 in 2004, constituting Japan's second-largest immigrant population. Latin America_sentence_492

Their experiences bear similarities to those of Japanese Peruvian immigrants, who are often relegated to low income jobs typically occupied by foreigners. Latin America_sentence_493

Central Americans living abroad in 2005 were 3,314,300, of which 1,128,701 were Salvadorans, 685,713 were Guatemalans, 683,520 were Nicaraguans, 414,955 were Hondurans, 215,240 were Panamanians and 127,061 were Costa Ricans. Latin America_sentence_494

For the period 2000–2005, Chile, Costa Rica, Panama, and Venezuela were the only countries with global positive migration rates, in terms of their yearly averages. Latin America_sentence_495

As a result of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake and its social and economic impact, there was a significant migration of Haitians to other Latin American countries. Latin America_sentence_496

During the presidency of Hugo Chávez and his successor Nicolás Maduro, over 3.2 million people fled Venezuela during the Venezuelan refugee crisis as socioeconomic conditions and the quality of life worsened. Latin America_sentence_497

The countries of Latin America seek to strengthen links between migrants and their states of origin, while promoting their integration in the receiving state. Latin America_sentence_498

These Emigrant Policies focus on the rights, obligations and opportunities for participation of emigrated citizens who already live outside the borders of the country of origin. Latin America_sentence_499

Research on Latin America shows that the extension of policies towards migrants is linked to a focus on civil rights and state benefits that can positively influence integration in recipient countries. Latin America_sentence_500

In addition, the tolerance of dual citizenship has spread more in Latin America than in any other region of the world. Latin America_sentence_501

Education Latin America_section_44

See also: Education in Latin America Latin America_sentence_502

Despite significant progress, education access and school completion remains unequal in Latin America. Latin America_sentence_503

The region has made great progress in educational coverage; almost all children attend primary school and access to secondary education has increased considerably. Latin America_sentence_504

Quality issues such as poor teaching methods, lack of appropriate equipment and overcrowding exist throughout the region. Latin America_sentence_505

These issues lead to adolescents dropping out of the educational system early. Latin America_sentence_506

Most educational systems in the region have implemented various types of administrative and institutional reforms that have enabled reach for places and communities that had no access to education services in the early 1990s. Latin America_sentence_507

Compared to prior generations, Latin American youth have seen an increase in their levels of education. Latin America_sentence_508

On average, they have completed two years schooling more than their parents. Latin America_sentence_509

However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the formal education system. Latin America_sentence_510

Estimates indicate that 30% of preschool age children (ages 4–5) do not attend school, and for the most vulnerable populations, the poor and rural, this calculation exceeds 40 percent. Latin America_sentence_511

Among primary school age children (ages 6 to 12), coverage is almost universal; however there is still a need to incorporate 5 million children in the primary education system. Latin America_sentence_512

These children live mostly in remote areas, are indigenous or Afro-descendants and live in extreme poverty. Latin America_sentence_513

Among people between the ages of 13 and 17 years, only 80% are full-time students in the education system; among them only 66% advance to secondary school. Latin America_sentence_514

These percentages are lower among vulnerable population groups: only 75% of the poorest youth between the ages of 13 and 17 years attend school. Latin America_sentence_515

Tertiary education has the lowest coverage, with only 70% of people between the ages of 18 and 25 years outside of the education system. Latin America_sentence_516

Currently, more than half of low income children or living in rural areas fail to complete nine years of education. Latin America_sentence_517

Crime and violence Latin America_section_45

Main article: Crime and violence in Latin America Latin America_sentence_518

Latin America and the Caribbean have been cited by numerous sources to be the most dangerous regions in the world. Latin America_sentence_519

Studies have shown that Latin America contains the majority of the world's most dangerous cities. Latin America_sentence_520

Many analysts attribute the reason to why the region has such an alarming crime rate and criminal culture is largely due to social and income inequality within the region, they say that growing social inequality is fueling crime in the region. Latin America_sentence_521

Many agree that the prison crisis will not be resolved until the gap between the rich and the poor is addressed. Latin America_sentence_522

Crime and violence prevention and public security are now important issues for governments and citizens in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Latin America_sentence_523

Homicide rates in Latin America are the highest in the world. Latin America_sentence_524

From the early 1980s through the mid-1990s, homicide rates increased by 50 percent. Latin America_sentence_525

Latin America and the Caribbean experienced more than 2.5 million murders between 2000 and 2017. Latin America_sentence_526

There were a total of 63,880 murders in Brazil in 2018. Latin America_sentence_527

The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old. Latin America_sentence_528

Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants as of 2015 were: El Salvador 109, Honduras 64, Venezuela 57, Jamaica 43, Belize 34.4, St. Latin America_sentence_529

Kitts and Nevis 34, Guatemala 34, Trinidad and Tobago 31, the Bahamas 30, Brazil 26.7, Colombia 26.5, the Dominican Republic 22, St. Latin America_sentence_530

Lucia 22, Guyana 19, Mexico 16, Puerto Rico 16, Ecuador 13, Grenada 13, Costa Rica 12, Bolivia 12, Nicaragua 12, Panama 11, Antigua and Barbuda 11, and Haiti 10. Latin America_sentence_531

Most of the top countries with the highest homicide rates are in Africa and Latin America. Latin America_sentence_532

Countries in Central America, like El Salvador and Honduras, top the list of homicides in the world. Latin America_sentence_533

Brazil has more overall homicides than any country in the world, at 50,108, accounting for one in 10 globally. Latin America_sentence_534

Crime-related violence in Latin America represents the most threat to public health, striking more victims than HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Latin America_sentence_535

Countries with lowest homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants as of 2015 were: Chile 3, Peru 7, Argentina 7, Uruguay 8 and Paraguay 9. Latin America_sentence_536

Public health Latin America_section_46

Water Latin America_section_47

Reproductive rights Latin America_section_48

HIV/AIDS Latin America_section_49

Economy Latin America_section_50

Main article: Latin American economy Latin America_sentence_537

Size Latin America_section_51

According to Goldman Sachs' BRICS review of emerging economies, by 2050 the largest economies in the world will be as follows: China, United States, India, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Brazil and Mexico. Latin America_sentence_538

Latin America_table_general_4

Population and economy size for Latin American countriesLatin America_table_caption_4
CountryLatin America_header_cell_4_0_0 Population

(2018, millions)Latin America_header_cell_4_0_1

GDP (nominal)

(2019, billions US$)Latin America_header_cell_4_0_2

GDP (PPP)

(2019, billions US$)Latin America_header_cell_4_0_3

ArgentinaLatin America_cell_4_1_0 44.4Latin America_cell_4_1_1 445,469Latin America_cell_4_1_2 903,542Latin America_cell_4_1_3
BoliviaLatin America_cell_4_2_0 11.4Latin America_cell_4_2_1 42,401Latin America_cell_4_2_2 94,392Latin America_cell_4_2_3
BrazilLatin America_cell_4_3_0 209.5Latin America_cell_4_3_1 1,847,020Latin America_cell_4_3_2 3,456,357Latin America_cell_4_3_3
ChileLatin America_cell_4_4_0 18.7Latin America_cell_4_4_1 294,237Latin America_cell_4_4_2 502,846Latin America_cell_4_4_3
ColombiaLatin America_cell_4_5_0 49.7Latin America_cell_4_5_1 327,895Latin America_cell_4_5_2 783,002Latin America_cell_4_5_3
Costa RicaLatin America_cell_4_6_0 5Latin America_cell_4_6_1 61,021Latin America_cell_4_6_2 91,611Latin America_cell_4_6_3
CubaLatin America_cell_4_7_0 11.3Latin America_cell_4_7_1 N/ALatin America_cell_4_7_2 N/ALatin America_cell_4_7_3
Dominican RepublicLatin America_cell_4_8_0 10.6Latin America_cell_4_8_1 89,475Latin America_cell_4_8_2 201,266Latin America_cell_4_8_3
EcuadorLatin America_cell_4_9_0 17.1Latin America_cell_4_9_1 107,914Latin America_cell_4_9_2 202,773Latin America_cell_4_9_3
El SalvadorLatin America_cell_4_10_0 6.4Latin America_cell_4_10_1 26,871Latin America_cell_4_10_2 55,731Latin America_cell_4_10_3
GuatemalaLatin America_cell_4_11_0 17.2Latin America_cell_4_11_1 81,318Latin America_cell_4_11_2 153,322Latin America_cell_4_11_3
HaitiLatin America_cell_4_12_0 11.1Latin America_cell_4_12_1 8,819Latin America_cell_4_12_2 21,124Latin America_cell_4_12_3
HondurasLatin America_cell_4_13_0 9.6Latin America_cell_4_13_1 24,449Latin America_cell_4_13_2 51,757Latin America_cell_4_13_3
MexicoLatin America_cell_4_14_0 126.2Latin America_cell_4_14_1 1,274,175Latin America_cell_4_14_2 2,627,851Latin America_cell_4_14_3
NicaraguaLatin America_cell_4_15_0 6.5Latin America_cell_4_15_1 12,528Latin America_cell_4_15_2 34,531Latin America_cell_4_15_3
PanamaLatin America_cell_4_16_0 4.2Latin America_cell_4_16_1 68,536Latin America_cell_4_16_2 113,156Latin America_cell_4_16_3
ParaguayLatin America_cell_4_17_0 7Latin America_cell_4_17_1 40,714Latin America_cell_4_17_2 97,163Latin America_cell_4_17_3
PeruLatin America_cell_4_18_0 32Latin America_cell_4_18_1 228,989Latin America_cell_4_18_2 478,303Latin America_cell_4_18_3
UruguayLatin America_cell_4_19_0 3.4Latin America_cell_4_19_1 59,918Latin America_cell_4_19_2 82,969Latin America_cell_4_19_3
VenezuelaLatin America_cell_4_20_0 28.9Latin America_cell_4_20_1 70,140Latin America_cell_4_20_2 N/ALatin America_cell_4_20_3
TotalLatin America_cell_4_21_0 577,8Latin America_cell_4_21_1 N/ALatin America_cell_4_21_2 N/ALatin America_cell_4_21_3

Development Latin America_section_52

Over the past two centuries, Latin America's GDP per capita has fluctuated around world average. Latin America_sentence_539

However, there is a substantial gap between Latin America and the developed economies. Latin America_sentence_540

In the Andean region this gap can be a consequence of low human capital among Inca Indios in Pre-Columbian times. Latin America_sentence_541

It is evident that the numeracy value of Peruvian Indios in the early 16th century was just half of the numeracy of the Spanish and Portuguese. Latin America_sentence_542

Between 1820 and 2008, this gap widened from 0.8 to 2.7 times. Latin America_sentence_543

Since 1980, Latin America also lost growth versus the world average. Latin America_sentence_544

Many nations such as those in Asia have joined others on a rapid economic growth path, but Latin America has grown at slower pace and its share of world output declined from 9.5% in 1980 to 7.8% in 2008. Latin America_sentence_545

Standard of living Latin America_section_53

Latin America is the region with the highest levels of income inequality in the world. Latin America_sentence_546

The following table lists all the countries in Latin America indicating a valuation of the country's Human Development Index, GDP at purchasing power parity per capita, measurement of inequality through the Gini index, measurement of poverty through the Human Poverty Index, measurement of extreme poverty based on people living under 1.25 dollars a day, life expectancy, murder rates and a measurement of safety through the Global Peace Index. Latin America_sentence_547

Green cells indicate the best performance in each category while red indicates the lowest. Latin America_sentence_548

Latin America_table_general_5

Social and economic indicators for Latin American countriesLatin America_table_caption_5
CountryLatin America_header_cell_5_0_0 HDI
(2015 est.)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_1
GDP (PPP)

per capita in US$ (2015)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_2

Real GDP
growth % 

(2015)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_3

Income
inequality 
Gini 
(2015)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_4
Extreme
poverty % 
<1.25 US$ 
(2011)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_5
Youth literacy %
(2015)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_6
Life
expectancy 
(2016)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_7
Murder
rate per 
100,000  
(2014)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_8
Peace
GPI 
(2016)Latin America_header_cell_5_0_9
ArgentinaLatin America_cell_5_1_0 0.827Latin America_cell_5_1_1 20,170Latin America_cell_5_1_2 2.6Latin America_cell_5_1_3 43.6Latin America_cell_5_1_4 0.9Latin America_cell_5_1_5 99.2Latin America_cell_5_1_6 78Latin America_cell_5_1_7 6Latin America_cell_5_1_8 1.957Latin America_cell_5_1_9
BoliviaLatin America_cell_5_2_0 0.662Latin America_cell_5_2_1 6,421Latin America_cell_5_2_2 4.1Latin America_cell_5_2_3 46.6Latin America_cell_5_2_4 14.0Latin America_cell_5_2_5 99.4Latin America_cell_5_2_6 69Latin America_cell_5_2_7 12Latin America_cell_5_2_8 2.038Latin America_cell_5_2_9
BrazilLatin America_cell_5_3_0 0.755Latin America_cell_5_3_1 15,690Latin America_cell_5_3_2 −3.0Latin America_cell_5_3_3 52.7Latin America_cell_5_3_4 0.3Latin America_cell_5_3_5 97.5Latin America_cell_5_3_6 74Latin America_cell_5_3_7 25Latin America_cell_5_3_8 2.176Latin America_cell_5_3_9
ChileLatin America_cell_5_4_0 0.847Latin America_cell_5_4_1 25,564Latin America_cell_5_4_2 2.3Latin America_cell_5_4_3 50.8Latin America_cell_5_4_4 0.8Latin America_cell_5_4_5 98.9Latin America_cell_5_4_6 79Latin America_cell_5_4_7 4Latin America_cell_5_4_8 1.635Latin America_cell_5_4_9
ColombiaLatin America_cell_5_5_0 0.720Latin America_cell_5_5_1 13,794Latin America_cell_5_5_2 2.5Latin America_cell_5_5_3 52.2Latin America_cell_5_5_4 8.2Latin America_cell_5_5_5 98.2Latin America_cell_5_5_6 76Latin America_cell_5_5_7 28Latin America_cell_5_5_8 2.764Latin America_cell_5_5_9
Costa RicaLatin America_cell_5_6_0 0.766Latin America_cell_5_6_1 15,318Latin America_cell_5_6_2 3.0Latin America_cell_5_6_3 48.6Latin America_cell_5_6_4 0.7Latin America_cell_5_6_5 98.3Latin America_cell_5_6_6 79Latin America_cell_5_6_7 10Latin America_cell_5_6_8 1.699Latin America_cell_5_6_9
CubaLatin America_cell_5_7_0 0.769Latin America_cell_5_7_1 N/ALatin America_cell_5_7_2 N/ALatin America_cell_5_7_3 N/ALatin America_cell_5_7_4 N/ALatin America_cell_5_7_5 100.0Latin America_cell_5_7_6 79Latin America_cell_5_7_7 Latin America_cell_5_7_8 2.057Latin America_cell_5_7_9
Dominican RepublicLatin America_cell_5_8_0 0.702Latin America_cell_5_8_1 15,777Latin America_cell_5_8_2 5.5Latin America_cell_5_8_3 45.7Latin America_cell_5_8_4 4.3Latin America_cell_5_8_5 97.0Latin America_cell_5_8_6 78Latin America_cell_5_8_7 17Latin America_cell_5_8_8 2.143Latin America_cell_5_8_9
EcuadorLatin America_cell_5_9_0 0.732Latin America_cell_5_9_1 11,168Latin America_cell_5_9_2 −0.6Latin America_cell_5_9_3 46.6Latin America_cell_5_9_4 5.1Latin America_cell_5_9_5 98.7Latin America_cell_5_9_6 77Latin America_cell_5_9_7 8Latin America_cell_5_9_8 2.020Latin America_cell_5_9_9
El SalvadorLatin America_cell_5_10_0 0.666Latin America_cell_5_10_1 8,293Latin America_cell_5_10_2 2.3Latin America_cell_5_10_3 41.8Latin America_cell_5_10_4 15.1Latin America_cell_5_10_5 96.0Latin America_cell_5_10_6 75Latin America_cell_5_10_7 64Latin America_cell_5_10_8 2.237Latin America_cell_5_10_9
GuatemalaLatin America_cell_5_11_0 0.627Latin America_cell_5_11_1 7,721Latin America_cell_5_11_2 3.8Latin America_cell_5_11_3 52.4Latin America_cell_5_11_4 16.9Latin America_cell_5_11_5 87.4Latin America_cell_5_11_6 72Latin America_cell_5_11_7 31Latin America_cell_5_11_8 2.270Latin America_cell_5_11_9
HaitiLatin America_cell_5_12_0 0.483Latin America_cell_5_12_1 1,794Latin America_cell_5_12_2 2.5Latin America_cell_5_12_3 59.2Latin America_cell_5_12_4 54.9Latin America_cell_5_12_5 72.3Latin America_cell_5_12_6 64Latin America_cell_5_12_7 10Latin America_cell_5_12_8 2.066Latin America_cell_5_12_9
HondurasLatin America_cell_5_13_0 0.606Latin America_cell_5_13_1 4,861Latin America_cell_5_13_2 3.5Latin America_cell_5_13_3 57.4Latin America_cell_5_13_4 23.3Latin America_cell_5_13_5 95.9Latin America_cell_5_13_6 71Latin America_cell_5_13_7 75Latin America_cell_5_13_8 2.237Latin America_cell_5_13_9
MexicoLatin America_cell_5_14_0 0.756Latin America_cell_5_14_1 18,335Latin America_cell_5_14_2 2.3Latin America_cell_5_14_3 48.1Latin America_cell_5_14_4 8.4Latin America_cell_5_14_5 98.5Latin America_cell_5_14_6 77Latin America_cell_5_14_7 16Latin America_cell_5_14_8 2.557Latin America_cell_5_14_9
NicaraguaLatin America_cell_5_15_0 0.631Latin America_cell_5_15_1 4,972Latin America_cell_5_15_2 4.0Latin America_cell_5_15_3 45.7Latin America_cell_5_15_4 15.8Latin America_cell_5_15_5 87.0Latin America_cell_5_15_6 73Latin America_cell_5_15_7 12Latin America_cell_5_15_8 1.975Latin America_cell_5_15_9
PanamaLatin America_cell_5_16_0 0.780Latin America_cell_5_16_1 20,512Latin America_cell_5_16_2 6.0Latin America_cell_5_16_3 51.9Latin America_cell_5_16_4 9.5Latin America_cell_5_16_5 97.6Latin America_cell_5_16_6 79Latin America_cell_5_16_7 18Latin America_cell_5_16_8 1.837Latin America_cell_5_16_9
ParaguayLatin America_cell_5_17_0 0.679Latin America_cell_5_17_1 8,671Latin America_cell_5_17_2 3.0Latin America_cell_5_17_3 48.0Latin America_cell_5_17_4 5.1Latin America_cell_5_17_5 98.6Latin America_cell_5_17_6 77Latin America_cell_5_17_7 9Latin America_cell_5_17_8 2.037Latin America_cell_5_17_9
PeruLatin America_cell_5_18_0 0.734Latin America_cell_5_18_1 12,077Latin America_cell_5_18_2 2.4Latin America_cell_5_18_3 45.3Latin America_cell_5_18_4 5.9Latin America_cell_5_18_5 97.4Latin America_cell_5_18_6 74Latin America_cell_5_18_7 7Latin America_cell_5_18_8 2.057Latin America_cell_5_18_9
UruguayLatin America_cell_5_19_0 0.804Latin America_cell_5_19_1 21,719Latin America_cell_5_19_2 2.5Latin America_cell_5_19_3 41.3Latin America_cell_5_19_4 0.0Latin America_cell_5_19_5 98.8Latin America_cell_5_19_6 77Latin America_cell_5_19_7 8Latin America_cell_5_19_8 1.726Latin America_cell_5_19_9
VenezuelaLatin America_cell_5_20_0 0.762Latin America_cell_5_20_1 15,892Latin America_cell_5_20_2 −10.0Latin America_cell_5_20_3 44.8Latin America_cell_5_20_4 3.5Latin America_cell_5_20_5 98.5Latin America_cell_5_20_6 75Latin America_cell_5_20_7 62Latin America_cell_5_20_8 2.651Latin America_cell_5_20_9

Environment Latin America_section_54

Latin America_unordered_list_1

Latin America_table_general_6

Environmental indicators for Latin American countriesLatin America_table_caption_6
CountryLatin America_header_cell_6_0_0 Environmental
performance 
(2012) 
EPILatin America_header_cell_6_0_1
CO2 emissions
(2009) 
(tons of CO2 
per capita)Latin America_header_cell_6_0_2
ArgentinaLatin America_cell_6_1_0 56.48Latin America_cell_6_1_1 4.14Latin America_cell_6_1_2
BoliviaLatin America_cell_6_2_0 54.57Latin America_cell_6_2_1 1.31Latin America_cell_6_2_2
BrazilLatin America_cell_6_3_0 60.90Latin America_cell_6_3_1 1.74Latin America_cell_6_3_2
ChileLatin America_cell_6_4_0 55.34Latin America_cell_6_4_1 3.84Latin America_cell_6_4_2
ColombiaLatin America_cell_6_5_0 62.33Latin America_cell_6_5_1 1.33Latin America_cell_6_5_2
Costa RicaLatin America_cell_6_6_0 69.03Latin America_cell_6_6_1 1.37Latin America_cell_6_6_2
CubaLatin America_cell_6_7_0 56.48Latin America_cell_6_7_1 2.40Latin America_cell_6_7_2
Dominican RepublicLatin America_cell_6_8_0 52.44Latin America_cell_6_8_1 1.79Latin America_cell_6_8_2
EcuadorLatin America_cell_6_9_0 60.55Latin America_cell_6_9_1 2.09Latin America_cell_6_9_2
El SalvadorLatin America_cell_6_10_0 52.08Latin America_cell_6_10_1 1.10Latin America_cell_6_10_2
GuatemalaLatin America_cell_6_11_0 51.88Latin America_cell_6_11_1 1.03Latin America_cell_6_11_2
HaitiLatin America_cell_6_12_0 41.15Latin America_cell_6_12_1 0.24Latin America_cell_6_12_2
HondurasLatin America_cell_6_13_0 52.54Latin America_cell_6_13_1 0.96Latin America_cell_6_13_2
MexicoLatin America_cell_6_14_0 49.11Latin America_cell_6_14_1 3.72Latin America_cell_6_14_2
NicaraguaLatin America_cell_6_15_0 59.23Latin America_cell_6_15_1 0.73Latin America_cell_6_15_2
PanamaLatin America_cell_6_16_0 57.94Latin America_cell_6_16_1 2.10Latin America_cell_6_16_2
ParaguayLatin America_cell_6_17_0 52.40Latin America_cell_6_17_1 0.64Latin America_cell_6_17_2
PeruLatin America_cell_6_18_0 50.29Latin America_cell_6_18_1 1.32Latin America_cell_6_18_2
UruguayLatin America_cell_6_19_0 57.06Latin America_cell_6_19_1 2.31Latin America_cell_6_19_2
VenezuelaLatin America_cell_6_20_0 55.62Latin America_cell_6_20_1 5.45Latin America_cell_6_20_2

Agriculture Latin America_section_55

The four countries with the strongest agriculture in South America are Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Colombia. Latin America_sentence_549

Currently: Latin America_sentence_550

Latin America_unordered_list_2

In Central America, the following stand out: Latin America_sentence_551

Latin America_unordered_list_3

Mexico is the world's largest producer of avocado, one of the world's top 5 producers of chili, lemon, orange, mango, papaya, strawberry, grapefruit, pumpkin and asparagus, and one of the world's 10 largest producers of sugar cane, maize, sorghum, bean, tomato, coconut, pineapple, melon and blueberry. Latin America_sentence_552

Brazil is the world's largest exporter of chicken meat: 3.77 million tons in 2019. Latin America_sentence_553

The country is the holder of the second largest herd of cattle in the world, 22.2% of the world herd. Latin America_sentence_554

The country was the second largest producer of beef in 2019, responsible for 15.4% of global production. Latin America_sentence_555

It was also the 3rd largest world producer of milk in 2018. Latin America_sentence_556

This year, the country produced 35.1 billion liters. Latin America_sentence_557

In 2019, Brazil was the 4th largest pork producer in the world, with almost 4 million tons. Latin America_sentence_558

In 2018, Argentina was the 4th largest producer of beef in the world, with a production of 3 million tons (behind only USA, Brazil and China). Latin America_sentence_559

Uruguay is also a major meat producer. Latin America_sentence_560

In 2018, it produced 589 thousand tons of beef. Latin America_sentence_561

In the production of chicken meat, Mexico is among the 10 largest producers in the world, Argentina among the 15 largest and Peru and Colombia among the 20 largest. Latin America_sentence_562

In the production of beef, Mexico is one of the 10 largest producers in the world and Colombia is one of the 20 largest producers. Latin America_sentence_563

In the production of pork, Mexico is among the 15 largest producers in the world. Latin America_sentence_564

In the production of honey, Argentina is among the 5 largest producers in the world, Mexico among the 10 largest and Brazil among the 15 largest. Latin America_sentence_565

In terms of cow's milk production, Mexico is among the 15 largest producers in the world and Argentina among the 20. Latin America_sentence_566

Mining and petroleum Latin America_section_56

In the mining sector, Brazil stands out in the extraction of iron ore (where it is the second world exporter), copper, gold, bauxite (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), manganese (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), tin (one of the largest producers in the world), niobium (concentrates 98% of reserves known to the world) and nickel. Latin America_sentence_567

In terms of gemstones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst, topaz, agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline, emerald, aquamarine, garnet and opal. Latin America_sentence_568

Chile contributes about a third of the world copper production. Latin America_sentence_569

In 2018, Peru was the 2nd largest producer of silver and copper in the world, and the 6th largest producer of gold (the 3 metals that generate the highest value), in addition to being the 3rd largest producer in the world of zinc and tin and 4th in lead. Latin America_sentence_570

Bolivia is the 5th largest producer of tin, the 7th largest producer of silver, and the 8th largest producer of zinc in the worldMexico is the largest producer of silver in the world, representing almost 23% of world production, producing more than 200 million ounces in 2019. Latin America_sentence_571

It also has important productions of copper and zinc and produces a significant amount of gold. Latin America_sentence_572

In the production of oil, Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019, with 2.8 million barrels / day. Latin America_sentence_573

Mexico was the twelfth largest, with 2.1 million barrels / day, Colombia in 20th place with 886 thousand barrels / day, Venezuela was the twenty-first place, with 877 thousand barrels / day, Ecuador in 28th with 531 thousand barrels / day and Argentina. Latin America_sentence_574

29 with 507 thousand barrels / day. Latin America_sentence_575

Since Venezuela and Ecuador consume little oil and export most of their production, they are part of OPEC. Latin America_sentence_576

Venezuela had a big drop in production after 2015 (where it produced 2.5 million barrels / day), falling in 2016 to 2.2 million, in 2017 to 2 million, in 2018 to 1.4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand, due to lack of investments. Latin America_sentence_577

In the production of natural gas, in 2018, Argentina produced 1,524 bcf (billions of cubic feet), Mexico produced 999, Venezuela 946, Brazil 877, Bolivia 617, Peru 451, Colombia 379. Latin America_sentence_578

Manufacturing Latin America_section_57

The World Bank annually lists the top manufacturing countries by total manufacturing value. Latin America_sentence_579

According to the 2019 list, Mexico would have the twelfth most valuable industry in the world (US $217.8 billion), Brazil has the thirteenth largest (US $173.6 billion), Venezuela the thirtieth largest (US $58.2 billion, however , which depend on oil to obtain this value), Argentina the 31st largest (US $57.7 billion), Colombia the 46th largest (US $35.4 billion), Peru the 50th largest (US $28.7 billion) and Chile the 51st largest (US $28.3 billion). Latin America_sentence_580

In Latin America, few countries achieve projection in industrial activity: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and, less prominently, Chile. Latin America_sentence_581

Begun late, the industrialization of these countries received a great boost from World War II: this prevented the countries at war from buying the products they were used to importing and exporting what they produced. Latin America_sentence_582

At that time, benefiting from the abundant local raw material, the low wages paid to the labor force and a certain specialization brought by immigrants, countries such as Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, as well as Venezuela, Chile, Colombia and Peru, were able to implement important industrial parks. Latin America_sentence_583

In general, in these countries there are industries that require little capital and simple technology for their installation, such as the food processing and textile industries. Latin America_sentence_584

The basic industries (steel, etc.) also stand out, as well as the metallurgical and mechanical industries. Latin America_sentence_585

The industrial parks of Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile, however, present much greater diversity and sophistication, producing advanced technology items. Latin America_sentence_586

In the rest of Latin American countries, mainly in Central America, the processing industries of primary products for export predominate. Latin America_sentence_587

In the food industry, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. Latin America_sentence_588

In 2016, the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp in the world and the 8th producer of paper. Latin America_sentence_589

In the footwear industry, in 2019, Brazil ranked 4th among world producers. Latin America_sentence_590

In 2019, the country was the 8th producer of vehicles and the 9th producer of steel in the world. Latin America_sentence_591

In 2018, the chemical industry of Brazil was the 8th in the world. Latin America_sentence_592

In textile industry, Brazil, although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, is very little integrated in world trade. Latin America_sentence_593

In the aviation sector, Brazil has Embraer, the third largest aircraft manufacturer in the world, behind Boeing and Airbus. Latin America_sentence_594


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin America.