Latin jazz

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Latin jazz_table_infobox_0

Latin jazzLatin jazz_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsLatin jazz_header_cell_0_1_0 Afro-Cuban jazz:

Afro-Brazilian jazz:Latin jazz_cell_0_1_1

Cultural originsLatin jazz_header_cell_0_2_0 Cuba; New York City, United States; and BrazilLatin jazz_cell_0_2_1
Regional scenesLatin jazz_header_cell_0_3_0

Latin jazz is a genre of jazz with Latin American rhythms. Latin jazz_sentence_0

The two main categories are Afro-Cuban jazz, rhythmically based on Cuban popular dance music, with a rhythm section employing ostinato patterns or a clave, and Afro-Brazilian jazz, which includes bossa nova and samba. Latin jazz_sentence_1

Afro-Cuban jazz Latin jazz_section_0

"Spanish tinge"—The Cuban influence in early jazz and proto-Latin jazz Latin jazz_section_1

African American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban musical motifs in the 19th century, when the habanera (Cuban contradanza) gained international popularity. Latin jazz_sentence_2

The habanera was the first written music to be rhythmically based on an African motif. Latin jazz_sentence_3

The habanera rhythm (also known as congo, tango-congo, or tango ) can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat. Latin jazz_sentence_4

Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans "clave," although technically, the pattern is only half a clave. Latin jazz_sentence_5

"St. Louis Blues" (1914) by W. Latin jazz_sentence_6 C. Handy has a habanera-tresillo bass line. Latin jazz_sentence_7

Handy noted a reaction to the habanera rhythm included in Will H. Tyler's "Maori": "I observed that there was a sudden, proud and graceful reaction to the rhythm...White dancers, as I had observed them, took the number in stride. Latin jazz_sentence_8

I began to suspect that there was something Negroid in that beat." Latin jazz_sentence_9

After noting a similar reaction to the same rhythm in "La Paloma", Handy included this rhythm in his "St. Louis Blues", the instrumental copy of "Memphis Blues", the chorus of "Beale Street Blues", and other compositions. Latin jazz_sentence_10

Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo-habanera (which he called the Spanish tinge) to be an essential ingredient of jazz. Latin jazz_sentence_11

The habanera rhythm can be heard in his left hand on songs like "The Crave" (1910, recorded 1938). Latin jazz_sentence_12

Although the exact origins of jazz syncopation may never be known, there is evidence that the habanera-tresillo was there at its conception. Latin jazz_sentence_13

Buddy Bolden, the first known jazz musician, is credited with creating the big four, a habanera-based pattern. Latin jazz_sentence_14

The big four (below) was the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march. Latin jazz_sentence_15

As the example below shows, the second half of the big four pattern is the habanera rhythm. Latin jazz_sentence_16

The Cuban influence is evident in many pre-1940s jazz tunes, but rhythmically, they are all based on single-celled motifs such as tresillo, and not do not contain an overt two-celled, clave-based structure. Latin jazz_sentence_17

"Caravan", written by Juan Tizol and first performed in 1936, is an early proto-Latin jazz composition. Latin jazz_sentence_18

It is not clave-based. Latin jazz_sentence_19

Jazz in-clave Latin jazz_section_2

The first jazz piece to be overtly based in-clave, and therefore, the first true Latin jazz piece, was "Tanga" (1943) composed by Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans the same year, 1943. Latin jazz_sentence_20

The tune was initially a descarga (Cuban jam) with jazz solos superimposed, spontaneously composed by Bauzá. Latin jazz_sentence_21

The right hand of the "Tanga" piano guajeo is in the style known as ponchando, a type of non-arpeggiated guajeo using block chords. Latin jazz_sentence_22

The sequence of attack-points is emphasized, rather than a sequence of different pitches. Latin jazz_sentence_23

As a form of accompaniment it can be played in a strictly repetitive fashion or as a varied motif akin to jazz comping. Latin jazz_sentence_24

The following example is in the style of a 1949 recording by Machito. Latin jazz_sentence_25

2‐3 clave, piano by René Hernández. Latin jazz_sentence_26

Mario Bauzá developed the 3-2 / 2-3 clave concept and terminology. Latin jazz_sentence_27

A chord progression can begin on either side of clave. Latin jazz_sentence_28

When the progression begins on the three-side, the song or song section is said to be in 3–2 clave. Latin jazz_sentence_29

When the chord progression begins on the two-side, it is in 2–3 clave. Latin jazz_sentence_30

In North America, salsa and Latin jazz charts commonly represent clave in two measures of cut-time (2/2); this is most likely the influence of jazz conventions. Latin jazz_sentence_31

When clave is written in two measures (above) changing from one clave sequence to the other is a matter of reversing the order of the measures. Latin jazz_sentence_32

Bobby Sanabria, who was Bauzá's drummer, cites several important innovations of Machito's band: Latin jazz_sentence_33

Latin jazz_unordered_list_0

  • The first band to explore jazz arranging techniques with authentic Afro-Cuban rhythms on a consistent basis giving it a unique identifiable sound that no other band in the genre of Afro-Cuban based dance music had at the time. Cuban big band arranger Chico O'Farill stated: "This was a new concept in interpretating Cuban music with as much (harmonic) richness as possible. You have to understand how important this was. It made every other band that came after, followers."Latin jazz_item_0_0
  • The first band to explore modal harmony (a concept explored much later by Miles Davis and Gil Evans) from a jazz arranging perspective through their recording of "Tanga." Of note is the sheet of sound effect in the arrangement through the use of multiple layering.Latin jazz_item_0_1
  • The first big band to explore, from an Afro-Cuban rhythmic perspective, large-scale extended compositional works. e.g. "The Afro-Cuban Jazz Suite" by Chico O'Farill.Latin jazz_item_0_2
  • The first band to successfully wed jazz big band arranging techniques within an original composition with jazz oriented soloists utilizing an authentic Afro-Cuban based rhythm section in a successful manner. e.g. Gene Johnson - alto, Brew Moore - tenor, composition - "Tanga" (1943).Latin jazz_item_0_3
  • The first Afro-Cuban based dance band to overtly explore the concept of clave counterpoint from an arranging standpoint. The ability to weave seamlessly from one side of the clave to the other without breaking its rhythmic integrity within the structure of a musical arrangement.Latin jazz_item_0_4

Bauzá introduced bebop innovator Dizzy Gillespie to the Cuban conga drummer Chano Pozo. Latin jazz_sentence_34

"Manteca" is the first jazz standard to be rhythmically based on clave. Latin jazz_sentence_35

"Manteca" was co-written by Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo in 1947. Latin jazz_sentence_36

According to Gillespie, Pozo created the layered, contrapuntal guajeos (Afro-Cuban ostinatos) of the A section and the introduction, and Gillespie wrote the bridge. Latin jazz_sentence_37

The rhythm of the melody of the A section is identical to a common mambo bell pattern. Latin jazz_sentence_38

On March 31, 1946, Stan Kenton recorded "Machito," written by his collaborator / arranger Pete Rugolo, which is considered by some to be the first Latin jazz recording by American jazz musicians. Latin jazz_sentence_39

The Kenton band was augmented by Ivan Lopez on bongos and Eugenio Reyes on maracas. Latin jazz_sentence_40

Later, on December 6 the same year, Stan Kenton recorded an arrangement of the Afro-Cuban tune "The Peanut Vendor" with members of Machito's rhythm section. Latin jazz_sentence_41

Kenny Dorham "Minor's Holiday", "Basheer's Dream", Hank Mobley "Recado Bossa Nova" and Sabu Martinez jazz tune developed Afro-Cuban jazz from 50s to 60s. Latin jazz_sentence_42

Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition "Afro Blue" in 1959. Latin jazz_sentence_43

"Afro Blue" was the first jazz standard built upon a typical African three-against-two (3:2) cross-rhythm, or hemiola. Latin jazz_sentence_44

The song begins with the bass repeatedly playing 6 cross-beats per each measure of 12/8, or 6 cross-beats per 4 main beats—6:4 (two cells of 3:2). Latin jazz_sentence_45

The following example shows the original ostinato "Afro Blue" bass line. Latin jazz_sentence_46

The slashed noteheads indicate the main beats (not bass notes), where you would normally tap your foot to "keep time." Latin jazz_sentence_47

Bossa nova Latin jazz_section_3

Bossa nova is a hybrid form based on the samba rhythm, but influenced by European and American music from Debussy to US jazz. Latin jazz_sentence_48

Bossa nova originated in the 1950s, largely from the efforts of Brazilians Antonio Carlos Jobim and João Gilberto. Latin jazz_sentence_49

Its most famous song is arguably "The Girl from Ipanema" sung by Gilberto and his wife, Astrud Gilberto. Latin jazz_sentence_50

While the musical style evolved from samba, it is more complex harmonically and less percussive. Latin jazz_sentence_51

Bossa nova emerged primarily from the upscale beachside neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro as opposed to samba's origins in the favelas of Rio. Latin jazz_sentence_52

Certain similar elements were already evident, even influencing Western classical music like Gershwin's Cuban Overture which has the characteristic 'Latin' clave rhythm. Latin jazz_sentence_53

The influence on bossa nova of jazz styles such as cool jazz is often debated by historians and fans, but a similar "cool sensibility" is apparent. Latin jazz_sentence_54

Bossa nova was developed in Brazil in the mid-1950s, with its creation being credited to artists including Johnny Alf, Antonio Carlos Jobim and João Gilberto. Latin jazz_sentence_55

One of the first songs was "Bim-Bom"(Gilberto). Latin jazz_sentence_56

Bossa nova was made popular by Dorival Caymmi's "Saudade da Bahia" and Elizete Cardoso's recording of "Chega de Saudade" on the Canção do Amor Demais LP, composed by Vinícius de Moraes (lyrics) and Antonio Carlos Jobim (music). Latin jazz_sentence_57

The song was soon after released by Gilberto. Latin jazz_sentence_58

The initial releases by Gilberto and the internationally popular 1959 film Orfeu Negro ("Black Orpheus", with score by Luiz Bonfá) brought significant popularity of this musical style in Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America, which spread to North America via visiting American jazz musicians. Latin jazz_sentence_59

The resulting recordings by Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz cemented its popularity and led to a worldwide boom with 1963's Getz/Gilberto, numerous recordings by famous jazz performers such as Ella Fitzgerald (Ella Abraça Jobim) and Frank Sinatra (Francis Albert Sinatra & Antônio Carlos Jobim). Latin jazz_sentence_60

Since that time, the bossa nova style maintains a lasting influence in world music for several decades and even up to the present. Latin jazz_sentence_61

The first bossa nova single to achieve international popularity was perhaps the most successful of all time, the 1964 Getz/Gilberto recording "The Girl From Ipanema", edited to include only the singing of Astrud Gilberto, Gilberto's then wife. Latin jazz_sentence_62

The genre would withstand substantial "watering down" by popular artists throughout the next four decades. Latin jazz_sentence_63

An early influence on bossa nova was the song "Dans mon île" by French singer Henri Salvador, featured in the 1957 Italian movie Europa di notte by Alessandro Blasetti; the song was distributed in Brazil and covered later by Brazilian artists Eumir Deodato (Los Danseros en Bolero - 1964) and Caetano Veloso (Outras Palavras - 1981). Latin jazz_sentence_64

In 2005, Henri Salvador was awarded the Brazilian Order of Cultural Merit, which he received from singer and Minister of Culture, Gilberto Gil, in the presence of President Lula for his influence on Brazilian culture. Latin jazz_sentence_65

The so-called "bossa nova clave" (or "Brazilian clave") is played on the snare rim of the drum kit in bossa nova. Latin jazz_sentence_66

The pattern has a similar rhythm to that of the son clave, but the second note on the two-side is delayed by one pulse (subdivision). Latin jazz_sentence_67

The pattern is shown below in 2/4, as it is written in Brazil. Latin jazz_sentence_68

In North American charts it is more likely to be written in cut-time. Latin jazz_sentence_69

According to drummer Bobby Sanabria the Brazilian composer Antonio Carlos Jobim, who developed the pattern, considers it to be merely a rhythmic motif and not a clave (guide pattern). Latin jazz_sentence_70

Jobim later regretted that Latino musicians misunderstood the role of this bossa nova pattern. Latin jazz_sentence_71

Beyond Latin jazz Latin jazz_section_4

Brazilian percussionist Airto Moreira became a professional musician at age 13. Latin jazz_sentence_72

He won acclaim as a member of the samba jazz pioneers Sambalanço Trio and for his landmark recording Quarteto Novo with Hermeto Pascoal in 1967. Latin jazz_sentence_73

Shortly after, he followed his wife Flora Purim to the United States. Latin jazz_sentence_74

Once in the U.S., Airto introduced Afro-Brazilian folkloric instruments into a wide variety of jazz styles, in ways that had not been done before. Latin jazz_sentence_75

In Chick Corea's original Return to Forever band, Airto was able to showcase his samba prowess on several percussion instruments, including drum kit. Latin jazz_sentence_76

However, the terms jazz samba or Latin jazz are too limiting a label for the types of music Airto participated in the U.S. during the 1970s. Latin jazz_sentence_77

Airto played in the two most important avant-garde electric jazz bands of the day—Miles Davis and Weather Report. Latin jazz_sentence_78

He also performed on more mainstream albums, such as those of CTI Records. Latin jazz_sentence_79

Besides energetic rhythmic textures, Airto added percussion color, using bells, shakers, and whistles to create evocative textures of timbre. Latin jazz_sentence_80

Airto paved the way for other avant garde Brazilian musicians such as Hermeto Pascoal, to enter the North American jazz scene. Latin jazz_sentence_81

Another innovative Brazilian percussionist is Naná Vasconcelos. Latin jazz_sentence_82

Vasconcelos contributed to four Jon Hassell albums from 1976 to 1980 (including Possible Musics by Brian Eno and Hassell), and later to several Pat Metheny Group works and Jan Garbarek concerts from early 1980s to early 1990s. Latin jazz_sentence_83

In 1984 he appeared on the Pierre Favre album Singing Drums along with Paul Motian. Latin jazz_sentence_84

He also appears on Arild Andersen's album "If You Look Far Enough" with Ralph Towner. Latin jazz_sentence_85

Vasconcelos formed a group named Codona with Don Cherry and Collin Walcott, which released three albums in 1978, 1980 and 1982. Latin jazz_sentence_86

While Vasconcelos uses Afro-Brazilian rhythms and instruments, he like Airto, transcend the categories of Brazilian jazz and Latin jazz. Latin jazz_sentence_87

Comparing Latin jazz with straight-ahead jazz Latin jazz_section_5

In comparison with straight-ahead jazz, Latin jazz employs straight rhythm (or "even-eighths"), rather than swung rhythm. Latin jazz_sentence_88

Early Latin jazz rarely employed a backbeat, but contemporary forms fuse the backbeat with the clave. Latin jazz_sentence_89

The conga, timbale, güiro, bongos, and claves are percussion instruments often used in place of the drum kit. Latin jazz_sentence_90

Formats Latin jazz_section_6

Latin jazz music, like most types of jazz music, can be played in small or large groups. Latin jazz_sentence_91

Small groups, or combos, often use the bebop format made popular in the 1950s in America, where the musicians play a standard melody, many of the musicians play an improvised solo, and then everyone plays the melody again. Latin jazz_sentence_92

Prominent Latin jazz big bands include Arturo O'Farrill's Afro-Latin Jazz Orchestra. Latin jazz_sentence_93

In Latin jazz bands, percussion is often featured in solos. Latin jazz_sentence_94

Contemporary Latin jazz pieces by musicians such as Hermeto Pascoal are mostly composed for these small groups, with percussion solos as well as many wind-instrumentals. Latin jazz_sentence_95

Quotation Latin jazz_section_7

We play jazz with the Latin touch, that's all, you know. Latin jazz_sentence_96

- Tito Puente Latin jazz_sentence_97

See also Latin jazz_section_8

Latin jazz_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: jazz.