Latin music

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This article is about the genre of music. Latin music_sentence_0

For music from Latin America, see Music of Latin America. Latin music_sentence_1

For other uses, see Latin music (disambiguation). Latin music_sentence_2

Latin music_table_infobox_0

Latin musicLatin music_header_cell_0_0_0
Native nameLatin music_header_cell_0_1_0 Música latinaLatin music_cell_0_1_1
Stylistic originsLatin music_header_cell_0_2_0 Latin music_cell_0_2_1
Cultural originsLatin music_header_cell_0_3_0 Early-1900s in the United StatesLatin music_cell_0_3_1
Derivative formsLatin music_header_cell_0_4_0 Latin music_cell_0_4_1

Latin music (Portuguese and Spanish: música latina) is a term used by the music industry as a catch-all term for music that comes from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking areas of the world, namely Ibero-America and the Iberian Peninsula, as well as music sung in either language. Latin music_sentence_3

Terminology and categorizations Latin music_section_0

Because the majority of Latino immigrants living in New York City in the 1950s were of Puerto Rican or Cuban descent, "Latin music" had been stereotyped as music simply originating from the Spanish Caribbean. Latin music_sentence_4

The popularization of bossa nova and Herb Alpert's Mexican-influenced sounds in the 1960s did little to change the perceived image of Latin music. Latin music_sentence_5

Since then, the music industry classifies all music sung in Spanish or Portuguese as Latin music, including musics from Spain and Portugal. Latin music_sentence_6

Following protests from Latinos in New York, a category for Latin music was created by National Recording Academy (NARAS) for the Grammy Awards titled Best Latin Recording in 1975. Latin music_sentence_7

Enrique Fernandez wrote on Billboard that the single category for Latin music meant that all Latin music genres had to compete with each other despite the distinct sounds of the genre. Latin music_sentence_8

He also noted that the accolade was mostly given to performers of tropical music. Latin music_sentence_9

Eight years later, the organization debuted three new categories for Latin music: Best Latin Pop Performance, Best Mexican/Mexican-American Performance, and Best Tropical Latin Performance. Latin music_sentence_10

Latin pop is a catch-all for any pop music sung in Spanish, while Mexican/Mexican-American (also to referred to as Regional Mexican) is based any musical style originating from Mexico or influences by its immigrants in the United States including Tejano, and tropical music focuses any music from the Spanish Caribbean. Latin music_sentence_11

In 1997, NARAS established the Latin Recording Academy (LARAS) in an effort to expand its operations in both Latin America and Spain. Latin music_sentence_12

In September 2000, LARAS launched the Latin Grammy Awards, a separate award ceremony from the Grammy Awards, which organizers stated that the Latin music universe was too large to fit on the latter awards. Latin music_sentence_13

Michael Greene, former head of NARAS, said that the process of creating the Latin Grammy Awards was complicated due to the diverse Latin musical styles, noting that the only thing they had in common was language. Latin music_sentence_14

As a result, the Latin Grammy Awards are presented to records performed in Spanish or Portuguese, while the organization focuses on music from Latin America, Spain, and Portugal. Latin music_sentence_15

Since the late 1990s, the United States has had a substantially rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". Latin music_sentence_16

The music industry in the United States started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Latin music_sentence_17

Under this definition, Spanish sung in any genre is categorized as "Latin". Latin music_sentence_18

In turn, this has also led to artists from Spain being labelled as "Latin" as they sing in the same language. Latin music_sentence_19

The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the United States. Latin music_sentence_20

Billboard however considers an artist to be "Latin" if they perform in Spanish or Portuguese. Latin music_sentence_21

The RIAA initiated the "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" ("The Gold and Platinum Awards" in Spanish) in 2000 to certify sales of Latin music albums and singles under a different threshold than its standard certifications. Latin music_sentence_22

Billboard divides its Latin music charts into three subcategories: Latin pop, Regional Mexican, and tropical. Latin music_sentence_23

A fourth subcategory was eventually added in the mid 2000s to address the rise of Latin urban music genres such as Latin hip hop and reggaeton. Latin music_sentence_24

History Latin music_section_1

1940s–1950s Latin music_section_2

The term "Latin music" originated from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat (1940s) and Tito Puente (1950s) and then accelerating in later decades. Latin music_sentence_25

As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration." Latin music_sentence_26

Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. Latin music_sentence_27

Pérez Prado is the composer of such famous pieces as "Mambo No. Latin music_sentence_28 5" and "Mambo No. Latin music_sentence_29

8". Latin music_sentence_30

At the height of the mambo movement in 1955, Pérez hit the American charts at number one with a cha-cha-chá version of "Cherry Pink and Apple Blossom White". Latin music_sentence_31

El manisero, known in English as The Peanut Vendor, is a Cuban son-pregón composed by Moisés Simons. Latin music_sentence_32

Together with "Guantanamera", it is arguably the most famous piece of music created by a Cuban musician. Latin music_sentence_33

"The Peanut Vendor" has been recorded more than 160 times, sold over a million copies of the sheet music, and was the first million-selling 78 rpm single of Cuban music. Latin music_sentence_34

1960s Latin music_section_3

The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and later became an international trend, led especially by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Latin music_sentence_35

Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Latin music_sentence_36

Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity. Latin music_sentence_37

1970s Latin music_section_4

Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Latin music_sentence_38

Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, and Celia Cruz expanding the audience. Latin music_sentence_39

In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, and Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. Latin music_sentence_40

In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries (Latin America, Spain, and Portugal) together. Latin music_sentence_41

Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world". Latin music_sentence_42

1980s Latin music_section_5

Main article: 1980s in Latin music Latin music_sentence_43

In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, and José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Latin music_sentence_44

Salsa music lost some traction, and its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics. Latin music_sentence_45

This became known as the salsa romantica era. Latin music_sentence_46

1990s Latin music_section_6

Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Latin music_sentence_47

Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance (1991), a collection of classics covered by the artist. Latin music_sentence_48

By the mid-1990s, Latin pop music was dominated by younger artists such as Menudo alumnus Ricky Martin, Colombian teen Shakira, and Julio's son Enrique Iglesias. Latin music_sentence_49

Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, and Nek successfully crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs. Latin music_sentence_50

In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano became the most prominent genre. Latin music_sentence_51

Selena helped push Tejano music into the mainstream market with her albums Entre a Mi Mundo (1992) and Amor Prohibido (1994), although the genre's popularity declined following her death in 1995. Latin music_sentence_52

In the tropical music field, merengue, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity. Latin music_sentence_53

2000s Latin music_section_7

In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Tego Calderon, Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, and Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. Latin music_sentence_54

In the tropical music scene, bachata music became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Latin music_sentence_55

Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field. Latin music_sentence_56

2010s Latin music_section_8

By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, reggaeton, urbano, banda and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U.S. Latin radio programmers. Latin music_sentence_57

Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain. Latin music_sentence_58

Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, and Anuel AA. Latin music_sentence_59

In May 2013, Christina Aguilera appeared on Mexican singer Alejandro Fernández's cover of "Hoy Tengo Ganas de Ti" from his album Confidencias. Latin music_sentence_60

2020s Latin music_section_9

Carrie Underwood teamed up with Spanish singer David Bisbal for a new single, “Tears of Gold.” The song marks Underwood’s first-ever bilingual single, with both vocalists singing in English and in Spanish. Latin music_sentence_61

See also Latin music_section_10

Latin music_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin music.