Liberalism and progressivism within Islam

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For modernist reform movements in Islam, see Islamic Modernism. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_0

Liberalism and progressivism within Islam involve professed Muslims who have created a considerable body of liberal thought about Islamic understanding and practice. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_1

Their work is sometimes characterized as "progressive Islam" (Arabic: الإسلام التقدمي‎ al-Islām at-taqaddumī); some scholars, such as Omid Safi, regard progressive Islam and liberal Islam as two distinct movements. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_2

Liberal ideas are considered controversial by some traditional Muslims, who criticize liberal ideas on the grounds of being too Western or rationalistic. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_3

The methodologies of liberal or progressive Islam rest on the interpretation of traditional Islamic scripture (the Quran) and other texts (such as the Hadith), a process called ijtihad (see below). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_4

This can vary from the slight to the most liberal, where only the meaning of the Quran is considered to be a revelation, with its expression in words seen as the work of the prophet Muhammad in his particular time and context. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_5

Liberal Muslims see themselves as returning to the principles of the early Ummah ethical and pluralistic intent of the Quran. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_6

They distance themselves from some traditional and less liberal interpretations of Islamic law which they regard as culturally based and without universal applicability. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_7

The reform movement uses monotheism (tawhid) "as an organizing principle for human society and the basis of religious knowledge, history, metaphysics, aesthetics, and ethics, as well as social, economic and world order". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_8

Liberal Islam values reinterpretations of the Islamic scriptures in order to preserve their relevance in the 21st century. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_9

Background in Islamic philosophy Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_0

Main articles: Islamic philosophy, List of Muslim philosophers, Islamic ethics, and Political aspects of Islam Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_10

The rise of Islam, based on both the Qur'an and Muhammad, strongly altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_11

Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, and the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_12

This view was challenged by the "rationalist" Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more Hellenic view, reason above revelation, and as such are known to modern scholars as the first speculative theologians of Islam; they were supported by a secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_13

By the late ancient period, however, the "traditionalist" Asharite view of Islam had in general triumphed. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_14

According to the Asharites, reason must be subordinate to the Quran and the Sunnah. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_15

Ibn Rushd, often Latinized as Averroes, was a medieval Andalusian polymath. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_16

Being described as "founding father of secular thought in Western Europe", he was known by the nickname the Commentator for his precious commentaries on Aristotle's works. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_17

His main work was The Incoherence of the Incoherence in which he defended philosophy against al-Ghazali's claims in The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_18

His other works were the Fasl al-Maqal and the Kitab al-Kashf. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_19

Ibn Rushd presented an argument in Fasl al-Maqal (Decisive Treatise) providing a justification for the emancipation of science and philosophy from official Ash'ari theology and that there is no inherent contradiction between philosophy and religion; thus Averroism has been considered a precursor to modern secularism. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_20

Ibn Rushd accepts the principle of women's equality. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_21

According to him they should be educated and allowed to serve in the military; the best among them might be tomorrow's philosophers or rulers. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_22

The 13th-century philosophical movement in Latin Christian and Jewish tradition based on Ibn Rushd's work is called Averroism. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_23

Ibn Rushd became something of a symbolic figure in the debate over the decline and proposed revitalization of Islamic thought and Islamic society in the later 20th century. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_24

A notable proponent of such a revival of Averroist thought in Islamic society was Mohammed Abed al-Jabri with his Critique de la Raison Arabe (1982). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_25

In 1831, Egyptian Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual Rifa'a al-Tahtawi was part of the statewide effort to modernize the Egyptian infrastructure and education. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_26

They introduced his Egyptian audience to Enlightenment ideas such as secular authority and political rights and liberty; his ideas regarding how a modern civilized society ought to be and what constituted by extension a civilized or "good Egyptian"; and his ideas on public interest and public good. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_27

Tahtawi's work was the first effort in what became an Egyptian renaissance (nahda) that flourished in the years between 1860–1940. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_28

Tahtawi is considered one of the early adapters to Islamic Modernism. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_29

Islamic Modernists attempted to integrate Islamic principles with European social theories. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_30

In 1826, Al-Tahtawi was sent to Paris by Mehmet Ali. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_31

Tahtawi studied at an educational mission for five years, returning in 1831. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_32

Tahtawi was appointed director of the School of Languages. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_33

At the school, he worked translating European books into Arabic. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_34

Tahtawi was instrumental in translating military manuals, geography, and European history. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_35

In total, al-Tahtawi supervised the translation of over 2,000 foreign works into Arabic. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_36

Al-Tahtawi even made favorable comments about French society in some of his books. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_37

Tahtawi stressed that the Principles of Islam are compatible with those of European Modernity. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_38

In his piece, The Extraction of Gold or an Overview of Paris, Tahtawi discusses the patriotic responsibility of citizenship. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_39

Tahtawi uses Roman civilization as an example for what could become of Islamic civilizations. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_40

At one point all Romans are united under one Caesar but split into East and West. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_41

After splitting, the two nations see “all its wars ended in defeat, and it retreated from a perfect existence to nonexistence.” Tahtawi understands that if Egypt is unable to remain united, it could fall prey to outside invaders. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_42

Tahtawi stresses the importance of citizens defending the patriotic duty of their country. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_43

One way to protect one's country according to Tahtawi, is to accept the changes that come with a modern society. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_44

Egyptian Islamic jurist and religious scholar Muhammad Abduh, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism or sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism, broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual, dogma, and family ties. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_45

Abduh argued that Muslims could not simply rely on the interpretations of texts provided by medieval clerics, they needed to use reason to keep up with changing times. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_46

He said that in Islam man was not created to be led by a bridle, man was given intelligence so that he could be guided by knowledge. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_47

According to Abduh, a teacher’s role was to direct men towards study. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_48

He believed that Islam encouraged men to detach from the world of their ancestors and that Islam reproved the slavish imitation of tradition. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_49

He said that the two greatest possessions relating to religion that man was graced with were independence of will and independence of thought and opinion. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_50

It was with the help of these tools that he could attain happiness. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_51

He believed that the growth of western civilization in Europe was based on these two principles. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_52

He thought that Europeans were roused to act after a large number of them were able to exercise their choice and to seek out facts with their minds. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_53

In his works, he portrays God as educating humanity from its childhood through its youth and then on to adulthood. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_54

According to him, Islam is the only religion whose dogmas can be proven by reasoning. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_55

He was against polygamy and thought that it was an archaic custom. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_56

He believed in a form of Islam that would liberate men from enslavement, provide equal rights for all human beings, abolish the religious scholar’s monopoly on exegesis and abolish racial discrimination and religious compulsion. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_57

Muhammad Abduh claimed in his book "Al-Idtihad fi Al-Nasraniyya wa Al-Islam" that no one had exclusive religious authority in the Islamic world. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_58

He argued that the Caliph did not represent religious authority, because he was not infallible nor was the Caliph the person whom the revelation was given to; therefore, according to Abduh, the Caliph and other Muslims are equal. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_59

ʿAbduh argued that the Caliph should have the respect of the ummah but not rule it; the unity of the umma is a moral unity which does not prevent its division into national states. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_60

Mohammad Abduh made great efforts to preach harmony between Sunnis and Shias. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_61

Broadly speaking, he preached brotherhood between all schools of thought in Islam. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_62

Abduh regularly called for better friendship between religious communities. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_63

As Christianity was the second biggest religion in Egypt, he devoted special efforts towards friendship between Muslims and Christians. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_64

He had many Christian friends and many a time he stood up to defend Copts. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_65

Egyptian Qur'anic thinker, author, academic Nasr Hamid Abu Zayd is one of the leading liberal theologians in Islam. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_66

He is famous for his project of a humanistic Qur'anic hermeneutics, which "challenged mainstream views" on the Qur'an sparking "controversy and debate." Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_67

While not denying that the Qur'an was of divine origin, Zayd argued that it was a "cultural product" that had to be read in the context of the language and culture of seventh century Arabs, and could be interpreted in more than one way. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_68

He also criticized the use of religion to exert political power. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_69

In 1995 an Egyptian Sharia court declared him an apostate, this led to threats of death and his fleeing Egypt several week later. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_70

(He later "quietly" returned to Egypt where he died.) Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_71

According to scholar Navid Kermani "three key themes" emerge from Abu Zayd's work: Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_72

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  1. to trace the various interpretations and historical settings of the single Qur'anic text from the early days of Islam up to the present;Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_item_0_0
  2. to demonstrate the "interpretational diversity" (al-ta 'addud alta 'wili) that exists within the Islamic tradition;Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_item_0_1
  3. and to show how this diversity has been "increasingly neglected" across Islamic history.Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_item_0_2

Abu Zayd saw himself as an heir to the Muʿtazila, "particularly their idea of the created Qurʿān and their tendency toward metaphorical interpretation." Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_73

Abu Zayd strongly opposed the belief in a "single, precise and valid interpretation of the Qur'an handed down by the Prophet for all times". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_74

In his view, the Quran made Islamic Arab culture a `culture of the text` (hadarat al-nass) par excellence, but because the language of the Quran is not self-explanatory, this implied Islamic Arab culture was also a culture of interpretation (hadarat al-ta'wil). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_75

Abu Zayd emphasized "intellect" (`aql) in understanding the Quran, as opposed to "a hermeneutical approach which gives priority to the narrated traditions [ hadith ]" (naql). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_76

As a reflection of this Abu Zaid used the term ta'wil (interpretation) for efforts to understand the Quran, while in the Islamic sciences, the literature that explained the Quran was referred to as tafsir (commentary, explanation). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_77

For Abu Zaid, interpretation goes beyond explanation or commentary, "for without" the Qur'an would not have meaning: Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_78

From the beginning of his academic career, Abu Zaid developed a renewed hermeneutic view (the theory and methodology of text interpretation) of the Qur'an and further Islamic holy texts, arguing that they should be interpreted in the historical and cultural context of their time. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_79

The mistake of many Muslim scholars was "to see the Qur'an only as a text, which led conservatives as well as liberals to a battle of quotations, each group seeing clear verses (when on their side) and ambiguous ones (when in contradiction with their vision)". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_80

But this type of controversy led both conservatives and liberals to produce authoritative hermeneutics. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_81

This vision of the Qur'an as a text was the vision of the elites of Muslim societies, whereas, at the same time, the Qur'an as "an oral discourse" played the most important part in the understanding of the masses. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_82

Abu Zayd called for another reading of the holy book through a "humanistic hermeneutics", an interpretation which sees the Qur'an as a living phenomenon, a discourse. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_83

Hence, the Qur'an can be "the outcome of dialogue, debate, despite argument, acceptance and rejection". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_84

This liberal interpretation of Islam should open space for new perspectives on the religion and social change in Muslim societies. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_85

His analysis finds several "insistent calls for social justice" in the Qur'an . Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_86

One example is when Muhammad—busy preaching to the rich people of Quraysh—failed to pay attention to a poor blind fellow named Ibn Umm Maktūm who came asking the Prophet for advice. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_87

The Quran strongly criticizes Muhammad's attitude. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_88

(Quran 80:10). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_89

Abu Zayd also argued that while the Qur'anic discourse was built in a patriarchal society, and therefore the addressees were naturally males, who received permission to marry, divorce, and marry off their female relatives, it is "possible to imagine that Muslim women receive the same rights", and so the Quran had a "tendency to improve women's rights". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_90

The classical position of the modern ‘ulamā’ about that issue is understandable as "they still believe in superiority of the male in the family". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_91

Abu Zayd's critical approach to classical and contemporary Islamic discourse in the fields of theology, philosophy, law, politics, and humanism, promoted modern Islamic thought that might enable Muslims to build a bridge between their own tradition and the modern world of freedom of speech, equality (minority rights, women's rights, social justice), human rights, democracy and globalisation. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_92

Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_unordered_list_1

  • Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_item_1_3
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  • Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_item_1_5

Ijtihad Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_1

Main article: Ijtihad Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_93

Ijtihad (lit. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_94

effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_95

It is contrasted with taqlid (imitation, conformity to legal precedent). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_96

According to classical Sunni theory, ijtihad requires expertise in the Arabic language, theology, revealed texts, and principles of jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh), and is not employed where authentic and authoritative texts (Qur'an and hadith) are considered unambiguous with regard to the question, or where there is an existing scholarly consensus (ijma). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_97

Ijtihad is considered to be a religious duty for those qualified to perform it. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_98

An Islamic scholar who is qualified to perform ijtihad is called a mujtahid. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_99

Starting from the 18th century, some Muslim reformers began calling for abandonment of taqlid and emphasis on ijtihad, which they saw as a return to Islamic origins. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_100

Public debates in the Muslim world surrounding ijtihad continue to the present day. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_101

The advocacy of ijtihad has been particularly associated with Islamic modernists. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_102

Among contemporary Muslims in the West there have emerged new visions of ijtihad which emphasize substantive moral values over traditional juridical methodology. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_103

Specific issues Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_2

Feminism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_3

Main articles: Islamic feminism and Hermeneutics of feminism in Islam Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_104

See also: Women in Islam, Gender roles in Islam, Islam and domestic violence, Religious views on female genital mutilation § Islam, and List of Muslim feminists Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_105

A combination of Islam and feminism has been advocated as "a feminist discourse and practice articulated within an Islamic paradigm" by Margot Badran in 2002. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_106

Islamic feminists ground their arguments in Islam and its teachings, seek the full equality of women and men in the personal and public sphere, and can include non-Muslims in the discourse and debate. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_107

Islamic feminism is defined by Islamic scholars as being more radical than secular feminism, and as being anchored within the discourse of Islam with the Quran as its central text. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_108

During recent times, the concept of Islamic feminism has grown further with Islamic groups looking to garner support from many aspects of society. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_109

In addition, educated Muslim women are striving to articulate their role in society. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_110

Examples of Islamic feminist groups are the Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, founded by Meena Keshwar Kamal, Muslim Women’s Quest for Equality from India, and Sisters in Islam from Malaysia, founded by Zainah Anwar and Amina Wadud among other five women. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_111

In 2014, the Selangor Islamic Religious Council (MAIS) issued a fatwa declaring that Sisters In Islam, as well as any other organisation promoting religious liberalism and pluralism, deviate from the teachings of Islam. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_112

According to the edict, publications that are deemed to promote liberal and pluralistic religious thinking are to be declared unlawful and confiscated, while social media is also to be monitored and restricted. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_113

As fatwas are legally binding in Malaysia, SIS is challenging it on constitutional grounds. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_114

Human rights Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_4

Further information: Human rights in Muslim-majority countries and Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_115

Moderate Islamic political thought contends that the nurturing of the Muslim identity and the propagation of values such as democracy and human rights are not mutually exclusive, but rather should be promoted together. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_116

Most liberal Muslims believe that Islam promotes the notion of absolute equality of all humanity, and that it is one of its central concepts. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_117

Therefore, a breach of human rights has become a source of great concern to most liberal Muslims. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_118

Liberal Muslims differ with their culturally conservative counterparts in that they believe that all humanity is represented under the umbrella of human rights. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_119

Many Muslim majority countries have signed international human rights treaties, but the impact of these largely remains to be seen in local legal systems. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_120

Muslim liberals often reject traditional interpretations of Islamic law, which allows Ma malakat aymanukum and slavery. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_121

They say that slavery opposed Islamic principles which they believe to be based on justice and equality and some say that verses relating to slavery or "Ma malakat aymanukum" now can not be applied due to the fact that the world has changed, while others say that those verses are totally misinterpreted and twisted to legitimize slavery. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_122

In the 20th century, South Asian scholars Ghulam Ahmed Pervez and Amir Ali argued that the expression ma malakat aymanukum should be properly read in the past tense. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_123

When some called for reinstatement of slavery in Pakistan upon its independence from the British colonial rule, Pervez argued that the past tense of this expression means that the Quran had imposed "an unqualified ban" on slavery. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_124

Liberal Muslims have argued against death penalty for apostasy based on the Quranic verse that "There shall be no compulsion in religion." Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_125

LGBT rights Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_5

Main articles: LGBT in Islam § LGBT-related movements within Islam, Al-Fatiha Foundation, and Gay Muslims Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_126

In January 2013, the Muslim Alliance for Sexual and Gender Diversity (MASGD) was launched. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_127

The organization was formed by members of the Queer Muslim Working Group, with the support of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_128

Several initial MASGD members previously had been involved with the Al-Fatiha Foundation, including Faisal Alam and Imam Daayiee Abdullah. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_129

The Safra Project for women is based in the UK. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_130

It supports and works on issues relating to prejudice LGBTQ Muslim women. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_131

It was founded in October 2001 by Muslim LBT women. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_132

The Safra Project’s “ethos is one of inclusiveness and diversity.” Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_133

In Australia, Nur Wahrsage has been an advocate for LGBTI Muslims and founded Marhaba, a support group for queer Muslims in Melbourne, Australia. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_134

In May 2016, Wahrsage revealed that he is homosexual in an interview on SBS2’s The Feed, being the first openly gay Imam in Australia. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_135

In Canada, Salaam was founded as the first gay Muslim organization in Canada and the second in the world. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_136

Salaam was found in 1993 by El-Farouk Khaki, who organized the Salaam/Al-Fateha International Conference in 2003. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_137

In May 2009, the Toronto Unity Mosque / el-Tawhid Juma Circle was founded by Laury Silvers, a University of Toronto religious studies scholar, alongside Muslim gay-rights activists El-Farouk Khaki and Troy Jackson. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_138

Unity Mosque/ETJC is a gender-equal, LGBT+ affirming, mosque. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_139

In November 2012, a prayer room was set up in Paris, France by gay Islamic scholar and founder of the group 'Homosexual Muslims of France' Ludovic-Mohamed Zahed. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_140

It was described by the press as the first gay-friendly mosque in Europe. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_141

The reaction from the rest of the Muslim community in France has been mixed, the opening has been condemned by the Grand Mosque of Paris. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_142

Examples of Muslim LGBT media works are the 2006 Channel 4's documentary Gay Muslims, the film production company Unity Productions Foundation, the 2007 and 2015 documentary films A Jihad for Love and A Sinner in Mecca, both produced by Parvez Sharma, and the Jordanian LGBT publication My.Kali. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_143

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Secularism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_6

Main article: Islam and secularism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_144

See also: Criticism of Sharia law and Application of Islamic law by country Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_145

The definition and application of secularism, especially the place of religion in society, varies among Muslim countries as it does among non-Muslim countries. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_146

As the concept of secularism varies among secularists in the Muslim world, reactions of Muslim intellectuals to the pressure of secularization also varies. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_147

On the one hand, secularism is condemned by some Muslim intellectuals who do not feel that religious influence should be removed from the public sphere. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_148

On the other hand, secularism is claimed by others to be compatible with Islam. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_149

For example, the quest for secularism has inspired some Muslim scholars who argue that secular government is the best way to observe sharia; "enforcing [sharia] through coercive power of the state negates its religious nature, because Muslims would be observing the law of the state and not freely performing their religious obligation as Muslims" says Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, a professor of law at Emory University and author of Islam and the secular state : negotiating the future of Shariʻa. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_150

Moreover, some scholars argue that secular states have existed in the Muslim world since the Middle Ages. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_151

Sayyid supremacism and caste system in Islam Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_7

Main articles: Caste system among South Asian Muslims and Kafa'ah § The Hadhrami Controversy Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_152

Sayyids have special privileges in Islam, notably of tax exemptions and a share in Khums. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_153

Discrimination also exists in regards of intermarriage between persons of Arab and non-Arab lineages with the following ruling being relevant according to Hanafi school: Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_154

South Asian Muslims have a complex system of castes heavily influenced by Hindu caste system but scholars have opined that Islamic influence had an independent contribution to it. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_155

Movements Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_8

For individual movements, see Liberal and progressive Islam in Europe, Liberal and progressive Islam in North America, and List of Islamic feminist movements. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_156

Over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in accordance with their increasingly modern societies and outlooks, liberal Muslims have tended to reinterpret many aspects of the application of their religion in their life in an attempt to reconnect. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_157

This is particularly true of Muslims who now find themselves living in non-Muslim countries. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_158

At least one observer (Max Rodenbeck) has noted several challenges to "reform"—i.e. accommodation with the enlightenment, reason and science, the separation of religion and politics—that the other two Abrahamic faiths did not have to grapple with: Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_159

In addition, traditional sharia law has been shaped in all its complexity by serving for centuries as "the backbone" of legal systems of Muslim states, while millions of Muslim now live in non-Muslim states. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_160

Islam also lacks a "widely recognized religious hierarchy to explain doctrinal changes or to enforce them" because it has no [central] church. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_161

Islamic Modernism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_9

Main article: Islamic Modernism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_162

Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism, is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response" attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_163

It featured a "critical reexamination of the classical conceptions and methods of jurisprudence" and a new approach to Islamic theology and Quranic exegesis (Tafsir). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_164

It was the first of several Islamic movements – including secularism, Islamism and Salafism – that emerged in the middle of the 19th century in reaction to the rapid changes of the time, especially the perceived onslaught of Western Civilization and colonialism on the Muslim world. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_165

Founders include Muhammad Abduh, a Sheikh of Al-Azhar University for a brief period before his death in 1905, Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, and Muhammad Rashid Rida (d. 1935). Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_166

The early Islamic Modernists (al-Afghani and Muhammad Abdu) used the term "salafiyya" to refer to their attempt at renovation of Islamic thought, and this "salafiyya movement" is often known in the West as "Islamic modernism," although it is very different from what is currently called the Salafi movement, which generally signifies "ideologies such as wahhabism". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_167

Since its inception, Modernism has suffered from co-option of its original reformism by both secularist rulers and by "the official ulama" whose "task it is to legitimise" rulers' actions in religious terms. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_168

Modernism differs from secularism in that it insists on the importance of religious faith in public life, and from Salafism or Islamism in that it embraces contemporary European institutions, social processes, and values. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_169

Quranism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_10

Main article: Quranism Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_170

See also: Criticism of Hadith Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_171

Quranists believe Muhammad himself was a Quranist and the founder of Quranism, and that his followers distorted the faith and split into schisms and factions such as Sunni, Shia, and Khawarij. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_172

Quranists reject the hadith and follow the Quran only. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_173

The extent to which Quranists reject the authenticity of the Sunnah varies, but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised the authenticity of the hadith and refused it for many reasons, the most prevalent being the Quranist claim that hadith is not mentioned in the Quran as a source of Islamic theology and practice, was not recorded in written form until more than two centuries after the death of the Muhammed, and contain perceived internal errors and contradictions. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_174

Tolu-e-Islam Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_11

Main article: Tolu-e-Islam Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_175

The movement was initiated by Muhammad Iqbal, and later spearheaded by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_176

Ghulam Ahmed Pervez did not reject all hadiths; however, he only accepted hadiths which "are in accordance with the Quran or do not stain the character of the Prophet or his companions". Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_177

The organization publishes and distributes books, pamphlets, and recordings of Pervez's teachings. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_178

Tolu-e-Islam does not belong to any political party, nor does it belong to any religious group or sect. Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_sentence_179

See also Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_section_12

Liberalism and progressivism within Islam_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism and progressivism within Islam.