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This article is about the country in northern Africa. Libya_sentence_0

For other uses, see Libya (disambiguation). Libya_sentence_1


State of Libya

دولة ليبيا  (Arabic) Dawlat LībiyāLibya_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityLibya_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesLibya_header_cell_0_2_0 ArabicLibya_cell_0_2_1
Spoken languagesLibya_header_cell_0_3_0 Libya_cell_0_3_1
Minority LanguagesLibya_header_cell_0_4_0 Libya_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsLibya_header_cell_0_5_0 Libya_cell_0_5_1
ReligionLibya_header_cell_0_6_0 IslamLibya_cell_0_6_1
Demonym(s)Libya_header_cell_0_7_0 LibyanLibya_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentLibya_header_cell_0_8_0 Unitary provisional governmentLibya_cell_0_8_1
PresidentLibya_header_cell_0_9_0 Libya_cell_0_9_1
Prime MinisterLibya_header_cell_0_10_0 Libya_cell_0_10_1
President of the House of RepresentativesLibya_header_cell_0_11_0 Libya_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureLibya_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesLibya_cell_0_12_1
Independence from ItalyLibya_header_cell_0_14_0 10 February 1947Libya_cell_0_14_1
Released from British and French oversightLibya_header_cell_0_15_0 24 December 1951Libya_cell_0_15_1
Coup d'état by Muammar GaddafiLibya_header_cell_0_16_0 1 September 1969Libya_cell_0_16_1
Socialist People's Libyan Arab JamahiriyaLibya_header_cell_0_17_0 19 November 1977Libya_cell_0_17_1
Revolution DayLibya_header_cell_0_18_0 17 February 2011Libya_cell_0_18_1
Area Libya_header_cell_0_19_0
TotalLibya_header_cell_0_20_0 1,759,541 km (679,363 sq mi) (16th)Libya_cell_0_20_1
2018 estimateLibya_header_cell_0_22_0 6,871,287 (108th)Libya_cell_0_22_1
2006 censusLibya_header_cell_0_23_0 5,670,688Libya_cell_0_23_1
DensityLibya_header_cell_0_24_0 3.74/km (9.7/sq mi) (218th)Libya_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Libya_header_cell_0_25_0 2020 estimateLibya_cell_0_25_1
TotalLibya_header_cell_0_26_0 $31.531 billionLibya_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaLibya_header_cell_0_27_0 $4,746Libya_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Libya_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateLibya_cell_0_28_1
TotalLibya_header_cell_0_29_0 $21.805 billion (98)Libya_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaLibya_header_cell_0_30_0 $3,282Libya_cell_0_30_1
HDI (2018)Libya_header_cell_0_31_0 0.708

high · 110thLibya_cell_0_31_1

CurrencyLibya_header_cell_0_32_0 Libyan dinar (LYD)Libya_cell_0_32_1
Time zoneLibya_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC+2 (EET)Libya_cell_0_33_1
Driving sideLibya_header_cell_0_34_0 rightLibya_cell_0_34_1
Calling codeLibya_header_cell_0_35_0 +218Libya_cell_0_35_1
ISO 3166 codeLibya_header_cell_0_36_0 LYLibya_cell_0_36_1
Internet TLDLibya_header_cell_0_37_0 .ly


Libya (/ˈlɪbiə/ (listen); Arabic: ليبيا‎, romanized: Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya (Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎, romanized: Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, and Tunisia to the northwest. Libya_sentence_2

The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania, Fezzan and Cyrenaica. Libya_sentence_3

With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres (700,000 sq mi), Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, and is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya_sentence_4

Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. Libya_sentence_5

The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over three million of Libya's seven million people. Libya_sentence_6

The second-largest city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya_sentence_7

The Latin name Libya is based on the name of the region west of the Nile (Λιβύη) used by the Ancient Greeks and Romans for all of North Africa, and was again adopted during the period of Italian colonization beginning in 1911. Libya_sentence_8

Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age as descendants from Iberomaurusian and Capsian cultures. Libya_sentence_9

The Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya_sentence_10

Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians, Egyptians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire. Libya_sentence_11

Libya was an early centre of Christianity. Libya_sentence_12

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. Libya_sentence_13

In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya_sentence_14

Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. Libya_sentence_15

Ottoman rule continued until the Italo-Turkish War, which resulted in the Italian occupation of Libya and the establishment of two colonies, Italian Tripolitania and Italian Cyrenaica (1911–1934), later unified in the Italian Libya colony from 1934 to 1947. Libya_sentence_16

During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign. Libya_sentence_17

The Italian population then went into decline. Libya_sentence_18

Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. Libya_sentence_19

A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I. Libya_sentence_20

The "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Libya_sentence_21

Two authorities initially claimed to govern Libya: the House of Representatives in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress (GNC) in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012. Libya_sentence_22

After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, and the GNC disbanded to support it. Libya_sentence_23

Since then, a second civil war has broken out, with parts of Libya split between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based governments, as well as various tribal and Islamist militias. Libya_sentence_24

As of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya_sentence_25

Libya is a member of the United Nations (since 1955), the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC. Libya_sentence_26

The country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. Libya_sentence_27

Etymology Libya_section_0

Further information: Ancient Libya and Libu Libya_sentence_28

The origin of the name "Libya" first appeared in an inscription of Ramesses II, written as in hieroglyphic. Libya_sentence_29

The name derives from a generalized identity given to a large confederacy of ancient east "Libyan" berbers, people(s) and tribes who lived around the lush regions of Cyrenaica and Marmarica. Libya_sentence_30

An army of 40,000 men and a confederacy of tribes known as "Great Chiefs of the Libu" were led by King Meryey who fought a war against pharaoh Merneptah in year 5 (1208 BCE). Libya_sentence_31

This conflict was mentioned in the Great Karnak Inscription in the western delta during the 5th and 6th years of his reign and resulted in a defeat for Meryey. Libya_sentence_32

According to the Great Karnak Inscription, the military alliance comprised the Meshwesh, the Lukka, and the "Sea Peoples" known as the Ekwesh, Teresh, Shekelesh, and the Sherden. Libya_sentence_33

The Great karnak inscription reads: Libya_sentence_34

The modern name of "Libya" is an evolution of the "Libu" or "Libúē" name (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē), generally encompassing the people of Cyrenaica and Marmarica. Libya_sentence_35

The "Libúē" or "libu" name likely came to be used in the classical world as an identity for the natives of the North African region. Libya_sentence_36

The name was revived in 1934 for Italian Libya from the ancient Greek Λιβύη (Libúē). Libya_sentence_37

It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya, having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911 as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. Libya_sentence_38

The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya_sentence_39

Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom (المملكة الليبية المتحدة al-Mamlakah al-Lībiyyah al-Muttaḥidah), changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية al-Mamlakah al-Lībiyyah), literally "Libyan Kingdom", in 1963. Libya_sentence_40

Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية الليبية al-Jumhūriyyah al-‘Arabiyyah al-Lībiyyah). Libya_sentence_41

The official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986 (الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية), and "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" (الجماهيرية العربية الليبية الشعبية الاشتراكية العظمى, al-Jamāhīriyyah al-‘Arabiyyah al-Lībiyyah ash-Sha‘biyyah al-Ishtirākiyyah al-‘Udmá listen (help·)) from 1986 to 2011. Libya_sentence_42

The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as simply "Libya". Libya_sentence_43

The UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011 based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. Libya_sentence_44

In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye (la)" in French. Libya_sentence_45

In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya"; "Libya" remained the official short form, and the country continued to be listed under "L" in alphabetical lists. Libya_sentence_46

History Libya_section_1

Main article: History of Libya Libya_sentence_47

Ancient Libya Libya_section_2

Main articles: Ancient Libya and Libu Libya_sentence_48

The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC. Libya_sentence_49

The Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. Libya_sentence_50

The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa. Libya_sentence_51

The Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. Libya_sentence_52

By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, Carthage, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Libya_sentence_53

In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Libya_sentence_54

Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as Cyrenaica. Libya_sentence_55


In 525 BC the Persian army of Cambyses II overran Cyrenaica, which for the next two centuries remained under Persian or Egyptian rule. Libya_sentence_56

Alexander the Great was greeted by the Greeks when he entered Cyrenaica in 331 BC, and Eastern Libya again fell under the control of the Greeks, this time as part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Libya_sentence_57

After the fall of Carthage the Romans did not immediately occupy Tripolitania (the region around Tripoli), but left it instead under control of the kings of Numidia, until the coastal cities asked and obtained its protection. Libya_sentence_58

Ptolemy Apion, the last Greek ruler, bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which formally annexed the region in 74 BC and joined it to Crete as a Roman province. Libya_sentence_59

As part of the Africa Nova province, Tripolitania was prosperous, and reached a golden age in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, when the city of Leptis Magna, home to the Severan dynasty, was at its height. Libya_sentence_60

On the Eastern side, Cyrenaica's first Christian communities were established by the time of the Emperor Claudius. Libya_sentence_61

It was heavily devastated during the Kitos War and almost depopulated of Greeks and Jews alike. Libya_sentence_62

Although repopulated by Trajan with military colonies, from then started its decline. Libya_sentence_63

Libya was early to convert to Nicene Christianity and was the home of Pope Victor I; however, Libya was a hotbed for early heresies such as Arianism and Donatism. Libya_sentence_64

The decline of the Roman Empire saw the classical cities fall into ruin, a process hastened by the Vandals' destructive sweep through North Africa in the 5th century. Libya_sentence_65

When the Empire returned (now as East Romans) as part of Justinian's reconquests of the 6th century, efforts were made to strengthen the old cities, but it was only a last gasp before they collapsed into disuse. Libya_sentence_66

Cyrenaica, which had remained an outpost of the Byzantine Empire during the Vandal period, also took on the characteristics of an armed camp. Libya_sentence_67

Unpopular Byzantine governors imposed burdensome taxation to meet military costs, while the towns and public services—including the water system—were left to decay. Libya_sentence_68

By the beginning of the 7th century, Byzantine control over the region was weak, Berber rebellions were becoming more frequent, and there was little to oppose Muslim invasion. Libya_sentence_69

Islamic Libya Libya_section_3

Main article: History of Islamic Tripolitania and Cyrenaica Libya_sentence_70

Under the command of 'Amr ibn al-'As, the Rashidun army conquered Cyrenaica. Libya_sentence_71

In 647 an army led by Abdullah ibn Saad took Tripoli from the Byzantines definitively. Libya_sentence_72

The Fezzan was conquered by Uqba ibn Nafi in 663. Libya_sentence_73

The Berber tribes of the hinterland accepted Islam, however they resisted Arab political rule. Libya_sentence_74

For the next several decades, Libya was under the purview of the Umayyad Caliph of Damascus until the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750, and Libya came under the rule of Baghdad. Libya_sentence_75

When Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab as his governor of Ifriqiya in 800, Libya enjoyed considerable local autonomy under the Aghlabid dynasty. Libya_sentence_76

By the 10th century, the Shiite Fatimids controlled Western Libya, and ruled the entire region in 972 and appointed Bologhine ibn Ziri as governor. Libya_sentence_77

Ibn Ziri's Berber Zirid dynasty ultimately broke away from the Shiite Fatimids, and recognised the Sunni Abbasids of Baghdad as rightful Caliphs. Libya_sentence_78

In retaliation, the Fatimids brought about the migration of thousands from mainly two Arab Qaisi tribes, the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal to North Africa. Libya_sentence_79

This act drastically altered the fabric of the Libyan countryside, and cemented the cultural and linguistic Arabisation of the region. Libya_sentence_80

Zirid rule in Tripolitania was short-lived though, and already in 1001 the Berbers of the Banu Khazrun broke away. Libya_sentence_81

Tripolitania remained under their control until 1146, when the region was overtaken by the Normans of Sicily. Libya_sentence_82

It was not until 1159 that the Moroccan Almohad leader Abd al-Mu'min reconquered Tripoli from European rule. Libya_sentence_83

For the next 50 years, Tripolitania was the scene of numerous battles among Ayyubids, the Almohad rulers and insurgents of the Banu Ghaniya. Libya_sentence_84

Later, a general of the Almohads, Muhammad ibn Abu Hafs, ruled Libya from 1207 to 1221 before the later establishment of a Tunisian Hafsid dynasty independent from the Almohads. Libya_sentence_85

The Hafsids ruled Tripolitania for nearly 300 years. Libya_sentence_86

By the 16th century the Hafsids became increasingly caught up in the power struggle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire. Libya_sentence_87

After weakening control of Abbasids, Cyrenaica was under Egypt based states such as Tulunids, Ikhshidids, Ayyubids and Mamluks before Ottoman conquest in 1517. Libya_sentence_88

Finally Fezzan acquired independence under Awlad Muhammad dynasty after Kanem rule. Libya_sentence_89

Ottomans finally conquered Fezzan between 1556 and 1577. Libya_sentence_90

Ottoman Tripolitania (1551–1911) Libya_section_4

Main article: Ottoman Tripolitania Libya_sentence_91

After a successful invasion of Tripoli by Habsburg Spain in 1510, and its handover to the Knights of St. John, the Ottoman admiral Sinan Pasha took control of Libya in 1551. Libya_sentence_92

His successor Turgut Reis was named the Bey of Tripoli and later Pasha of Tripoli in 1556. Libya_sentence_93

By 1565, administrative authority as regent in Tripoli was vested in a pasha appointed directly by the sultan in Constantinople/Istanbul. Libya_sentence_94

In the 1580s, the rulers of Fezzan gave their allegiance to the sultan, and although Ottoman authority was absent in Cyrenaica, a bey was stationed in Benghazi late in the next century to act as agent of the government in Tripoli. Libya_sentence_95

European slaves and large numbers of enslaved Blacks transported from Sudan were also a feature of everyday life in Tripoli. Libya_sentence_96

In 1551, Turgut Reis enslaved almost the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo, some 5,000 people, sending them to Libya. Libya_sentence_97

In time, real power came to rest with the pasha's corps of janissaries. Libya_sentence_98

In 1611 the deys staged a coup against the pasha, and Dey Sulayman Safar was appointed as head of government. Libya_sentence_99

For the next hundred years, a series of deys effectively ruled Tripolitania. Libya_sentence_100

The two most important Deys were Mehmed Saqizli (r. 1631–49) and Osman Saqizli (r. 1649–72), both also Pasha, who ruled effectively the region. Libya_sentence_101

The latter conquered also Cyrenaica. Libya_sentence_102

Lacking direction from the Ottoman government, Tripoli lapsed into a period of military anarchy during which coup followed coup and few deys survived in office more than a year. Libya_sentence_103

One such coup was led by Turkish officer Ahmed Karamanli. Libya_sentence_104

The Karamanlis ruled from 1711 until 1835 mainly in Tripolitania, and had influence in Cyrenaica and Fezzan as well by the mid-18th century. Libya_sentence_105

Ahmed's successors proved to be less capable than himself, however, the region's delicate balance of power allowed the Karamanli. Libya_sentence_106

The 1793–95 Tripolitanian civil war occurred in those years. Libya_sentence_107

In 1793, Turkish officer Ali Benghul deposed Hamet Karamanli and briefly restored Tripolitania to Ottoman rule. Libya_sentence_108

Hamet's brother Yusuf (r. 1795–1832) re-established Tripolitania's independence. Libya_sentence_109

In the early 19th century war broke out between the United States and Tripolitania, and a series of battles ensued in what came to be known as the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War. Libya_sentence_110

By 1819, the various treaties of the Napoleonic Wars had forced the Barbary states to give up piracy almost entirely, and Tripolitania's economy began to crumble. Libya_sentence_111

As Yusuf weakened, factions sprung up around his three sons. Libya_sentence_112

Civil war soon resulted. Libya_sentence_113

Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II sent in troops ostensibly to restore order, marking the end of both the Karamanli dynasty and an independent Tripolitania. Libya_sentence_114

Order was not recovered easily, and the revolt of the Libyan under Abd-El-Gelil and Gûma ben Khalifa lasted until the death of the latter in 1858. Libya_sentence_115

The second period of direct Ottoman rule saw administrative changes, and greater order in the governance of the three provinces of Libya. Libya_sentence_116

Ottoman rule finally reasserted to Fezzan between 1850 and 1875 for earning income from Saharan commerce. Libya_sentence_117

Italian colonization (1911–1943) Libya_section_5

Main articles: Italian Tripolitania, Italian Cyrenaica, and Italian Libya Libya_sentence_118

See also: Italian colonization of Libya Libya_sentence_119

After the Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912), Italy simultaneously turned the three regions into colonies. Libya_sentence_120

From 1912 to 1927, the territory of Libya was known as Italian North Africa. Libya_sentence_121

From 1927 to 1934, the territory was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania, run by Italian governors. Libya_sentence_122

Some 150,000 Italians settled in Libya, constituting roughly 20% of the total population. Libya_sentence_123

Omar Mukhtar rose to prominence as a resistance leader against Italian colonization and became a national hero despite his capture and execution on 16 September 1931. Libya_sentence_124

His face is currently printed on the Libyan ten dinar note in memory and recognition of his patriotism. Libya_sentence_125

Another prominent resistance leader, Idris al-Mahdi as-Senussi (later King Idris I), Emir of Cyrenaica, continued to lead the Libyan resistance until the outbreak of the Second World War. Libya_sentence_126

The so-called "pacification of Libya" by the Italians resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica, killing approximately one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000. Libya_sentence_127

Ilan Pappé estimates that between 1928 and 1932 the Italian military "killed half the Bedouin population (directly or through disease and starvation in Italian concentration camps in Libya)." Libya_sentence_128

In 1934, Italy combined Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan and adopted the name "Libya" (used by the Ancient Greeks for all of North Africa except Egypt) for the unified colony, with Tripoli as its capital. Libya_sentence_129

The Italians emphasized infrastructure improvements and public works. Libya_sentence_130

In particular, they greatly expanded Libyan railway and road networks from 1934 to 1940, building hundreds of kilometers of new roads and railways and encouraging the establishment of new industries and dozen of new agricultural villages. Libya_sentence_131

In June 1940, Italy entered World War II. Libya_sentence_132

Libya became the setting for the hard-fought North African Campaign that ultimately ended in defeat for Italy and its German ally in 1943. Libya_sentence_133

From 1943 to 1951, Libya was under Allied occupation. Libya_sentence_134

The British military administered the two former Italian Libyan provinces of Tripolitana and Cyrenaïca, while the French administered the province of Fezzan. Libya_sentence_135

In 1944, Idris returned from exile in Cairo but declined to resume permanent residence in Cyrenaica until the removal of some aspects of foreign control in 1947. Libya_sentence_136

Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya. Libya_sentence_137

Independence, Kingdom of Libya and Libya under the direction of Gaddafi (1951–2011) Libya_section_6

Main articles: Kingdom of Libya and History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi Libya_sentence_138

On 24 December 1951, Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, a constitutional and hereditary monarchy under King Idris, Libya's only monarch. Libya_sentence_139

The discovery of significant oil reserves in 1959 and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled one of the world's poorest nations to establish an extremely wealthy state. Libya_sentence_140

Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, resentment among some factions began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of King Idris. Libya_sentence_141

On 1 September 1969, a group of rebel military officers led by Muammar Gaddafi launched a coup d'état against King Idris, which became known as the Al Fateh Revolution. Libya_sentence_142

Gaddafi was referred to as the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution" in government statements and the official Libyan press. Libya_sentence_143

Moving to reduce Italian influence, in October 1970 all Italian-owned assets were expropriated and the 12,000-strong Italian community was expelled from Libya alongside the smaller community of Libyan Jews. Libya_sentence_144

The day became a national holiday known as "Vengeance Day". Libya_sentence_145

Libya's increase in prosperity was accompanied by increased internal political repression, and political dissent was made illegal under Law 75 of 1973. Libya_sentence_146

Widespread surveillance of the population was carried out through Gaddafi's Revolutionary Committees. Libya_sentence_147

Gaddafi also wanted to combat the strict social restrictions that had been imposed on women by the previous regime, establishing the Revolutionary Women's Formation to encourage reform. Libya_sentence_148

In 1970, a law was introduced affirming equality of the sexes and insisting on wage parity. Libya_sentence_149

In 1971, Gaddafi sponsored the creation of a Libyan General Women's Federation. Libya_sentence_150

In 1972, a law was passed criminalizing the marriage of any females under the age of sixteen and ensuring that a woman's consent was a necessary prerequisite for a marriage. Libya_sentence_151

On 25 October 1975, a coup attempt was launched by some 20 military officers, mostly from the city of Misrata. Libya_sentence_152

This resulted in the arrest and executions of the coup plotters. Libya_sentence_153

On 2 March 1977, Libya officially became the "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya". Libya_sentence_154

Gaddafi officially passed power to the General People's Committees and henceforth claimed to be no more than a symbolic figurehead. Libya_sentence_155

The new jamahiriya (Arab for "republic") governance structure he established was officially referred to as "direct democracy". Libya_sentence_156

In February 1977, Libya started delivering military supplies to Goukouni Oueddei and the People's Armed Forces in Chad. Libya_sentence_157

The Chadian–Libyan conflict began in earnest when Libya's support of rebel forces in northern Chad escalated into an invasion. Libya_sentence_158

Later that same year, Libya and Egypt fought a four-day border war that came to be known as the Libyan-Egyptian War. Libya_sentence_159

Both nations agreed to a ceasefire under the mediation of the Algerian president Houari Boumediène. Libya_sentence_160

Hundreds of Libyans lost their lives in the country's support for Idi Amin's Uganda in its war against Tanzania. Libya_sentence_161

Gaddafi financed various other groups from anti-nuclear movements to Australian trade unions. Libya_sentence_162

From 1977 onward, per capita income in the country rose to more than US$11,000, the fifth-highest in Africa, while the Human Development Index became the highest in Africa and greater than that of Saudi Arabia. Libya_sentence_163

This was achieved without borrowing any foreign loans, keeping Libya debt-free. Libya_sentence_164

The Great Manmade River was also built to allow free access to fresh water across large parts of the country. Libya_sentence_165

In addition, financial support was provided for university scholarships and employment programs. Libya_sentence_166

Much of Libya's income from oil, which soared in the 1970s, was spent on arms purchases and on sponsoring dozens of paramilitaries and terrorist groups around the world. Libya_sentence_167

An American airstrike intended to kill Gaddafi failed in 1986. Libya_sentence_168

Libya was finally put under sanctions by the United Nations after the bombing of a commercial flight killed 270 people. Libya_sentence_169

First Libyan Civil War Libya_section_7

Main articles: Libyan Civil War (2011) and 2011 military intervention in Libya Libya_sentence_170

After the Arab Spring movements overturned the rulers of Tunisia and Egypt, Libya experienced a full-scale revolt beginning on 17 February 2011. Libya_sentence_171

Libya's authoritarian regime led by Muammar Gaddafi put up much more of a resistance compared to the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia. Libya_sentence_172

While overthrowing the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia was a relatively quick process, Gaddafi's campaign posed significant stalls on the uprisings in Libya. Libya_sentence_173

The first announcement of a competing political authority appeared online and declared the Interim Transitional National Council as an alternative government. Libya_sentence_174

One of Gaddafi's senior advisors responded by posting a tweet, wherein he resigned, defected, and advised Gaddafi to flee. Libya_sentence_175

By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. Libya_sentence_176

On 27 February 2011, the National Transitional Council was established to administer the areas of Libya under rebel control. Libya_sentence_177

On 10 March 2011, France became the first state to officially recognise the council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people. Libya_sentence_178

Pro-Gaddaffi forces were able to respond militarily to rebel pushes in Western Libya and launched a counterattack along the coast toward Benghazi, the de facto centre of the uprising. Libya_sentence_179

The town of Zawiya, 48 kilometres (30 mi) from Tripoli, was bombarded by air force planes and army tanks and seized by Jamahiriya troops, "exercising a level of brutality not yet seen in the conflict." Libya_sentence_180

Organizations of the United Nations, including United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and the United Nations Human Rights Council, condemned the crackdown as violating international law, with the latter body expelling Libya outright in an unprecedented action. Libya_sentence_181

On 17 March 2011 the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1973, with a 10–0 vote and five abstentions including Russia, China, India, Brazil and Germany. Libya_sentence_182

The resolution sanctioned the establishment of a no-fly zone and the use of "all means necessary" to protect civilians within Libya. Libya_sentence_183

On 19 March, the first act of NATO allies to secure the no-fly zone began by destroying Libyan air defenses when French military jets entered Libyan airspace on a reconnaissance mission heralding attacks on enemy targets. Libya_sentence_184

In the weeks that followed, American forces were in the forefront of NATO operations against Libya. Libya_sentence_185

More than 8,000 American personnel in warships and aircraft were deployed in the area. Libya_sentence_186

At least 3,000 targets were struck in 14,202 strike sorties, 716 of them in Tripoli and 492 in Brega. Libya_sentence_187

The American air offensive included flights of B-2 Stealth bombers, each bomber armed with sixteen 2000-pound bombs, flying out of and returning to their base in Missouri in the continental United States. Libya_sentence_188

The support provided by the NATO air forces contributed to the ultimate success of the revolution. Libya_sentence_189

By 22 August 2011, rebel fighters had entered Tripoli and occupied Green Square, which they renamed Martyrs' Square in honour of those killed since 17 February 2011. Libya_sentence_190

On 20 October 2011, the last heavy fighting of the uprising came to an end in the city of Sirte. Libya_sentence_191

The Battle of Sirte was both the last decisive battle and the last one in general of the First Libyan Civil War where Gaddafi was captured and killed. Libya_sentence_192

The defeat of loyalist forces was celebrated on 23 October 2011, three days after the fall of Sirte. Libya_sentence_193

At least 30,000 Libyans died in the civil war. Libya_sentence_194

In addition, the National Transitional Council estimated 50,000 wounded. Libya_sentence_195

Post-Gaddafi era and the Second Libyan Civil War Libya_section_8

Main articles: Aftermath of the 2011 Libyan Civil War and Libyan Civil War (2014–present) Libya_sentence_196

Since the defeat of loyalist forces, Libya has been torn among numerous rival, armed militias affiliated with distinct regions, cities and tribes, while the central government has been weak and unable effectively to exert its authority over the country. Libya_sentence_197

Competing militias have pitted themselves against each other in a political struggle between Islamist politicians and their opponents. Libya_sentence_198

On 7 July 2012, Libyans held their first parliamentary elections since the end of the former regime. Libya_sentence_199

On 8 August 2012, the National Transitional Council officially handed power over to the wholly elected General National Congress, which was then tasked with the formation of an interim government and the drafting of a new Libyan Constitution to be approved in a general referendum. Libya_sentence_200

On 25 August 2012, in what Reuters reported as "the most blatant sectarian attack" since the end of the civil war, unnamed organized assailants bulldozed a Sufi mosque with graves, in broad daylight in the center of the Libyan capital Tripoli. Libya_sentence_201

It was the second such razing of a Sufi site in two days. Libya_sentence_202

Numerous acts of vandalism and destruction of heritage were carried out by suspected Islamist militias, including the removal of the Nude Gazelle Statue and the destruction and desecration of World War II-era British grave sites near Benghazi. Libya_sentence_203

Many other cases of Heritage vandalism were carried out and were reported to be carried out by Islamist related radical militias and mobs that either destroyed, robbed, or looted a number of Historic sites which remain in danger at present. Libya_sentence_204

On 11 September 2012, Islamist militants mounted a surprise attack on the American consulate in Benghazi, killing the U.S. ambassador to Libya, J. Libya_sentence_205 Christopher Stevens, and three others. Libya_sentence_206

The incident generated outrage in the United States and Libya. Libya_sentence_207

On 7 October 2012, Libya's Prime Minister-elect Mustafa A.G. Abushagur was ousted after failing a second time to win parliamentary approval for a new cabinet. Libya_sentence_208

On 14 October 2012, the General National Congress elected former GNC member and human rights lawyer Ali Zeidan as prime minister-designate. Libya_sentence_209

Zeidan was sworn in after his cabinet was approved by the GNC. Libya_sentence_210

On 11 March 2014, after having been ousted by the GNC for his inability to halt a rogue oil shipment, Prime Minister Zeiden stepped down, and was replaced by Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thani. Libya_sentence_211

On 25 March 2014, in the face of mounting instability, al-Thani's government briefly explored the possibility of the restoration of the Libyan monarchy. Libya_sentence_212

In June 2014, elections were held to the House of Representatives, a new legislative body intended to take over from the General National Congress. Libya_sentence_213

The elections were marred by violence and low turnout, with voting stations closed in some areas. Libya_sentence_214

Secularists and liberals did well in the elections, to the consternation of Islamist lawmakers in the GNC, who reconvened and declared a continuing mandate for the GNC, refusing to recognise the new House of Representatives. Libya_sentence_215

Armed supporters of the General National Congress occupied Tripoli, forcing the newly elected parliament to flee to Tobruk. Libya_sentence_216

Libya has been riven by conflict between the rival parliaments since mid-2014. Libya_sentence_217

Tribal militias and jihadist groups have taken advantage of the power vacuum. Libya_sentence_218

Most notably, radical Islamist fighters seized Derna in 2014 and Sirte in 2015 in the name of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Libya_sentence_219

In early 2015, neighbouring Egypt launched airstrikes against ISIL in support of the Tobruk government. Libya_sentence_220

In January 2015, meetings were held with the aim to find a peaceful agreement between the rival parties in Libya. Libya_sentence_221

The so-called Geneva-Ghadames talks were supposed to bring the GNC and the Tobruk government together at one table to find a solution of the internal conflict. Libya_sentence_222

However, the GNC actually never participated, a sign that internal division not only affected the "Tobruk Camp", but also the "Tripoli Camp". Libya_sentence_223

Meanwhile, terrorism within Libya has steadily increased, affecting also neighbouring countries. Libya_sentence_224

The terrorist attack against the Bardo Museum on 18 March 2015, was reportedly carried on by two Libyan-trained militants. Libya_sentence_225

During 2015 an extended series of diplomatic meetings and peace negotiations were supported by the United Nations, as conducted by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Spanish diplomat Bernardino Leon. Libya_sentence_226

UN support for the SRSG-led process of dialogue carried on in addition to the usual work of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). Libya_sentence_227

In July 2015 SRSG Leon reported to the UN Security Council on the progress of the negotiations, which at that point had just achieved a political agreement on 11 July setting out "a comprehensive framework…includ[ing] guiding principles…institutions and decision-making mechanisms to guide the transition until the adoption of a permanent constitution." Libya_sentence_228

The stated purpose of that process was "…intended to culminate in the creation of a modern, democratic state based on the principle of inclusion, the rule of law, separation of powers and respect for human rights." Libya_sentence_229

The SRSG praised the participants for achieving agreement, stating that "The Libyan people have unequivocally expressed themselves in favour of peace." Libya_sentence_230

The SRSG then informed the Security Council that "Libya is at a critical stage" and urging "all parties in Libya to continue to engage constructively in the dialogue process", stating that "only through dialogue and political compromise, can a peaceful resolution of the conflict be achieved. Libya_sentence_231

A peaceful transition will only succeed in Libya through a significant and coordinated effort in supporting a future Government of National Accord…". Libya_sentence_232

Talks, negotiations and dialogue continued on during mid-2015 at various international locations, culminating at Skhirat in Morocco in early September. Libya_sentence_233

Also in 2015, as part of the ongoing support from the international community, the UN Human Rights Council requested a report about the Libyan situation and the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, established an investigative body (OIOL) to report on human rights and rebuilding the Libyan justice system. Libya_sentence_234

Chaos-ridden Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe. Libya_sentence_235

More than 700,000 migrants have reached Italy by boat since 2013. Libya_sentence_236

In May 2018 Libya's rival leaders agreed to hold parliamentary and presidential elections following a meeting in Paris. Libya_sentence_237

In April 2019, Khalifa Haftar launched Operation Flood of Dignity, in an offensive by the Libyan National Army aimed to seize Western territories from the Government of National Accord (GNA). Libya_sentence_238

In June 2019, forces allied to Libya's UN-recognized Government of National Accord successfully captured Gharyan, a strategic town where military commander Khalifa Haftar and his fighters were based. Libya_sentence_239

According to a spokesman for GNA forces, Mustafa al-Mejii, dozens of LNA fighters under Haftar were killed, while at least 18 were taken prisoner. Libya_sentence_240

In March 2020, UN-backed government of Fayez Al-Sarraj commenced Operation Peace Storm. Libya_sentence_241

The government initiated the bid in response to the state of assaults carried by Haftar’s LNA. Libya_sentence_242

“We are a legitimate, civilian government that respects its obligations to the international community, but is committed primarily to its people and has an obligation to protect its citizens,” Sarraj said in line with his decision. Libya_sentence_243

On 28 August 2020, the BBC Africa Eye and BBC Arabic Documentaries revealed that a drone operated by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) killed 26 young cadets at a military academy in Tripoli, on 4 January. Libya_sentence_244

Most of the cadets were teenagers and none of them were armed. Libya_sentence_245

The Chinese drone Wing Loong II fired Blue Arrow 7 missile, which was operated from UAE-run Al-Khadim Libyan air base. Libya_sentence_246

In February, these drones stationed in Libya were moved to an air base near Siwa in the western Egyptian desert. Libya_sentence_247

The Guardian probed and discovered the blatant violation of UN arms embargo by the UAE and Turkey on 7 October 2020. Libya_sentence_248

As per the reporting, both the nations sent large-scale military cargo planes to Libya in support of their respective parties. Libya_sentence_249

Geography Libya_section_9

Main article: Geography of Libya Libya_sentence_250

Libya extends over 1,759,540 square kilometres (679,362 sq mi), making it the 16th largest nation in the world by size. Libya_sentence_251

Libya is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, the west by Tunisia and Algeria, the southwest by Niger, the south by Chad, the southeast by Sudan, and the east by Egypt. Libya_sentence_252

Libya lies between latitudes 19° and 34°N, and longitudes and 26°E. Libya_sentence_253

At 1,770 kilometres (1,100 mi), Libya's coastline is the longest of any African country bordering the Mediterranean. Libya_sentence_254

The portion of the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya is often called the Libyan Sea. Libya_sentence_255

The climate is mostly extremely dry and desertlike in nature. Libya_sentence_256

However, the northern regions enjoy a milder Mediterranean climate. Libya_sentence_257

Natural hazards come in the form of hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco (known in Libya as the gibli). Libya_sentence_258

This is a southern wind blowing from one to four days in spring and autumn. Libya_sentence_259

There are also dust storms and sandstorms. Libya_sentence_260

Oases can also be found scattered throughout Libya, the most important of which are Ghadames and Kufra. Libya_sentence_261

Libya is one of the sunniest and driest countries in the world due to prevailing presence of desert environment. Libya_sentence_262

Libya was a pioneer state in North Africa in species protection, with the creation in 1975 of the El Kouf protected area. Libya_sentence_263

The fall of Muammar Gaddafi's regime favored intense poaching: "Before the fall of Gaddafi even hunting rifles were forbidden. Libya_sentence_264

But since 2011, poaching has been carried out with weapons of war and sophisticated vehicles in which one can find up to 200 gazelle heads killed by militiamen who hunt to pass the time. Libya_sentence_265

We are also witnessing the emergence of hunters with no connection to the tribes that traditionally practice hunting. Libya_sentence_266

They shoot everything they find, even during the breeding season. Libya_sentence_267

More than 500,000 birds are killed in this way each year, when protected areas have been seized by tribal chiefs who have appropriated them. Libya_sentence_268

The animals that used to live there have all disappeared, hunted when they are edible or released when they are not," explains zoologist Khaled Ettaieb. Libya_sentence_269

Libyan Desert Libya_section_10

The Libyan Desert, which covers much of Libya, is one of the most arid and sun-baked places on earth. Libya_sentence_270

In places, decades may pass without seeing any rainfall at all, and even in the highlands rainfall seldom happens, once every 5–10 years. Libya_sentence_271

At Uweinat, as of 2006 the last recorded rainfall was in September 1998. Libya_sentence_272

Likewise, the temperature in the Libyan Desert can be extreme; on 13 September 1922, the town of 'Aziziya, which is located southwest of Tripoli, recorded an air temperature of 58 °C (136.4 °F), considered to be a world record. Libya_sentence_273

In September 2012, however, the world record figure of 58 °C was overturned by the World Meteorological Organization. Libya_sentence_274

There are a few scattered uninhabited small oases, usually linked to the major depressions, where water can be found by digging to a few feet in depth. Libya_sentence_275

In the west there is a widely dispersed group of oases in unconnected shallow depressions, the Kufra group, consisting of Tazerbo, Rebianae and Kufra. Libya_sentence_276

Aside from the scarps, the general flatness is only interrupted by a series of plateaus and massifs near the centre of the Libyan Desert, around the convergence of the Egyptian-Sudanese-Libyan borders. Libya_sentence_277

Slightly further to the south are the massifs of Arkenu, Uweinat, and Kissu. Libya_sentence_278

These granite mountains are ancient, having formed long before the sandstones surrounding them. Libya_sentence_279

Arkenu and Western Uweinat are ring complexes very similar to those in the Aïr Mountains. Libya_sentence_280

Eastern Uweinat (the highest point in the Libyan Desert) is a raised sandstone plateau adjacent to the granite part further west. Libya_sentence_281

The plain to the north of Uweinat is dotted with eroded volcanic features. Libya_sentence_282

With the discovery of oil in the 1950s also came the discovery of a massive aquifer underneath much of Libya. Libya_sentence_283

The water in this aquifer pre-dates the last ice ages and the Sahara Desert itself. Libya_sentence_284

This area also contains the Arkenu structures, which were once thought to be two impact craters. Libya_sentence_285

Government Libya_section_11

Main article: Politics of Libya Libya_sentence_286

The legislature of Libya is the unicameral House of Representatives which meets in Tobruk. Libya_sentence_287

The former legislature was the General National Congress, which had 200 seats. Libya_sentence_288

The General National Congress (2014), a largely unrecognised rival parliament based in the de jure capital of Tripoli, claims to be a legal continuation of the GNC. Libya_sentence_289

On 7 July 2012, Libyans voted in parliamentary elections, the first free elections in almost 40 years. Libya_sentence_290

Around thirty women were elected to become members of parliament. Libya_sentence_291

Early results of the vote showed the National Forces Alliance, led by former interim Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril, as front runner. Libya_sentence_292

The Justice and Construction Party, affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood, has done less well than similar parties in Egypt and Tunisia. Libya_sentence_293

It won 17 out of 80 seats that were contested by parties, but about 60 independents have since joined its caucus. Libya_sentence_294

As of January 2013, there was mounting public pressure on the National Congress to set up a drafting body to create a new constitution. Libya_sentence_295

Congress had not yet decided whether the members of the body would be elected or appointed. Libya_sentence_296

On 30 March 2014 General National Congress voted to replace itself with new House of Representatives. Libya_sentence_297

The new legislature allocates 30 seats for women, will have 200 seats overall (with individuals able to run as members of political parties) and allows Libyans of foreign nationalities to run for office. Libya_sentence_298

Following the 2012 elections, Freedom House improved Libya's rating from Not Free to Partly Free, and now considers the country to be an electoral democracy. Libya_sentence_299

Gaddafi merged civil and sharia courts in 1973. Libya_sentence_300

Civil courts now employ sharia judges who sit in regular courts of appeal and specialise in sharia appellate cases. Libya_sentence_301

Laws regarding personal status are derived from Islamic law. Libya_sentence_302

At a meeting of the European Parliament Committee on Foreign Affairs on 2 December 2014, UN Special Representative Bernardino León described Libya as a non-state. Libya_sentence_303

An agreement to form a unified interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Libya_sentence_304

Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council and a seventeen-member interim Government of National Accord would be formed, with a view to holding new elections within two years. Libya_sentence_305

The House of Representatives would continue to exist as a legislature and an advisory body, to be known as the State Council, will be formed with members nominated by the General National Congress (2014). Libya_sentence_306

Foreign relations Libya_section_12

Main article: Foreign relations of Libya Libya_sentence_307

Libya's foreign policies have fluctuated since 1951. Libya_sentence_308

As a Kingdom, Libya maintained a definitively pro-Western stance, and was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States (the present-day Arab League), of which it became a member in 1953. Libya_sentence_309

The government was also friendly towards Western countries such as the United Kingdom, United States, France, Italy, Greece, and established full diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1955. Libya_sentence_310

Although the government supported Arab causes, including the Moroccan and Algerian independence movements, it took little active part in the Arab-Israeli dispute or the tumultuous inter-Arab politics of the 1950s and early 1960s. Libya_sentence_311

The Kingdom was noted for its close association with the West, while it steered a conservative course at home. Libya_sentence_312

After the 1969 coup, Muammar Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partly nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya. Libya_sentence_313

Gaddafi was known for backing a number of leaders viewed as anathema to Westernization and political liberalism, including Ugandan President Idi Amin, Central African Emperor Jean-Bédel Bokassa, Ethiopian strongman Haile Mariam Mengistu, Liberian President Charles Taylor, and Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević. Libya_sentence_314

Relations with the West were strained by a series of incidents for most of Gaddafi's rule, including the killing of London policewoman Yvonne Fletcher, the bombing of a West Berlin nightclub frequented by U.S. servicemen, and the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, which led to UN sanctions in the 1990s, though by the late 2000s, the United States and other Western powers had normalised relations with Libya. Libya_sentence_315

Gaddafi's decision to abandon the pursuit of weapons of mass destruction after the Iraq War saw Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein overthrown and put on trial led to Libya being hailed as a success for Western soft power initiatives in the War on Terror. Libya_sentence_316

In October 2010, Gaddafi apologized to African leaders on behalf of Arab nations for their involvement in the African slave trade. Libya_sentence_317

Libya is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Libya_sentence_318

Libyan authorities rejected European Union's plans aimed at stopping migration from Libya. Libya_sentence_319

In 2017, Libya signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Libya_sentence_320

Military Libya_section_13

Main article: Libyan Armed Forces Libya_sentence_321

Libya's previous national army was defeated in the Libyan Civil War and disbanded. Libya_sentence_322

The Tobruk based House of Representatives who claim to be the legitimate government of Libya have attempted to reestablish a military known as the Libyan National Army. Libya_sentence_323

Led by Khalifa Haftar, they control much of eastern Libya. Libya_sentence_324

In May 2012, an estimated 35,000 personnel had joined its ranks. Libya_sentence_325

The internationally recognised Government of National Accord established in 2015 has its own army that replaced the LNA, but it consists largely of undisciplined and disorganised militia groups. Libya_sentence_326

As of November 2012, it was deemed to be still in the embryonic stage of development. Libya_sentence_327

President Mohammed el-Megarif promised that empowering the army and police force is the government's biggest priority. Libya_sentence_328

President el-Megarif also ordered that all of the country's militias must come under government authority or disband. Libya_sentence_329

Militias have so far refused to be integrated into a central security force. Libya_sentence_330

Many of these militias are disciplined, but the most powerful of them answer only to the executive councils of various Libyan cities. Libya_sentence_331

These militias make up the so-called Libyan Shield, a parallel national force, which operates at the request, rather than at the order, of the defence ministry. Libya_sentence_332

Administrative divisions Libya_section_14

Main articles: Subdivisions of Libya, Districts of Libya, and Baladiyat of Libya Libya_sentence_333

Historically, the area of Libya was considered three provinces (or states), Tripolitania in the northwest, Barka (Cyrenaica) in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. Libya_sentence_334

It was the conquest by Italy in the Italo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Libya_sentence_335

Since 2007, Libya has been divided into 22 districts (Shabiyat): Libya_sentence_336

Human rights Libya_section_15

See also: Human rights in Libya Libya_sentence_337

According to Human Rights Watch annual report 2016, journalists are still being targeted by the armed groups in Libya. Libya_sentence_338

The organization added that Libya has very low rank in the 2015 Press Freedom Index as it occupied 154 out of 180 countries. Libya_sentence_339

Homosexuality is illegal in Libya. Libya_sentence_340

For the 2019 Press Freedom Index it scored 162 out of 180 countries. Libya_sentence_341

Economy Libya_section_16

Main article: Economy of Libya Libya_sentence_342

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which account for over half of GDP and 97% of exports. Libya_sentence_343

Libya holds the largest proven oil reserves in Africa and is an important contributor to the global supply of light, sweet crude. Libya_sentence_344

During 2010, when oil averaged at $80 a barrel, oil production accounted for 54% of GDP. Libya_sentence_345

Apart from petroleum, the other natural resources are natural gas and gypsum. Libya_sentence_346

The International Monetary Fund estimated Libya's real GDP growth at 122% in 2012 and 16.7% in 2013, after a 60% plunge in 2011. Libya_sentence_347

The World Bank defines Libya as an 'Upper Middle Income Economy', along with only seven other African countries. Libya_sentence_348

Substantial revenues from the energy sector, coupled with a small population, give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa. Libya_sentence_349

This allowed the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya state to provide an extensive level of social security, particularly in the fields of housing and education. Libya_sentence_350

Libya faces many structural problems including a lack of institutions, weak governance, and chronic structural unemployment. Libya_sentence_351

The economy displays a lack of economic diversification and significant reliance on immigrant labour. Libya_sentence_352

Libya has traditionally relied on unsustainably high levels of public sector hiring to create employment. Libya_sentence_353

In the mid-2000s, the government employed about 70% of all national employees. Libya_sentence_354

Unemployment rose from 8% in 2008 to 21% in 2009, according to the census figures. Libya_sentence_355

According to an Arab League report, based on data from 2010, unemployment for women stands at 18% while for the figure for men is 21%, making Libya the only Arab country where there are more unemployed men than women. Libya_sentence_356

Libya has high levels of social inequality, high rates of youth unemployment and regional economic disparities. Libya_sentence_357

Water supply is also a problem, with some 28% of the population not having access to safe drinking water in 2000. Libya_sentence_358

Libya imports up to 90% of its cereal consumption requirements, and imports of wheat in 2012/13 was estimated at about 1 million tonnes. Libya_sentence_359

The 2012 wheat production was estimated at about 200,000 tonnes. Libya_sentence_360

The government hopes to increase food production to 800,000 tonnes of cereals by 2020. Libya_sentence_361

However, natural and environmental conditions limit Libya's agricultural production potential. Libya_sentence_362

Before 1958, agriculture was the country's main source of revenue, making up about 30% of GDP. Libya_sentence_363

With the discovery of oil in 1958, the size of the agriculture sector declined rapidly, comprising less than 5% GDP by 2005. Libya_sentence_364

The country joined OPEC in 1962. Libya_sentence_365

Libya is not a WTO member, but negotiations for its accession started in 2004. Libya_sentence_366

In the early 1980s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GDP per capita was higher than some developed countries. Libya_sentence_367

In the early 2000s officials of the Jamahiriya era carried out economic reforms to reintegrate Libya into the global economy. Libya_sentence_368

UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003, and Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Libya_sentence_369

Other steps have included applying for membership of the World Trade Organization, reducing subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization. Libya_sentence_370

Authorities privatized more than 100 government owned companies after 2003 in industries including oil refining, tourism and real estate, of which 29 were 100% foreign owned. Libya_sentence_371

Many international oil companies returned to the country, including oil giants Shell and ExxonMobil. Libya_sentence_372

After sanctions were lifted there was a gradual increase of air traffic, and by 2005 there were 1.5 million yearly air travellers. Libya_sentence_373

Libya had long been a notoriously difficult country for Western tourists to visit due to stringent visa requirements. Libya_sentence_374

In 2007 Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, the second-eldest son of Muammar Gaddafi, was involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which sought to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area. Libya_sentence_375

In August 2011 it was estimated that it would take at least 10 years to rebuild Libya's infrastructure. Libya_sentence_376

Even before the 2011 war, Libya's infrastructure was in a poor state due to "utter neglect" by Gaddafi's administration, according to the NTC. Libya_sentence_377

By October 2012, the economy had recovered from the 2011 conflict, with oil production returning to near normal levels. Libya_sentence_378

Oil production was more than 1.6 million barrels per day before the war. Libya_sentence_379

By October 2012, the average oil production has surpassed 1.4 million bpd. Libya_sentence_380

The resumption of production was made possible due to the quick return of major Western companies, like Total, Eni, Repsol, Wintershall and Occidental. Libya_sentence_381

In 2016, an announcement from the company said the company aims 900,000 barrel per day in the next year. Libya_sentence_382

Oil production has fallen from 1.6 million barrel per day to 900,000 in four years of war. Libya_sentence_383

By 2017, 60% of the Libyan population were malnourished. Libya_sentence_384

Since then, 1.3 million people are waiting for emergency humanitarian aid, out of a total population of 6.4 million. Libya_sentence_385

Demographics Libya_section_17

Main article: Demographics of Libya Libya_sentence_386

Libya is a large country with a relatively small population, and the population is concentrated very narrowly along the coast. Libya_sentence_387

Population density is about 50 inhabitants per square kilometre (130/sq mi) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than 1 inhabitant per square kilometre (2.6/sq mi)elsewhere. Libya_sentence_388

Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast. Libya_sentence_389

About 88% of the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the three largest cities, Tripoli, Benghazi and Misrata. Libya_sentence_390

Libya has a population of about 6.7 million, 27.7% of whom are under the age of 15. Libya_sentence_391

In 1984 the population was 3.6 million, an increase from the 1.54 million reported in 1964. Libya_sentence_392

The majority of the Libyan population is today identified as Arab, that is, Arabic-speaking and Arab-cultured. Libya_sentence_393

Berber Libyans, those who retain Berber language and Berber culture, comprise a minority. Libya_sentence_394

There are about 140 tribes and clans in Libya. Libya_sentence_395

Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth. Libya_sentence_396

Although the Arab Libyans traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities. Libya_sentence_397

Because of this, their old ways of life are gradually fading out. Libya_sentence_398

An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries. Libya_sentence_399

Most of the population has occupations in industry and services, and a small percentage is in agriculture. Libya_sentence_400

According to the UNHCR, there were around 8,000 registered refugees, 5,500 unregistered refugees, and 7,000 asylum seekers of various origins in Libya in January 2013. Libya_sentence_401

Additionally, 47,000 Libyan nationals were internally displaced and 46,570 were internally displaced returnees. Libya_sentence_402

Local demographics and ethnic groups Libya_section_18

The original inhabitants of Libya belonged predominantly to various Berber ethnic groups; however, the long series of foreign invasions – particularly by Arabs and Turks – have had a profound and lasting linguistic, cultural, and identity influence on Libya's demographics. Libya_sentence_403

Today, the great majority of Libya's inhabitants are Arabic-speaking Muslims of mixed descent, with many also tracing their ancestry to the Banu Sulaym tribe, beside Turkish and Berber ethnicities. Libya_sentence_404

The Turkish minority are often called "Kouloughlis" and are concentrated in and around villages and towns. Libya_sentence_405

Additionally, there are some Libyan ethnic minorities, such as the Berber Tuareg and the Tebou. Libya_sentence_406

Most Italian settlers, at their height numbering over half a million, left after Italian Libya's independence in 1947. Libya_sentence_407

More repatriated in 1970 after the accession of Muammar Gaddafi, but a few hundred of them returned in the 2000s. Libya_sentence_408

Immigrant labour Libya_section_19

As of 2013, the UN estimates that around 12% of Libya's population (upwards of 740,000 people) was made up of foreign migrants. Libya_sentence_409

Prior to the 2011 revolution official and unofficial figures of migrant labour range from 25% to 40% of the population (between 1.5 and 2.4 million people). Libya_sentence_410

Historically, Libya has been a host state for millions of low- and high-skilled Egyptian migrants, in particular. Libya_sentence_411

It is difficult to estimate the total number of immigrants in Libya as there are often differences between census figures, official counts and usually more accurate unofficial estimates. Libya_sentence_412

In the 2006 census, around 359,540 foreign nationals were resident in Libya out of a population of over 5.5 million (6.35% of the population). Libya_sentence_413

Almost half of these were Egyptians, followed by Sudanese and Palestinian immigrants. Libya_sentence_414

During the 2011 revolution, 768,362 immigrants fled Libya as calculated by the IOM, around 13% of the population at the time, although many more stayed on in the country. Libya_sentence_415

If consular records prior to the revolution are used to estimate the immigrant population, as many as 2 million Egyptian migrants were recorded by the Egyptian embassy in Tripoli in 2009, followed by 87,200 Tunisians, and 68,200 Moroccans by their respective embassies. Libya_sentence_416

Turkey recorded the evacuation of 25,000 workers during the 2011 uprising. Libya_sentence_417

The number of Asian migrants before the revolution were roughly 100,000 (60,000 Bangladeshis, 18,000 Indians, 10,000 Pakistanis, 8000 Filipinos as well as Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai and other workers). Libya_sentence_418

This would put the immigrant population at almost 40% before the revolution and is a figure more consistent with government estimates in 2004 which put the regular and irregular migrant numbers at 1.35 to 1.8 million (25–33% of the population at the time). Libya_sentence_419

Libya's native population of Arabs-Berbers as well as Arab migrants of various nationalities collectively make up 97% of the population as of 2014. Libya_sentence_420

Languages Libya_section_20

Main article: Languages of Libya Libya_sentence_421

According to the CIA, the official language of Libya is Arabic. Libya_sentence_422

The local Libyan Arabic variety is spoken alongside Modern Standard Arabic. Libya_sentence_423

Various Berber languages are also spoken, including Tamasheq, Ghadamis, Nafusi, Suknah and Awjilah. Libya_sentence_424

The Libyan Amazigh High Council (LAHC) has declared the Amazigh (Berber or Tamazight) language as an official language in the cities and districts inhabited by the Berbers in Libya. Libya_sentence_425

In addition, Italian and English are widely understood in the major cities, with the former used in commerce and still spoken among the remaining Italian population. Libya_sentence_426

Religion Libya_section_21

Main article: Religion in Libya Libya_sentence_427

About 97% of the population in Libya are Muslims, most of whom belong to the Sunni branch. Libya_sentence_428

Small numbers of Ibadi Muslims and Ahmadis also live in the country. Libya_sentence_429

Before the 1930s, the Senussi Sunni Sufi movement was the primary Islamic movement in Libya. Libya_sentence_430

This was a religious revival adapted to desert life. Libya_sentence_431

Its zawaaya (lodges) were found in Tripolitania and Fezzan, but Senussi influence was strongest in Cyrenaica. Libya_sentence_432

Rescuing the region from unrest and anarchy, the Senussi movement gave the Cyrenaican tribal people a religious attachment and feelings of unity and purpose. Libya_sentence_433

This Islamic movement was eventually destroyed by the Italian invasion. Libya_sentence_434

Gaddafi asserted that he was a devout Muslim, and his government was taking a role in supporting Islamic institutions and in worldwide proselytising on behalf of Islam. Libya_sentence_435

Since the fall of Gaddafi, ultra-conservative strains of Islam have reasserted themselves in places. Libya_sentence_436

Derna in eastern Libya, historically a hotbed of jihadist thought, came under the control of militants aligned with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in 2014. Libya_sentence_437

Jihadist elements have also spread to Sirte and Benghazi, among other areas, as a result of the Second Libyan Civil War. Libya_sentence_438

There are small foreign communities of Christians. Libya_sentence_439

Coptic Orthodox Christianity, which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya. Libya_sentence_440

There are about 60,000 Egyptian Copts in Libya. Libya_sentence_441

Copts in Libya are Egyptian. Libya_sentence_442

There are three Coptic Churches in Libya, one in Tripoli, one in Benghazi, and one in Misurata. Libya_sentence_443

The Coptic Church has grown in recent years in Libya, due to the growing immigration of Egyptian Copts to Libya. Libya_sentence_444

There are an estimated 40,000 Roman Catholics in Libya who are served by two Bishops, one in Tripoli (serving the Italian community) and one in Benghazi (serving the Maltese community). Libya_sentence_445

There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt. Libya_sentence_446

People have been arrested on suspicion of being Christian missionaries, as proselytising is illegal. Libya_sentence_447

Christians have also faced the threat of violence from radical Islamists in some parts of the country, with a well-publicised video released by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in February 2015 depicting the mass beheading of Christian Copts. Libya_sentence_448

Libya was once the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BC. Libya_sentence_449

In 1942, the Italian Fascist authorities set up forced labor camps south of Tripoli for the Jews, including Giado (about 3,000 Jews), Gharyan, Jeren, and Tigrinna. Libya_sentence_450

In Giado some 500 Jews died of weakness, hunger, and disease. Libya_sentence_451

In 1942, Jews who were not in the concentration camps were heavily restricted in their economic activity and all men between 18 and 45 years were drafted for forced labor. Libya_sentence_452

In August 1942, Jews from Tripolitania were interned in a concentration camp at Sidi Azaz. Libya_sentence_453

In the three years after November 1945, more than 140 Jews were murdered, and hundreds more wounded, in a series of pogroms. Libya_sentence_454

By 1948, about 38,000 Jews remained in the country. Libya_sentence_455

Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated. Libya_sentence_456

Largest cities Libya_section_22

Culture Libya_section_23

Main article: Culture of Libya Libya_sentence_457

Further information: Music of Libya and Libyan literature Libya_sentence_458

Many Arabic speaking Libyans consider themselves as part of a wider Arab community. Libya_sentence_459

This was strengthened by the spread of Pan-Arabism in the mid-20th century, and their reach to power in Libya where they instituted Arabic as the only official language of the state. Libya_sentence_460

Under their dictatorship the teaching and even use of indigenous Berber language was strictly forbidden. Libya_sentence_461

In addition to banning foreign languages previously taught in academic institutions, leaving entire generations of Libyans with limitations in their comprehension of the English language. Libya_sentence_462

Both the spoken Arabic dialects and Berber, still retain words from Italian, that were acquired before and during the Libia Italiana period. Libya_sentence_463

Libyans have a heritage in the traditions of the previously nomadic Bedouin Arabic speakers and sedentary Amazigh tribes. Libya_sentence_464

Most Libyans associate themselves with a particular family name originating from tribal or conquest based, typically from Ottoman forefathers, heritage.. Libya_sentence_465

Reflecting the "nature of giving" (Arabic: الاحسان‎ Ihsan, Berber languages: ⴰⵏⴰⴽⴽⴰⴼ Anakkaf ), amongst the Libyan people as well as the sense of hospitality, recently the state of Libya made it to the top 20 on the world giving index in 2013. Libya_sentence_466

According to CAF, in a typical month, almost three-quarters (72%) of all Libyans helped somebody they did not know – the third highest level across all 135 countries surveyed. Libya_sentence_467

There are few theaters or art galleries due to the decades of cultural repression under the Qaddafi regime and lack of infrastructure development under the regime of dictatorship. Libya_sentence_468

For many years there have been no public theaters, and only very few cinemas showing foreign films. Libya_sentence_469

The tradition of folk culture is still alive and well, with troupes performing music and dance at frequent festivals, both in Libya and abroad. Libya_sentence_470

A large number of Libyan television stations are devoted to political review, Islamic topics and cultural phenomena. Libya_sentence_471

A number of TV stations air various styles of traditional Libyan music. Libya_sentence_472

Tuareg music and dance are popular in Ghadames and the south. Libya_sentence_473

Libyan television broadcasts air programs mostly in Arabic though usually have time slots for English and French programs. Libya_sentence_474

A 1996 analysis by the Committee to Protect Journalists found Libya's media was the most tightly controlled in the Arab world during the country's dictatorship. Libya_sentence_475

As of 2012 hundreds of TV stations have begun to air due to the collapse of censorship from the old regime and the initiation of "free media". Libya_sentence_476

Many Libyans frequent the country's beach and they also visit Libya's archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna, which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world. Libya_sentence_477

The most common form of public transport between cities is the bus, though many people travel by automobile. Libya_sentence_478

There are no railway services in Libya, but these are planned for construction in the near future (see rail transport in Libya). Libya_sentence_479

Libya's capital, Tripoli, has many museums and archives. Libya_sentence_480

These include the Government Library, the Ethnographic Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the National Archives, the Epigraphy Museum and the Islamic Museum. Libya_sentence_481

The Red Castle Museum located in the capital near the coast and right in the city center, built in consultation with UNESCO, may be the country's most famous. Libya_sentence_482

Cuisine Libya_section_24

Main article: Libyan cuisine Libya_sentence_483

Libyan cuisine is a mixture of the different Italian, Bedouin and traditional Arab culinary influences. Libya_sentence_484

Pasta is the staple food in the Western side of Libya, whereas rice is generally the staple food in the east. Libya_sentence_485

Common Libyan foods include several variations of red (tomato) sauce based pasta dishes (similar to the Italian Sugo all'arrabbiata dish); rice, usually served with lamb or chicken (typically stewed, fried, grilled, or boiled in-sauce); and couscous, which is steam cooked whilst held over boiling red (tomato) sauce and meat (sometimes also containing courgettes/zucchini and chickpeas), which is typically served along with cucumber slices, lettuce and olives. Libya_sentence_486

Bazeen, a dish made from barley flour and served with red tomato sauce, is customarily eaten communally, with several people sharing the same dish, usually by hand. Libya_sentence_487

This dish is commonly served at traditional weddings or festivities. Libya_sentence_488

Asida is a sweet version of Bazeen, made from white flour and served with a mix of honey, ghee or butter. Libya_sentence_489

Another favorite way to serve Asida is with rub (fresh date syrup) and olive oil. Libya_sentence_490

Usban is animal tripe stitched and stuffed with rice and vegetables cooked in tomato based soup or steamed. Libya_sentence_491

Shurba is a red tomato sauce-based soup, usually served with small grains of pasta. Libya_sentence_492

A very common snack eaten by Libyans is known as khubs bi' tun, literally meaning "bread with tuna fish", usually served as a baked baguette or pita bread stuffed with tuna fish that has been mixed with harissa (chili sauce) and olive oil. Libya_sentence_493

Many snack vendors prepare these sandwiches and they can be found all over Libya. Libya_sentence_494

Libyan restaurants may serve international cuisine, or may serve simpler fare such as lamb, chicken, vegetable stew, potatoes and macaroni. Libya_sentence_495

Due to severe lack of infrastructure, many under-developed areas and small towns do not have restaurants and instead food stores may be the only source to obtain food products. Libya_sentence_496

Alcohol consumption is illegal in the entire country. Libya_sentence_497

There are four main ingredients of traditional Libyan food: olives (and olive oil), dates, grains and milk. Libya_sentence_498

Grains are roasted, ground, sieved and used for making bread, cakes, soups and bazeen. Libya_sentence_499

Dates are harvested, dried and can be eaten as they are, made into syrup or slightly fried and eaten with bsisa and milk. Libya_sentence_500

After eating, Libyans often drink black tea. Libya_sentence_501

This is normally repeated a second time (for the second glass of tea), and in the third round of tea, it is served with roasted peanuts or roasted almonds known as shay bi'l-luz (mixed with the tea in the same glass). Libya_sentence_502

Education Libya_section_25

Main article: Education in Libya Libya_sentence_503

Libya's population includes 1.7 million students, over 270,000 of whom study at the tertiary level. Libya_sentence_504

Basic education in Libya is free for all citizens, and is compulsory up to the secondary level. Libya_sentence_505

The adult literacy rate in 2010 was 89.2%. Libya_sentence_506

After Libya's independence in 1951, its first university – the University of Libya – was established in Benghazi by royal decree. Libya_sentence_507

In the 1975–76 academic year the number of university students was estimated to be 13,418. Libya_sentence_508

As of 2004, this number has increased to more than 200,000, with an extra 70,000 enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector. Libya_sentence_509

The rapid increase in the number of students in the higher education sector has been mirrored by an increase in the number of institutions of higher education. Libya_sentence_510

Since 1975 the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in 1980, the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 (with 12 public universities). Libya_sentence_511

Since 2007 some new private universities such as the Libyan International Medical University have been established. Libya_sentence_512

Although before 2011 a small number of private institutions were given accreditation, the majority of Libya's higher education has always been financed by the public budget. Libya_sentence_513

In 1998 the budget allocation for education represented 38.2% of Libya's total national budget. Libya_sentence_514

Sport Libya_section_26

Football is the most popular sport in Libya. Libya_sentence_515

The country hosted the 1982 African Cup of Nations and almost qualified for the 1986 FIFA World Cup. Libya_sentence_516

The national team almost won the 1982 AFCON; they barely lost to Ghana on penalties 7-6. Libya_sentence_517

In 2014, Libya won the African Nations Championship after beating Ghana in the finals. Libya_sentence_518

Although the national team has never won a major competition or qualified for a World Cup, there is still lots of passion for the sport and the quality of football is improving. Libya_sentence_519

Horse racing is also a popular sport in Libya. Libya_sentence_520

It is a tradition of many special occasions and holidays. Libya_sentence_521

Health Libya_section_27

Main article: Health in Libya Libya_sentence_522

In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.88% of the country's GDP. Libya_sentence_523

In 2009, there were 18.71 physicians and 66.95 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants. Libya_sentence_524

The life expectancy at birth was 74.95 years in 2011, or 72.44 years for males and 77.59 years for females. Libya_sentence_525

See also Libya_section_28


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