List of dialects of English
Further information: List of countries by English-speaking population
Dialects can be defined as "sub-forms of languages which are, in general, mutually comprehensible."
English speakers from different countries and regions use a variety of different accents (systems of pronunciation) as well as various localised words and grammatical constructions; many different dialects can be identified based on these factors.
Dialects can be classified at broader or narrower levels: within a broad national or regional dialect, various more localised sub-dialects can be identified, and so on.
The combination of differences in pronunciation and use of local words may make some English dialects almost unintelligible to speakers from other regions without any prior exposure.
Dialects can be associated not only with place but also with particular social groups.
Within a given English-speaking country, there is a form of the language considered to be Standard English: the Standard Englishes of different countries differ and can themselves be considered dialects.
British and American English are the reference norms for English as spoken, written, and taught in the rest of the world, excluding countries in which English is spoken natively such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, and New Zealand.
In many former British Empire countries in which English is not spoken natively, British English forms are closely followed, alongside numerous American English usages that have become widespread throughout the English-speaking world.
Conversely, in many countries historically influenced by the United States in which English is not spoken natively, American English forms are closely followed.
For the most part, Canadian English, while featuring numerous British forms, alongside indigenous Canadianisms, shares vocabulary, phonology and syntax with American English, which leads many to recognise North American English as an organic grouping of dialects.
Australian English, likewise, shares many American and British English usages, alongside plentiful features unique to Australia and retains a significantly higher degree of distinctiveness from both larger varieties than does Canadian English.
- Received Pronunciation (sometimes called "the Queen's English" or Standard English in British English)
- Cumbrian (Cumbria including Barrovian in Barrow-in-Furness)
- Geordie (Tyneside)
- Hartlepudlian (Hartlepool)
- Lancastrian (Lancashire)
- Mackem (Sunderland)
- Mancunian (Greater Manchester)
- Northumbrian (Northumberland and northern County Durham)
- Pitmatic (former mining communities of Northumberland and County Durham)
- Scouse (Merseyside)
- Smoggie (Teesside)
- East Midlands
- West Midlands
- East Angle
- Cockney (working-class London and surrounding areas)
- Essaxon (Essex)
- Estuary (middle-class London, Home Counties and Hampshire)
- Pompey dialect (Portsmouth)
- Kentish (Kent)
- Multicultural London (London)
- West Country
Isle of Man
- Hiberno-English (Irish English)
- Forth and Bargy dialect (also known as Yola), thought to have been a descendant of Middle English, spoken in County Wexford
- Fingallian, another presumed descendant of Middle English, spoken in Fingal
- Cultural and ethnic American English
- African American English ("Ebonics")
- Cajun Vernacular English
- Hawai‘i English
- Latino (Hispanic) Vernacular Englishes
- Pennsylvania Dutch English
- Yeshiva English
- American Everyday English
- Regional and local American English
- Appalachian English
- New England English
- Eastern New England
- Southeast super-region
- Mid-Atlantic (Delaware Valley)
- North Midland: Iowa City, Omaha, Lincoln, Columbia, Springfield, Muncie, Columbus, etc.
- South Midland: Oklahoma City, Tulsa, Topeka, Wichita, Kansas City, St. Louis (in transition), Decatur, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Dayton, etc.
- "Hoi Toider"
- New Orleans
- New York City
- Inland Northern: Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, Western New York, the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, and most of the U.S. Great Lakes region
- Western New England: Connecticut, Hudson Valley, western Massachusetts, and Vermont
- North Central (Upper Midwestern): Brockway, Minot, Bismarck, Bemidji, Chisholm, Duluth, Marquette, etc.
- Western Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh)
- Extinct or near-extinct American English
- Atlantic Canadian English
- Standard Canadian English
Caribbean, Central, and South America
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- Vincentian English
Trinidad and Tobago
- Bangladeshi English (Benglish or Banglish)
- Standard Indian English
- Indian English: the "standard" English used by administration and educated people, it derives from the British Raj.
- Regional and local Indian English
- East Region
- West Region
- North Region
- South Region
- Sri Lankan English (SLE)
- South African English (similar to Australian English,British English and Zimbabwean English)
- Black South African English
- Cape Flats English
- Indian South African English
- White South African English
- Broad accent
- General accent
- Cultivated accent
- Zimbabwean English (Shares similarities with British English and other Southern Hemisphere Englishes especially South African English)
Australian English (AusE, AusEng):
- South Australian English
- Western Australian English
- Torres Strait English
- Victorian English
- Queensland English
- Tasmanian English. Rough terrain and long history of habitation promotes a diverse phonological situation. The Trap-Bath split has a consistent yet different distribution than mainland Australia.
Fiji English (FijEng, en-FJ)
New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ)
- Antarctic English
Tristan da Cunha
- Tristan da Cunha English
World Global English
These dialects are used in everyday conversation almost all over the world, and are used as lingua francas and to determine grammar rules and guidelines.
- Survey of English Dialects
- Regional accents of English
- History of the English language
- Linguistic purism in English
- Macaronic language
- English-based creole languages
- List of English-based pidgins
- World Englishes
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List of dialects of English.