Literature

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This article is about written works. Literature_sentence_0

For the card game, see Literature (card game). Literature_sentence_1

Further information: Outline of literature and Index of literature articles Literature_sentence_2

Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. Literature_sentence_3

In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to include oral literature, much of which has been transcribed. Literature_sentence_4

Literature is a method of recording, preserving, and transmitting knowledge and entertainment. Literature_sentence_5

Literature, as an art form, can also include works in various non-fiction genres, such as autobiography, diaries, memoir, letters, and the essay. Literature_sentence_6

Within its broad definition, literature includes non-fictional books, articles or other printed information on a particular subject. Literature_sentence_7

Etymologically, the term derives from Latin literatura/litteratura "learning, a writing, grammar," originally "writing formed with letters," from litera/littera "letter". Literature_sentence_8

In spite of this, the term has also been applied to spoken or sung texts. Literature_sentence_9

Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, which now includes electronic literature. Literature_sentence_10

Literature is classified according to whether it is poetry, prose or drama, and such works are categorized according to historical periods, or their adherence to certain aesthetic features, or genre. Literature_sentence_11

Definitions Literature_section_0

Definitions of literature have varied over time. Literature_sentence_12

In Western Europe prior to the 18th century, literature denoted all books and writing. Literature_sentence_13

Then, during the Romantic period, a more restricted sense of the term emerged that emphasised the idea that "literature" was "imaginative" writing. Literature_sentence_14

Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to older, more inclusive notions, so that cultural studies, for instance, includes. Literature_sentence_15

in addition to canonical works, popular and minority genres. Literature_sentence_16

The word is also used in reference non-written works: to "oral literature" and "the literature of preliterate culture". Literature_sentence_17

A value judgment definition of literature considers it as consisting solely of high quality writing that forms part of the belles-lettres ("fine writing") tradition. Literature_sentence_18

An example of this in the (1910–11) Encyclopædia Britannica that classified literature as "the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing". Literature_sentence_19

History Literature_section_1

Oral literature Literature_section_2

The use of the term "literature" here is a little problematic because of its origins in the Latin littera, “letter,” essentially writing. Literature_sentence_20

Alternatives such as "oral forms" and "oral genres" have been suggested. Literature_sentence_21

but the word literature is widely used. Literature_sentence_22

Oral literature is an ancient human tradition found in "all corners of the world". Literature_sentence_23

Modern archaeology has been unveiling evidence of the human efforts to preserve and transmit arts and knowledge that depended completely or partially on an oral tradition, across various cultures: Literature_sentence_24

The earliest poetry is believed to have been recited or sung, employed as a way of remembering history, genealogy, and law. Literature_sentence_25

In Asia, the transmission of folklore, mythologies as well as scriptures in ancient India, in different Indian religions, was by oral tradition, preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. Literature_sentence_26

Literature_sentence_27

Literature_description_list_0

  • Literature_item_0_0
    • The early Buddhist texts are also generally believed to be of oral tradition, with the first by comparing inconsistencies in the transmitted versions of literature from various oral societies such as the Greek, Serbia and other cultures, then noting that the Vedic literature is too consistent and vast to have been composed and transmitted orally across generations, without being written down. According to Goody, the Vedic texts likely involved both a written and oral tradition, calling it a "parallel products of a literate society".Literature_item_0_1

Australian Aboriginal culture has thrived on oral traditions and oral histories passed down through thousands of years. Literature_sentence_28

In a study published in February 2020, new evidence showed that both Budj Bim and Tower Hill volcanoes erupted between 34,000 and 40,000 years ago. Literature_sentence_29

Significantly, this is a "minimum age constraint for human presence in Victoria", and also could be interpreted as evidence for the oral histories of the Gunditjmara people, an Aboriginal Australian people of south-western Victoria, which tell of volcanic eruptions being some of the oldest oral traditions in existence. Literature_sentence_30

An axe found underneath volcanic ash in 1947 had already proven that humans inhabited the region before the eruption of Tower Hill. Literature_sentence_31

All ancient Greek literature was to some degree oral in nature, and the earliest literature was completely so. Literature_sentence_32

Homer's epic poetry, states Michael Gagarin, was largely composed, performed and transmitted orally. Literature_sentence_33

As folklores and legends were performed in front of distant audiences, the singers would substitute the names in the stories with local characters or rulers to give the stories a local flavor and thus connect with the audience, but making the historicity embedded in the oral tradition as unreliable. Literature_sentence_34

The lack of surviving texts about the Greek and Roman religious traditions have led scholars to presume that these were ritualistic and transmitted as oral traditions, but some scholars disagree that the complex rituals in the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations were an exclusive product of an oral tradition. Literature_sentence_35

Writing systems are not known to exist among Native North Americans before contact with Europeans. Literature_sentence_36

Oral storytelling traditions flourished in a context without the use of writing to record and preserve history, scientific knowledge, and social practices. Literature_sentence_37

While some stories were told for amusement and leisure, most functioned as practical lessons from tribal experience applied to immediate moral, social, psychological, and environmental issues. Literature_sentence_38

Stories fuse fictional, supernatural, or otherwise exaggerated characters and circumstances with real emotions and morals as a means of teaching. Literature_sentence_39

Plots often reflect real life situations and may be aimed at particular people known by the story's audience. Literature_sentence_40

In this way, social pressure could be exerted without directly causing embarrassment or social exclusion. Literature_sentence_41

For example, rather than yelling, Inuit parents might deter their children from wandering too close to the water's edge by telling a story about a sea monster with a pouch for children within its reach. Literature_sentence_42

See also African literature#Oral literature Literature_sentence_43

Oratory Literature_section_3

Oratory or the art of public speaking "was for long considered a literary art". Literature_sentence_44

From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, lawyers, counsellors, historians, statesmen, and poets. Literature_sentence_45

Writing Literature_section_4

Further information: History of writing Literature_sentence_46

Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form. Literature_sentence_47

Though in both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica, writing may have already emerged because of the need to record historical and environmental events. Literature_sentence_48

Subsequent innovations included more uniform, predictable, legal systems, sacred texts, and the origins of modern practices of scientific inquiry and knowledge-consolidation, all largely reliant on portable and easily reproducible forms of writing. Literature_sentence_49

Early written literature Literature_section_5

Main articles: History of literature, Ancient literature, and History of books Literature_sentence_50

Ancient Egyptian literature, along with Sumerian literature, are considered the world's oldest literatures. Literature_sentence_51

The primary genres of the literature of ancient Egyptdidactic texts, hymns and prayers, and tales—were written almost entirely in verse; By the Old Kingdom (26th century BC to 22nd century BC), literary works included funerary texts, epistles and letters, hymns and poems, and commemorative autobiographical texts recounting the careers of prominent administrative officials. Literature_sentence_52

It was not until the early Middle Kingdom (21st century BC to 17th century BC) that a narrative Egyptian literature was created. Literature_sentence_53

Many works of early periods, even in narrative form, had a covert moral or didactic purpose, such as the Sanskrit Panchatantra.200 BC – 300 AD, based on older oral tradition. Literature_sentence_54

Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Literature_sentence_55

Lyric poetry (as opposed to epic poetry) was often the speciality of courts and aristocratic circles, particularly in East Asia where songs were collected by the Chinese aristocracy as poems, the most notable being the Shijing or Book of Songs (1046–c.600 BC), . Literature_sentence_56

In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry. Literature_sentence_57

China, the origin of modern paper making and woodblock printing, produced the world's first print cultures. Literature_sentence_58

Much of Chinese literature originates with the Hundred Schools of Thought period that occurred during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (769‒269 BC). Literature_sentence_59

The most important of these include the Classics of Confucianism, of Daoism, of Mohism, of Legalism, as well as works of military science (e.g. Sun Tzu's The Art of War, c.5th century BC)) and Chinese history (e.g. Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, c.94 BC). Literature_sentence_60

Ancient Chinese literature had a heavy emphasis on historiography, with often very detailed court records. Literature_sentence_61

An exemplary piece of narrative history of ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan, which was compiled no later than 389 BC, and attributed to the blind 5th-century BC historian Zuo Qiuming. Literature_sentence_62

In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Literature_sentence_63

Early genres included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Literature_sentence_64

Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, dating back to 1500–1000 BC, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India. Literature_sentence_65

The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. Literature_sentence_66

The Samhitas (vedic collections) date to roughly 1500–1000 BC, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. 1000‒500 BC, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid-2nd to mid 1st millennium BC, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Literature_sentence_67

The period between approximately the 6th to 1st centuries BC saw the composition and redaction of the two most influential Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, with subsequent redaction progressing down to the 4th century AD. Literature_sentence_68

Other major literary works are Ramcharitmanas & Krishnacharitmanas. Literature_sentence_69

The earliest known Greek writings are Mycenaean (c.1600–1100 BC), written in the Linear B syllabary on clay tablets. Literature_sentence_70

These documents contain prosaic records largely concerned with trade (lists, inventories, receipts, etc.); no real literature has been discovered. Literature_sentence_71

Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, the original decipherers of Linear B, state that literature almost certainly existed in Mycenaean Greece, but it was either not written down or, if it was, it was on parchment or wooden tablets, which did not survive the destruction of the Mycenaean palaces in the twelfth century BC. Literature_sentence_72

Homer's, epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey, are central works of ancient Greek literature. Literature_sentence_73

It is generally accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. Literature_sentence_74

Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary. Literature_sentence_75

Most researchers believe that the poems were originally transmitted orally. Literature_sentence_76

From antiquity until the present day, the influence of Homeric epic on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music, art and film. Literature_sentence_77

The Homeric epics were the greatest influence on ancient Greek culture and education; to Plato, Homer was simply the one who "has taught Greece" – ten Hellada pepaideuken. Literature_sentence_78

Hesiod's Works and Days (c.700 BC) and Theogony, are some of the earliest, and most influential, of ancient Greek literature. Literature_sentence_79

Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas. Literature_sentence_80

Plato (428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) and Aristotle (384–322 BC) authored philosophical texts that are the foundation of Western philosophy, Sappho (c. 630 – c. 570 BC) and Pindar were influential lyric poets, and Herodotus (c. 484 – c. 425 BC) ) and Thucydides were early Greek historians. Literature_sentence_81

Although drama was popular in ancient Greece, of the hundreds of tragedies written and performed during the classical age, only a limited number of plays by three authors still exist: Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Literature_sentence_82

The plays of Aristophanes (c. 446 – c. 386 BC) provide the only real examples of a genre of comic drama known as Old Comedy, the earliest form of Greek Comedy, and are in fact used to define the genre. Literature_sentence_83

The Hebrew religious text, the Torah, is widely seen as a product of the Persian period (539–333 BC, probably 450–350 BC). Literature_sentence_84

This consensus echoes a traditional Jewish view which gives Ezra, the leader of the Jewish community on its return from Babylon, a pivotal role in its promulgation. Literature_sentence_85

This represents a major source of Christianity's Bible, which has been a major influence on Western literature. Literature_sentence_86

The beginning of Roman literature dates to 240 BC, when a Roman audience saw a Latin version of a Greek play. Literature_sentence_87

Literature in latin would flourish for the next six centuries, and includes essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings. Literature_sentence_88

The Qur'an (610 AD to 632 AD) ), the main holy book of Islam, had a significant influence on the Arab language, and marked the beginning of Islamic literature. Literature_sentence_89

Muslims believe it was transcribed in the Arabic dialect of the Quraysh, the tribe of Muhammad. Literature_sentence_90

As Islam spread, the Quran had the effect of unifying and standardizing Arabic. Literature_sentence_91

Theological works in Latin were the dominant form of literature in Europe typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. Literature_sentence_92

Western Vernacular literature includes the Poetic Edda and the sagas, or heroic epics, of Iceland, the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf, and the German Song of Hildebrandt. Literature_sentence_93

A later form of medieval fiction was the romance, an adventurous and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular appeal. Literature_sentence_94

Controversial, religious, political and instructional literature proliferated during the European Renaissance as a result of the Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the printing press around 1440, while the Medieval romance developed into the novel, Literature_sentence_95

Publishing Literature_section_6

Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, but became more practical with the invention of printing. Literature_sentence_96

Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Literature_sentence_97

The Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045. Literature_sentence_98

Then c.1450, separately Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, This invention gradually made books less expensive to produce and more widely available. Literature_sentence_99

Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. Literature_sentence_100

"A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more perhaps than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.D. Literature_sentence_101

330." Literature_sentence_102

Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. Literature_sentence_103

The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Literature_sentence_104

University discipline Literature_section_7

In England Literature_section_8

Main article: English studies Literature_sentence_105

In England in the late 1820's, growing political and social awareness, "particularly among the utilitarians and Benthamites, promoted the possibility of including courses in English literary study in the newly formed London University". Literature_sentence_106

This further developed into the idea of the study of literature being "the ideal carrier for the propagation of the humanist cultural myth of a welleducated, culturally harmonious nation". Literature_sentence_107

America Literature_section_9

American Literature (academic discipline) Literature_sentence_108

Women and literature Literature_section_10

Further information: French literature, German literature, Russian literature, Et cetera, and English poetry § Women poets in the 18th century Literature_sentence_109

The widespread education of women was not common until the nineteenth century, and because of this literature until recently was mostly male dominated. Literature_sentence_110

There are very few women poets writing in English, whose names are remembered, until the twentieth century. Literature_sentence_111

Even in the nineteenth century the only names that stand out are Emily Bronte, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and Emily Dickinson ( see American poetry). Literature_sentence_112

But while generally women are absent from the European cannon of Romantic literature, there is one notable exception, the French novelist and memoirist Amantine Dupin (1804 – 1876) best known by her pen name George Sand One of the more popular writers in Europe in her lifetime, being more renowned than both Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac in England in the 1830s and 1840s, Sand is recognised as one of the most notable writers of the European Romantic era. Literature_sentence_113

Jane Austen (1775 – 1817) is the first major English woman novelist, while female dramatists are a rarity until the twentieth century. Literature_sentence_114

113 Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded between 1901 and 2020 to 117 individuals: 101 men and 16 women. Literature_sentence_115

Selma Lagerlöf (1858 – 1940)} as the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, which she was awarded in 1909. Literature_sentence_116

Additionally, she was the first woman to be granted a membership in The Swedish Academy in 1914. Literature_sentence_117

Feminist scholars have since the twentieth century sought expand the literary canon to include more women writers. Literature_sentence_118

Children's literature Literature_section_11

A separate genre of children's literature only began to emerge in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood. Literature_sentence_119

The earliest of these books were educational books, books on conduct, and simple ABCs—often decorated with animals, plants, and anthropomorphic letters. Literature_sentence_120

Aesthetics Literature_section_12

Further information: Aesthetic judgment and Value judgment Literature_sentence_121

Literary theory Literature_section_13

Further information: Literary theory and Philosophy and literature § The philosophy of literature Literature_sentence_122

A fundamental questions of literary theory is "what is literature?" Literature_sentence_123

– although many contemporary theorists and literary scholars believe, either that "literature" cannot be defined, or that it can refer to any use of language. Literature_sentence_124

Literary fiction Literature_section_14

Further information: Western canon § Literary canon Literature_sentence_125

Literary fiction is a term used to describe fiction that explores any facet of the human condition, and may involve social commentary. Literature_sentence_126

It is often regarded as having more artistic merit than genre fiction, especially the most commercially-oriented types, but this has been contested in recent years, with the serious study of genre fiction within universities. Literature_sentence_127

The following, by the award-winning British author William Boyd on the short story, might be applied to all prose fiction: Literature_sentence_128

The very best in literature is annually recognized by the Nobel Prize in Literature, which is awarded to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning). Literature_sentence_129

The value of imaginative literature Literature_section_15

Some researchers suggest that literary fiction can play a role in an individual's psychological development. Literature_sentence_130

Psychologists have also been using literature as a therapeutic tool. Literature_sentence_131

Psychologist Hogan argues for the value of the time and emotion that a person devotes to understanding a character's situation in literature; that it can unite a large community by provoking universal emotions, as well as allowing readers access to different cultures, and new emotional experiences. Literature_sentence_132

One study, for example, suggested that the presence of familiar cultural values in literary texts played an important impact on the performance of minority students. Literature_sentence_133

Psychologist Maslow's ideas help literary critics understand how characters in literature reflect their personal culture and the history. Literature_sentence_134

The theory suggests that literature helps an individual's struggle for self-fulfilment. Literature_sentence_135

The influence of religious texts Literature_section_16

Further information: Islamic literature and King James Version § Influence Literature_sentence_136

Religion has had a major influence on literature, through works like the Vedas, Torah, Bible, and Qur'an. Literature_sentence_137

The Authorized Version or King Jmes translation of the Bible has been called "the most influential version of the most influential book in the world, in what is now its most influential language", "the most important book in English religion and culture", and "the most celebrated book in the English-speaking world". Literature_sentence_138

Prominent atheist figures such as the late Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins have praised the King James Version as being "a giant step in the maturing of English literature" and "a great work of literature", respectively, with Dawkins then adding, "A native speaker of English who has never read a word of the King James Bible is verging on the barbarian". Literature_sentence_139

Types of literature Literature_section_17

Poetry Literature_section_18

Poetry has traditionally been distinguished from prose by its greater use of the aesthetic qualities of language, including musical devices such as assonance, aliteration, rhyme, and rhythm, and by being set in lines and verses rather than paragraphs, and more recently its use of other typographical elements. Literature_sentence_140

This distinction is complicated by various hybrid forms such as the sound poetry, concrete poetry and prose poem, and more generally by the fact that prose possesses rhythm. Literature_sentence_141

Abram Lipsky refers to it as an "open secret" that "prose is not distinguished from poetry by lack of rhythm". Literature_sentence_142

Prior to the 19th century, poetry was commonly understood to be something set in metrical lines: "any kind of subject consisting of Rhythm or Verses". Literature_sentence_143

Possibly as a result of Aristotle's influence (his Poetics), "poetry" before the 19th century was usually less a technical designation for verse than a normative category of fictive or rhetorical art. Literature_sentence_144

As a form it may pre-date literacy, with the earliest works being composed within and sustained by an oral tradition; hence it constitutes the earliest example of literature. Literature_sentence_145

Prose Literature_section_19

As noted above, prose generally makes far less use of the aesthetic qualities of language than poetry. Literature_sentence_146

However, developments in modern literature, including free verse and prose poetry have tended to blur the differences, and American poet T.S. Literature_sentence_147 Eliot suggested that while: "the distinction between verse and prose is clear, the distinction between poetry and prose is obscure". Literature_sentence_148

There are verse novels, a type of narrative poetry in which a novel-length narrative is told through the medium of poetry rather than prose. Literature_sentence_149

Eugene Onegin (1831) by Alexander Pushkin is the most famous example. Literature_sentence_150

On the historical development of prose, Richard Graff notes that "[In the case of ancient Greece recent scholarship has emphasized the fact that formal prose was a comparatively late development, an "invention" properly associated with the classical period". Literature_sentence_151

Latin was a major influence on the development of prose in many European countries. Literature_sentence_152

Especially important was the great Roman orator Cicero. Literature_sentence_153

It was the lingua franca among literate Europeans until quite recent times, and the great works of Descartes (1596 – 1650[), Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626), and Baruch Spinoza (1632 – 1677[) were published in Latin. Literature_sentence_154

Among the last important books written primarily in Latin prose were the works of Swedenborg (d. 1772), Linnaeus (d. 1778), Euler (d. 1783), Gauss (d. 1855), and Isaac Newton (d. 1727). Literature_sentence_155

Novel Literature_section_20

See also: Genre fiction Literature_sentence_156

A novel is a long fictional prose narrative. Literature_sentence_157

In English, the term emerged from the Romance languages in the late 15th century, with the meaning of "news"; it came to indicate something new, without a distinction between fact or fiction. Literature_sentence_158

The romance is a closely related long prose narrative. Literature_sentence_159

Walter Scott defined it as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents", whereas in the novel "the events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society". Literature_sentence_160

Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo", indicates the proximity of the forms. Literature_sentence_161

Although there are many historical prototypes, so-called "novels before the novel", the modern novel form emerges late in cultural history—roughly during the eighteenth century. Literature_sentence_162

Initially subject to much criticism, the novel has acquired a dominant position amongst literary forms, both popularly and critically. Literature_sentence_163

Novella Literature_section_21

The publisher Melville House classifies the novella as "too short to be a novel, too long to be a short story". Literature_sentence_164

Publishers and literary award societies typically consider a novella to be between 17,000 and 40,000 words. Literature_sentence_165

Short story Literature_section_22

A dilemma in defining the "short story" as a literary form is how to, or whether one should, distinguish it from any short narrative and its contested origin, that include the Bible, and Edgar Allan Poe. Literature_sentence_166

Graphic novel Literature_section_23

Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of artwork, dialogue, and text. Literature_sentence_167

Electronic literature Literature_section_24

Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of digital works Literature_sentence_168

Nonfiction Literature_section_25

Common literary examples of nonfiction include, the essay; travel literature and nature writing; biography, autobiography and memoir; journalism; letters; journals; history, philosophy, economics; scientific, and technical writings. Literature_sentence_169

Nonfiction can fall within the broad category of literature as "any collection of written work", but some works fall within the narrower definition "by virtue of the excellence of their writing, their originality and their general aesthetic and artistic merits". Literature_sentence_170

Drama Literature_section_26

Drama is literature intended for performance. Literature_sentence_171

The form is combined with music and dance in opera and musical theatre (see libretto). Literature_sentence_172

A play is a written dramatic work by a playwright that is intended for performance in a theatre; it comprises chiefly dialogue between characters. Literature_sentence_173

A closet drama, by contrast, is written to be read rather than to be performed; the meaning of which can be realized fully on the page. Literature_sentence_174

Nearly all drama took verse form until comparatively recently. Literature_sentence_175

The earliest form of which there exists substantial knowledge is Greek drama. Literature_sentence_176

This developed as a performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing upon well-known historical, or mythological themes, Literature_sentence_177

In the twentieth century scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form, including radio, television and film. Literature_sentence_178

Law Literature_section_27

Law and literature Literature_section_28

The law and literature movement focuses on the interdisciplinary connection between law and literature. Literature_sentence_179

Copyright Literature_section_29

Further information: History of copyright Literature_sentence_180

Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. Literature_sentence_181

The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Literature_sentence_182

Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself. Literature_sentence_183

United Kingdom Literature_section_30

Literary works have been protected by copyright law from unauthorized reproduction since at least 1710. Literature_sentence_184

Literary works are defined by copyright law to mean "any work, other than a dramatic or musical work, which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly includes (a) a table or compilation (other than a database), (b) a computer program, (c) preparatory design material for a computer program, and (d) a database." Literature_sentence_185

Literary works are all works of literature; that is all works expressed in print or writing (other than dramatic or musical works). Literature_sentence_186

United States Literature_section_31

The copyright law of the United States has a long and complicated history, dating back to colonial times. Literature_sentence_187

It was established as federal law with the Copyright Act of 1790. Literature_sentence_188

This act was updated many times, including a major revision in 1976. Literature_sentence_189

European Union Literature_section_32

The copyright law of the European Union is the copyright law applicable within the European Union. Literature_sentence_190

Copyright law is largely harmonized in the Union, although country to country differences exist. Literature_sentence_191

The body of law was implemented in the EU through a number of directives, which the member states need to enact into their national law. Literature_sentence_192

The main copyright directives are the Copyright Term Directive, the Information Society Directive and the Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market. Literature_sentence_193

Copyright in the Union is furthermore dependent on international conventions to which the European Union is a member (such as the TRIPS Agreement and conventions to which all Member States are parties (such as the Berne Convention)). Literature_sentence_194

Copyright in communist countries Literature_section_33

Further information: Copyright in Russia, Copyright law of the Soviet Union, and Intellectual property in China Literature_sentence_195

Copyright in Japan Literature_section_34

Japan was a party to the original Berne convention in 1899, so its copyright law is in sync with most international regulations. Literature_sentence_196

The convention protected copyrighted works for 50 years after the author's death (or 50 years after publication for unknown authors and corporations). Literature_sentence_197

However, in 2004 Japan extended the copyright term to 70 years for cinematographic works. Literature_sentence_198

At the end of 2018, as a result of the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations, the 70 year term was applied to all works. Literature_sentence_199

This new term is not applied retroactively; works that had entered the public domain between 1999 and 2018 by expiration would remain in the public domain. Literature_sentence_200

Censorship Literature_section_35

Further information: Book censorship, Theatre censorship, and Film censorship Literature_sentence_201

Is a means employed by states, religious organizations, educational institutions, etc, to control what can be portrayed, spoken, performed, or written. Literature_sentence_202

Generally such bodies attempt to ban works for political reasons, or because they deal with other controversial matters such as race, or sex. Literature_sentence_203

A notorious example of censorship is James Joyce's novel Ulysses, which has been described by Russian-American novelist Vladimir Nabokov as a "divine work of art" and the greatest masterpiece of 20th century prose. Literature_sentence_204

It was banned in the United States from 1921 until 1933 on the grounds of obscenity. Literature_sentence_205

Nowadays it is a central literary text in English literature courses, throughout the world. Literature_sentence_206

Awards Literature_section_36

There are numerous awards recognizing achievement and contribution in literature. Literature_sentence_207

Given the diversity of the field, awards are typically limited in scope, usually on: form, genre, language, nationality and output (e.g. for first-time writers or debut novels). Literature_sentence_208

The Nobel Prize in Literature was one of the six Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, and is awarded to an author on the basis of their body of work, rather than to, or for, a particular work itself. Literature_sentence_209

Other literary prizes for which all nationalities are eligible include: the Neustadt International Prize for Literature, the Man Booker International Prize, Pulitzer Prize, Hugo Award, Guardian First Book Award and the Franz Kafka Prize. Literature_sentence_210

See also Literature_section_37

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature.