Lodger (album)

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Lodger is the 13th studio album by English musician David Bowie, released on 25 May 1979 by RCA Records. Lodger (album)_sentence_0

After an eventful year that saw the release of two studio albums, Low and "Heroes", and numerous other side projects in 1977, Bowie embarked on the Isolar II world tour in 1978. Lodger (album)_sentence_1

During a break in the tour, Bowie regrouped with collaborator Brian Eno and producer Tony Visconti to record his next album. Lodger (album)_sentence_2

The final release of the "Berlin Trilogy", Lodger was mostly recorded at Mountain Studios in Montreux, Switzerland in September 1978. Lodger (album)_sentence_3

Much of the same personnel from prior releases returned, with future King Crimson guitarist Adrian Belew joining from the tour. Lodger (album)_sentence_4

The recording sessions saw the use of techniques inspired by Eno's Oblique Strategies cards, such as having the musicians swap instruments and play old songs backwards. Lodger (album)_sentence_5

After the conclusion of the tour, additional recording and mixing took place at the Record Plant in New York City in March 1979. Lodger (album)_sentence_6

The music on Lodger is based in art rock and experimental rock, but lacks the electronic and ambient styles and the song/instrumental split that defined its predecessors. Lodger (album)_sentence_7

Instead, it features more conventional song structures and various styles such as avant-pop, new wave and world music. Lodger (album)_sentence_8

Lyrically, Lodger is divided into two major themes: travel (primarily side one) and critiques of Western civilisation (primarily side two). Lodger (album)_sentence_9

The album's cover photo, portraying Bowie as an accident victim across the gatefold sleeve, was taken by pop artist Derek Boshier. Lodger (album)_sentence_10

Lodger was a modest commercial success, peaking at No. Lodger (album)_sentence_11

4 on the UK Albums Chart and No. Lodger (album)_sentence_12

20 on the US Billboard 200. Lodger (album)_sentence_13

It produced four singles, including the top 10 hit "Boys Keep Swinging". Lodger (album)_sentence_14

Three of the four were accompanied by innovative music videos all directed by David Mallet. Lodger (album)_sentence_15

It received mixed reviews from music critics on release, with many calling it the weakest of the "Berlin Trilogy". Lodger (album)_sentence_16

However, critical reception has improved significantly over the years, and it is now widely considered to be among Bowie's most underrated albums. Lodger (album)_sentence_17

Many have highlighted its use of world music as particularly influential. Lodger (album)_sentence_18

Bowie and Visconti were dissatisfied with the album's original mix and in 2015, Visconti remixed the album (with Bowie's approval) for inclusion on the 2017 box set A New Career in a New Town (1977–1982), along with a remaster of the original. Lodger (album)_sentence_19

Background Lodger (album)_section_0

In the second half of 1976, Bowie moved to Switzerland with his wife Angela to escape the drug culture of Los Angeles. Lodger (album)_sentence_20

From here, he began a very productive schedule that would continue for the next few years. Lodger (album)_sentence_21

He moved to the Château d'Hérouville in Hérouville, France with his friend, singer Iggy Pop, where the two recorded his debut studio album The Idiot. Lodger (album)_sentence_22

He then met musician Brian Eno the same year, and began a series of collaborations with Eno and producer Tony Visconti that would become known as the "Berlin Trilogy". Lodger (album)_sentence_23

The first instalment, Low, was recorded at the Château in September 1976 and continued through November, with additional recording taking place at the Hansa Tonstudio in West Berlin, following Bowie and Pop's move there. Lodger (album)_sentence_24

After Low's release in January 1977, Bowie toured as Pop's keyboardist. Lodger (album)_sentence_25

After the tour's completion, Bowie and Pop returned to Hansa Tonstudio, where they recorded Pop's next solo album Lust for Life in two and a half weeks, from April to May 1977. Lodger (album)_sentence_26

Bowie then began his next collaboration with Visconti and Eno, "Heroes", which was recorded at Hansa sporadically from July to August 1977. Lodger (album)_sentence_27

Bowie then underwent extensive promotion for "Heroes", released in October 1977, conducting numerous interviews and performing on various television programmes, including recording a collaboration, "Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy", with singer Bing Crosby on Bing Crosby's Merrie Olde Christmas. Lodger (album)_sentence_28

He then recorded narration for an adaptation of Sergei Prokofiev's classical composition Peter and the Wolf, released as an album in May 1978, acted in the David Hemmings film Just a Gigolo, and began the Isolar II world tour, which lasted from March 1978 to the end of the year. Lodger (album)_sentence_29

Recording and production Lodger (album)_section_1

Recording for Lodger began during the four-month break of the Isolar II world tour in September 1978. Lodger (album)_sentence_30

Although Lodger is known as the final release of Bowie's "Berlin Trilogy", it was largely recorded at Mountain Studios in Montreux, Switzerland, with additional recording finishing at the Record Plant in New York City. Lodger (album)_sentence_31

The atmosphere in Switzerland was much different than Berlin. Lodger (album)_sentence_32

The studio itself was built on the site of a previous studio that had burned down. Lodger (album)_sentence_33

Whereas Hansa Tonstudio was located near the Berlin Wall, Mountain was located in an Alpine retreat. Lodger (album)_sentence_34

Guitarist Carlos Alomar described the location as "boring", preferring the "excitement" of Hansa. Lodger (album)_sentence_35

Mountain also lacked the acoustics that Hansa had. Lodger (album)_sentence_36

Much of the same musicians from the previous records – Eno, Visconti, Alomar, Dennis Davis and George Murray – returned for the Lodger sessions. Lodger (album)_sentence_37

A new addition was future King Crimson guitarist Adrian Belew, whom Bowie had "poached" while the guitarist was touring with Frank Zappa; Belew's future bandmate Robert Fripp played guitar on "Heroes". Lodger (album)_sentence_38

Much of Belew's work on the album was composited from multiple takes played against backing tracks of which he had no prior knowledge, not even the key. Lodger (album)_sentence_39

Belew recalled, "When I arrived, they had about twenty tracks already done: bass, drums, rhythm guitar, but no vocals. Lodger (album)_sentence_40

They said, 'We're not going to let you hear these songs. Lodger (album)_sentence_41

We want you to go into the studio and play accidentally – whatever occurs to you'." Lodger (album)_sentence_42

Belew described the final guitar solo on "DJ" as sounding like "you're changing channel on the radio and each channel has a different guitar solo on it." Lodger (album)_sentence_43

Bowie used numerous experimental methods during the sessions. Lodger (album)_sentence_44

Some of these included using old tunes played backwards, employing identical chord sequences for different songs and having the musicians swap instruments (Alomar and Davis did so on "Boys Keep Swinging"). Lodger (album)_sentence_45

Pianist Sean Mayes explained: "[Bowie] was very keen on spontaneity. Lodger (album)_sentence_46

He liked everything to be recorded in one or two takes, mistakes and all." Lodger (album)_sentence_47

Biographer Nicholas Pegg writes that several songs, including "African Night Flight", "Yassassin" and "Red Sails" were composed "around a melodic clash of disparate cultures." Lodger (album)_sentence_48

Due to the experimental nature of the sessions, initial working titles for the album included Planned Accidents and Despite Straight Lines. Lodger (album)_sentence_49

Unlike the lyrics for "Heroes", which were mostly improvised by Bowie as he stood next to the microphone, most of the lyrics were written at a later date and were unknown during the Mountain sessions. Lodger (album)_sentence_50

Other than "Yassassin" and "Red Sails", the majority of the tracks were recorded under working titles. Lodger (album)_sentence_51

The sessions also saw Bowie and Eno utilise techniques from Eno's Oblique Strategies cards. Lodger (album)_sentence_52

According to biographer Chris O'Leary, these cards were "part-fortune cookie, part-Monopoly 'Chance' cards", intended to spark creative ideas. Lodger (album)_sentence_53

Eno and Bowie previously used these cards to create some of the instrumentals on "Heroes". Lodger (album)_sentence_54

Visconti recalled Eno having more leeway during the sessions than Low and "Heroes". Lodger (album)_sentence_55

For "Look Back in Anger", Eno gave the band eight of his favourite chords and instructed them to "play something funky". Lodger (album)_sentence_56

Alomar disliked this, telling biographer David Buckley that he "totally, totally resisted it." Lodger (album)_sentence_57

Despite Eno assuming control at certain points, he appeared on and co-wrote only six of the album's ten tracks. Lodger (album)_sentence_58

Eno felt that the trilogy had "petered out" by Lodger, and Belew also observed Eno's and Bowie's working relationship closing down: "They didn't quarrel or anything uncivilised like that; they just didn't seem to have the spark that I imagine they might have had during the "Heroes" album." Lodger (album)_sentence_59

Visconti shared similar sentiments, saying on multiple occasions: "I don't think [David's] heart was in Lodger," and "We had fun, but nevertheless an ominous feeling pervaded the album for me." Lodger (album)_sentence_60

The sessions at Mountain lasted three weeks, after which the band went back on tour. Lodger (album)_sentence_61

After its conclusion, Bowie reconvened at the Record Plant in New York City in March 1979, where he recorded his lyrics, instrumental overdubs and underwent mixing. Lodger (album)_sentence_62

Belew returned to record further guitar overdubs while Visconti recorded a replacement bass guitar part for "Boys Keep Swinging", upon deciding Davis's original was unsuitable. Lodger (album)_sentence_63

Work was completed in a week. Lodger (album)_sentence_64

Visconti recalled having "sonic problems" during the mixing stage, due to the studio not having the technical advancements of European studios. Lodger (album)_sentence_65

Musical style Lodger (album)_section_2

Much like its predecessors, the music on Lodger has been described by Consequence of Sound as art rock and experimental rock. Lodger (album)_sentence_66

However, the album abandons the electronic and ambient styles and the song/instrumental split that defined its predecessors, in favour of more conventional song structures. Lodger (album)_sentence_67

Visconti explained: "We dropped the ambient-side-two concept and just recorded songs!" Lodger (album)_sentence_68

Because of this, Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic considers Lodger to be the most "accessible" record of the "Berlin Trilogy", describing the songs as "twisted avant-pop"; Belew similarly described the songs as "avant-garde pop music". Lodger (album)_sentence_69

Its musical textures, particularly on "African Night Flight", have been cited as presaging the popularity of world music, Bowie himself considering it a forerunner of the sounds developed by Eno and David Byrne for My Life in the Bush of Ghosts (1981). Lodger (album)_sentence_70

Frank Mastropolo of Ultimate Classic Rock writes that Lodger combines world and new wave music into a "pop format". Lodger (album)_sentence_71

Although Bryan Wawzenek, also of Ultimate Classic Rock, found Lodger to be the more accessible record of the "Berlin Trilogy", he also found it to be the most experimental, finding elements of Middle Eastern music, reggae, world and Krautrock within the vast array of pop songs. Lodger (album)_sentence_72

The final track on "Heroes", "The Secret Life of Arabia", in particular, has been signaled out by biographers as a precursor to what Bowie would explore on Lodger, both musically and thematically. Lodger (album)_sentence_73

After the ominousness of Low and "Heroes", biographers have found the opening track, "Fantastic Voyage", as "surprisingly delicate" and "serene"; a thought author Peter Doggett believes implies a "less intense" record. Lodger (album)_sentence_74

The song shares the same chord sequence as "Boys Keep Swinging" and features three different players playing mandolin parts; each part was triple-tracked to create nine parts in total. Lodger (album)_sentence_75

Bowie composed "Move On" after accidentally playing his earlier hit "All the Young Dudes" backwards, then having Alomar write out the reversed chord sequence. Lodger (album)_sentence_76

"Yassassin" combines funk and reggae, using the violin, played by Simon House, to create a sound reminiscient of a Middle Eastern folk song and Turkish music. Lodger (album)_sentence_77

"Red Sails" was inspired in part by the music of German band Neu! Lodger (album)_sentence_78 , sharing Neu! Lodger (album)_sentence_79

's distinctive "motorik" drum beat; Pegg describes it as "an upbeat slab of new wave pop". Lodger (album)_sentence_80

The track has also be compared with Harmonia's 1975 track "Monza (Rauf und Runter)". Lodger (album)_sentence_81

Regarding "DJ", Bowie explained, "This is somewhat cynical but it's my natural response to disco." Lodger (album)_sentence_82

Bowie mimics David Byrne of Talking Heads in his vocal performance. Lodger (album)_sentence_83

Wawzenek highlights "DJ" as a "danceable gem". Lodger (album)_sentence_84

"Look Back in Anger" is described by Doggett as "propulsive and impatient" and a "sharp-edged, thrillingly modern rock song" by Ned Raggett. Lodger (album)_sentence_85

O'Leary particularly highlights Davis' drumming as the standout, while Alomar's guitar solo is influenced by John Lennon's rhythm guitar work in the Beatles. Lodger (album)_sentence_86

Commentators have found "Boys Keep Swinging" to contain elements of glam rock and garage rock. Lodger (album)_sentence_87

For the recording, which has the same chord sequence as "Fantastic Voyage", Bowie instructed the band to swap instruments. Lodger (album)_sentence_88

"Repetition" features a bass guitar riff that's described by Buckley as "insistent and very odd". Lodger (album)_sentence_89

Doggett highlights its sound as similar to funk music. Lodger (album)_sentence_90

"Red Money" is built around the backing track of "Sister Midnight", an Iggy Pop song Bowie and him recorded for The Idiot. Lodger (album)_sentence_91

New guitar parts were added, along with electronic effects, backwards guitar and vocal harmonies. Lodger (album)_sentence_92

Lyrics and themes Lodger (album)_section_3

Though missing the song/instrumental split that characterised Low and "Heroes", Lodger has been interpreted as dividing roughly into two major themes, that of travel (primarily side one) and critiques of Western civilisation (primarily side two). Lodger (album)_sentence_93

In early 1977, Bowie stated, "I don't live anywhere, really. Lodger (album)_sentence_94

I travel 100% of the time." Lodger (album)_sentence_95

He further stated the same year: "The more I travel, the less sure I am about exactly which political philosophies are commendable. Lodger (album)_sentence_96

All my traveling is done on the basis of wanting to get my ideas for writing from real events rather than from going back to a system from whence it came." Lodger (album)_sentence_97

Because of this, Mastropolo views Lodger as a concept album about a homeless traveler. Lodger (album)_sentence_98

Some of the songs showcase heavily politicised lyrics, including "Fantastic Voyage", which deals with the "depression" brought on by Cold War leaders and the possibility of nuclear war, and "Repetition", which deals with domestic violence. Lodger (album)_sentence_99

Eno was unhappy with the direction Bowie took with the lyrics. Lodger (album)_sentence_100

Regarding side one's theme of travel, Pegg writes that the songs revive a "perennial motif" prevailing throughout the "Berlin Trilogy", highlighting the lyric "I've lived all over the world, I've left every place" from the Low track "Be My Wife", pointing out the journey is both metaphorical and geographical. Lodger (album)_sentence_101

Between the Montreaux and New York sessions, Bowie traveled to Kenya with his son Duncan, which inspired the lyrics for "African Night Flight". Lodger (album)_sentence_102

The same trip, along with further ones to Japan and Australia, inspired "Move On", which reflects the theme of wanderlust throughout side one. Lodger (album)_sentence_103

Regarding the song titles, Doggett quipped: "After his 'African Night Flight', what else to do but 'Move On'!" Lodger (album)_sentence_104

When asked about "Red Sails", Bowie said in 1979: "Here we took a new German music feel and put it against the idea of a contemporary English mercenary-cum-swashbuckling Errol Flynn, and put him in the China Sea. Lodger (album)_sentence_105

We have a lovely cross-reference of cultures. Lodger (album)_sentence_106

I honestly don't know what it's about." Lodger (album)_sentence_107

Pegg writes that "Red Sails" symbolises Bowie's venture away from the mainstream. Lodger (album)_sentence_108

"Yassassin" is Turkish for 'long live', from the word yaşasın. Lodger (album)_sentence_109

Like the "Heroes" track "Neuköln", "Yassassin" is about discrimination the Turkish immigrants who lived in Berlin faced, although here the lyrics are more direct. Lodger (album)_sentence_110

The lyrics of side two primarily critique Western society. Lodger (album)_sentence_111

"DJ" takes a sardonic look at the world of the disc jockey. Lodger (album)_sentence_112

Here, the DJ is solely looked at for what he is on the outside: "I am a DJ, I am what I play". Lodger (album)_sentence_113

Swiftly compared to Elvis Costello's "Radio Radio", writer Ian Mathers described the song as "a horror story about a human being reduced to nothing more than work." Lodger (album)_sentence_114

"Look Back in Anger" sees Bowie encounter an angel of death who has come to claim his soul. Lodger (album)_sentence_115

"Boys Keep Swinging" contains gender-bending lyrics, particularly "When you're a boy, other boys check you out". Lodger (album)_sentence_116

In 2000, Bowie said of the track: "The glory in that song was ironic. Lodger (album)_sentence_117

I do not feel that there is anything remotely glorious about being either male or female. Lodger (album)_sentence_118

I was merely playing on the idea of the colonisation of a gender." Lodger (album)_sentence_119

In "Repetition", the narrator conveys no emotion when beating his wife, leading Buckley to describe it as Bowie at "his most chilling". Lodger (album)_sentence_120

"Red Money" proclaims the message "project canceled". Lodger (album)_sentence_121

Regarding the "red boxes" that appear throughout, Bowie stated: "This song, I think, is about responsibility. Lodger (album)_sentence_122

Red boxes keep cropping up in my paintings and they represent responsibility." Lodger (album)_sentence_123

Artwork Lodger (album)_section_4

Bowie collaborated on the cover design with English pop artist Derek Boshier, who would later design the artwork for Let's Dance (1983). Lodger (album)_sentence_124

The original gatefold album sleeve featured a full-length shot by photographer Brian Duffy of Bowie in a tiled bathroom and looking like an accident victim, heavily made up with an apparently broken nose and a bandaged hand. Lodger (album)_sentence_125

To accomplish the shot, taken in February 1979 in Duffy's London studio, Bowie balanced himself on a steel frame while Duffy captured the image from above. Lodger (album)_sentence_126

The broken nose and facial morphing were accomplished using prosthetic make-up and nylon threads. Lodger (album)_sentence_127

Bowie's bandaged hand was genuine; according to Pegg he had burned it with coffee that morning and decided to incorporate it into the photo. Lodger (album)_sentence_128

At Bowie's request, the image was taken in a low resolution with a Polaroid SX-70 type camera; outtakes from the photoshoot have appeared in the 2014 book Duffy/Bowie – Five Sessions. Lodger (album)_sentence_129

The front features a postcard with the album title in four different languages, enhancing the album's theme of travel. Lodger (album)_sentence_130

The inside of the gatefold included pictures of Che Guevara's corpse, Andrea Mantegna's painting Lamentation of Christ, and Bowie being readied for the cover photo. Lodger (album)_sentence_131

These images were not reproduced in the Rykodisc CD reissue in 1991. Lodger (album)_sentence_132

Release and promotion Lodger (album)_section_5

The lead single, "Boys Keep Swinging", was released by RCA Records on 27 April 1979, with the catalogue number RCA BOW 2 and "Fantastic Voyage" as the B-side. Lodger (album)_sentence_133

To promote the song, Bowie appeared on The Kenny Everett Video Show four days earlier. Lodger (album)_sentence_134

According to Pegg, he dressed in a "1950s Mod-style suit" that made him look like a "fresh-faced schoolboy". Lodger (album)_sentence_135

The programme was being directed by David Mallet, who Bowie chose to direct a promo video for "Boys Keep Swinging". Lodger (album)_sentence_136

The promo and Everett performance were filmed back-to-back, although the promo featured extra backup dancers that turned out to be Bowie in drag. Lodger (album)_sentence_137

The Everett performance, along with an appearance as the guest DJ on Radio 1's Star Special, helped "Boys Keep Swinging" reach No. Lodger (album)_sentence_138

7 on the UK Singles Chart, Bowie's highest-charting single since "Sound and Vision". Lodger (album)_sentence_139

However, due to the song's gender-bending video and lyrics, RCA refused to release the single in the US. Lodger (album)_sentence_140

Lodger was released by RCA on 25 May 1979, with the catalogue number RCA BOW LP 1. Lodger (album)_sentence_141

Its release came almost two years after "Heroes", making it the longest gap between Bowie studio albums since Space Oddity (1969). Lodger (album)_sentence_142

Buckley writes that within that time, new wave began emerging and overtaking punk rock as the dominant genre, highlighting the likes of Blondie and Kate Bush. Lodger (album)_sentence_143

He also notes that music videos and artists that were influenced by the music on his prior Berlin releases, such as the Human League, Devo and Gary Numan, had begun to gain popularity. Lodger (album)_sentence_144

Lodger performed well commercially, peaking at No. Lodger (album)_sentence_145

4 on the UK Albums Chart and remaining on the chart for 17 weeks. Lodger (album)_sentence_146

It also peaked at No. Lodger (album)_sentence_147

20 on the US Billboard 200, remaining on the chart for 15 weeks. Lodger (album)_sentence_148

Throughout the year, Bowie was out-performed commercially by Numan, who had No. Lodger (album)_sentence_149

1 hits with Tubeway Army's "Are "Friends" Electric? Lodger (album)_sentence_150 ", his debut album The Pleasure Principle, and its lead single "Cars". Lodger (album)_sentence_151

Numan, a huge fan of Bowie's, was antagonised by Bowie's fans as a mere copycat of Bowie's. Lodger (album)_sentence_152

Bowie himself criticised Numan, which led to a feud between the two artists for many years. Lodger (album)_sentence_153

According to Buckley, Numan's fame indirectly led to Bowie taking a more pop direction for his next record, Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps). Lodger (album)_sentence_154

"DJ" was chosen as the second single and released on 29 June 1979, with the catalogue number RCA BOW 3 and "Repetition" as the B-side. Lodger (album)_sentence_155

Pegg calls it a "boldly uncommercial choice" for a single. Lodger (album)_sentence_156

Appearing in edited form, the single stalled on the charts, peaking at No. Lodger (album)_sentence_157

29 in the UK. Lodger (album)_sentence_158

It was aided by a music video, also directed by Mallet. Lodger (album)_sentence_159

The video features Bowie walking down a road in London's Earl's Court, attracting surprised fans, interspersed with shots of him as an abused DJ. Lodger (album)_sentence_160

"Yassassin" was released as the album's third single in the Netherlands in July 1979, with the catalogue number RCA PB-9417 and "Repetition" again as the B-side. Lodger (album)_sentence_161

It failed to chart, but the Dutch single edit was later included on Re:Call 3, as part of the A New Career in a New Town (1977–1982) box set (2017). Lodger (album)_sentence_162

After releasing "Boys Keep Swinging" as a single in the UK only, RCA released "Look Back in Anger", with the catalogue number PB-11724 and "Repetition" once again as the B-side, as the album's fourth single in the US and Canada only, where it failed to chart. Lodger (album)_sentence_163

It was promoted by a music video, again directed by Mallet. Lodger (album)_sentence_164

The video, inspired by Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, depicts Bowie as a painter in an attic studio whose self-portrait begins to decay and melt. Lodger (album)_sentence_165

Critical reception Lodger (album)_section_6

Lodger (album)_table_general_0

Professional ratingsLodger (album)_table_caption_0
Review scoresLodger (album)_header_cell_0_0_0
SourceLodger (album)_header_cell_0_1_0 RatingLodger (album)_header_cell_0_1_1
AllMusicLodger (album)_cell_0_2_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_2_1
BlenderLodger (album)_cell_0_3_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_3_1
Chicago TribuneLodger (album)_cell_0_4_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_4_1
Encyclopedia of Popular MusicLodger (album)_cell_0_5_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_5_1
Entertainment WeeklyLodger (album)_cell_0_6_0 B+Lodger (album)_cell_0_6_1
PitchforkLodger (album)_cell_0_7_0 8.5/10Lodger (album)_cell_0_7_1
QLodger (album)_cell_0_8_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_8_1
The Rolling Stone Album GuideLodger (album)_cell_0_9_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_9_1
SpinLodger (album)_cell_0_10_0 Lodger (album)_cell_0_10_1
The Village VoiceLodger (album)_cell_0_11_0 A−Lodger (album)_cell_0_11_1

In contrast to the universal praise received by its predecessor two years before, Lodger received mixed reviews on its original release. Lodger (album)_sentence_166

Among the negative reviews, Greil Marcus of Rolling Stone called it "one of his weakest ... scattered, a footnote to "Heroes", an act of marking time", while Jon Savage of Melody Maker found it boring, describing it as "a nice enough pop record, beautifully played, produced and crafted, and slightly faceless." Lodger (album)_sentence_167

In Smash Hits, Red Starr described the album as sounding like "a ragbag of rejects from previous styles" with "only occasional flashes of genius". Lodger (album)_sentence_168

A reviewer for Billboard similarly noted "the tone of the album is less foreboding than his more recent musical excursions". Lodger (album)_sentence_169

Although they felt this was both a "continuation" and a "departure" from his previous works, the magazine chose Lodger among their "Top Album Picks" the week of 9 June 1979. Lodger (album)_sentence_170

Paul Yamada of New York Rocker felt the album was a let down compared to its two predecessors. Lodger (album)_sentence_171

Although he found some of the songs "good" and complimented its "easy-listening" nature, he noted the absense of the more "challenging" work found on its predecessors and found Lodger as a whole to be "a frustrating but well-crafted LP that is much less than it appears to be." Lodger (album)_sentence_172

In a more mixed review, Sandy Robertson of Sounds felt Lodger had "some ideas successfully realised", but as a whole was "not brilliant". Lodger (album)_sentence_173

The album did receive some positive reviews. Lodger (album)_sentence_174

The New York Times called it Bowie's "most eloquent" record in years, while Robert Christgau of The Village Voice wrote favourably, stating that although the songs may seem impassive and not designful, he believed those qualities were "part of their charm—the way they confound categories of sensibility and sophistication is so frustrating it's satisfying". Lodger (album)_sentence_175

Tim Lott of Record Mirror wrote: "It's simply appealing in such an unusual way that a clear definition is impossible, even when plotted against its own predecessors rather than 'pop music' in general." Lodger (album)_sentence_176

He further commended the variety of musical styles present but criticised some of the lyrics as lazy. Lodger (album)_sentence_177

Retrospectively, Lodger has received positive reviews. Lodger (album)_sentence_178

Upon the album's 1991 reissue, Entertainment Weekly writer Ira Robbins noted its accessibility compared to its predecessors and found the songs as forerunners of Let's Dance. Lodger (album)_sentence_179

Writing for The Rolling Stone Album Guide in 2004, Rob Sheffield praised Lodger, stating it "rocks just as hard as Station to Station and Aladdin Sane". Lodger (album)_sentence_180

He further commented on the "razor-sharp musical corners" and "new layers of wit and generosity in the songwriting", highlighting "Boys Keep Swinging", "DJ" and "Fantastic Voyage". Lodger (album)_sentence_181

Jon Dolan of Spin magazine considered Lodger to be a great end to "his best decade", calling it "his last great album". Lodger (album)_sentence_182

Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic also gave the album a positive review, writing: "It might not stretch the boundaries of rock like Low and "Heroes", but it arguably utilises those ideas in a more effective fashion." Lodger (album)_sentence_183

Mike Powell of Pitchfork describes Lodger as "the first David Bowie album marketed as nothing more than an album of recorded music by David Bowie." Lodger (album)_sentence_184

He further commented on the record's accessibility compared to his prior releases. Lodger (album)_sentence_185

Although he felt Lodger might always be remembered as the least "essential" effort of the "Berlin Trilogy", Brian Wawzenek of Ultimate Classic Rock concludes: "as a postcard from one of Bowie's most exciting phases, it's a fascinating glimpse of the artist in the midst of a bold transition." Lodger (album)_sentence_186

Influence and legacy Lodger (album)_section_7

The consensus among critics at the time of its release was that Lodger was the weakest of the "Berlin Trilogy". Lodger (album)_sentence_187

However, soon after its release, NME editors Roy Carr and Charles Shaar Murray predicted that Lodger would "have to 'grow in potency' over a few years, but eventually, it will be accepted as one of Bowie's most complex and rewarding projects". Lodger (album)_sentence_188

Indeed, Lodger has come to be considered as one of Bowie's most underrated works. Lodger (album)_sentence_189

Wawzenek describes it as Bowie's Return of the Jedi rather than his Godfather Part III. Lodger (album)_sentence_190

While biographer Christopher Sandford calls it a "slick, calculatedly disposable record", Buckley contends that "its stature grows with each passing year", and Pegg sums up, "undervalued and obscure practically from the moment of its release, its critical re-evaluation is long overdue". Lodger (album)_sentence_191

It is one of Bowie's most influential works according to Britannica. Lodger (album)_sentence_192

Biographer Marc Spitz agrees, citing its use of world music as influential on Talking Heads' Remain in Light (1980) and Paul Simon's Graceland (1986). Lodger (album)_sentence_193

Spitz further found the albums promotional videos directed by David Mallet "as innovative as anything Bowie had ever done before." Lodger (album)_sentence_194

Electronica/techno artist Moby would later state that the only reason he got his first job (as a golf caddy) was so that he could afford to buy Lodger, which had just come out. Lodger (album)_sentence_195

Built to Spill would reference the album in their song "Distopian Dream Girl" taken from their 1994 album There's Nothing Wrong with Love. Lodger (album)_sentence_196

A few of the album's songs influenced two English Britpop bands in the 1990s. Lodger (album)_sentence_197

Blur used the same chord sequence as "Fantastic Voyage" and "Boys Keep Swinging" in their 1997 single "M.O.R.". Lodger (album)_sentence_198

The song's chorus also borrows the melody and call-and-response vocals from "Boys Keep Swinging" (Bowie and Eno both received credit for "M.O.R." Lodger (album)_sentence_199

after legal intervention). Lodger (album)_sentence_200

Their lead singer Damon Albarn has cited Bowie as an influence. Lodger (album)_sentence_201

Oasis named their 1996 single "Don't Look Back in Anger", written by Noel Gallagher, after "Look Back in Anger". Lodger (album)_sentence_202

American indie rock band Shearwater covered the album in its entirety at live shows and on The A.V. Lodger (album)_sentence_203 Club following Bowie's death in early 2016. Lodger (album)_sentence_204

In 1992, American composer Philip Glass adapted Low into a classical music symphony, titled Symphony No. Lodger (album)_sentence_205 1 (Glass) or the "Low" Symphony. Lodger (album)_sentence_206

He followed it up in 1994 with a symphony based on "Heroes", titled Symphony No. Lodger (album)_sentence_207 4 (Glass) or the "Heroes" Symphony. Lodger (album)_sentence_208

Glass informed Bowie of the projects and the two remained in contact with each other until 2003 and discussed making a third symphony, which never came to fruition. Lodger (album)_sentence_209

After Bowie's death in 2016, Glass stated the two had talked about adapting Lodger for the third symphony, to which "the idea has not totally disappeared." Lodger (album)_sentence_210

However, in January 2018, Glass announced the completion of a symphony based upon Lodger. Lodger (album)_sentence_211

The work is Glass' 12th Symphony and was premièred in Los Angeles in January 2019. Lodger (album)_sentence_212

The symphony marked the completion of his trilogy of works based on Bowie's "Berlin Trilogy". Lodger (album)_sentence_213

2017 remix Lodger (album)_section_8

The original mix of Lodger was the source of criticism for many years, with reviewers calling it "over-cluttered" and "over-produced". Lodger (album)_sentence_214

Regarding the mix, Tony Visconti stated: "My only regret is that we went to New York to finish [the] album and it suffered at the mixing stage because New York studios simply were not as versatile or well-equipped as their European counterparts in those days." Lodger (album)_sentence_215

Bowie himself also expressed disappointment in the mix, citing distractions in his personal life at the time and the overall feeling he and Visconti felt that the record didn't come together as easily as its two predecessors. Lodger (album)_sentence_216

Bowie and Visconti began discussing the possibility of remixing Lodger during the sessions for The Next Day (2013) for a possible deluxe edition reissue, with the latter explaining: "[It's] an important record to both of us. Lodger (album)_sentence_217

David agrees it never sounded the way we wanted." Lodger (album)_sentence_218

During the sessions for Bowie's final album Blackstar in 2015, Visconti secretly began remixing Lodger. Lodger (album)_sentence_219

He presented the new mixes to Bowie, who approved of them before his death. Lodger (album)_sentence_220

Visconti finished the remix in late 2016 and included it in the 2017 box set A New Career in a New Town (1977–1982). Lodger (album)_sentence_221

Kory Grow of Rolling Stone writes that the new mix "loosens" the album's sound, stating there is "a greater emphasis on orchestral strings" and the percussion "sometimes comes out of different speakers." Lodger (album)_sentence_222

Grow further noted that the mix makes "everything [feel] generally lighter", notably on "Red Money" and "Yassassin". Lodger (album)_sentence_223

Overall, Grow gave praise to the new mix, calling it a "brilliant new take" and noted that the original now feels "muddier" by comparison. Lodger (album)_sentence_224

Chris Gerard of PopMatters also praised the remix, believing it has "drastically improved" the record and "nothing short of revelatory". Lodger (album)_sentence_225

Gerard gave the most acclaim to "DJ", writing that its new mix gives the track "more punch and clarity". Lodger (album)_sentence_226

Ultimately, Gerard felt that the new mix was the highlight of the box set and gives Lodger enough recognition to be labeled as among Bowie's finest work. Lodger (album)_sentence_227

Track listing Lodger (album)_section_9

Reissues Lodger (album)_section_10

Lodger has been rereleased several times on compact disc. Lodger (album)_sentence_228

It was first released on CD by RCA in the mid-1980s. Lodger (album)_sentence_229

Rykodisc (in the USA) and EMI (elsewhere) released a version with two bonus tracks in 1991. Lodger (album)_sentence_230

The third iteration, without bonus tracks, appeared in 1999 on EMI, featuring 24-bit digitally remastered sound. Lodger (album)_sentence_231

In 2017, the A New Career in a New Town (1977–1982) box set released by Parlophone included two versions of Lodger, a remaster of the standard album and a remix by Visconti. Lodger (album)_sentence_232

The 2017 remaster was separately released, in CD, vinyl, and digital formats, the following year. Lodger (album)_sentence_233

Personnel Lodger (album)_section_11

Credits are adapted from the album's liner notes. Lodger (album)_sentence_234

The track numbers refer to CD and digital releases of the album. Lodger (album)_sentence_235

Lodger (album)_unordered_list_0

Lodger (album)_description_list_1

Lodger (album)_unordered_list_2

Charts Lodger (album)_section_12

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lodger (album).