Long bone

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Long bone_table_infobox_0

Long boneLong bone_header_cell_0_0_0
DetailsLong bone_header_cell_0_1_0
IdentifiersLong bone_header_cell_0_2_0
LatinLong bone_header_cell_0_3_0 Os longumLong bone_cell_0_3_1
TA98Long bone_header_cell_0_4_0 Long bone_cell_0_4_1
TA2Long bone_header_cell_0_5_0 Long bone_cell_0_5_1
FMALong bone_header_cell_0_6_0 Long bone_cell_0_6_1

The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. Long bone_sentence_0

They are one of five types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Long bone_sentence_1

Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. Long bone_sentence_2

They grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. Long bone_sentence_3

The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). Long bone_sentence_4

The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Long bone_sentence_5

Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Long bone_sentence_6

The long bone category includes the femora, tibiae, and fibulae of the legs; the humeri, radii, and ulnae of the arms; metacarpals and metatarsals of the hands and feet, the phalanges of the fingers and toes, and the clavicles or collar bones. Long bone_sentence_7

The long bones of the human leg comprise nearly half of adult height. Long bone_sentence_8

The other primary skeletal component of height are the vertebrae and skull. Long bone_sentence_9

The outside of the bone consists of a layer of connective tissue called the periosteum. Long bone_sentence_10

Additionally, the outer shell of the long bone is compact bone, then a deeper layer of cancellous bone (spongy bone) which contains in the medullary cavity the bone marrow. Long bone_sentence_11

Structure Long bone_section_0

The outer shell of the long bone is made of cortical bone also known as compact bone. Long bone_sentence_12

This is covered by a membrane of connective tissue called the periosteum. Long bone_sentence_13

Beneath the cortical bone layer is a layer of spongy cancellous bone. Long bone_sentence_14

Inside this is the medullary cavity which has an inner core of bone marrow, it contains nutrients and help in formation of cells, made up of yellow marrow in the adult and red marrow in the child. Long bone_sentence_15

Long bone_unordered_list_0

  • Long bone_item_0_0
  • Long bone_item_0_1
  • Long bone_item_0_2
  • Long bone_item_0_3
  • Long bone_item_0_4

Clinical significance Long bone_section_1

There are two congenital disorders of the long bones. Long bone_sentence_16

In a disorder known as rachitis fetalis anularis the ends of the long bones (epiphyses) are enlarged. Long bone_sentence_17

Another disorder is known as rachitis fetalis micromelica in which there is a deficiency in the growth (as a shortness) of the bones. Long bone_sentence_18

There is a surgical procedure called distraction osteogenesis which is used to lengthen long bones. Long bone_sentence_19

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long bone.