Los Angeles

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This article is about the U.S. city. Los Angeles_sentence_0

For the county, see Los Angeles County. Los Angeles_sentence_1

For other uses, see Los Angeles (disambiguation) and City of Los Angeles (disambiguation). Los Angeles_sentence_2

"LA" redirects here. Los Angeles_sentence_3

For other uses, see LA (disambiguation). Los Angeles_sentence_4

Los Angeles_table_infobox_0

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryLos Angeles_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesLos Angeles_cell_0_1_1
StateLos Angeles_header_cell_0_2_0 CaliforniaLos Angeles_cell_0_2_1
CountyLos Angeles_header_cell_0_3_0 Los AngelesLos Angeles_cell_0_3_1
RegionLos Angeles_header_cell_0_4_0 Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles_cell_0_4_1
CSALos Angeles_header_cell_0_5_0 Los Angeles-Long BeachLos Angeles_cell_0_5_1
MSALos Angeles_header_cell_0_6_0 Los Angeles-Long Beach-AnaheimLos Angeles_cell_0_6_1
PuebloLos Angeles_header_cell_0_7_0 September 4, 1781Los Angeles_cell_0_7_1
City statusLos Angeles_header_cell_0_8_0 May 23, 1835Los Angeles_cell_0_8_1
IncorporatedLos Angeles_header_cell_0_9_0 April 4, 1850Los Angeles_cell_0_9_1
Named forLos Angeles_header_cell_0_10_0 Our Lady, Queen of the AngelsLos Angeles_cell_0_10_1
GovernmentLos Angeles_header_cell_0_11_0
TypeLos Angeles_header_cell_0_12_0 Mayor-Council-CommissionLos Angeles_cell_0_12_1
BodyLos Angeles_header_cell_0_13_0 Los Angeles City CouncilLos Angeles_cell_0_13_1
MayorLos Angeles_header_cell_0_14_0 Eric Garcetti (D)Los Angeles_cell_0_14_1
City AttorneyLos Angeles_header_cell_0_15_0 Mike Feuer (D)Los Angeles_cell_0_15_1
City ControllerLos Angeles_header_cell_0_16_0 Ron Galperin (D)Los Angeles_cell_0_16_1
AreaLos Angeles_header_cell_0_17_0
TotalLos Angeles_header_cell_0_18_0 502.73 sq mi (1,302.06 km)Los Angeles_cell_0_18_1
LandLos Angeles_header_cell_0_19_0 468.97 sq mi (1,214.63 km)Los Angeles_cell_0_19_1
WaterLos Angeles_header_cell_0_20_0 33.76 sq mi (87.43 km)Los Angeles_cell_0_20_1
UrbanLos Angeles_header_cell_0_21_0 1,736.02 sq mi (4,496.3 km)Los Angeles_cell_0_21_1
MetroLos Angeles_header_cell_0_22_0 4,850 sq mi (12,562 km)Los Angeles_cell_0_22_1
ElevationLos Angeles_header_cell_0_23_0 305 ft (93 m)Los Angeles_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevationLos Angeles_header_cell_0_24_0 5,074 ft (1,547 m)Los Angeles_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevationLos Angeles_header_cell_0_25_0 0 ft (0 m)Los Angeles_cell_0_25_1
Population (2010)Los Angeles_header_cell_0_26_0
TotalLos Angeles_header_cell_0_27_0 3,792,621Los Angeles_cell_0_27_1
Estimate (2019)Los Angeles_header_cell_0_28_0 3,979,576Los Angeles_cell_0_28_1
RankLos Angeles_header_cell_0_29_0 1st, California

2nd, U.S.Los Angeles_cell_0_29_1

DensityLos Angeles_header_cell_0_30_0 8,485.74/sq mi (3,276.37/km)Los Angeles_cell_0_30_1
UrbanLos Angeles_header_cell_0_31_0 12,150,996Los Angeles_cell_0_31_1
MetroLos Angeles_header_cell_0_32_0 13,131,431 (U.S.: 2nd)Los Angeles_cell_0_32_1
CSALos Angeles_header_cell_0_33_0 18,679,763 (U.S.: 2nd)Los Angeles_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Los Angeles_header_cell_0_34_0 Los Angeleno, AngelenoLos Angeles_cell_0_34_1
Time zoneLos Angeles_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC−08:00 (Pacific)Los Angeles_cell_0_35_1
Summer (DST)Los Angeles_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−07:00 (PDT)Los Angeles_cell_0_36_1
ZIP CodesLos Angeles_header_cell_0_37_0 ListLos Angeles_cell_0_37_1
Area codesLos Angeles_header_cell_0_38_0 213/323, 310/424, 747/818Los Angeles_cell_0_38_1
FIPS codeLos Angeles_header_cell_0_39_0 Los Angeles_cell_0_39_1
GNIS feature IDsLos Angeles_header_cell_0_40_0 ,Los Angeles_cell_0_40_1
WebsiteLos Angeles_header_cell_0_41_0 Q65#P856Los Angeles_cell_0_41_1

Los Angeles (/lɔːs ˈændʒələs/ (listen); Spanish: Los Ángeles; Spanish for 'The Angels'), officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the largest city in California. Los Angeles_sentence_5

With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous city in the United States (after New York City) and the third most populous city in North America (after Mexico City and New York City). Los Angeles_sentence_6

Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles_sentence_7

Los Angeles lies in a basin in Southern California, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, with mountains as high as 10,000 feet (3,000 m), and deserts. Los Angeles_sentence_8

The city, which covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km), is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populous county in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_9

The Los Angeles metropolitan area (MSA) is home to 13.1 million people, making it the second-largest metropolitan area in the nation after New York. Los Angeles_sentence_10

Greater Los Angeles includes metro Los Angeles as well as the Inland Empire and Ventura County. Los Angeles_sentence_11

It is the second most populous U.S. combined statistical area, also after New York, with a 2015 estimate of 18.7 million people. Los Angeles_sentence_12

Home to the Chumash and Tongva, the area that became Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542. Los Angeles_sentence_13

The city was founded on September 4, 1781, under Spanish governor Felipe de Neve, on the village of Yaanga. Los Angeles_sentence_14

It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. Los Angeles_sentence_15

In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and thus became part of the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_16

Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. Los Angeles_sentence_17

The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. Los Angeles_sentence_18

The city was further expanded with the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, which delivers water from Eastern California. Los Angeles_sentence_19

Los Angeles has a diverse economy and hosts businesses in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles_sentence_20

It also has the busiest container port in the Americas. Los Angeles_sentence_21

The Los Angeles metropolitan area also has a gross metropolitan product of $1.0 trillion (as of 2017), making it the third-largest city by GDP in the world, after the Tokyo and New York City metropolitan areas. Los Angeles_sentence_22

Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the 2028 Summer Olympics. Los Angeles_sentence_23

History Los Angeles_section_0

Main article: History of Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_24

See also: Timeline of Los Angeles and Los Angeles in the 1920s Los Angeles_sentence_25

Pre-colonial history Los Angeles_section_1

The Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleños) and Chumash tribes. Los Angeles_sentence_26

Los Angeles would eventually be founded on the village of iyáangẚ or Yaanga (written "Yang-na" by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place." Los Angeles_sentence_27

Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America. Los Angeles_sentence_28

Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. Los Angeles_sentence_29

Spanish rule Los Angeles_section_2

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. Los Angeles_sentence_30

On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles, 'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'. Los Angeles_sentence_31

The present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic archdiocese in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_32

Two-thirds of the Mexican or (New Spain) settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. Los Angeles_sentence_33

The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Los Angeles_sentence_34

Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_35

Mexican rule Los Angeles_section_3

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. Los Angeles_sentence_36

During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Los Angeles_sentence_37

1847 to present Los Angeles_section_4

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Los Angeles_sentence_38

Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line from New Orleans to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Los Angeles_sentence_39

Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. Los Angeles_sentence_40

By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000, putting pressure on the city's water supply. Los Angeles_sentence_41

The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, ensured the continued growth of the city. Los Angeles_sentence_42

Because of clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent cities and communities felt compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_43

Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_44

On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones. Los Angeles_sentence_45

The new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were prohibited. Los Angeles_sentence_46

The proscriptions included barns, lumber yards, and any industrial land use employing machine-powered equipment. Los Angeles_sentence_47

These laws were enforced against industrial properties after-the-fact. Los Angeles_sentence_48

These prohibitions were in addition to existing activities that were already regulated as nuisances. Los Angeles_sentence_49

These included explosives warehousing, gas works, oil-drilling, slaughterhouses, and tanneries. Los Angeles_sentence_50

Los Angeles City Council also designated seven industrial zones within the city. Los Angeles_sentence_51

However, between 1908 and 1915, Los Angeles City Council created various exceptions to the broad proscriptions that applied to these three residential zones, and as a consequence, some industrial uses emerged within them. Los Angeles_sentence_52

There are two differences from the 1908 Residence District Ordinance and later zoning laws in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_53

First, the 1908 laws did not establish a comprehensive zoning map as the 1916 New York City Zoning Ordinance did. Los Angeles_sentence_54

Second, the residential zones did not distinguish types of housing; it treated apartments, hotels, and detached-single-family housing equally. Los Angeles_sentence_55

In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. Los Angeles_sentence_56

By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in LA. Los Angeles_sentence_57

The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression. Los Angeles_sentence_58

By 1930, the population surpassed one million. Los Angeles_sentence_59

In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics. Los Angeles_sentence_60

During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Los Angeles_sentence_61

Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers (Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). Los Angeles_sentence_62

During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Los Angeles_sentence_63

Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible." Los Angeles_sentence_64

In the 1930s–1940s, Los Angeles county was the national leader in agriculture. Los Angeles_sentence_65

Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley. Los Angeles_sentence_66

The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest. Los Angeles_sentence_67

Previous to the 1950s, Los Angeles' name had multiple pronunciations, but the soft "G" pronunciation is universal today. Los Angeles_sentence_68

Some early movies or video shows it pronounced with a hard "G" (/lɔːs ˈænɡələs/). Los Angeles_sentence_69

Sam Yorty was one of the last public figures who still used the hard "G" pronunciation. Los Angeles_sentence_70

Racial tensions led to the Watts riots in 1965, resulting in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. Los Angeles_sentence_71

In 1969, California became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park. Los Angeles_sentence_72

In 1973, Tom Bradley was elected as the city's first African American mayor, serving for five terms until retiring in 1993. Los Angeles_sentence_73

Other events in the city during the 1970s included the Symbionese Liberation Army's South Central standoff in 1974 and the Hillside Stranglers murder cases in 1977–1978. Los Angeles_sentence_74

In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Los Angeles_sentence_75

Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous, and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then–the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_76

Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley jury of four Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots. Los Angeles_sentence_77

In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths. Los Angeles_sentence_78

The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history. Los Angeles_sentence_79

In 2002, Mayor James Hahn led the campaign against secession, resulting in voters defeating efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city. Los Angeles_sentence_80

Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, making Los Angeles the third city to host the Olympics three times. Los Angeles_sentence_81

Geography Los Angeles_section_5

See also: Los Angeles Basin; San Fernando Valley; Greater Los Angeles Area; and Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles_sentence_82

Topography Los Angeles_section_6

The city of Los Angeles covers a total area of 502.7 square miles (1,302 km), comprising 468.7 square miles (1,214 km) of land and 34.0 square miles (88 km) of water. Los Angeles_sentence_83

The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) north-south and for 29 miles (47 km) east-west. Los Angeles_sentence_84

The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km). Los Angeles_sentence_85

Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. Los Angeles_sentence_86

The highest point in the city proper is Mount Lukens at 5,074 ft (1,547 m), located at the northeastern end of the San Fernando Valley. Los Angeles_sentence_87

The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains stretches from Downtown to the Pacific Ocean and separates the Los Angeles Basin from the San Fernando Valley. Los Angeles_sentence_88

Other hilly parts of Los Angeles include the Mt. Los Angeles_sentence_89 Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro district. Los Angeles_sentence_90

Surrounding the city are much higher mountains. Los Angeles_sentence_91

Immediately to the north lie the San Gabriel Mountains, which is a popular recreation area for Angelenos. Los Angeles_sentence_92

Its high point is Mount San Antonio, locally known as Mount Baldy, which reaches 10,064 feet (3,068 m). Los Angeles_sentence_93

Further afield, the highest point in the Greater Los Angeles area is San Gorgonio Mountain, with a height of 11,503 feet (3,506 m). Los Angeles_sentence_94

The Los Angeles River, which is largely seasonal, is the primary drainage channel. Los Angeles_sentence_95

It was straightened and lined in 51 miles (82 km) of concrete by the Army Corps of Engineers to act as a flood control channel. Los Angeles_sentence_96

The river begins in the Canoga Park district of the city, flows east from the San Fernando Valley along the north edge of the Santa Monica Mountains, and turns south through the city center, flowing to its mouth in the Port of Long Beach at the Pacific Ocean. Los Angeles_sentence_97

The smaller Ballona Creek flows into the Santa Monica Bay at Playa del Rey. Los Angeles_sentence_98

Vegetation Los Angeles_section_7

Los Angeles is rich in native plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. Los Angeles_sentence_99

The most prevalent plant communities are coastal sage scrub, chaparral shrubland, and riparian woodland. Los Angeles_sentence_100

Native plants include: the California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Ceanothus, Chamise, Coast Live Oak, sycamore, willow and Giant Wildrye. Los Angeles_sentence_101

Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Los Angeles_sentence_102

Although it is not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the Coral Tree (Erythrina caffra) and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise (Strelitzia reginae). Los Angeles_sentence_103

Mexican Fan Palms, Canary Island Palms, Queen Palms, Date Palms, and California Fan Palms are common in the Los Angeles area, although only the last is native. Los Angeles_sentence_104

Geology Los Angeles_section_8

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes because of its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. Los Angeles_sentence_105

The geologic instability has produced numerous faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt. Los Angeles_sentence_106

The strike-slip San Andreas Fault system, which sits at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, passes through the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Los Angeles_sentence_107

The segment of the fault passing through Southern California experiences a major earthquake roughly every 110 to 140 years, and seismologists have warned about the next "big one", as the last major earthquake was the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. Los Angeles_sentence_108

The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes. Los Angeles_sentence_109

Major earthquakes that have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1933 Long Beach, 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, and the 1994 Northridge events. Los Angeles_sentence_110

All but a few are of low intensity and are not felt. Los Angeles_sentence_111

The USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast, which models earthquake occurrence in California. Los Angeles_sentence_112

Parts of the city are also vulnerable to tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from Aleutian Islands earthquake in 1946, Valdivia earthquake in 1960, Alaska earthquake in 1964, Chile earthquake in 2010 and Japan earthquake in 2011. Los Angeles_sentence_113

Cityscape Los Angeles_section_9

Main article: List of districts and neighborhoods of Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_114

The city is divided into many different districts and neighborhoods, some of which were incorporated cities that merged with Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_115

These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage marking nearly all of them. Los Angeles_sentence_116

Overview Los Angeles_section_10

The city's street patterns generally follow a grid plan, with uniform block lengths and occasional roads that cut across blocks. Los Angeles_sentence_117

However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. Los Angeles_sentence_118

Major streets are designed to move large volumes of traffic through many parts of the city, many of which are extremely long; Sepulveda Boulevard is 43 miles (69 km) long, while Foothill Boulevard is over 60 miles (97 km) long, reaching as far east as San Bernardino. Los Angeles_sentence_119

Drivers in Los Angeles suffer from one of the worst rush hour periods in the world, according to an annual traffic index by navigation system maker, TomTom. Los Angeles_sentence_120

LA drivers spend an additional 92 hours in traffic each year. Los Angeles_sentence_121

During the peak rush hour there is 80% congestion, according to the index. Los Angeles_sentence_122

Los Angeles is often characterized by the presence of low-rise buildings. Los Angeles_sentence_123

Outside of a few centers such as Downtown, Warner Center, Century City, Koreatown, Miracle Mile, Hollywood, and Westwood, skyscrapers and high-rise buildings are not common. Los Angeles_sentence_124

The few skyscrapers built outside of those areas often stand out above the rest of the surrounding landscape. Los Angeles_sentence_125

Most construction is done in separate units, rather than wall-to-wall. Los Angeles_sentence_126

That being said, Downtown Los Angeles itself has many buildings over 30 stories, with fourteen over 50 stories, and two over 70 stories, the tallest of which is the Wilshire Grand Center. Los Angeles_sentence_127

Also, Los Angeles is increasingly becoming a city of apartments rather than single family dwellings, especially in the dense inner city and Westside neighborhoods. Los Angeles_sentence_128

Landmarks Los Angeles_section_11

See also: List of sites of interest in the Los Angeles area and National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California Los Angeles_sentence_129

Important landmarks in Los Angeles include the Hollywood Sign, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Capitol Records Building, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Dolby Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Stahl House, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, L.A. Los Angeles_sentence_130 Live, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk, Theme Building, Bradbury Building, U.S. Los Angeles_sentence_131 Bank Tower, Wilshire Grand Center, Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Battleship USS Iowa, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and Olvera Street. Los Angeles_sentence_132

Climate Los Angeles_section_12

Main article: Climate of Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_133

Los Angeles has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb on the coast and most of downtown, Csa near the metropolitan region to the west), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid semi-arid climate (BSh),. Los Angeles_sentence_134

Daytime temperatures are generally temperate all year round. Los Angeles_sentence_135

In winter, they average around 68 °F (20 °C) giving it a tropical feel although it is a few degrees too cool to be a true tropical climate on average due to cool night temperatures. Los Angeles_sentence_136

Los Angeles has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually. Los Angeles_sentence_137

Temperatures in the coastal basin exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on a dozen or so days in the year, from one day a month in April, May, June and November to three days a month in July, August, October and to five days in September. Los Angeles_sentence_138

Temperatures in the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys are considerably warmer. Los Angeles_sentence_139

Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over 30 °F (17 °C). Los Angeles_sentence_140

The average annual temperature of the sea is 63 °F (17 °C), from 58 °F (14 °C) in January to 68 °F (20 °C) in August. Los Angeles_sentence_141

Hours of sunshine total more than 3,000 per year, from an average of 7 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12 in July. Los Angeles_sentence_142

The Los Angeles area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate, causing extreme variations in temperature in close physical proximity to each other. Los Angeles_sentence_143

For example, the average July maximum temperature at the Santa Monica Pier is 70 °F (21 °C) whereas it is 95 °F (35 °C) in Canoga Park, 15 miles (24 km) away. Los Angeles_sentence_144

The city, like much of the southern California coast, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom". Los Angeles_sentence_145

This involves overcast or foggy skies in the morning that yield to sun by early afternoon. Los Angeles_sentence_146

Downtown Los Angeles averages 14.93 in (379 mm) of precipitation annually, mainly occurring between November and March, generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. Los Angeles_sentence_147

Rainfall is usually higher in the hills and coastal slopes of the mountains because of orographic uplift. Los Angeles_sentence_148

Summer days are usually rainless. Los Angeles_sentence_149

Rarely, an incursion of moist air from the south or east can bring brief thunderstorms in late summer, especially to the mountains. Los Angeles_sentence_150

The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the inland and mountain areas get considerably more. Los Angeles_sentence_151

Years of average rainfall are rare. Los Angeles_sentence_152

The usual pattern is year to year variability, with a short string of dry years of 5–10 in (130–250 mm) rainfall, followed by one or two wet years with more than 20 in (510 mm). Los Angeles_sentence_153

Wet years are usually associated with warm water El Niño conditions in the Pacific, dry years with cooler water La Niña episodes. Los Angeles_sentence_154

A series of rainy days can bring floods to the lowlands and mudslides to the hills, especially after wildfires have denuded the slopes. Los Angeles_sentence_155

Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city basin and along the coast, with the last occurrence of a 32 °F (0 °C) reading at the downtown station being January 29, 1979; freezing temperatures occur nearly every year in valley locations while the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. Los Angeles_sentence_156

The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on January 15, 1932. Los Angeles_sentence_157

While the most recent snowfall occurred in February 2019, the first snowfall since 1962. Los Angeles_sentence_158

At the official downtown station, the highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) on September 27, 2010, while the lowest is 28 °F (−2 °C), on January 4, 1949. Los Angeles_sentence_159

Within the City of Los Angeles, the highest temperature ever officially recorded is 121 °F (49 °C), on September 6, 2020, at the weather station at Pierce College in the San Fernando Valley neighborhood of Woodland Hills. Los Angeles_sentence_160

During autumn and winter, Santa Ana winds sometimes bring much warmer and drier conditions to Los Angeles, and raise wildfire risk. Los Angeles_sentence_161

Los Angeles_table_general_1

Hottest and coldest, wettest and driest averages for a month (°F/inch and °C/mm), 1895–2019Los Angeles_table_caption_1
MonthLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_0 JanLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_1 FebLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_2 MarLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_3 AprLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_4 MayLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_5 JunLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_6 JulLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_7 AugLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_8 SepLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_9 OctLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_10 NovLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_11 DecLos Angeles_header_cell_1_0_12
HottestLos Angeles_cell_1_1_0 63.9 °F (17.7 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_1 64.2 °F (17.9 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_2 67.5 °F (19.7 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_3 68.2 °F (20.1 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_4 71.5 °F (21.9 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_5 75.9 °F (24.4 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_6 79.8 °F (26.6 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_7 79.0 °F (26.1 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_8 80.3 °F (26.8 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_9 75.4 °F (24.1 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_10 66.9 °F (19.4 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_11 62.2 °F (16.8 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_1_12
ColdestLos Angeles_cell_1_2_0 46.7 °F (8.2 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_1 51.1 °F (10.6 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_2 52.0 °F (11.1 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_3 55.2 °F (12.9 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_4 57.2 °F (14.0 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_5 62.9 °F (17.2 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_6 66.2 °F (19.0 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_7 66.3 °F (19.1 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_8 63.1 °F (17.3 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_9 57.8 °F (14.3 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_10 55.2 °F (12.9 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_11 49.4 °F (9.7 °C)Los Angeles_cell_1_2_12
WettestLos Angeles_cell_1_3_0 14.43 inches (367 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_1 15.23 inches (387 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_2 10.44 inches (265 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_3 7.31 inches (186 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_4 3.83 inches (97 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_5 0.98 inches (25 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_6 0.43 inches (11 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_7 2.54 inches (65 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_8 5.13 inches (130 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_9 5.13 inches (130 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_10 9.96 inches (253 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_11 11.46 inches (291 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_3_12
DriestLos Angeles_cell_1_4_0 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_1 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_2 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_3 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_4 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_5 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_6 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_7 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_8 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_9 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_10 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_11 0 inches (0 mm)Los Angeles_cell_1_4_12

Environmental issues Los Angeles_section_13

Further information: Pollution in California § Los Angeles Air Pollution Los Angeles_sentence_162

Los Angeles_table_infobox_2

External audioLos Angeles_header_cell_2_0_0

A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". Los Angeles_sentence_163

Yang-na has also been translated as "the valley of smoke". Los Angeles_sentence_164

Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. Los Angeles_sentence_165

The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources. Los Angeles_sentence_166

The percentage of small particle pollution (the kind that penetrates into the lungs) coming from vehicles in the city can get as high as 55 percent. Los Angeles_sentence_167

The smog season lasts from approximately May to October. Los Angeles_sentence_168

While other large cities rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (380 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Los Angeles_sentence_169

Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. Los Angeles_sentence_170

When the act was passed, California was unable to create a State Implementation Plan that would enable it to meet the new air quality standards, largely because of the level of pollution in Los Angeles generated by older vehicles. Los Angeles_sentence_171

More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles. Los Angeles_sentence_172

Smog is expected to continue to drop in the coming years because of aggressive steps to reduce it, which include electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other measures. Los Angeles_sentence_173

The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Los Angeles_sentence_174

Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. Los Angeles_sentence_175

In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. Los Angeles_sentence_176

The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010. Los Angeles_sentence_177

The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts. Los Angeles_sentence_178

Los Angeles is also home to the nation's largest urban oil field. Los Angeles_sentence_179

There are more than 700 active oil wells within 1,500 feet of homes, churches, schools and hospitals in the city, a situation about which the EPA has voiced serious concerns. Los Angeles_sentence_180

Demographics Los Angeles_section_14

Main articles: Demographics of Los Angeles and African-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_181

Los Angeles_table_general_3

City compared to State & U.S.Los Angeles_header_cell_3_0_0
2019 EstimateLos Angeles_cell_3_1_0 L.A.Los Angeles_cell_3_1_1 CALos Angeles_cell_3_1_2 U.S.Los Angeles_cell_3_1_3
Total populationLos Angeles_cell_3_2_0 3,979,576Los Angeles_cell_3_2_1 39,512,223Los Angeles_cell_3_2_2 328,239,523Los Angeles_cell_3_2_3
Population change, 2010 to 2019Los Angeles_cell_3_3_0 +4.9%Los Angeles_cell_3_3_1 +6.1%Los Angeles_cell_3_3_2 +6.3%Los Angeles_cell_3_3_3
Population density (people/sqmi)Los Angeles_cell_3_4_0 8,514.4Los Angeles_cell_3_4_1 253.9Los Angeles_cell_3_4_2 92.6Los Angeles_cell_3_4_3
Median household income (2018)Los Angeles_cell_3_5_0 $58,385Los Angeles_cell_3_5_1 $71,228Los Angeles_cell_3_5_2 $60,293Los Angeles_cell_3_5_3
Bachelor's degree or higherLos Angeles_cell_3_6_0 33.7%Los Angeles_cell_3_6_1 33.3%Los Angeles_cell_3_6_2 31.5%Los Angeles_cell_3_6_3
Foreign bornLos Angeles_cell_3_7_0 37.3%Los Angeles_cell_3_7_1 26.9%Los Angeles_cell_3_7_2 13.5%Los Angeles_cell_3_7_3
White (non-Hispanic)Los Angeles_cell_3_8_0 28.5%Los Angeles_cell_3_8_1 36.8%Los Angeles_cell_3_8_2 60.4%Los Angeles_cell_3_8_3
BlackLos Angeles_cell_3_9_0 8.9%Los Angeles_cell_3_9_1 6.5%Los Angeles_cell_3_9_2 13.4%Los Angeles_cell_3_9_3
Hispanic (any race)Los Angeles_cell_3_10_0 48.6%Los Angeles_cell_3_10_1 39.3%Los Angeles_cell_3_10_2 18.3%Los Angeles_cell_3_10_3
AsianLos Angeles_cell_3_11_0 11.6%Los Angeles_cell_3_11_1 15.3%Los Angeles_cell_3_11_2 5.9%Los Angeles_cell_3_11_3

The 2010 United States Census reported Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621. Los Angeles_sentence_182

The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km). Los Angeles_sentence_183

The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. Los Angeles_sentence_184

The median age was 34.1 years. Los Angeles_sentence_185

For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. Los Angeles_sentence_186

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males. Los Angeles_sentence_187

There were 1,413,995 housing units—up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009—at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. Los Angeles_sentence_188

The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. Los Angeles_sentence_189

1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units. Los Angeles_sentence_190

According to the 2010 United States Census, Los Angeles had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line. Los Angeles_sentence_191

Race and ethnicity Los Angeles_section_15

Los Angeles_table_general_4

Racial compositionLos Angeles_header_cell_4_0_0 2010Los Angeles_header_cell_4_0_1 1990Los Angeles_header_cell_4_0_2 1970Los Angeles_header_cell_4_0_3 1940Los Angeles_header_cell_4_0_4
Non-Hispanic WhiteLos Angeles_cell_4_1_0 28.7%Los Angeles_cell_4_1_1 37.3%Los Angeles_cell_4_1_2 61.1%Los Angeles_cell_4_1_3 86.3%Los Angeles_cell_4_1_4
Black or African AmericanLos Angeles_cell_4_2_0 9.6%Los Angeles_cell_4_2_1 14.0%Los Angeles_cell_4_2_2 17.9%Los Angeles_cell_4_2_3 4.2%Los Angeles_cell_4_2_4
Hispanic or LatinoLos Angeles_cell_4_3_0 48.5%Los Angeles_cell_4_3_1 39.9%Los Angeles_cell_4_3_2 17.1%Los Angeles_cell_4_3_3 7.1%Los Angeles_cell_4_3_4
AsianLos Angeles_cell_4_4_0 11.3%Los Angeles_cell_4_4_1 9.8%Los Angeles_cell_4_4_2 3.6%Los Angeles_cell_4_4_3 2.2%Los Angeles_cell_4_4_4

According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 Whites (49.8%), 365,118 African Americans (9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from two or more races. Los Angeles_sentence_192

Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%). Los Angeles_sentence_193

Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages. Los Angeles_sentence_194

Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, Little Bangladesh, and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_195

Non-Hispanic whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940. Los Angeles_sentence_196

The majority of the Non-Hispanic white population is living in areas along the Pacific coast as well as in neighborhoods near and on the Santa Monica Mountains from the Pacific Palisades to Los Feliz. Los Angeles_sentence_197

Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Hispanics at 31.9% of the city's population, followed by those of Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. Los Angeles_sentence_198

The Hispanic population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area. Los Angeles_sentence_199

It is most heavily concentrated in regions around Downtown as East Los Angeles, Northeast Los Angeles and Westlake. Los Angeles_sentence_200

Furthermore, a vast majority of residents in neighborhoods in eastern South Los Angeles towards Downey are of Hispanic origin. Los Angeles_sentence_201

The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipinos (3.2%) and Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves—Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown. Los Angeles_sentence_202

Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles's population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown. Los Angeles_sentence_203

Chinatown and Thaitown are also home to many Thais and Cambodians, which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles's population, respectively. Los Angeles_sentence_204

The Japanese comprise 0.9% of LA's population, and have an established Little Tokyo in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is in the Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_205

Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles's population. Los Angeles_sentence_206

Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population. Los Angeles_sentence_207

The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to a large population of Armenians, Assyrians, and Iranians, many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia and Tehrangeles. Los Angeles_sentence_208

African Americans have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles, which has emerged as the largest African American community in the western United States since the 1960s. Los Angeles_sentence_209

The neighborhoods of South Los Angeles with highest concentration of African Americans include Crenshaw, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Gramercy Park, Manchester Square and Watts. Los Angeles_sentence_210

Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central region of Los Angeles, as Mid-City and Mid-Wilshire have a moderate concentration of African Americans as well. Los Angeles_sentence_211

Religion Los Angeles_section_16

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles (65%). Los Angeles_sentence_212

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles is the largest archdiocese in the country. Los Angeles_sentence_213

Cardinal Roger Mahony, as the archbishop, oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in Downtown Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_214

In 2011, the once common, but ultimately lapsed, custom of conducting a procession and mass in honor of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781, was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. Los Angeles_sentence_215

The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and masses that commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter. Los Angeles_sentence_216

With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area, the region has the second-largest population of Jews in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_217

Many of Los Angeles's Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley, though Boyle Heights once had a large Jewish population prior to World War II due to restrictive housing covenants. Los Angeles_sentence_218

Major Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods include Hancock Park, Pico-Robertson, and Valley Village, while Jewish Israelis are well represented in the Encino and Tarzana neighborhoods, and Persian Jews in Beverly Hills. Los Angeles_sentence_219

Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the greater Los Angeles area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. Los Angeles_sentence_220

The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades; it is no longer in daily use as a synagogue and is being converted to a museum and community center. Los Angeles_sentence_221

The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city. Los Angeles_sentence_222

The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson in 1923 and remains headquartered there to this day. Los Angeles_sentence_223

For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple, which, when built, was one of the largest churches in the country. Los Angeles_sentence_224

Los Angeles has had a rich and influential Protestant tradition. Los Angeles_sentence_225

The first Protestant service in Los Angeles was a Methodist meeting held in a private home in 1850 and the oldest Protestant church still operating, First Congregational Church, was founded in 1867. Los Angeles_sentence_226

In the early 1900s the Bible Institute Of Los Angeles published the founding documents of the Christian Fundamentalist movement and the Azusa Street Revival launched Pentecostalism. Los Angeles_sentence_227

The Metropolitan Community Church also had its origins in the Los Angeles area. Los Angeles_sentence_228

Important churches in the city include First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood, Bel Air Presbyterian Church, First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles, West Angeles Church of God in Christ, Second Baptist Church, Crenshaw Christian Center, McCarty Memorial Christian Church, and First Congregational Church. Los Angeles_sentence_229

The Los Angeles California Temple, the second-largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_230

Dedicated in 1956, it was the first temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed. Los Angeles_sentence_231

The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology. Los Angeles_sentence_232

Because of Los Angeles's large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Baháʼí, various Eastern Orthodox churches, Sufism, Shintoism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion and countless others. Los Angeles_sentence_233

Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. Los Angeles_sentence_234

The first Buddhist joss house was founded in the city in 1875. Los Angeles_sentence_235

Atheism and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt. Los Angeles_sentence_236

Economy Los Angeles_section_17

See also: Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and Los Angeles County, California § Economy Los Angeles_sentence_237

The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, music recording, and production), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism. Los Angeles_sentence_238

Other significant industries include finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. Los Angeles_sentence_239

In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Los Angeles was ranked as having the 19th most competitive financial center in the world, and sixth most competitive in United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C.). Los Angeles_sentence_240

One of the five major film studios, Paramount Pictures, is within the city limits, its location being part of the so-called "Thirty-Mile Zone" of entertainment headquarters in Southern California. Los Angeles_sentence_241

Los Angeles is the largest manufacturing center in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_242

The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the busiest port in the United States by some measures and the fifth-busiest port in the world, vital to trade within the Pacific Rim. Los Angeles_sentence_243

The Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.0 trillion (as of 2017), making it the third-largest economic metropolitan area in the world, after Tokyo and New York. Los Angeles_sentence_244

Los Angeles has been classified an "alpha world city" according to a 2012 study by a group at Loughborough University. Los Angeles_sentence_245

The Department of Cannabis Regulation enforces cannabis legislation after the legalization of the sale and distribution of cannabis in 2016. Los Angeles_sentence_246

As of October 2019, more than 300 existing cannabis businesses (both retailers and their suppliers) have been granted approval to operate in what is considered the nation's largest market. Los Angeles_sentence_247

As of 2018, Los Angeles is home to three Fortune 500 companies: AECOM, CBRE Group, and Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co. Los Angeles_sentence_248

Los Angeles_table_general_5

Largest Non-Government Employers in Los Angeles County, August 2018Los Angeles_header_cell_5_0_0
RankLos Angeles_header_cell_5_1_0 EmployerLos Angeles_header_cell_5_1_1 EmployeesLos Angeles_header_cell_5_1_2
1Los Angeles_cell_5_2_0 Kaiser PermanenteLos Angeles_cell_5_2_1 37,468Los Angeles_cell_5_2_2
2Los Angeles_cell_5_3_0 University of Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles_cell_5_3_1 21,055Los Angeles_cell_5_3_2
3Los Angeles_cell_5_4_0 Northrop Grumman Corp.Los Angeles_cell_5_4_1 16,600Los Angeles_cell_5_4_2
4Los Angeles_cell_5_5_0 Providence Health and Services Southern CaliforniaLos Angeles_cell_5_5_1 15,952Los Angeles_cell_5_5_2
5Los Angeles_cell_5_6_0 Target Corp.Los Angeles_cell_5_6_1 15,000Los Angeles_cell_5_6_2
6Los Angeles_cell_5_7_0 Ralphs/Food 4 Less (Kroger Co. Division)Los Angeles_cell_5_7_1 14,970Los Angeles_cell_5_7_2
7Los Angeles_cell_5_8_0 Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos Angeles_cell_5_8_1 14,903Los Angeles_cell_5_8_2
8Los Angeles_cell_5_9_0 Walt Disney Co.Los Angeles_cell_5_9_1 13,000Los Angeles_cell_5_9_2
9Los Angeles_cell_5_10_0 Allied UniversalLos Angeles_cell_5_10_1 12,879Los Angeles_cell_5_10_2
10Los Angeles_cell_5_11_0 NBC UniversalLos Angeles_cell_5_11_1 12,000Los Angeles_cell_5_11_2

Culture Los Angeles_section_18

Main article: Culture of Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_249

Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World", because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any other time in history. Los Angeles_sentence_250

Movies and the performing arts Los Angeles_section_19

The city's Hollywood neighborhood has become recognized as the center of the motion picture industry and the Los Angeles area is also associated as being the center of the television industry. Los Angeles_sentence_251

The city is home to the major film studios as well as major record labels. Los Angeles_sentence_252

Los Angeles plays host to the annual Academy Awards, the Primetime Emmy Awards, the Grammy Awards as well as many other entertainment industry awards shows. Los Angeles_sentence_253

Los Angeles is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest film school in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_254

The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles's cultural identity. Los Angeles_sentence_255

According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." Los Angeles_sentence_256

The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. Los Angeles_sentence_257

The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Los Angeles_sentence_258

Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Los Angeles_sentence_259

Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music. Los Angeles_sentence_260

Museums and galleries Los Angeles_section_20

See also: Los Angeles City Museums Los Angeles_sentence_261

There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County, more museums per capita than any other city in the U.S. Los Angeles_sentence_262

Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States), the Getty Center (part of the J. Los Angeles_sentence_263 Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), the Petersen Automotive Museum, the Huntington Library, the Natural History Museum, the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art. Los Angeles_sentence_264

A significant number of art galleries are on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there. Los Angeles_sentence_265

Sports Los Angeles_section_21

See also: Sports in Los Angeles and History of the National Football League in Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_266

The city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area are the home of eleven top level professional sports teams, several of which play in neighboring communities but use Los Angeles in their name. Los Angeles_sentence_267

These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB), the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Los Angeles Kings and Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Los Angeles Galaxy and Los Angeles Football Club of Major League Soccer (MLS), and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Los Angeles_sentence_268

Other notable sports teams include the UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), both of which are Division I teams in the Pac-12 Conference. Los Angeles_sentence_269

Los Angeles is the second-largest city in the United States but hosted no NFL team between 1995 and 2015. Los Angeles_sentence_270

At one time, the Los Angeles area hosted two NFL teams: the Rams and the Raiders. Los Angeles_sentence_271

Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Los Angeles_sentence_272 Louis, and the Raiders moving back to their original home of Oakland. Los Angeles_sentence_273

After 21 seasons in St. Louis, on January 12, 2016, the NFL announced the Rams would be moving back to Los Angeles for the 2016 NFL season with its home games played at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum for four seasons. Los Angeles_sentence_274

Prior to 1995, the Rams played their home games in the Coliseum from 1946 to 1979 which made them the first professional sports team to play in Los Angeles, and then moved to Anaheim Stadium from 1980 until 1994. Los Angeles_sentence_275

The San Diego Chargers announced on January 12, 2017 that they would also relocate back to Los Angeles (the first since its inaugural season in 1960) and become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and played at Dignity Health Sports Park in Carson, California for three seasons. Los Angeles_sentence_276

The Rams and the Chargers would soon moved to the newly-built SoFi Stadium, located in nearby Inglewood during the 2020 season. Los Angeles_sentence_277

Los Angeles boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium and the Staples Center. Los Angeles_sentence_278

The Forum, SoFi Stadium, Dignity Health Sports Park, the Rose Bowl, Angel Stadium and Honda Center are also in adjacent cities and cities in Los Angeles's metropolitan area. Los Angeles_sentence_279

Los Angeles has twice hosted the Summer Olympic Games: in 1932 and in 1984, and will host the games for a third time in 2028. Los Angeles_sentence_280

Los Angeles will be the third city after London (1908, 1948 and 2012) and Paris (1900, 1924 and 2024) to host the Olympic Games three times. Los Angeles_sentence_281

When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Los Angeles_sentence_282

Los Angeles also hosted the Deaflympics in 1985 and Special Olympics World Summer Games in 2015. Los Angeles_sentence_283

7 NFL Super Bowls were also held in the city and its surrounding areas- 2 at the Memorial Coliseum (the first Super Bowl, I and VII) and 5 at the Rose Bowl in suburban Pasadena (XI, XIV, XVII, XXI, and XXVII), 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_284

Super Bowl LVI will be held at SoFi Stadium in Inglewood in 2022. Los Angeles_sentence_285

The Rose Bowl is also host to an annual and highly prestigious NCAA college football game called the Rose Bowl, which happens every New Year's Day. Los Angeles_sentence_286

Los Angeles also hosted 8 FIFA World Cup soccer games at the Rose Bowl in 1994, including the final, where Brazil won. Los Angeles_sentence_287

The Rose Bowl also hosted 4 matches in the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, including the final, where the United States won against China on penalty kicks. Los Angeles_sentence_288

This was the game where Brandi Chastain took her shirt off after she scored the tournament-winning penalty kick, creating an iconic image. Los Angeles_sentence_289

Los Angeles is one of six North American cities to have won championships in all five of its major leagues (MLB, NFL, NHL, NBA and MLS), having completed the feat with the Kings' 2012 Stanley Cup title. Los Angeles_sentence_290

Government Los Angeles_section_22

Main article: Government of Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_291

See also: Government of Los Angeles County Los Angeles_sentence_292

Los Angeles is a charter city as opposed to a general law city. Los Angeles_sentence_293

The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999, and has been amended many times. Los Angeles_sentence_294

The elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as the city attorney (not to be confused with the district attorney, a county office) and controller. Los Angeles_sentence_295

The mayor is Eric Garcetti. Los Angeles_sentence_296

There are 15 city council districts. Los Angeles_sentence_297

The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL). Los Angeles_sentence_298

The charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. Los Angeles_sentence_299

The neighborhood councils are relatively autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, and elect their own officers. Los Angeles_sentence_300

There are about 90 neighborhood councils. Los Angeles_sentence_301

Residents of Los Angeles elect supervisors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th supervisorial districts. Los Angeles_sentence_302

Federal and state representation Los Angeles_section_23

In the California State Assembly, Los Angeles is split between fourteen districts. Los Angeles_sentence_303

In the California State Senate, the city is split between eight districts. Los Angeles_sentence_304

In the United States House of Representatives, it is split among ten congressional districts. Los Angeles_sentence_305

Crime Los Angeles_section_24

See also: Crime in Los Angeles and List of criminal gangs in Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_306

In 1992, the city of Los Angeles recorded 1,092 murders. Los Angeles_sentence_307

Los Angeles experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides. Los Angeles_sentence_308

This is a rate of 7.85 per 100,000 population—a major decrease from 1980 when a homicide rate of 34.2 per 100,000 was reported. Los Angeles_sentence_309

This included 15 officer-involved shootings. Los Angeles_sentence_310

One shooting led to the death of a SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history. Los Angeles_sentence_311

Los Angeles in the year of 2013 totaled 251 murders, a decrease of 16 percent from the previous year. Los Angeles_sentence_312

Police speculate the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online. Los Angeles_sentence_313

In 2015, it was revealed that the LAPD had been under-reporting crime for eight years, making the crime rate in the city appear much lower than it really is. Los Angeles_sentence_314

The Dragna crime family and the Cohen crime family dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition era and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s with the battle of Sunset Strip as part of the American Mafia, but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic gangs in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Los Angeles_sentence_315

According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs. Los Angeles_sentence_316

Among them are the Crips and Bloods, which are both African American street gangs that originated in the South Los Angeles region. Los Angeles_sentence_317

Latino street gangs such as the Sureños, a Mexican American street gang, and Mara Salvatrucha, which has mainly members of Salvadoran descent, all originated in Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_318

This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America". Los Angeles_sentence_319

Education Los Angeles_section_25

Colleges and universities Los Angeles_section_26

There are three public universities within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Los Angeles_sentence_320

Private colleges in the city include: Los Angeles_sentence_321

The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District: Los Angeles_sentence_322

There are numerous additional colleges and universities outside the city limits in the Greater Los Angeles area, including the Claremont Colleges consortium, which includes the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S., and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), one of the top STEM-focused research institutions in the world. Los Angeles_sentence_323

Schools and libraries Los Angeles_section_27

See also: Los Angeles County, California § Colleges and universities; and List of high schools in Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles_sentence_324

Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000. Los Angeles_sentence_325

After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. Los Angeles_sentence_326

LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools. Los Angeles_sentence_327

Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. Los Angeles_sentence_328

The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. Los Angeles_sentence_329

The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. Los Angeles_sentence_330

Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, many of which are within walking distance to residents. Los Angeles_sentence_331

Media Los Angeles_section_28

Main article: Media in Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_332

See also: List of television shows set in Los Angeles and List of films set in Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_333

The Los Angeles metro area is the second-largest broadcast designated market area in the U.S. (after New York) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local AM and FM radio and television stations. Los Angeles_sentence_334

Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them. Los Angeles_sentence_335

As part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_336

All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station: ABC's KABC-TV (Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV (Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Channel 4), MyNetworkTV's KCOP-TV (Channel 13), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-TV (Channel 34). Los Angeles_sentence_337

The region also has three PBS stations, as well as KCET (Channel 28), the nation's largest independent public television station. Los Angeles_sentence_338

KTBN (Channel 40) is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana. Los Angeles_sentence_339

A variety of independent television stations, such as KCAL-TV (Channel 9) and KTLA-TV (Channel 5), also operate in the area. Los Angeles_sentence_340

The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles_sentence_341

La Opinión is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. Los Angeles_sentence_342

The Korea Times is the city's major daily Korean language paper while The World Journal is the city and county's major Chinese newspaper. Los Angeles_sentence_343

The Los Angeles Sentinel is the city's major African-American weekly paper, boasting the largest African-American readership in the Western United States. Los Angeles_sentence_344

Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its LA corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa del Rey. Los Angeles_sentence_345

There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Los Angeles Register, Los Angeles Community News, (which focuses on coverage of the greater Los Angeles area), Los Angeles Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, L.A. Los Angeles_sentence_346 Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), Los Angeles Magazine, the Los Angeles Business Journal, the Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter, Variety (both entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. Los Angeles_sentence_347

In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Los Angeles_sentence_348

Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Los Angeles_sentence_349

Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram. Los Angeles_sentence_350

Los Angeles arts, culture and nightlife news is also covered by a number of local and national online guides like Time Out Los Angeles, Thrillist, Kristin's List, DailyCandy, Diversity News Magazine, LAist, and Flavorpill. Los Angeles_sentence_351

Transportation Los Angeles_section_29

Main article: Transportation in Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_352

Freeways Los Angeles_section_30

Main article: Southern California freeways Los Angeles_sentence_353

The city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. Los Angeles_sentence_354

The Texas Transportation Institute, which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles road traffic as the most congested in the United States in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler. Los Angeles_sentence_355

The average traveler in Los Angeles experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles_sentence_356

Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C. and Atlanta, (each with 60 hours of delay). Los Angeles_sentence_357

Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including New York City, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles_sentence_358

Los Angeles's mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C. Los Angeles_sentence_359

Among the major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and north through Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle to the Canada–US border; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Los Angeles_sentence_360 Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington coasts. Los Angeles_sentence_361

Transit systems Los Angeles_section_31

Main article: Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Los Angeles_sentence_362

The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA County Metro) and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million as of September 2011. Los Angeles_sentence_363

The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system, the second busiest in the country. Los Angeles_sentence_364

The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. Los Angeles_sentence_365

LA County Metro recorded over 397 million boardings for the 2017 calendar year, including about 285 million bus riders and about 113 million riding on rail transit. Los Angeles_sentence_366

For the first quarter of 2018, there were just under 95 million system-wide boardings, down from about 98 million in 2017, and about 105 million in 2016. Los Angeles_sentence_367

In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation. Los Angeles_sentence_368

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 9.2% of working Los Angeles (city) residents made the journey to work via public transportation. Los Angeles_sentence_369

The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's busiest. Los Angeles_sentence_370

The rail system includes the B and D subway lines, as well as the A, C, E, and L light rail lines. Los Angeles_sentence_371

In 2016, the E Line was extended to the Pacific Ocean at Santa Monica. Los Angeles_sentence_372

The Metro G and J lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. Los Angeles_sentence_373

As of 2018, the total number of light rail stations is 93. Los Angeles_sentence_374

The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs. Los Angeles_sentence_375

Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak. Los Angeles_sentence_376

The main rail station in the city is Union Station just north of Downtown. Los Angeles_sentence_377

In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT. Los Angeles_sentence_378

Airports Los Angeles_section_32

Main article: List of airports in the Los Angeles area Los Angeles_sentence_379

The main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles is Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX, ICAO: KLAX), commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX. Los Angeles_sentence_380

Other major nearby commercial airports include: Los Angeles_sentence_381

Los Angeles_unordered_list_0

  • (IATA: ONT, ICAO: KONT) Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Ontario, CA; serves the Inland Empire.Los Angeles_item_0_0
  • (IATA: BUR, ICAO: KBUR) Hollywood Burbank Airport, jointly owned by the cities of Burbank, Glendale, and Pasadena. Formerly known as Bob Hope Airport and Burbank Airport; the closest airport to Downtown Los Angeles; serves the San Fernando, San Gabriel, and Antelope Valleys.Los Angeles_item_0_1
  • (IATA: LGB, ICAO: KLGB) Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area.Los Angeles_item_0_2
  • (IATA: SNA, ICAO: KSNA) John Wayne Airport of Orange County.Los Angeles_item_0_3

One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport (IATA: VNY, ICAO: KVNY). Los Angeles_sentence_382

Seaports Los Angeles_section_33

The Port of Los Angeles is in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of Downtown. Los Angeles_sentence_383

Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies 7,500 acres (30 km) of land and water along 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront. Los Angeles_sentence_384

It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. Los Angeles_sentence_385

The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor. Los Angeles_sentence_386

Together, both ports are the fifth busiest container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million TEU's in 2008. Los Angeles_sentence_387

Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container port in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States – The Port of Los Angeles's World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014. Los Angeles_sentence_388

There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles's coastline. Los Angeles_sentence_389

The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge. Los Angeles_sentence_390

Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express. Los Angeles_sentence_391

Homelessness Los Angeles_section_34

As of January 2020, there are 41,290 homeless people in the City of Los Angeles, comprising roughly 62% of the homeless population of LA County. Los Angeles_sentence_392

This is an increase of 14.2% over the previous year (with a 12.7% increase in the overall homeless population of LA County). Los Angeles_sentence_393

The epicenter of homelessness in Los Angeles is the Skid Row neighborhood, which contains 8,000 homeless people, one of the largest stable populations of homeless people in the United States. Los Angeles_sentence_394

The increased homeless population in Los Angeles has been attributed largely to lack of housing affordability. Los Angeles_sentence_395

Almost 60 percent of the 82,955 people who became newly homeless in 2019 said their homelessness was because of economic hardship. Los Angeles_sentence_396

In Los Angeles, black people are roughly four times more likely to experience homelessness, which has been partially attributed to systemic racism. Los Angeles_sentence_397

Notable people Los Angeles_section_35

Main article: List of people from Los Angeles Los Angeles_sentence_398

As home to Hollywood and its entertainment industry, numerous singers, actors, celebrities and other entertainers live in various districts of Los Angeles. Los Angeles_sentence_399

Twin towns and sister cities Los Angeles_section_36

Los Angeles has 25 sister cities, listed chronologically by year joined: Los Angeles_sentence_400

In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities": Los Angeles_sentence_401

Los Angeles_unordered_list_1

See also Los Angeles_section_37

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los Angeles.