Louise Nevelson

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Louise Nevelson_table_infobox_0

Louise NevelsonLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_0_0
BornLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_1_0 Leah Berliawsky

(1899-09-23)September 23, 1899 Pereiaslav, Poltava Governorate, Russian EmpireLouise Nevelson_cell_0_1_1

DiedLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_2_0 April 17, 1988(1988-04-17) (aged 88)

New York, New York, U.S.Louise Nevelson_cell_0_2_1

NationalityLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_3_0 Russian/ AmericanLouise Nevelson_cell_0_3_1
EducationLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_4_0 Art Students League of New YorkLouise Nevelson_cell_0_4_1
Known forLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_5_0 SculptureLouise Nevelson_cell_0_5_1
AwardsLouise Nevelson_header_cell_0_6_0 Louise Nevelson_cell_0_6_1

Louise Nevelson (September 23, 1899 – April 17, 1988) was an American sculptor known for her monumental, monochromatic, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures. Louise Nevelson_sentence_0

Born in the Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine), she emigrated with her family to the United States in the early 20th century. Louise Nevelson_sentence_1

Nevelson learned English at school, as she spoke Yiddish at home. Louise Nevelson_sentence_2

By the early 1930s she was attending art classes at the Art Students League of New York, and in 1941 she had her first solo exhibition. Louise Nevelson_sentence_3

A student of Hans Hofmann and Chaim Gross, Nevelson experimented with early conceptual art using found objects, and dabbled in painting and printing before dedicating her lifework to sculpture. Louise Nevelson_sentence_4

Usually created out of wood, her sculptures appear puzzle-like, with multiple intricately cut pieces placed into wall sculptures or independently standing pieces, often 3-D. One unique feature of her work is that her figures are often painted in monochromatic black or white. Louise Nevelson_sentence_5

A figure in the international art scene, Nevelson was showcased at the 31st Venice Biennale. Louise Nevelson_sentence_6

Her work is seen in major collections in museums and corporations. Louise Nevelson_sentence_7

Nevelson remains one of the most important figures in 20th-century American sculpture. Louise Nevelson_sentence_8

Early personal life Louise Nevelson_section_0

Louise Nevelson was born Leah Berliawsky in 1899 in Pereiaslav, Poltava Governorate, Russian Empire, to Minna Sadie and Isaac Berliawsky, a contractor and lumber merchant. Louise Nevelson_sentence_9

Even though the family lived comfortably, Nevelson's relatives had begun to leave the Russian Empire for America in the 1880s. Louise Nevelson_sentence_10

The Berliawskys had to stay behind, as Isaac, the youngest brother, had to care for his parents. Louise Nevelson_sentence_11

While still in Europe, Minna gave birth to two of Nevelson's siblings: Nathan (born 1898) and Anita (born 1902). Louise Nevelson_sentence_12

On his mother's death, Isaac moved to the United States in 1902. Louise Nevelson_sentence_13

After he left, Minna and the children moved to the Kiev area. Louise Nevelson_sentence_14

According to family lore, young Nevelson was so forlorn about her father's departure that she became mute for six months. Louise Nevelson_sentence_15

In 1905, Minna and the children emigrated to the United States, where they joined Isaac in Rockland, Maine. Louise Nevelson_sentence_16

Isaac initially struggled to establish himself there, suffering from depression while the family settled into their new home. Louise Nevelson_sentence_17

He worked as a woodcutter before opening a junkyard. Louise Nevelson_sentence_18

His work as a lumberjack made wood a consistent presence in the family household, a material that would figure prominently in Nevelson's work. Louise Nevelson_sentence_19

Eventually he became a successful lumberyard owner and realtor. Louise Nevelson_sentence_20

The family had another child, Lillian, in 1906. Louise Nevelson_sentence_21

Nevelson was very close to her mother, who suffered from depression, a condition believed to be brought on by the family's migration from Russia and their minority status as a Jewish family living in Maine. Louise Nevelson_sentence_22

Minna overly compensated for this, dressing herself and the children up in clothing "regarded as sophisticated in the Old Country". Louise Nevelson_sentence_23

Her mother wore flamboyant outfits with heavy make-up; Nevelson described her mother's "dressing up" as "art, her pride, and her job", also describing her as someone who should have lived "in a palace". Louise Nevelson_sentence_24

Nevelson's first experience of art was at the age of nine at the Rockland Public Library, where she saw a plaster cast of Joan of Arc. Louise Nevelson_sentence_25

Shortly thereafter she decided to study art, taking drawing in high school, where she also served as basketball captain. Louise Nevelson_sentence_26

She painted watercolor interiors, in which furniture appeared molecular in structure, rather like her later professional work. Louise Nevelson_sentence_27

Female figures made frequent appearances. Louise Nevelson_sentence_28

In school, she practiced her English, her second language, as Yiddish was spoken at home. Louise Nevelson_sentence_29

Unhappy with her family's economic status, language differences, the religious discrimination of the community, and her school, Nevelson set her sights on moving to high school in New York. Louise Nevelson_sentence_30

She graduated from high school in 1918, and began working as a stenographer at a local law office. Louise Nevelson_sentence_31

There she met Bernard Nevelson, co-owner with his brother Charles of the Nevelson Brothers Company, a shipping business. Louise Nevelson_sentence_32

Bernard introduced her to his brother, and Charles and Louise Nevelson were married in June 1920 in a Jewish wedding at the Copley Plaza Hotel in Boston. Louise Nevelson_sentence_33

Having satisfied her parent's hope that she would marry into a wealthy family, she and her new husband moved to New York City, where she began to study painting, drawing, singing, acting and dancing. Louise Nevelson_sentence_34

She also became pregnant, and in 1922 she gave birth to her son Myron (later called Mike), who grew up to be a sculptor. Louise Nevelson_sentence_35

Nevelson studied art, despite the disapproval of her parents-in-law. Louise Nevelson_sentence_36

She commented: "My husband's family was terribly refined. Louise Nevelson_sentence_37

Within that circle you could know Beethoven, but God forbid if you were Beethoven." Louise Nevelson_sentence_38

In 1924 the family moved to Mount Vernon, New York, a popular Jewish area of Westchester County. Louise Nevelson_sentence_39

Nevelson was upset with the move, which removed her from city life and her artistic environment. Louise Nevelson_sentence_40

During the winter of 1932–1933 she separated from Charles, unwilling to become the socialite wife he expected her to be. Louise Nevelson_sentence_41

She never sought financial support from Charles, and in 1941 the couple divorced. Louise Nevelson_sentence_42

Artistic career Louise Nevelson_section_1

1930s Louise Nevelson_section_2

Starting in 1929, Nevelson studied art full-time under Kenneth Hayes Miller and Kimon Nicolaides at the Art Students League. Louise Nevelson_sentence_43

Nevelson credited an exhibition of Noh kimonos at the Metropolitan Museum of Art as a catalyst for her to study art further. Louise Nevelson_sentence_44

In 1931 she sent her son Mike to live with family and went to Europe, paying for the trip by selling a diamond bracelet that her now ex-husband had given her on the occasion of Mike's birth. Louise Nevelson_sentence_45

In Munich she studied with Hans Hofmann before visiting Italy and France. Louise Nevelson_sentence_46

Returning to New York in 1932 she once again studied under Hofmann, who was serving as a guest instructor at the Art Students League. Louise Nevelson_sentence_47

She met Diego Rivera in 1933 and worked as his assistant on his mural Man at the Crossroads at Rockefeller Plaza. Louise Nevelson_sentence_48

The two had an affair which caused a rift between Nevelson and Rivera's wife, Frida Kahlo, an artist Nevelson greatly admired. Louise Nevelson_sentence_49

Shortly thereafter, Nevelson started taking Chaim Gross's sculpture classes at the Educational Alliance. Louise Nevelson_sentence_50

Nevelson continued to experiment with other artistic mediums, including lithography and etching, but decided to focus on sculpture. Louise Nevelson_sentence_51

Her early works were created from plaster, clay and tattistone. Louise Nevelson_sentence_52

During the 1930s Nevelson began exhibiting her work in group shows. Louise Nevelson_sentence_53

In 1935, she taught mural painting at the Madison Square Boys and Girls Club in Brooklyn as part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Louise Nevelson_sentence_54

She worked for the WPA in the easel painting and sculpture divisions until 1939. Louise Nevelson_sentence_55

In 1936 Nevelson won her first sculpture competition at the A.C.A Galleries in New York. Louise Nevelson_sentence_56

For several years, the impoverished Nevelson and her son walked through the streets gathering wood to burn in their fireplace to keep warm; the firewood she found served as the starting point for the art that made her famous. Louise Nevelson_sentence_57

Her work during the 1930s explored sculpture, painting and drawing. Louise Nevelson_sentence_58

Early ink and pencil drawings of nudes show the same fluidity seen in the works of Henri Matisse. Louise Nevelson_sentence_59

Nevelson also created terra-cotta semi-abstract animals and oil paintings. Louise Nevelson_sentence_60

First exhibitions and the 1940s Louise Nevelson_section_3

In 1941, Nevelson had her first solo exhibition at Nierendorf Gallery. Louise Nevelson_sentence_61

Gallery owner Karl Nierendorf represented her until his death in 1947. Louise Nevelson_sentence_62

During her time at Nierendorf, Nevelson came across a shoeshine box owned by local shoeshiner Joe Milone. Louise Nevelson_sentence_63

She displayed the box at the Museum of Modern Art, bringing her the first major attention she received from the press. Louise Nevelson_sentence_64

An article about her appeared in Art Digest in November 1943. Louise Nevelson_sentence_65

In 1943, ARTIST exhibited ARTWORK in Peggy Guggenheim's show Exhibition by 31 Women at the Art of This Century gallery in New York. Louise Nevelson_sentence_66

In the 1940s, she began producing Cubist figure studies in materials such as stone, bronze, terra cotta, and wood. Louise Nevelson_sentence_67

In 1943, she had a show at Norlyst Gallery called "The Clown as the Center of his World" in which she constructed sculptures about the circus from found objects. Louise Nevelson_sentence_68

The show was not well received, and Nevelson stopped using found objects until the mid-1950s. Louise Nevelson_sentence_69

Despite poor reception, Nevelson's works at this time explored both figurative abstracts inspired by Cubism and the exploitative and experimental influence of Surrealism. Louise Nevelson_sentence_70

The decade provided Nevelson with the materials, movements, and self-created experiments that would mold her signature modernist style in the 1950s. Louise Nevelson_sentence_71

Mid-career Louise Nevelson_section_4

During the 1950s, Nevelson exhibited her work as often as possible. Louise Nevelson_sentence_72

Yet despite awards and growing popularity with art critics, she continued to struggle financially. Louise Nevelson_sentence_73

To make ends meet she began teaching sculpture classes in adult education programs in the Great Neck public school system. Louise Nevelson_sentence_74

Her own work began to grow to monumental size, moving beyond the human scale sized works she had been creating during the early 1940s. Louise Nevelson_sentence_75

Nevelson also visited Latin America, and discovered influences for her work in Mayan ruins and the steles of Guatemala. Louise Nevelson_sentence_76

In 1954, Nevelson's street in New York's Kips Bay was among those slated for demolition and redevelopment, and her increasing use of scrap materials in the years ahead drew upon on refuse left on the streets by her evicted neighbors. Louise Nevelson_sentence_77

In 1955 Nevelson joined Colette Roberts' Grand Central Modern Gallery, where she had numerous one-woman shows. Louise Nevelson_sentence_78

There she exhibited some of her most notable mid-century works: Bride of the Black Moon, First Personage, and the exhibit "Moon Garden + One", which showed her first wall piece, Sky Cathedral, in 1958. Louise Nevelson_sentence_79

From 1957 to 1958, she was president of the New York Chapter of Artists' Equity and in 1958 she joined the Martha Jackson Gallery, where she was guaranteed income and became financially secure. Louise Nevelson_sentence_80

That year, she was photographed and featured on the cover of Life. Louise Nevelson_sentence_81

In 1960 she had her first one-woman show in Europe at Galerie Daniel Cordier in Paris. Louise Nevelson_sentence_82

Later that year a collection of her work, grouped together as "Dawn's Wedding Feast", was included in the group show, "Sixteen Americans", at the Museum of Modern Art alongside Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. Louise Nevelson_sentence_83

In 1962 she made her first museum sale to the Whitney Museum of American Art, who purchased the black wall, Young Shadows. Louise Nevelson_sentence_84

That same year, her work was selected for the 31st Venice Biennale and she became national president of Artists' Equity, serving until 1964. Louise Nevelson_sentence_85

In 1962 she left Martha Jackson Gallery for a brief stint at the Sidney Janis Gallery. Louise Nevelson_sentence_86

After an unsuccessful first show in which none of her work sold, Nevelson had a falling out with gallery owner Janis over sums he advanced her and was unable to recoup. Louise Nevelson_sentence_87

Nevelson and Janis entered into a contentious legal battle that left Nevelson broke, depressed, and at risk of becoming homeless. Louise Nevelson_sentence_88

However, at this time Nevelson was offered a funded, six-week artist fellowship at Tamarind Lithography Workshop (now Tamarind Institute) in Los Angeles, which allowed her to escape the drama of New York City. Louise Nevelson_sentence_89

She explained, "I wouldn't ordinarily have gone. Louise Nevelson_sentence_90

I didn't care so much about the idea of prints at that time but I desperately needed to get out of town and all of my expenses were paid." Louise Nevelson_sentence_91

At Tamarind, Nevelson made twenty-six lithographs and became the most productive artist to complete the fellowship up until that time. Louise Nevelson_sentence_92

The lithographs she created were some of her most creative graphic work, using unconventional materials like cheese cloth, lace, and textiles on the lithographic stone to create interesting textural effects. Louise Nevelson_sentence_93

With fresh creative inspiration and replenished funds, Nevelson returned to New York in better personal and professional circumstances. Louise Nevelson_sentence_94

She joined Pace Gallery in the fall of 1963, where she had shows regularly until the end of her career. Louise Nevelson_sentence_95

In 1967 the Whitney Museum hosted the first retrospective of Nevelson's work, showing over one hundred pieces, including drawings from the 1930s and contemporary sculptures. Louise Nevelson_sentence_96

In 1964 she created two works: Homage to 6,000,000 I and Homage to 6,000,000 II as a tribute to victims of The Holocaust. Louise Nevelson_sentence_97

Nevelson hired several assistants over the years: Teddy Haseltine, Tom Kendall, and Diana MacKown, who helped in the studio and handled daily affairs. Louise Nevelson_sentence_98

By this time, Nevelson had solidified commercial and critical success. Louise Nevelson_sentence_99

Later career and life Louise Nevelson_section_5

Nevelson continued to utilize wood in her sculptures, but also experimented with other materials such as aluminum, plastic and metal. Louise Nevelson_sentence_100

Black Zag X from 1969, in the collection of the Honolulu Museum of Art is an example of the artist's all-black assemblages incorporating the plastic, Formica. Louise Nevelson_sentence_101

In the fall of 1969, she was commissioned by Princeton University to create her first outdoor sculpture. Louise Nevelson_sentence_102

After completion of her first outdoor sculptures, Nevelson stated: "Remember, I was in my early seventies when I came into monumental outdoor sculpture ... Louise Nevelson_sentence_103

I had been through the enclosures of wood. Louise Nevelson_sentence_104

I had been through the shadows. Louise Nevelson_sentence_105

I had been through the enclosures and come out into the open." Louise Nevelson_sentence_106

Nevelson also praised new materials like plexiglas and cor-ten steel, which she described as a "blessing". Louise Nevelson_sentence_107

She embraced the idea of her works being able to withstand climate change and the freedom in moving beyond limitations in size. Louise Nevelson_sentence_108

These public artworks were created by the Lippincott Foundry. Louise Nevelson_sentence_109

Nevelson's public art commissions were a monetary success, but art historian Brooke Kamin Rapaport states that these pieces were not Nevelson's strongest works, and that Nevelson's "intuitive gesture" is not evident in the large steel works. Louise Nevelson_sentence_110

In 1969, Nevelson was awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal. Louise Nevelson_sentence_111

In 1973 the Walker Art Center curated a major exhibition of her work, which traveled for two years. Louise Nevelson_sentence_112

In 1975 she designed the chapel of St. Louise Nevelson_sentence_113 Peter's Lutheran Church in midtown Manhattan. Louise Nevelson_sentence_114

When asked about her role as a Jewish artist creating Christian-themed art, Nevelson stated that her abstract work transcended religious barriers. Louise Nevelson_sentence_115

Also in 1975, she created and installed a large wood sculpture titled Bicentennial Dawn at the new James A. Byrne United States Courthouse in Philadelphia. Louise Nevelson_sentence_116

During the last half of her life, Nevelson solidified her fame and her persona, cultivating a personal style for her "petite yet flamboyant" self that contributed to her legacy: dramatic dresses, scarves and large false eyelashes. Louise Nevelson_sentence_117

When Alice Neel asked Nevelson how she dressed so beautifully, Nevelson replied "Fucking, dear, fucking", in reference to her sexually liberated lifestyle. Louise Nevelson_sentence_118

The designer Arnold Scaasi created many of her clothes. Louise Nevelson_sentence_119

Nevelson died on April 17, 1988. Louise Nevelson_sentence_120

At the time of his death in 1995, her friend Willy Eisenhart was working on a book about Nevelson. Louise Nevelson_sentence_121

Style and works Louise Nevelson_section_6

When Nevelson was developing her style, many of her artistic colleagues – Alexander Calder, David Smith, Theodore Roszak – were welding metal to create their large-scale sculptures. Louise Nevelson_sentence_122

Nevelson decided to go in the opposite direction, exploring the streets for inspiration and finding it in wood. Louise Nevelson_sentence_123

Nevelson's most notable sculptures are her walls; wooden, wall-like collage driven reliefs consisting of multiple boxes and compartments that hold abstract shapes and found objects from chair legs to balusters. Louise Nevelson_sentence_124

Nevelson described these immersive sculptures as "environments". Louise Nevelson_sentence_125

The wooden pieces were also cast-off scraps, pieces found in the streets of New York. Louise Nevelson_sentence_126

While Marcel Duchamp caused uproar with his Fountain, which was not accepted as "art" at the time of its release in 1917 due to Duchamp's attempt to mask the urinals true form, Nevelson took found objects and by spray painting them she disguised them of their actual use or meaning. Louise Nevelson_sentence_127

Nevelson called herself "the original recycler" owing to her extensive use of discarded objects, and credited Pablo Picasso for "giving us the cube" that served as the groundwork for her cubist-style sculpture. Louise Nevelson_sentence_128

She found strong influence in Picasso and Hofmann's cubist ideals, describing the Cubist movement as "one of the greatest awarenesses that the human mind has ever come to." Louise Nevelson_sentence_129

She also found influence in Native American and Mayan art, dreams, the cosmos and archetypes. Louise Nevelson_sentence_130

A less known but very strong influence was that of Joaquín Torres García, a Uruguayan artist who "in the United States was probably underrated precisely because he was so influential; Adolph Gottlieb's and Louise Nevelson's debt to his work has never been fully acknowledged". Louise Nevelson_sentence_131

As a student of Hans Hofmann she was taught to practice her art with a limited palette, using colors such as black and white, to "discipline" herself. Louise Nevelson_sentence_132

These colors would become part of Nevelson's repertoire. Louise Nevelson_sentence_133

She spray painted her walls black until 1959. Louise Nevelson_sentence_134

Nevelson described black as the "total color" that "means totality. Louise Nevelson_sentence_135

It means: contains all ... it contained all color. Louise Nevelson_sentence_136

It wasn't a negation of color. Louise Nevelson_sentence_137

It was an acceptance. Louise Nevelson_sentence_138

Because black encompasses all colors. Louise Nevelson_sentence_139

Black is the most aristocratic color of all. Louise Nevelson_sentence_140

The only aristocratic color ... Louise Nevelson_sentence_141

I have seen things that were transformed into black, that took on greatness. Louise Nevelson_sentence_142

I don't want to use a lesser word." Louise Nevelson_sentence_143

In the 1960s she began incorporating white and gold into her works. Louise Nevelson_sentence_144

Nevelson said that white was the color that "summoned the early morning and emotional promise." Louise Nevelson_sentence_145

She described her gold phase as the "baroque phase", inspired by the idea being told as a child that America's streets would be "paved with gold", the materialism and hedonism of the color, the Sun, and the Moon. Louise Nevelson_sentence_146

Nevelson revisited the Noh robes and the gold coin collections at the Metropolitan Museum of Art for inspiration. Louise Nevelson_sentence_147

Through her work, Nevelson often explored the themes of her complicated past, factious present, and anticipated future. Louise Nevelson_sentence_148

A common symbol that appears in Nevelson's work is the bride, as seen in Bride of the Black Moon (1955). Louise Nevelson_sentence_149

The symbol of the bride referred to Nevelson's own escape from matrimony in her early life, and her own independence as a woman throughout the rest of her life. Louise Nevelson_sentence_150

Her Sky Cathedral works often took years to create; Sky Cathedral: Night Wall, in the collection of the Columbus Museum of Art, took 13 years to build in her New York City studio. Louise Nevelson_sentence_151

On the Sky Cathedral series, Nevelson commented: "This is the Universe, the stars, the moon – and you and I, everyone." Louise Nevelson_sentence_152

Nevelson's work has been exhibited in a number of galleries, including the Anita Shapolsky Gallery in New York City, Margot Gallery in Lake Worth, Florida, and Woodward Gallery in New York. Louise Nevelson_sentence_153

Legacy Louise Nevelson_section_7

A sculpture garden, Louise Nevelson Plaza (), is located in downtown New York City and features a collection of works by Nevelson. Louise Nevelson_sentence_154

Nevelson donated her papers in several installments from 1966 to 1979. Louise Nevelson_sentence_155

They are fully digitized and in the collection of the Archives of American Art. Louise Nevelson_sentence_156

The Farnsworth Art Museum, in Nevelson's childhood home of Rockland, Maine, houses the second largest collection of her works, including jewelry she designed. Louise Nevelson_sentence_157

In 2000, the United States Postal Service released a series of commemorative postage stamps in Nevelson's honor. Louise Nevelson_sentence_158

The following year, friend and playwright Edward Albee wrote the play Occupant as a homage to the sculptor. Louise Nevelson_sentence_159

The show opened in New York in 2002 with Anne Bancroft playing Nevelson, but it never moved beyond previews owing to Bancroft's illness. Louise Nevelson_sentence_160

Washington DC's Theater J mounted a revival in November 2019. Louise Nevelson_sentence_161

Nevelson's distinct and eccentric image has been documented by photographers such as Robert Mapplethorpe, Richard Avedon, Hans Namuth and Pedro E. Guerrero. Louise Nevelson_sentence_162

Nevelson is listed on the Heritage Floor, among other famous women, in Judy Chicago's 1974–1979 masterpiece The Dinner Party. Louise Nevelson_sentence_163

Upon Nevelson's death her estate was worth at least $100 million. Louise Nevelson_sentence_164

Her son, Mike Nevelson, removed 36 sculptures from her house. Louise Nevelson_sentence_165

Documentation showed that Nevelson had bequeathed these works, worth millions, to her friend and assistant of 25 years Diana MacKown, yet Mike Nevelson claimed otherwise. Louise Nevelson_sentence_166

Proceedings began about the estate and will, which Mike Nevelson claimed did not mention MacKown. Louise Nevelson_sentence_167

There was talk of a potential palimony case, but despite public speculation that the two women were lovers, MacKown maintained that she had never had a sexual relationship with Nevelson, as did Mike Nevelson. Louise Nevelson_sentence_168

In 2005, Maria Nevelson, the youngest granddaughter, established the Louise Nevelson Foundation, a non-profit 501c(3). Louise Nevelson_sentence_169

Its mission is to educate the public and celebrate the life and work of Louise Nevelson, furthering her legacy and place in American Art History. Louise Nevelson_sentence_170

Maria Nevelson lectures widely on her grandmother at museums and provides research services. Louise Nevelson_sentence_171

Feminism and Nevelson's influence on feminist art Louise Nevelson_section_8

Louise Nevelson has been a fundamental key in the feminist art movement. Louise Nevelson_sentence_172

Credited with triggering the examination of femininity in art, Nevelson challenged the vision of what type of art women would be creating with her dark, monumental, and totem-like artworks which were culturally seen as masculine. Louise Nevelson_sentence_173

Nevelson believed that art reflected the individual, not "masculine-feminine labels", and chose to take on her role as an artist, not specifically a female artist. Louise Nevelson_sentence_174

Reviews of Nevelson's works in the 1940s wrote her off as just a woman artist. Louise Nevelson_sentence_175

A reviewer of her 1941 exhibition at Nierendorf Gallery stated: "We learned the artist is a woman, in time to check our enthusiasm. Louise Nevelson_sentence_176

Had it been otherwise, we might have hailed these sculptural expressions as by surely a great figure among moderns." Louise Nevelson_sentence_177

Another review was similar in its sexism: "Nevelson is a sculptor; she comes from Portland, Maine. Louise Nevelson_sentence_178

You'll deny both these facts and you might even insist Nevelson is a man, when you see her Portraits in Paint, showing this month at the Nierendorf Gallery." Louise Nevelson_sentence_179

Mary Beth Edelson's Some Living American Women Artists / Last Supper (1972) appropriated Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper, with the heads of notable women artists collaged over the heads of Christ and his apostles; Nevelson was among those notable women artists. Louise Nevelson_sentence_180

This image, addressing the role of religious and art-historical iconography in the subordination of women, became "one of the most iconic images of the feminist art movement". Louise Nevelson_sentence_181

Even with her influence upon feminist artists, Nevelson's opinion of discrimination within the art world bordered on the belief that artists who were not gaining success based on gender suffered from a lack of confidence. Louise Nevelson_sentence_182

When asked by Feminist Art Journal if she suffered from sexism within the art world, Nevelson replied "I am a woman's liberation." Louise Nevelson_sentence_183

Don Bacigalupi, former president of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, said of Nevelson “In Nevelson’s case, she was the most ferocious artist there was. Louise Nevelson_sentence_184

She was the most determined, the most forceful, the most difficult. Louise Nevelson_sentence_185

She just forced her way in. Louise Nevelson_sentence_186

And so that was one way to do it, but not all women chose to or could take that route.” Louise Nevelson_sentence_187

See also Louise Nevelson_section_9

Louise Nevelson_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise Nevelson.