From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the State of Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_0

For other uses, see Louisiana (disambiguation). Louisiana_sentence_1


CountryLouisiana_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesLouisiana_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodLouisiana_header_cell_0_2_0 Territory of OrleansLouisiana_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionLouisiana_header_cell_0_3_0 April 30, 1812 (18th)Louisiana_cell_0_3_1
CapitalLouisiana_header_cell_0_4_0 Baton RougeLouisiana_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityLouisiana_header_cell_0_5_0 New OrleansLouisiana_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroLouisiana_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater New OrleansLouisiana_cell_0_6_1
GovernorLouisiana_header_cell_0_8_0 John Bel Edwards (D)Louisiana_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorLouisiana_header_cell_0_9_0 Billy Nungesser (R)Louisiana_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureLouisiana_header_cell_0_10_0 State LegislatureLouisiana_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseLouisiana_header_cell_0_11_0 State SenateLouisiana_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseLouisiana_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesLouisiana_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryLouisiana_header_cell_0_13_0 Louisiana Supreme CourtLouisiana_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsLouisiana_header_cell_0_14_0 Bill Cassidy (R)

John Kennedy (R)Louisiana_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationLouisiana_header_cell_0_15_0 5 Republicans

1 Democrat (list)Louisiana_cell_0_15_1

TotalLouisiana_header_cell_0_17_0 52,069.13 sq mi (135,382 km)Louisiana_cell_0_17_1
LandLouisiana_header_cell_0_18_0 43,601 sq mi (112,927 km)Louisiana_cell_0_18_1
WaterLouisiana_header_cell_0_19_0 8,283 sq mi (21,455 km)  15%Louisiana_cell_0_19_1
Area rankLouisiana_header_cell_0_20_0 31stLouisiana_cell_0_20_1
LengthLouisiana_header_cell_0_22_0 379 mi (610 km)Louisiana_cell_0_22_1
WidthLouisiana_header_cell_0_23_0 130 mi (231 km)Louisiana_cell_0_23_1
ElevationLouisiana_header_cell_0_24_0 100 ft (30 m)Louisiana_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Driskill Mountain)Louisiana_header_cell_0_25_0 535 ft (163 m)Louisiana_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (New Orleans)Louisiana_header_cell_0_26_0 −8 ft (−2.5 m)Louisiana_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Louisiana_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalLouisiana_header_cell_0_28_0 4,648,794Louisiana_cell_0_28_1
RankLouisiana_header_cell_0_29_0 25thLouisiana_cell_0_29_1
DensityLouisiana_header_cell_0_30_0 93.8/sq mi (34.6/km)Louisiana_cell_0_30_1
Density rankLouisiana_header_cell_0_31_0 24thLouisiana_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeLouisiana_header_cell_0_32_0 $49,973Louisiana_cell_0_32_1
Income rankLouisiana_header_cell_0_33_0 48thLouisiana_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Louisiana_header_cell_0_34_0 Louisianian

Louisianais (Cajun or Creole heritage) Luisiano (Spanish descendants during rule of New Spain)Louisiana_cell_0_34_1

Official languageLouisiana_header_cell_0_36_0 No official languageLouisiana_cell_0_36_1
Spoken languageLouisiana_header_cell_0_37_0 As of 2010Louisiana_cell_0_37_1
Time zoneLouisiana_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Louisiana_cell_0_38_1
Summer (DST)Louisiana_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Louisiana_cell_0_39_1
USPS abbreviationLouisiana_header_cell_0_40_0 LALouisiana_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeLouisiana_header_cell_0_41_0 US-LALouisiana_cell_0_41_1
Traditional abbreviationLouisiana_header_cell_0_42_0 La.Louisiana_cell_0_42_1
LatitudeLouisiana_header_cell_0_43_0 28° 56′ N to 33° 01′ NLouisiana_cell_0_43_1
LongitudeLouisiana_header_cell_0_44_0 88° 49′ W to 94° 03′ WLouisiana_cell_0_44_1
WebsiteLouisiana_header_cell_0_45_0 Louisiana_cell_0_45_1


Louisiana state symbolsLouisiana_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaLouisiana_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdLouisiana_header_cell_1_2_0 Brown pelicanLouisiana_cell_1_2_1
Dog breedLouisiana_header_cell_1_3_0 Catahoula Leopard DogLouisiana_cell_1_3_1
FishLouisiana_header_cell_1_4_0 White perchLouisiana_cell_1_4_1
FlowerLouisiana_header_cell_1_5_0 MagnoliaLouisiana_cell_1_5_1
InsectLouisiana_header_cell_1_6_0 HoneybeeLouisiana_cell_1_6_1
MammalLouisiana_header_cell_1_7_0 Black bearLouisiana_cell_1_7_1
ReptileLouisiana_header_cell_1_8_0 AlligatorLouisiana_cell_1_8_1
TreeLouisiana_header_cell_1_9_0 Bald cypressLouisiana_cell_1_9_1
Inanimate insigniaLouisiana_header_cell_1_10_0
BeverageLouisiana_header_cell_1_11_0 MilkLouisiana_cell_1_11_1
FossilLouisiana_header_cell_1_12_0 Petrified palmwoodLouisiana_cell_1_12_1
GemstoneLouisiana_header_cell_1_13_0 AgateLouisiana_cell_1_13_1
InstrumentLouisiana_header_cell_1_14_0 Diatonic accordionLouisiana_cell_1_14_1
State route markerLouisiana_header_cell_1_15_0
State quarterLouisiana_header_cell_1_16_0

Louisiana (/luˌiːziˈænə/ (listen), /ˌluːzi-/ (listen)) is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. Louisiana_sentence_2

It is the 19th-smallest by area and the 25th most populous of the 50 U.S. states. Louisiana_sentence_3

Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Louisiana_sentence_4

A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana_sentence_5

Louisiana is the only U.S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are equivalent to counties. Louisiana_sentence_6

The state's capital is Baton Rouge, and its largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_7

Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp. Louisiana_sentence_8

These contain a rich southern biota; typical examples include birds such as ibises and egrets. Louisiana_sentence_9

There are also many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. Louisiana_sentence_10

In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape and has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas. Louisiana_sentence_11

These support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants. Louisiana_sentence_12

Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, and four that have not received recognition. Louisiana_sentence_13

Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so strongly influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Italian, Haitian, Spanish, French Canadian, Native American, and African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the U.S. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the present-day State of Louisiana had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. Louisiana_sentence_14

In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Louisiana_sentence_15

Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana_sentence_16

In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, and in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. Louisiana_sentence_17

There has never been an official language in Louisiana, and the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve, foster, and promote their respective historic, linguistic, and cultural origins". Louisiana_sentence_18

Like other states in the Deep South region, Louisiana frequently ranks low in terms of health, education, and development, and high in measures of poverty. Louisiana_sentence_19

In 2018, Louisiana was ranked as the least healthy state in the country, with high levels of drug-related deaths and excessive alcohol consumption, while it has had the highest homicide rate in the United States since at least the 1990s. Louisiana_sentence_20

Etymology Louisiana_section_0

Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. Louisiana_sentence_21

When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. Louisiana_sentence_22

The suffix ‑ana (or ‑ane) is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place". Louisiana_sentence_23

Thus, roughly, Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis". Louisiana_sentence_24

Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Louisiana_sentence_25

History Louisiana_section_1

Main article: History of Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_26

Pre-colonial history Louisiana_section_2

Louisiana was inhabited by Native Americans for many millennia before the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century. Louisiana_sentence_27

During the Middle Archaic period, Louisiana was the site of the earliest mound complex in North America and one of the earliest dated, complex constructions in the Americas, the Watson Brake site near present-day Monroe. Louisiana_sentence_28

An 11-mound complex, it was built about 5400 BP (3500 BC). Louisiana_sentence_29

The Middle Archaic sites of Caney and Frenchman's Bend have also been securely dated to 5600–5000 BP (3700–3100 BC), demonstrating that seasonal hunter-gatherers organized to build complex earthwork constructions in present-day northern Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_30

These discoveries overturned previous assumptions in archaeology that such complex mounds were built only by cultures of more settled peoples who were dependent on maize cultivation. Louisiana_sentence_31

The Hedgepeth Site in Lincoln Parish is more recent, dated to 5200–4500 BP (3300–2600 BC). Louisiana_sentence_32

Nearly 2,000 years later, Poverty Point was built; it is the largest and best-known Late Archaic site in the state. Louisiana_sentence_33

The city of modern-day Epps developed near it. Louisiana_sentence_34

The Poverty Point culture may have reached its peak around 1500 BC, making it the first complex culture, and possibly the first tribal culture in North America. Louisiana_sentence_35

It lasted until approximately 700 BC. Louisiana_sentence_36

The Poverty Point culture was followed by the Tchefuncte and Lake Cormorant cultures of the Tchula period, local manifestations of Early Woodland period. Louisiana_sentence_37

The Tchefuncte culture were the first people in the area of Louisiana to make large amounts of pottery. Louisiana_sentence_38

These cultures lasted until AD 200. Louisiana_sentence_39

The Middle Woodland period started in Louisiana with the Marksville culture in the southern and eastern part of the state, reaching across the Mississippi River to the east around Natchez and the Fourche Maline culture in the northwestern part of the state. Louisiana_sentence_40

The Marksville culture was named after the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Avoyelles Parish. Louisiana_sentence_41

These cultures were contemporaneous with the Hopewell cultures of present-day Ohio and Illinois, and participated in the Hopewell Exchange Network. Louisiana_sentence_42

Trade with peoples to the southwest brought the bow and arrow. Louisiana_sentence_43

The first burial mounds were built at this time. Louisiana_sentence_44

Political power began to be consolidated, as the first platform mounds at ritual centers were constructed for the developing hereditary political and religious leadership. Louisiana_sentence_45

By 400 the Late Woodland period had begun with the Baytown culture, Troyville culture, and Coastal Troyville during the Baytown Period and were succeeded by the Coles Creek cultures. Louisiana_sentence_46

Where the Baytown peoples built dispersed settlements, the Troyville people instead continued building major earthwork centers. Louisiana_sentence_47

Population increased dramatically and there is strong evidence of a growing cultural and political complexity. Louisiana_sentence_48

Many Coles Creek sites were erected over earlier Woodland period mortuary mounds. Louisiana_sentence_49

Scholars have speculated that emerging elites were symbolically and physically appropriating dead ancestors to emphasize and project their own authority. Louisiana_sentence_50

The Mississippian period in Louisiana was when the Plaquemine and the Caddoan Mississippian cultures developed, and the peoples adopted extensive maize agriculture, cultivating different strains of the plant by saving seeds, selecting for certain characteristics, etc. Louisiana_sentence_51

The Plaquemine culture in the lower Mississippi River Valley in western Mississippi and eastern Louisiana began in 1200 and continued to about 1600. Louisiana_sentence_52

Examples in Louisiana include the Medora Site, the archaeological type site for the culture in West Baton Rouge Parish whose characteristics helped define the culture, the Atchafalaya Basin Mounds in St Mary Parish, the Fitzhugh Mounds in Madison Parish, the Scott Place Mounds in Union Parish, and the Sims Site in St Charles Parish. Louisiana_sentence_53

Plaquemine culture was contemporaneous with the Middle Mississippian culture that is represented by its largest settlement, the Cahokia site in Illinois east of St. Louisiana_sentence_54 Louis, Missouri. Louisiana_sentence_55

At its peak Cahokia is estimated to have had a population of more than 20,000. Louisiana_sentence_56

The Plaquemine culture is considered ancestral to the historic Natchez and Taensa peoples, whose descendants encountered Europeans in the colonial era. Louisiana_sentence_57

By 1000 in the northwestern part of the state, the Fourche Maline culture had evolved into the Caddoan Mississippian culture. Louisiana_sentence_58

The Caddoan Mississippians occupied a large territory, including what is now eastern Oklahoma, western Arkansas, northeast Texas, and northwest Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_59

Archaeological evidence has demonstrated that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present. Louisiana_sentence_60

The Caddo and related Caddo-language speakers in prehistoric times and at first European contact were the direct ancestors of the modern Caddo Nation of Oklahoma of today. Louisiana_sentence_61

Significant Caddoan Mississippian archaeological sites in Louisiana include Belcher Mound Site in Caddo Parish and Gahagan Mounds Site in Red River Parish. Louisiana_sentence_62

Many current place names in Louisiana, including Atchafalaya, Natchitouches (now spelled Natchitoches), Caddo, Houma, Tangipahoa, and Avoyel (as Avoyelles), are transliterations of those used in various Native American languages. Louisiana_sentence_63

Exploration and colonization by Europeans Louisiana_section_3

Main articles: French colonization of the Americas, New France, Louisiana (New France), French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), New Spain, Louisiana (New Spain), West Florida, Indian Reserve (1763), American Revolutionary War, Gulf Coast campaign, Treaty of Paris (1783), Spanish West Florida, and Treaty of Aranjuez (1801) Louisiana_sentence_64

The first European explorers to visit Louisiana came in 1528 when a Spanish expedition led by Pánfilo de Narváez located the mouth of the Mississippi River. Louisiana_sentence_65

In 1542, Hernando de Soto's expedition skirted to the north and west of the state (encountering Caddo and Tunica groups) and then followed the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico in 1543. Louisiana_sentence_66

Spanish interest in Louisiana faded away for a century and a half. Louisiana_sentence_67

In the late 17th century, French and French Canadian expeditions, which included sovereign, religious and commercial aims, established a foothold on the Mississippi River and Gulf Coast. Louisiana_sentence_68

With its first settlements, France laid claim to a vast region of North America and set out to establish a commercial empire and French nation stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. Louisiana_sentence_69

In 1682, the French explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region Louisiana to honor King Louis XIV of France. Louisiana_sentence_70

The first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near Biloxi), was founded in 1699 by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, a French military officer from Canada. Louisiana_sentence_71

By then the French had also built a small fort at the mouth of the Mississippi at a settlement they named La Balise (or La Balize), "seamark" in French. Louisiana_sentence_72

By 1721 they built a 62-foot (19 m) wooden lighthouse-type structure here to guide ships on the river. Louisiana_sentence_73

A royal ordinance of 1722—following the Crown's transfer of the Illinois Country's governance from Canada to Louisiana—may have featured the broadest definition of Louisiana: all land claimed by France south of the Great Lakes between the Rocky Mountains and the Alleghenies. Louisiana_sentence_74

A generation later, trade conflicts between Canada and Louisiana led to a more defined boundary between the French colonies; in 1745, Louisiana governor general Vaudreuil set the northern and eastern bounds of his domain as the Wabash valley up to the mouth of the Vermilion River (near present-day Danville, Illinois); from there, northwest to le Rocher on the Illinois River, and from there west to the mouth of the Rock River (at present day Rock Island, Illinois). Louisiana_sentence_75

Thus, Vincennes and Peoria were the limit of Louisiana's reach; the outposts at Ouiatenon (on the upper Wabash near present-day Lafayette, Indiana), Chicago, Fort Miamis (near present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana), and Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, operated as dependencies of Canada. Louisiana_sentence_76

The settlement of Natchitoches (along the Red River in present-day northwest Louisiana) was established in 1714 by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, making it the oldest permanent European settlement in the modern state of Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_77

The French settlement had two purposes: to establish trade with the Spanish in Texas via the Old San Antonio Road, and to deter Spanish advances into Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_78

The settlement soon became a flourishing river port and crossroads, giving rise to vast cotton kingdoms along the river that were worked by imported African slaves. Louisiana_sentence_79

Over time, planters developed large plantations and built fine homes in a growing town. Louisiana_sentence_80

This became a pattern repeated in New Orleans and other places, although the commodity crop in the south was primarily sugar cane. Louisiana_sentence_81

Louisiana's French settlements contributed to further exploration and outposts, concentrated along the banks of the Mississippi and its major tributaries, from Louisiana to as far north as the region called the Illinois Country, around present-day St. Louisiana_sentence_82 Louis, Missouri. Louisiana_sentence_83

The latter was settled by French colonists from Illinois. Louisiana_sentence_84

Initially, Mobile and then Biloxi served as the capital of La Louisiane. Louisiana_sentence_85

Recognizing the importance of the Mississippi River to trade and military interests, and wanting to protect the capital from severe coastal storms, France developed New Orleans from 1722 as the seat of civilian and military authority south of the Great Lakes. Louisiana_sentence_86

From then until the United States acquired the territory in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, France and Spain jockeyed for control of New Orleans and the lands west of the Mississippi. Louisiana_sentence_87

In the 1720s, German immigrants settled along the Mississippi River, in a region referred to as the German Coast. Louisiana_sentence_88

France ceded most of its territory to the east of the Mississippi to Great Britain in 1763, in the aftermath of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War (generally referred to in North America as the French and Indian War). Louisiana_sentence_89

The rest of Louisiana, including the area around New Orleans and the parishes around Lake Pontchartrain, had become a colony of Spain by the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762). Louisiana_sentence_90

The transfer of power on either side of the river would be delayed until later in the decade. Louisiana_sentence_91

In 1765, during Spanish rule, several thousand French-speaking refugees from the region of Acadia (now Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada) made their way to Louisiana after having been expelled from their homelands by the British during the French and Indian War. Louisiana_sentence_92

They settled chiefly in the southwestern Louisiana region now called Acadiana. Louisiana_sentence_93

The governor Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga, eager to gain more settlers, welcomed the Acadian refugees, the ancestors of Louisiana's Cajuns. Louisiana_sentence_94

Spanish Canary Islanders, called Isleños, emigrated from the Canary Islands of Spain to Louisiana under the Spanish crown between 1778 and 1783. Louisiana_sentence_95

In 1800, France's Napoleon Bonaparte reacquired Louisiana from Spain in the Treaty of San Ildefonso, an arrangement kept secret for two years. Louisiana_sentence_96

Expansion of slavery Louisiana_section_4

Main article: History of slavery in Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_97

Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville brought the first two African slaves to Louisiana in 1708, transporting them from a French colony in the West Indies. Louisiana_sentence_98

In 1709, French financier Antoine Crozat obtained a monopoly of commerce in La Louisiane, which extended from the Gulf of Mexico to what is now Illinois. Louisiana_sentence_99

"That concession allowed him to bring in a cargo of blacks from Africa every year," the British historian Hugh Thomas wrote. Louisiana_sentence_100

Physical conditions, including disease, were so harsh there was high mortality among both the colonists and the slaves, resulting in continuing demand and importation of slaves. Louisiana_sentence_101

Starting in 1719, traders began to import slaves in higher numbers; two French ships, the Du Maine and the Aurore, arrived in New Orleans carrying more than 500 black slaves coming from Africa. Louisiana_sentence_102

Previous slaves in Louisiana had been transported from French colonies in the West Indies. Louisiana_sentence_103

By the end of 1721, New Orleans counted 1,256 inhabitants, of whom about half were slaves. Louisiana_sentence_104

In 1724, the French government issued a law called the Code Noir ("Black Code" in English) which "regulate[d] the interaction of whites [blancs] and blacks [noirs] in its colony of Louisiana (which was much larger than the current state of Louisiana). Louisiana_sentence_105

The law consisted of 57 articles, which regulated religion in the colony, outlawed "interracial" marriages (those between people of different skin color, the varying shades of which were also defined by law), restricted manumission, outlined legal punishment of slaves for various offenses, and defined some obligations of owners to their slaves. Louisiana_sentence_106

The main intent of the French government was to assert control over the slave system of agriculture in Louisiana and to impose restrictions on slaveowners there. Louisiana_sentence_107

In practice, the Code Noir was exceedingly difficult to enforce from afar. Louisiana_sentence_108

Some priests continued to perform interracial marriage ceremonies, for example, and some slaveholders continued to manumit slaves without permission while others punished slaves brutally. Louisiana_sentence_109

Article II of the Code Noir of 1724 required owners to provide their slaves with religious education in the state religion, Roman Catholicism. Louisiana_sentence_110

Sunday was to be a day of rest for slaves. Louisiana_sentence_111

On days off, slaves were expected to feed and take care of themselves. Louisiana_sentence_112

During the 1740s economic crisis in the colony, owners had trouble feeding their slaves and themselves. Louisiana_sentence_113

Giving them time off also effectively gave more power to slaves, who started cultivating their own gardens and crafting items for sale as their own property. Louisiana_sentence_114

They began to participate in the economic development of the colony while at the same time increasing independence and self-subsistence. Louisiana_sentence_115

Article VI of the Code Noir forbade mixed marriages, forbade but did little to protect slave women from rape by their owners, overseers or other slaves. Louisiana_sentence_116

On balance, the Code benefitted the owners but had more protections and flexibility than did the institution of slavery in the southern Thirteen Colonies. Louisiana_sentence_117

The Louisiana Black Code of 1806 made the cruel punishment of slaves a crime, but owners and overseers were seldom prosecuted for such acts. Louisiana_sentence_118

Fugitive slaves, called maroons, could easily hide in the backcountry of the bayous and survive in small settlements. Louisiana_sentence_119

The word "maroon" comes from the Spanish "cimarron", meaning "fugitive cattle". Louisiana_sentence_120

In the late 18th century, the last Spanish governor of the Louisiana territory wrote: Louisiana_sentence_121

When the United States purchased Louisiana in 1803, it was soon accepted that enslaved Africans could be brought to Louisiana as easily as they were brought to neighboring Mississippi, though it violated U.S. law to do so. Louisiana_sentence_122

Despite demands by United States Rep. James Hillhouse and by the pamphleteer Thomas Paine to enforce existing federal law against slavery in the newly acquired territory, slavery prevailed because it was the source of great profits and the lowest-cost labor. Louisiana_sentence_123

At the start of the 19th century, Louisiana was a small producer of sugar with a relatively small number of slaves, compared to Saint-Domingue and the West Indies. Louisiana_sentence_124

It soon thereafter became a major sugar producer as new settlers arrived to develop plantations. Louisiana_sentence_125

William C. C. Claiborne, Louisiana's first United States governor, said African slave labor was needed because white laborers "cannot be had in this unhealthy climate". Louisiana_sentence_126

Hugh Thomas wrote that Claiborne was unable to enforce the abolition of the African slave trade, which the U.S. and Great Britain adopted in 1808. Louisiana_sentence_127

The United States continued to protect the domestic slave trade, including the coastwise trade—the transport of slaves by ship along the Atlantic Coast and to New Orleans and other Gulf ports. Louisiana_sentence_128

By 1840, New Orleans had the biggest slave market in the United States, which contributed greatly to the economy of the city and of the state. Louisiana_sentence_129

New Orleans had become one of the wealthiest cities, and the third largest city, in the nation. Louisiana_sentence_130

The ban on the African slave trade and importation of slaves had increased demand in the domestic market. Louisiana_sentence_131

During the decades after the American Revolutionary War, more than one million enslaved African Americans underwent forced migration from the Upper South to the Deep South, two thirds of them in the slave trade. Louisiana_sentence_132

Others were transported by their owners as slaveholders moved west for new lands. Louisiana_sentence_133

With changing agriculture in the Upper South as planters shifted from tobacco to less labor-intensive mixed agriculture, planters had excess laborers. Louisiana_sentence_134

Many sold slaves to traders to take to the Deep South. Louisiana_sentence_135

Slaves were driven by traders overland from the Upper South or transported to New Orleans and other coastal markets by ship in the coastwise slave trade. Louisiana_sentence_136

After sales in New Orleans, steamboats operating on the Mississippi transported slaves upstream to markets or plantation destinations at Natchez and Memphis. Louisiana_sentence_137

Haitian migration and influence Louisiana_section_5

Spanish occupation of Louisiana lasted from 1769 to 1800. Louisiana_sentence_138

Beginning in the 1790s, waves of immigration took place from Saint-Domingue, following a slave rebellion that started in 1791. Louisiana_sentence_139

Over the next decade, thousands of migrants landed in Louisiana from the island, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, and African slaves, some of the latter brought in by each free group. Louisiana_sentence_140

They greatly increased the French-speaking population in New Orleans and Louisiana, as well as the number of Africans, and the slaves reinforced African culture in the city. Louisiana_sentence_141

The process of gaining independence in Saint-Domingue was complex, but uprisings continued. Louisiana_sentence_142

In 1803, France pulled out its surviving troops from the island, having suffered the loss of two-thirds sent to the island two years before, mostly to yellow fever. Louisiana_sentence_143

In 1804, Haiti, the second republic in the western hemisphere, proclaimed its independence, achieved by slave leaders. Louisiana_sentence_144

Pierre Clément de Laussat (Governor, 1803) said: "Saint-Domingue was, of all our colonies in the Antilles, the one whose mentality and customs influenced Louisiana the most." Louisiana_sentence_145

Purchase by the United States Louisiana_section_6

Main articles: Louisiana Purchase, Territory of Orleans, Republic of West Florida, and Neutral Ground (Louisiana) Louisiana_sentence_146

When the United States won its independence from Great Britain in 1783, one of its major concerns was having a European power on its western boundary, and the need for unrestricted access to the Mississippi River. Louisiana_sentence_147

As American settlers pushed west, they found that the Appalachian Mountains provided a barrier to shipping goods eastward. Louisiana_sentence_148

The easiest way to ship produce was to use a flatboat to float it down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to the port of New Orleans, where goods could be put on ocean-going vessels. Louisiana_sentence_149

The problem with this route was that the Spanish owned both sides of the Mississippi below Natchez. Louisiana_sentence_150

Napoleon's ambitions in Louisiana involved the creation of a new empire centered on the Caribbean sugar trade. Louisiana_sentence_151

By the terms of the Treaty of Amiens of 1802, Great Britain returned ownership of the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe to the French. Louisiana_sentence_152

Napoleon looked upon Louisiana as a depot for these sugar islands, and as a buffer to U.S. settlement. Louisiana_sentence_153

In October 1801 he sent a large military force to take back Saint-Domingue, then under control of Toussaint Louverture after a slave rebellion. Louisiana_sentence_154

When the army led by Napoleon's brother-in-law Leclerc was defeated, Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_155

Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, was disturbed by Napoleon's plans to re-establish French colonies in America. Louisiana_sentence_156

With the possession of New Orleans, Napoleon could close the Mississippi to U.S. commerce at any time. Louisiana_sentence_157

Jefferson authorized Robert R. Livingston, U.S. Minister to France, to negotiate for the purchase of the City of New Orleans, portions of the east bank of the Mississippi, and free navigation of the river for U.S. commerce. Louisiana_sentence_158

Livingston was authorized to pay up to $2 million. Louisiana_sentence_159

An official transfer of Louisiana to French ownership had not yet taken place, and Napoleon's deal with the Spanish was a poorly kept secret on the frontier. Louisiana_sentence_160

On October 18, 1802, however, Juan Ventura Morales, Acting Intendant of Louisiana, made public the intention of Spain to revoke the right of deposit at New Orleans for all cargo from the United States. Louisiana_sentence_161

The closure of this vital port to the United States caused anger and consternation. Louisiana_sentence_162

Commerce in the west was virtually blockaded. Louisiana_sentence_163

Historians believe the revocation of the right of deposit was prompted by abuses by the Americans, particularly smuggling, and not by French intrigues as was believed at the time. Louisiana_sentence_164

President Jefferson ignored public pressure for war with France, and appointed James Monroe a special envoy to Napoleon, to assist in obtaining New Orleans for the United States. Louisiana_sentence_165

Jefferson also raised the authorized expenditure to $10 million. Louisiana_sentence_166

However, on April 11, 1803, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand surprised Livingston by asking how much the United States was prepared to pay for the entirety of Louisiana, not just New Orleans and the surrounding area (as Livingston's instructions covered). Louisiana_sentence_167

Monroe agreed with Livingston that Napoleon might withdraw this offer at any time (leaving them with no ability to obtain the desired New Orleans area), and that approval from President Jefferson might take months, so Livingston and Monroe decided to open negotiations immediately. Louisiana_sentence_168

By April 30, they closed a deal for the purchase of the entire Louisiana territory of 828,000 square miles (2,100,000 km) for sixty million Francs (approximately $15 million). Louisiana_sentence_169

Part of this sum, $3.5 million, was used to forgive debts owed by France to the United States. Louisiana_sentence_170

The payment was made in United States bonds, which Napoleon sold at face value to the Dutch firm of Hope and Company, and the British banking house of Baring, at a discount of ​87 ⁄2 per each $100 unit. Louisiana_sentence_171

As a result, France received only $8,831,250 in cash for Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_172

English banker Alexander Baring conferred with Marbois in Paris, shuttled to the United States to pick up the bonds, took them to Britain, and returned to France with the money—which Napoleon used to wage war against Baring's own country. Louisiana_sentence_173

When news of the purchase reached the United States, Jefferson was surprised. Louisiana_sentence_174

He had authorized the expenditure of $10 million for a port city, and instead received treaties committing the government to spend $15 million on a land package which would double the size of the country. Louisiana_sentence_175

Jefferson's political opponents in the Federalist Party argued the Louisiana purchase was a worthless desert, and that the Constitution did not provide for the acquisition of new land or negotiating treaties without the consent of the Senate. Louisiana_sentence_176

What really worried the opposition was the new states which would inevitably be carved from the Louisiana territory, strengthening Western and Southern interests in Congress, and further reducing the influence of New England Federalists in national affairs. Louisiana_sentence_177

President Jefferson was an enthusiastic supporter of westward expansion, and held firm in his support for the treaty. Louisiana_sentence_178

Despite Federalist objections, the U.S. Senate ratified the Louisiana treaty on October 20, 1803. Louisiana_sentence_179

By statute enacted on October 31, 1803, President Thomas Jefferson was authorized to take possession of the territories ceded by France and provide for initial governance. Louisiana_sentence_180

A transfer ceremony was held in New Orleans on November 29, 1803. Louisiana_sentence_181

Since the Louisiana territory had never officially been turned over to the French, the Spanish took down their flag, and the French raised theirs. Louisiana_sentence_182

The following day, General James Wilkinson accepted possession of New Orleans for the United States. Louisiana_sentence_183

A similar ceremony was held in St. Louisiana_sentence_184 Louis on March 9, 1804, when a French tricolor was raised near the river, replacing the Spanish national flag. Louisiana_sentence_185

The following day, Captain Amos Stoddard of the First U.S. Louisiana_sentence_186

Artillery marched his troops into town and had the American flag run up the fort's flagpole. Louisiana_sentence_187

The Louisiana territory was officially transferred to the United States government, represented by Meriwether Lewis. Louisiana_sentence_188

The Louisiana Territory, purchased for less than three cents an acre, doubled the size of the United States overnight, without a war or the loss of a single American life, and set a precedent for the purchase of territory. Louisiana_sentence_189

It opened the way for the eventual expansion of the United States across the continent to the Pacific. Louisiana_sentence_190

Shortly after the United States took possession, the area was divided into two territories along the 33rd parallel north on March 26, 1804, thereby organizing the Territory of Orleans to the south and the District of Louisiana (subsequently formed as the Louisiana Territory) to the north. Louisiana_sentence_191

Statehood Louisiana_section_7

Main articles: Admission to the Union, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Seminole Wars, and Adams–Onís Treaty Louisiana_sentence_192

Louisiana became the eighteenth U.S. state on April 30, 1812; the Territory of Orleans became the State of Louisiana and the Louisiana Territory was simultaneously renamed the Missouri Territory. Louisiana_sentence_193

An area known as the Florida Parishes was soon annexed into the state of Louisiana on April 14, 1812. Louisiana_sentence_194

From 1824 to 1861, Louisiana moved from a political system based on personality and ethnicity to a distinct two-party system, with Democrats competing first against Whigs, then Know Nothings, and finally only other Democrats. Louisiana_sentence_195

Secession and the Civil War Louisiana_section_8

Main articles: Ordinance of Secession, Confederate States of America, and Louisiana in the American Civil War Louisiana_sentence_196

According to the 1860 census, 331,726 people were enslaved, nearly 47% of the state's total population of 708,002. Louisiana_sentence_197

The strong economic interest of elite whites in maintaining the slave society contributed to Louisiana's decision to secede from the Union on January 26, 1861. Louisiana_sentence_198

It followed other Southern states in seceding after the election of Abraham Lincoln as president of the United States. Louisiana_sentence_199

Louisiana's secession was announced on January 26, 1861, and it became part of the Confederate States of America. Louisiana_sentence_200

The state was quickly defeated in the Civil War, a result of Union strategy to cut the Confederacy in two by seizing the Mississippi. Louisiana_sentence_201

Federal troops captured New Orleans on April 25, 1862. Louisiana_sentence_202

Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the federal government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana under federal control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Louisiana_sentence_203 Congress. Louisiana_sentence_204

Post-Civil War to mid-20th century Louisiana_section_9

Following the Civil War and emancipation of slaves, violence rose in the South as the war was carried on by insurgent private and paramilitary groups. Louisiana_sentence_205

Initially state legislatures were dominated by former Confederates, who passed Black Codes to regulate freedmen and generally refused to give the vote. Louisiana_sentence_206

They refused to extend voting rights to African Americans who had been free before the war and had sometimes obtained education and property (as in New Orleans.) Louisiana_sentence_207

Following the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot the same year, the Fourteenth Amendment was passed that provided suffrage and full citizenship for freedmen. Louisiana_sentence_208

Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, establishing military districts for those states where conditions were considered the worst, including Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_209

It was grouped with Texas in what was administered as the Fifth Military District. Louisiana_sentence_210

African Americans began to live as citizens with some measure of equality before the law. Louisiana_sentence_211

Both freedmen and people of color who had been free before the war began to make more advances in education, family stability and jobs. Louisiana_sentence_212

At the same time, there was tremendous social volatility in the aftermath of war, with many whites actively resisting defeat and the free labor market. Louisiana_sentence_213

White insurgents mobilized to enforce white supremacy, first in Ku Klux Klan chapters. Louisiana_sentence_214

By 1877, when federal forces were withdrawn, white Democrats in Louisiana and other states had regained control of state legislatures, often by paramilitary groups such as the White League, which suppressed black voting through intimidation and violence. Louisiana_sentence_215

Following Mississippi's example in 1890, in 1898, the white Democratic, planter-dominated legislature passed a new constitution that effectively disenfranchised people of color, by raising barriers to voter registration, such as poll taxes, residency requirements and literacy tests. Louisiana_sentence_216

The effect was immediate and long lasting. Louisiana_sentence_217

In 1896, there were 130,334 black voters on the rolls and about the same number of white voters, in proportion to the state population, which was evenly divided. Louisiana_sentence_218

The state population in 1900 was 47% African-American: a total of 652,013 citizens. Louisiana_sentence_219

Many in New Orleans were descendants of Creoles of color, the sizeable population of free people of color before the Civil War. Louisiana_sentence_220

By 1900, two years after the new constitution, only 5,320 black voters were registered in the state. Louisiana_sentence_221

Because of disfranchisement, by 1910 there were only 730 black voters (less than 0.5 percent of eligible African-American men), despite advances in education and literacy among blacks and people of color. Louisiana_sentence_222

Blacks were excluded from the political system and also unable to serve on juries. Louisiana_sentence_223

White Democrats had established one-party Democratic rule, which they maintained in the state for decades deep into the 20th century until after congressional passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act provided federal oversight and enforcement of the constitutional right to vote. Louisiana_sentence_224

In the early decades of the 20th century, thousands of African Americans left Louisiana in the Great Migration north to industrial cities for jobs and education, and to escape Jim Crow society and lynchings. Louisiana_sentence_225

The boll weevil infestation and agricultural problems cost many sharecroppers and farmers their jobs. Louisiana_sentence_226

The mechanization of agriculture also reduced the need for laborers. Louisiana_sentence_227

Beginning in the 1940s, blacks went West to California for jobs in its expanding defense industries. Louisiana_sentence_228

During some of the Great Depression, Louisiana was led by Governor Huey Long. Louisiana_sentence_229

He was elected to office on populist appeal. Louisiana_sentence_230

His public works projects provided thousands of jobs to people in need, and he supported education and increased suffrage for poor whites, but Long was criticized for his allegedly demogogic and autocratic style. Louisiana_sentence_231

He extended patronage control through every branch of Louisiana's state government. Louisiana_sentence_232

Especially controversial were his plans for wealth redistribution in the state. Louisiana_sentence_233

Long's rule ended abruptly when he was assassinated in the state capitol in 1935. Louisiana_sentence_234

Post-World War II Louisiana_section_10

Mobilization for World War II created jobs in the state. Louisiana_sentence_235

But thousands of other workers, black and white alike, migrated to California for better jobs in its burgeoning defense industry. Louisiana_sentence_236

Many African Americans left the state in the Second Great Migration, from the 1940s through the 1960s to escape social oppression and seek better jobs. Louisiana_sentence_237

The mechanization of agriculture in the 1930s had sharply cut the need for laborers. Louisiana_sentence_238

They sought skilled jobs in the defense industry in California, better education for their children, and living in communities where they could vote. Louisiana_sentence_239

On November 26, 1958, at Chennault Air Force Base, a USAF B-47 bomber with a nuclear weapon on board developed a fire while on the ground. Louisiana_sentence_240

The aircraft wreckage and the site of the accident were contaminated after a limited explosion of non-nuclear material. Louisiana_sentence_241

In the 1950s the state created new requirements for a citizenship test for voter registration. Louisiana_sentence_242

Despite opposition by the States Rights Party, downstate black voters had begun to increase their rate of registration, which also reflected the growth of their middle classes. Louisiana_sentence_243

In 1960 the state established the Louisiana State Sovereignty Commission, to investigate civil rights activists and maintain segregation. Louisiana_sentence_244

Despite this, gradually black voter registration and turnout increased to 20% and more, and it was 32% by 1964, when the first national civil rights legislation of the era was passed. Louisiana_sentence_245

The percentage of black voters ranged widely in the state during these years, from 93.8% in Evangeline Parish to 1.7% in Tensas Parish, for instance, where there were white efforts to suppress the vote in the black-majority parish. Louisiana_sentence_246

Violent attacks on civil rights activists in two mill towns were catalysts to the founding of the first two chapters of the Deacons for Defense and Justice in late 1964 and early 1965, in Jonesboro and Bogalusa, respectively. Louisiana_sentence_247

Made up of veterans of World War II and the Korean War, they were armed self-defense groups established to protect activists and their families. Louisiana_sentence_248

Continued violent white resistance in Bogalusa to blacks trying to use public facilities in 1965, following passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, caused the federal government to order local police to protect the activists. Louisiana_sentence_249

Other chapters were formed in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Louisiana_sentence_250

By 1960 the proportion of African Americans in Louisiana had dropped to 32%. Louisiana_sentence_251

The 1,039,207 black citizens were still suppressed by segregation and disfranchisement. Louisiana_sentence_252

African Americans continued to suffer disproportionate discriminatory application of the state's voter registration rules. Louisiana_sentence_253

Because of better opportunities elsewhere, from 1965 to 1970, blacks continued to migrate out of Louisiana, for a net loss of more than 37,000 people. Louisiana_sentence_254

Based on official census figures, the African American population in 1970 stood at 1,085,109, a net gain of more than 46,000 people compared to 1960. Louisiana_sentence_255

During the latter period, some people began to migrate to cities of the New South for opportunities. Louisiana_sentence_256

Since that period, blacks entered the political system and began to be elected to office, as well as having other opportunities. Louisiana_sentence_257

On May 21, 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, giving women full rights to vote, was passed at a national level, and was made the law throughout the United States on August 18, 1920. Louisiana_sentence_258

Louisiana finally ratified the amendment on June 11, 1970. Louisiana_sentence_259

Due to its location on the Gulf Coast, Louisiana has regularly suffered the effects of tropical storms and damaging hurricanes. Louisiana_sentence_260

On August 29, 2005, New Orleans and many other low-lying parts of the state along the Gulf of Mexico were hit by the catastrophic Hurricane Katrina. Louisiana_sentence_261

It caused widespread damage due to breaching of levees and large-scale flooding of more than 80% of the city. Louisiana_sentence_262

Officials had issued warnings to evacuate the city and nearby areas, but tens of thousands of people, mostly African Americans, stayed behind, many of them stranded. Louisiana_sentence_263

Many people died and survivors suffered through the damage of the widespread floodwaters. Louisiana_sentence_264

In July 2016 the shooting of Alton Sterling sparked protests throughout the state capital of Baton Rouge. Louisiana_sentence_265

In August 2016, an unnamed storm dumped trillions of gallons of rain on southern Louisiana, including the cities of Denham Springs, Baton Rouge, Gonzales, St. Amant and Lafayette, causing catastrophic flooding. Louisiana_sentence_266

An estimated 110,000 homes were damaged and thousands of residents were displaced. Louisiana_sentence_267

In 2019, three Louisiana black churches were set on fire. Louisiana_sentence_268

The suspect used gasoline, destroying each church completely. Louisiana_sentence_269

Holden Matthews, 21 years old, was charged with the destruction of the churches. Louisiana_sentence_270

The first case of COVID-19 in Louisiana was announced on March 9, 2020. Louisiana_sentence_271

Since the first confirmed case as of October 27, 2020, there had been 180,069 confirmed cases; 5,854 people have died of COVID-19. Louisiana_sentence_272

Louisiana entered phase one of re-opening the state on May 15. Louisiana_sentence_273

On June 4, Governor John Bel Edwards signed an order moving to phase two. Louisiana_sentence_274

Gov. Louisiana_sentence_275

Edwards extended phase two until September 11, and phase three began with speculation on October 9. Louisiana_sentence_276

Geography Louisiana_section_11

Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas; to the north by Arkansas; to the east by Mississippi; and to the south by the Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana_sentence_277

The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, and the alluvial along the coast. Louisiana_sentence_278

The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, and barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles (52,000 km). Louisiana_sentence_279

This area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi (970 km) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico; the Red River; the Ouachita River and its branches; and other minor streams (some of which are called bayous). Louisiana_sentence_280

The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is 10–60 miles (15–100 km), and along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles (15 km) across. Louisiana_sentence_281

The Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its natural deposits (known as a levee), from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile (3 m/km). Louisiana_sentence_282

The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features. Louisiana_sentence_283

The higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles (65,000 km). Louisiana_sentence_284

They consist of prairie and woodlands. Louisiana_sentence_285

The elevations above sea level range from 10 feet (3 m) at the coast and swamp lands to 50–60 feet (15–18 m) at the prairie and alluvial lands. Louisiana_sentence_286

In the uplands and hills, the elevations rise to Driskill Mountain, the highest point in the state only 535 feet (163 m) above sea level. Louisiana_sentence_287

From 1932 to 2010 the state lost 1,800 square miles due to rises in sea level and erosion. Louisiana_sentence_288

The Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA) spends around $1 billion per year to help shore up and protect Louisiana shoreline and land in both federal and state funding. Louisiana_sentence_289

Besides the waterways already named, there are the Sabine, forming the western boundary; and the Pearl, the eastern boundary; the Calcasieu, the Mermentau, the Vermilion, Bayou Teche, the Atchafalaya, the Boeuf, Bayou Lafourche, the Courtableau River, Bayou D'Arbonne, the Macon River, the Tensas, Amite River, the Tchefuncte, the Tickfaw, the Natalbany River, and a number of other smaller streams, constituting a natural system of navigable waterways, aggregating over 4,000 miles (6,400 km) long. Louisiana_sentence_290

The state also has political jurisdiction over the approximately 3-mile (4.8 km)-wide portion of subsea land of the inner continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana_sentence_291

Through a peculiarity of the political geography of the United States, this is substantially less than the 9-mile (14 km)-wide jurisdiction of nearby states Texas and Florida, which, like Louisiana, have extensive Gulf coastlines. Louisiana_sentence_292

The southern coast of Louisiana in the United States is among the fastest-disappearing areas in the world. Louisiana_sentence_293

This has largely resulted from human mismanagement of the coast (see Wetlands of Louisiana). Louisiana_sentence_294

At one time, the land was added to when spring floods from the Mississippi River added sediment and stimulated marsh growth; the land is now shrinking. Louisiana_sentence_295

There are multiple causes. Louisiana_sentence_296

Artificial levees block spring flood water that would bring fresh water and sediment to marshes. Louisiana_sentence_297

Swamps have been extensively logged, leaving canals and ditches that allow salt water to move inland. Louisiana_sentence_298

Canals dug for the oil and gas industry also allow storms to move sea water inland, where it damages swamps and marshes. Louisiana_sentence_299

Rising sea waters have exacerbated the problem. Louisiana_sentence_300

Some researchers estimate that the state is losing a landmass equivalent to 30 football fields every day. Louisiana_sentence_301

There are many proposals to save coastal areas by reducing human damage, including restoring natural floods from the Mississippi. Louisiana_sentence_302

Without such restoration, coastal communities will continue to disappear. Louisiana_sentence_303

And as the communities disappear, more and more people are leaving the region. Louisiana_sentence_304

Since the coastal wetlands support an economically important coastal fishery, the loss of wetlands is adversely affecting this industry. Louisiana_sentence_305

The Gulf of Mexico 'dead zone' off the coast of Louisiana is the largest recurring hypoxic zone in the United States. Louisiana_sentence_306

It was 8,776 square miles (22,730 km) in 2017, the largest ever recorded. Louisiana_sentence_307

Geology Louisiana_section_12

Main article: Mississippi River Delta Louisiana_sentence_308

The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. Louisiana_sentence_309

As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana_sentence_310

Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. Louisiana_sentence_311

The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. Louisiana_sentence_312

The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago. Louisiana_sentence_313

The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_314

The youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Louisiana_sentence_315 Bernard, Lafourche, the modern Mississippi, and now the Atchafalaya. Louisiana_sentence_316

The sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. Louisiana_sentence_317

In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, and the relatively new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces. Louisiana_sentence_318

Their age and distribution can be largely related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. Louisiana_sentence_319

In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Louisiana_sentence_320

Salt domes are also found in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_321

Their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. Louisiana_sentence_322

There are several hundred salt domes in the state; one of the most familiar is Avery Island, Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_323

Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt; they also serve as underground traps for oil and gas. Louisiana_sentence_324

Climate Louisiana_section_13

Louisiana has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), with long, hot, humid summers and short, mild winters. Louisiana_sentence_325

The subtropical characteristics of the state are due to its low latitude, low lying topography, and the influence of the Gulf of Mexico, which at its farthest point is no more than 200 mi (320 km) away. Louisiana_sentence_326

Rain is frequent throughout the year, although from April to September is slightly wetter than the rest of the year, which is the state's wet season. Louisiana_sentence_327

There is a dip in precipitation in October. Louisiana_sentence_328

In summer, thunderstorms build during the heat of the day and bring intense but brief, tropical downpours. Louisiana_sentence_329

In winter, rainfall is more frontal and less intense. Louisiana_sentence_330

Summers in southern Louisiana have high temperatures from June through September averaging 90 °F (32 °C) or more, and overnight lows averaging above 70 °F (21 °C). Louisiana_sentence_331

At times, temperatures in the 90s F, combined with dew points in the upper 70s F, create sensible temperatures over 120 °F (49 °C). Louisiana_sentence_332

The humid, thick, jungle-like heat in southern Louisiana is a famous subject of countless stories and movies. Louisiana_sentence_333

Temperatures are generally warm in the winter in the southern part of the state, with highs around New Orleans, Baton Rouge, the rest of south Louisiana, and the Gulf of Mexico averaging 66 °F (19 °C). Louisiana_sentence_334

The northern part of the state is mildly cool in the winter, with highs averaging 59 °F (15 °C). Louisiana_sentence_335

The overnight lows in the winter average well above freezing throughout the state, with 46 °F (8 °C) the average near the Gulf and an average low of 37 °F (3 °C) in the winter in the northern part of the state. Louisiana_sentence_336

On occasion, cold fronts from low-pressure centers to the north, reach Louisiana in winter. Louisiana_sentence_337

Low temperatures near 20 °F (−7 °C) occur on occasion in the northern part of the state but rarely do so in the southern part of the state. Louisiana_sentence_338

Snow is rare near the Gulf of Mexico, although residents in the northern parts of the state might receive a dusting of snow a few times each decade. Louisiana_sentence_339

Louisiana's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F (46 °C) in Plain Dealing on August 10, 1936, while the coldest recorded temperature is −16 °F (−27 °C) at Minden on February 13, 1899. Louisiana_sentence_340

Louisiana is often affected by tropical cyclones and is very vulnerable to strikes by major hurricanes, particularly the lowlands around and in the New Orleans area. Louisiana_sentence_341

The unique geography of the region, with the many bayous, marshes and inlets, can result in water damage across a wide area from major hurricanes. Louisiana_sentence_342

The area is also prone to frequent thunderstorms, especially in the summer. Louisiana_sentence_343

The entire state averages over 60 days of thunderstorms a year, more than any other state except Florida. Louisiana_sentence_344

Louisiana averages 27 tornadoes annually. Louisiana_sentence_345

The entire state is vulnerable to a tornado strike, with the extreme southern portion of the state slightly less so than the rest of the state. Louisiana_sentence_346

Tornadoes are more common from January to March in the southern part of the state, and from February through March in the northern part of the state. Louisiana_sentence_347

Hurricanes since 1950 Louisiana_section_14


  • October 27, 2020, Zeta (Category 2 at landfall), the 6th Greek alphabet-named storm or the 27th named storm of the 2020 season, makes landfall near New Orleans.Louisiana_item_0_0
  • October 9, 2020, Delta (Category 2 at landfall), the 4th Greek alphabet-named storm or the 25th named storm of the 2020 season, makes landfall near Creole with maximum sustained winds of 100mph.Louisiana_item_0_1
  • August 26–27, 2020, Laura (Category 4 at landfall) became the strongest landfalling hurricane in the state since the 1856 Last Island hurricane, boasting winds up to 150mph.Louisiana_item_0_2
  • July 13, 2019, Barry (Category 1 at landfall). struck Louisiana seven years after Isaac, caused an estimated $600–700 million in damages; and knocked out power to nearly 114,000 citizens.Louisiana_item_0_3
  • August 28–29, 2012, Isaac (Category 1 at landfall) hits southeast Louisiana seven years after Katrina.Louisiana_item_0_4
  • September 1, 2008, Gustav (Category 2 at landfall) made landfall along the coast near Cocodrie in southeastern Louisiana. As late as August 31, it had been projected by the National Hurricane Center that the hurricane would remain at Category 3 or above on September 1, but in the event, the center of Gustav made landfall as a strong Category 2 hurricane (1 mph below Category 3) and dropped to Category 1 soon after. As a result of NHC's forecasts, a massive evacuation of New Orleans took place after many residents having failed to leave for Katrina in 2005. A significant number of deaths were caused by or attributed to Gustav. Around 1.5 million people were without power in Louisiana on September 1.Louisiana_item_0_5
  • September 24, 2005, Rita (Category 3 at landfall) struck southwestern Louisiana, flooding many parishes and cities along the coast, including Cameron Parish, Lake Charles, and other towns. The storm's winds weakened the damaged levees in New Orleans and caused renewed flooding in parts of the city.Louisiana_item_0_6
  • August 29, 2005, Katrina (Category 3 at landfall) struck and devastated southeastern Louisiana, where it breached and undermined levees in New Orleans, causing 80% of the city to flood. Most people had been evacuated, but the majority of the population became homeless. The city was virtually closed until October. It is estimated that more than two million people in the Gulf region were displaced by the hurricane and that more than 1,500 fatalities resulted in Louisiana alone. A public outcry criticized governments at the local, state, and federal levels, for lack of preparation and slowness of response. Louisiana residents relocated across the country for temporary housing, and many have not returned.Louisiana_item_0_7

Further information: Hurricane Katrina effects by region § Louisiana, and Effects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans Louisiana_sentence_348


  • October 3, 2002, Lili (Category 1 at landfall)Louisiana_item_1_8
  • August 25, 1992, Andrew (Category 3 at landfall) struck south-central Louisiana. It killed four people; knocked out power to nearly 150,000 citizens; and destroyed crops worth hundreds of millions of dollars.Louisiana_item_1_9
  • August 17, 1969, Camille (Category 5) caused a 23.4 ft (7.1 m) storm surge and killed 250 people. Although Camille officially made landfall in Mississippi and the worst damage occurred there, it also had effects in Louisiana, destroying thousands of residences in Plaquemines Parish. New Orleans remained dry, with the exception of mild rain-generated flooding in the most low-lying areas.Louisiana_item_1_10
  • September 9, 1965, Betsy (Category 4 at landfall) came ashore near Grand Isle, causing massive destruction as the first hurricane in history to cause a billion dollars in damage. The storm hit New Orleans and flooded nearly 35% of the city (including the Lower 9th Ward, Gentilly, and parts of Mid-City), as well as most of St. Bernard and Plaquemines parishes. The death toll in the state was 76.Louisiana_item_1_11
  • June 25, 1957, Audrey (Category 3) devastated southwest Louisiana, destroying or severely damaging 60–80 percent of the homes and businesses from Cameron to Grand Chenier. 40,000 people were left homeless and more than 300 people in the state died.Louisiana_item_1_12
  • August 15–17, 1915: A hurricane made landfall just west of Galveston. Gales howled throughout Cameron and Vermilion Parishes and as far east as Mobile. It produced storm surge of 11 feet at Cameron (called Leesburg at the time), 10 feet at Grand Cheniere, and 9.5 feet at Marsh Island; Grand Isle reported water six feet deep across the city. The lightkeeper at the Sabine Pass lighthouse had to turn the lens by hand, as vibrations caused by the wave action put the clockwork out of order. At Sabine Bank, 17 miles offshore the Mouth of the Sabine, damage was noted. Damage estimates for Louisiana and Texas totaled around $50 million.Louisiana_item_1_13
    • More than 300 people drowned about ten miles below Montegut—four can be identified as white, none of the others have been identified and are assumed to be Indians. The settlement, called by the Indians Taire-bonne, is now in swamp and can be reached only by boat.Louisiana_item_1_14

Publicly owned land Louisiana_section_15

Owing to its location and geology, the state has high biological diversity. Louisiana_sentence_349

Some vital areas, such as southwestern prairie, have experienced a loss in excess of 98 percent. Louisiana_sentence_350

The pine flatwoods are also at great risk, mostly from fire suppression and urban sprawl. Louisiana_sentence_351

There is not yet a properly organized system of natural areas to represent and protect Louisiana's biological diversity. Louisiana_sentence_352

Such a system would consist of a protected system of core areas linked by biological corridors, such as Florida is planning. Louisiana_sentence_353

Louisiana contains a number of areas which, to varying degrees, prevent people from using them. Louisiana_sentence_354

In addition to National Park Service areas and a United States National Forest, Louisiana operates a system of state parks, state historic sites, one state preservation area, one state forest, and many Wildlife Management Areas. Louisiana_sentence_355

One of Louisiana's largest government-owned areas is Kisatchie National Forest. Louisiana_sentence_356

It is some 600,000 acres in area, more than half of which is flatwoods vegetation, which supports many rare plant and animal species. Louisiana_sentence_357

These include the Louisiana pinesnake and red-cockaded woodpecker. Louisiana_sentence_358

The system of government-owned cypress swamps around Lake Pontchartrain is another large area, with southern wetland species including egrets, alligators, and sturgeon. Louisiana_sentence_359

At least 12 core areas would be needed to build a "protected areas system" for the state; these would range from southwestern prairies, to the Pearl River Floodplain in the east, to the Mississippi River alluvial swamps in the north. Louisiana_sentence_360

National Park Service Louisiana_section_16

Historic or scenic areas managed, protected, or otherwise recognized by the National Park Service include: Louisiana_sentence_361


U.S. Forest Service Louisiana_section_17


  • Kisatchie National Forest is Louisiana's only national forest. It includes 600,000 acres in central and north Louisiana with large areas of flatwoods and longleaf pine forest.Louisiana_item_3_21

State parks and recreational areas Louisiana_section_18

See also: List of Louisiana state parks and List of Louisiana state historic sites Louisiana_sentence_362

Louisiana operates a system of 22 state parks, 17 state historic sites and one state preservation area. Louisiana_sentence_363

Wildlife management areas Louisiana_section_19

Louisiana has 955,973 acres, in four ecoregions under the wildlife management of the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Louisiana_sentence_364

The Nature Conservancy also owns and manages a set of natural areas. Louisiana_sentence_365

Natural and scenic rivers Louisiana_section_20

The Louisiana Natural and Scenic Rivers System provides a degree of protection for 51 rivers, streams and bayous in the state. Louisiana_sentence_366

It is administered by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Louisiana_sentence_367

Major cities Louisiana_section_21

See also: List of municipalities in Louisiana, List of Louisiana metropolitan areas, and List of Louisiana locations by per capita income Louisiana_sentence_368

Louisiana contains 308 incorporated municipalities, consisting of four consolidated city-parishes, and 304 cities, towns, and villages. Louisiana_sentence_369

Louisiana's municipalities cover only 7.9% of the state's land mass but are home to 45.3% of its population. Louisiana_sentence_370

The majority of urban Louisianans live along the coast or in northern Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_371

The oldest permanent settlement in the state is Nachitoches. Louisiana_sentence_372

Baton Rouge, the state capital, is the second-largest city in the state. Louisiana_sentence_373

The most populous city is New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_374

As defined by the U.S. Louisiana_sentence_375 Census Bureau, Louisiana contains nine metropolitan statistical areas. Louisiana_sentence_376

Major areas include Greater New Orleans, Greater Baton Rouge, Lafayette, and Shreveport–Bossier City. Louisiana_sentence_377

Demographics Louisiana_section_22

Main article: Demographics of Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_378

The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Louisiana was 4,648,794 on July 1, 2019, a 2.55% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Louisiana_sentence_379

In 2010, the state of Louisiana had a population of 4,533,372, and in 2018 an estimated 4,659,978. Louisiana_sentence_380

Louisiana is the second-most populous of the South Central United States after Texas. Louisiana_sentence_381

In 2014, approximately 64,500 undocumented immigrants lived in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_382

Louisiana's undocumented immigrant population earned more than a billion U.S. dollars and payed $136 million in taxes. Louisiana_sentence_383

The undocumented immigrant population increased to 70,000 in 2016 and comprised two percent of the state population. Louisiana_sentence_384

In 2018, it was estimated that four percent of Louisianans are immigrants, while another four percent were native-born U.S. citizens with at least one immigrant parent. Louisiana_sentence_385

The majority of Louisianan immigrants came from Mexico (16%), Honduras (15%), Vietnam (10%), the Philippines (5%), and Guatemala (4%). Louisiana_sentence_386

The population density of the state is 104.9 people per square mile. Louisiana_sentence_387

The center of population of Louisiana is located in Pointe Coupee Parish, in the city of New Roads. Louisiana_sentence_388

According to the 2010 United States Census, 5.4% of the population age 5 and older spoke Spanish at home, up from 3.5% in 2000; and 4.5% spoke French (including Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole), down from 4.8% in 2000. Louisiana_sentence_389

Race and ethnicity Louisiana_section_23


Louisiana racial breakdown of populationLouisiana_table_caption_2
Racial compositionLouisiana_header_cell_2_0_0 1990Louisiana_header_cell_2_0_1 2000Louisiana_header_cell_2_0_2 2010Louisiana_header_cell_2_0_3
WhiteLouisiana_cell_2_1_0 67.3%Louisiana_cell_2_1_1 63.9%Louisiana_cell_2_1_2 62.6%Louisiana_cell_2_1_3
BlackLouisiana_cell_2_2_0 30.8%Louisiana_cell_2_2_1 30.5%Louisiana_cell_2_2_2 32.0%Louisiana_cell_2_2_3
AsianLouisiana_cell_2_3_0 1.0%Louisiana_cell_2_3_1 1.8%Louisiana_cell_2_3_2 1.5%Louisiana_cell_2_3_3
NativeLouisiana_cell_2_4_0 0.8%Louisiana_cell_2_4_1 0.8%Louisiana_cell_2_4_2 0.7%Louisiana_cell_2_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderLouisiana_cell_2_5_0

Louisiana_cell_2_5_1 0.1%Louisiana_cell_2_5_2 Louisiana_cell_2_5_3
Other raceLouisiana_cell_2_6_0 0.5%Louisiana_cell_2_6_1 0.7%Louisiana_cell_2_6_2 1.5%Louisiana_cell_2_6_3
Two or more racesLouisiana_cell_2_7_0 Louisiana_cell_2_7_1 1.1%Louisiana_cell_2_7_2 1.6%Louisiana_cell_2_7_3

At the U.S. 2014 census estimates, the racial and ethnic composition of Louisiana was White Americans 63.4% (59.3% non-Hispanic white, 4.1% White Hispanic), Black or African American (32.5%), Asian 1.8%, multiracial 1.5%, Native American 0.8%, and Hispanic or Latino of any race 4.8%. Louisiana_sentence_390

As of 2010, the major ancestry groups of Louisiana are African American (30.4%), French (16.8%), American (9.5%), German (8.3%), Irish (7.5%), English (6.6%), Italian (4.8%) and Scottish (1.1%). Louisiana_sentence_391

As of 2011, 49.0% of Louisiana's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Louisiana_sentence_392

In the American Community Survey's 2018 population estimates, 58.4% of the population was non-Hispanic white and 32.2% were Black or African American. Louisiana_sentence_393

American Indians and Alaska Natives made up an estimated 0.5% of the state population and Asians were 1.6% of the populace. Louisiana_sentence_394

Roughly 606 Louisianans were Native Hawaiian or of other Pacific Islander heritage, 0.2% some other race, and 2.0% from two or more races. Louisiana_sentence_395

Increasing from 2010 and 2014's census information, Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 5.1% of Louisiana's population in 2018. Louisiana_sentence_396

The largest single Latin American ethnicity were Mexican Americans (2.0%), followed by Puerto Ricans (0.3%) and Cuban Americans (0.2%). Louisiana_sentence_397

Other Hispanics and Latinos altogether made up 2.6% of Louisiana's Hispanic or Latino residents. Louisiana_sentence_398

Religion Louisiana_section_24

Christians make up 84% of the total state population, making Louisiana one of the most Christian-dominated states in the United States. Louisiana_sentence_399

The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 1,200,900; Southern Baptist Convention with 709,650; and the United Methodist Church with 146,848. Louisiana_sentence_400

Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant congregations had 195,903 members. Louisiana_sentence_401

As in other Southern states, the majority of Louisianians, particularly in the north of the state, belong to various Protestant denominations, with Protestants comprising 57% of the state's adult population. Louisiana_sentence_402

Protestants are concentrated in the northern and central parts of the state and in the northern tier of the Florida Parishes. Louisiana_sentence_403

According to the Pew Research Center in 2014, Louisiana's largest Protestant Christian denominations were the Southern Baptist Convention, non-denominational Evangelicals, the National Baptist Convention USA, National Baptist Convention of America, Progressive National Baptist Convention, Assemblies of God, the African Methodist Episcopal and Christian Methodist Episcopal churches, the American Baptist Churches USA and United Methodist Church. Louisiana_sentence_404

Because of French and Spanish heritage, and their descendants the Creoles, and later Irish, Italian, Portuguese and German immigrants, southern Louisiana and the Greater New Orleans area are predominantly Catholic. Louisiana_sentence_405

Since Creoles were the first settlers, planters and leaders of the territory, they have traditionally been well represented in politics. Louisiana_sentence_406

For instance, most of the early governors were Creole Catholics. Louisiana_sentence_407

Because Catholics still constitute a significant fraction of Louisiana's population, they have continued to be influential in state politics. Louisiana_sentence_408

The high proportion and influence of the Catholic population makes Louisiana distinct among Southern states. Louisiana_sentence_409

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans and Diocese of Baton Rouge are the largest Catholic jurisdictions in the state, located within the Greater New Orleans and Greater Baton Rouge metropolitan statistical areas. Louisiana_sentence_410

Jewish communities are established in the state's larger cities, notably New Orleans and Baton Rouge. Louisiana_sentence_411

The most significant of these is the Jewish community of the New Orleans area. Louisiana_sentence_412

In 2000, before the 2005 Hurricane Katrina, its population was about 12,000. Louisiana_sentence_413

Louisiana was among the southern states with a significant Jewish population before the 20th century; Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia also had influential Jewish populations in some of their major cities from the 18th and 19th centuries. Louisiana_sentence_414

The earliest Jewish colonists were Sephardic Jews who immigrated with English colonists from London. Louisiana_sentence_415

Later in the 19th century, German Jews began to immigrate, followed by those from eastern Europe and the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Louisiana_sentence_416

Prominent Jews in Louisiana's political leadership have included Whig (later Democrat) Judah P. Benjamin (1811–1884), who represented Louisiana in the U.S. Louisiana_sentence_417 Senate before the American Civil War and then became the Confederate secretary of state; Democrat-turned-Republican Michael Hahn who was elected as governor, serving 1864–1865 when Louisiana was occupied by the Union Army, and later elected in 1884 as a U.S. congressman; Democrat Adolph Meyer (1842–1908), Confederate Army officer who represented the state in the U.S. Louisiana_sentence_418 House of Representatives from 1891 until his death in 1908; Republican secretary of state Jay Dardenne (1954–), and Republican (Democrat before 2011) attorney general Buddy Caldwell (1946–). Louisiana_sentence_419

Other non-Christian religions are also primarily located in the metropolitan areas of Louisiana, including Islam and Hinduism. Louisiana_sentence_420

In the Greater Shreveport metropolitan area, Muslims made up an estimated 14% of Louisiana's total Muslim population as of 2014. Louisiana_sentence_421

Economy Louisiana_section_25

See also: Louisiana locations by per capita income Louisiana_sentence_422

The total gross state product in 2010 for Louisiana was $213.6 billion, placing it 24th in the nation. Louisiana_sentence_423

In 2019, the gross state product increased to $240.48 billion. Louisiana_sentence_424

Its per capita personal income was $30,952, ranking 41st in the United States as of 2014. Louisiana_sentence_425

In 2014, Louisiana was ranked as one of the most small business friendly states, based on a study drawing upon data from more than 12,000 small business owners. Louisiana_sentence_426

As of July 2017, the state's unemployment rate was 5.3%. Louisiana_sentence_427

The state's principal agricultural products include seafood (it is the biggest producer of crawfish in the world, supplying approximately 90%), cotton, soybeans, cattle, sugarcane, poultry and eggs, dairy products, and rice. Louisiana_sentence_428

Industry generates chemical products, petroleum and coal products, processed foods and transportation equipment, and paper products. Louisiana_sentence_429

Tourism is an important element in the economy, especially in the New Orleans area. Louisiana_sentence_430

Gaming is also very popular part of the economy in the southwestern part of the state. Louisiana_sentence_431

The Port of South Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River between New Orleans and Baton Rouge, was the largest volume shipping port in the Western Hemisphere and 4th largest in the world, as well as the largest bulk cargo port in the U.S. in 2004. Louisiana_sentence_432

The Port of South Louisiana continued to be the busiest port by tonnage in the US through 2018, the latest available data. Louisiana_sentence_433

South Louisiana was number 15 among world ports in 2016. Louisiana_sentence_434

New Orleans, Shreveport, and Baton Rouge are home to a thriving film industry. Louisiana_sentence_435

State financial incentives since 2002 and aggressive promotion have given Louisiana the nickname "Hollywood South". Louisiana_sentence_436

Because of its distinctive culture within the United States, only Alaska is Louisiana's rival in popularity as a setting for reality television programs. Louisiana_sentence_437

In late 2007 and early 2008, a 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m) film studio was scheduled to open in Tremé, with state-of-the-art production facilities, and a film training institute. Louisiana_sentence_438

Tabasco sauce, which is marketed by one of the United States' biggest producers of hot sauce, the McIlhenny Company, originated on Avery Island. Louisiana_sentence_439

Louisiana has three personal income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6%. Louisiana_sentence_440

The state sales tax rate is 4.45%, and parishes can levy additional sales tax on top of this. Louisiana_sentence_441

The state also has a use tax, which includes 4% to be distributed by the Department of Revenue to local governments. Louisiana_sentence_442

Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level. Louisiana_sentence_443

Louisiana is a subsidized state, receiving $1.44 from the federal government for every dollar paid in. Louisiana_sentence_444

Tourism and culture are major players in Louisiana's economy, earning an estimated $5.2 billion per year. Louisiana_sentence_445

Louisiana also hosts many important cultural events, such as the World Cultural Economic Forum, which is held annually in the fall at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center. Louisiana_sentence_446

Federal subsidies and spending Louisiana_section_26

Louisiana taxpayers receive more federal funding per dollar of federal taxes paid compared to the average state. Louisiana_sentence_447

Per dollar of federal tax collected in 2005, Louisiana citizens received approximately $1.78 in the way of federal spending. Louisiana_sentence_448

This ranks the state fourth highest nationally and represents a rise from 1995 when Louisiana received $1.35 per dollar of taxes in federal spending (ranked seventh nationally). Louisiana_sentence_449

Neighboring states and the amount of federal spending received per dollar of federal tax collected were: Texas ($0.94), Arkansas ($1.41), and Mississippi ($2.02). Louisiana_sentence_450

Federal spending in 2005 and subsequent years since has been exceptionally high due to the recovery from Hurricane Katrina. Louisiana_sentence_451

Energy Louisiana_section_27

Louisiana is rich in petroleum and natural gas. Louisiana_sentence_452

Petroleum and gas deposits are found in abundance both onshore and offshore in state-owned waters. Louisiana_sentence_453

In addition, vast petroleum and natural gas reserves are found offshore from Louisiana in the federally administered Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in the Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana_sentence_454

According to the Energy Information Administration, the Gulf of Mexico OCS is the largest U.S. petroleum-producing region. Louisiana_sentence_455

Excluding the Gulf of Mexico OCS, Louisiana ranks fourth in petroleum production and is home to about two percent of the total U.S. petroleum reserves. Louisiana_sentence_456

Louisiana's natural gas reserves account for about five percent of the U.S. total. Louisiana_sentence_457

The Haynesville Shale formation in parts of or all of Caddo, Bossier, Bienville, Sabine, De Soto, Red River, and Natchitoches parishes have made it the world's fourth largest gas field with some wells initially producing over 25 million cubic feet of gas daily. Louisiana_sentence_458

Louisiana was the first site of petroleum drilling over water in the world, on Caddo Lake in the northwest corner of the state. Louisiana_sentence_459

The petroleum and gas industry, as well as its subsidiary industries such as transport and refining, have dominated Louisiana's economy since the 1940s. Louisiana_sentence_460

Beginning in 1950, Louisiana was sued several times by the U.S. Louisiana_sentence_461 Interior Department, in efforts by the federal government to strip Louisiana of its submerged land property rights. Louisiana_sentence_462

These control vast stores of reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas. Louisiana_sentence_463

When petroleum and gas boomed in the 1970s, so did Louisiana's economy. Louisiana_sentence_464

The Louisiana economy as well as its politics of the last half-century cannot be understood without thoroughly accounting for the influence of the petroleum and gas industries. Louisiana_sentence_465

For example, in the 1970s over 40 percent of Louisiana's state revenues came directly from severance taxes and mineral royalties. Louisiana_sentence_466

Since the 1980s, these industries' headquarters have consolidated in Houston, but many of the jobs that operate or provide logistical support to the U.S. Gulf of Mexico crude-oil-and-gas industry remain in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_467

While the energy industry is still an important component of Louisiana's economy, the composition of this industry has changed dramatically over time. Louisiana_sentence_468

As of 2019 the refining and chemical manufacturing sector employs more people in Louisiana than the up-stream oil and gas extraction sector. Louisiana_sentence_469

Culture Louisiana_section_28

Main article: Culture of Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_470

Louisiana is home to many, especially notable are the distinct culture of the Louisiana Creoles, typically people of color, descendants of free mixed-race families of the colonial and early statehood periods. Louisiana_sentence_471

African culture Louisiana_section_29

The French colony of La Louisiane struggled for decades to survive. Louisiana_sentence_472

Conditions were harsh, the climate and soil were unsuitable for certain crops the colonists knew, and they suffered from regional tropical diseases. Louisiana_sentence_473

Both colonists and the slaves they imported had high mortality rates. Louisiana_sentence_474

The settlers kept importing slaves, which resulted in a high proportion of native Africans from West Africa, who continued to practice their culture in new surroundings. Louisiana_sentence_475

As described by historian Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, they developed a marked Afro-Creole culture in the colonial era. Louisiana_sentence_476

At the turn of the 18th century and in the early 1800s, New Orleans received a major influx of white and mixed-race refugees fleeing the violence of the Haitian Revolution, many of whom brought their slaves with them. Louisiana_sentence_477

This added another infusion of African culture to the city, as more slaves in Saint-Domingue were from Africa than in the United States. Louisiana_sentence_478

They strongly influenced the African-American culture of the city in terms of dance, music and religious practices. Louisiana_sentence_479

Louisiana Creole culture Louisiana_section_30

Creole culture is an amalgamation of French, African, Spanish (and other European), and Native American cultures. Louisiana_sentence_480

Creole comes from the Portuguese word crioulo; originally it referred to a colonist of European (specifically French) descent who was born in the New World, in comparison to immigrants from France. Louisiana_sentence_481

The oldest Louisiana manuscript to use the word "Creole", from 1782, applied it to a slave born in the French colony. Louisiana_sentence_482

But originally it referred more generally to the French colonists born in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_483

Over time, there developed in the French colony a relatively large group of Creoles of Color (gens de couleur libres), who were primarily descended from African slave women and French men (later other Europeans became part of the mix, as well as some Native Americans.) Louisiana_sentence_484

Often the French would free their concubines and mixed-race children, and pass on social capital to them. Louisiana_sentence_485

They might educate sons in France, for instance, and help them enter the French Army for a career. Louisiana_sentence_486

They also settled capital or property on their mistresses and children. Louisiana_sentence_487

The free people of color gained more rights in the colony and sometimes education; they generally spoke French and were Roman Catholic. Louisiana_sentence_488

Many became artisans and property owners. Louisiana_sentence_489

Over time, the term "Creole" became associated with this class of Creoles of Color, many of whom achieved freedom long before the Civil War. Louisiana_sentence_490

Wealthy French Creoles generally maintained town houses in New Orleans as well as houses on their large sugar plantations outside town along the Mississippi River. Louisiana_sentence_491

New Orleans had the largest population of free people of color in the region; they could find work there and created their own culture, marrying among themselves for decades. Louisiana_sentence_492

Acadian culture Louisiana_section_31

The ancestors of Cajuns immigrated mostly from west central France to New France, where they settled in the Atlantic provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, known originally as Acadia. Louisiana_sentence_493

After the British defeated France in the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War) in 1763, France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain. Louisiana_sentence_494

The British forcibly separated families and evicted them from Acadia because they refused to vow loyalty to the new British regime. Louisiana_sentence_495

The Acadians were deported to England, New England, and France. Louisiana_sentence_496

Some, who escaped the British, remained in French Canada. Louisiana_sentence_497

Others scattered, to France, Canada, Mexico, or the Falkland Islands. Louisiana_sentence_498

Many Acadian refugees settled in south Louisiana in the region around Lafayette and the LaFourche Bayou country. Louisiana_sentence_499

They developed a distinct rural culture there, different from the French Creole colonists of New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_500

Intermarrying with others in the area, they developed what was called Cajun music, cuisine and culture. Louisiana_sentence_501

Until the 1970s, the term "Cajun" was considered somewhat derogatory. Louisiana_sentence_502

Isleño culture Louisiana_section_32

Main article: Isleño (Louisiana) Louisiana_sentence_503

A third distinct culture in Louisiana is that of the Isleños. Louisiana_sentence_504

Its members are descendants of colonists from the Canary Islands who settled in Spanish Louisiana between 1778 and 1783 and intermarried with other communities such as Frenchman, Acadians, Creoles, Spaniards, and other groups, mainly through the 19th and early 20th centuries. Louisiana_sentence_505

In Louisiana, the Isleños originally settled in four communities which included Galveztown, Valenzuela, Barataria, and San Bernardo. Louisiana_sentence_506

Of those settlements, Valenzuela and San Bernardo were the most successful as the other two were plagued with both disease and flooding. Louisiana_sentence_507

The large migration of Acadian refugees to Bayou Lafourche led to the rapid gallicization of the Valenzuela community while the community of San Bernardo (Saint Bernard) was able to preserve much of its unique culture and language into the 21st century. Louisiana_sentence_508

This being said, the transmission of Spanish and other customs has completely halted in St. Bernard with those having competency in Spanish being octogenarians. Louisiana_sentence_509

Through the centuries, the various Isleño communities of Louisiana have kept alive different elements of their Canary Islander heritage while also adopting and building upon the customs and traditions of the communities that surround them. Louisiana_sentence_510

Today two heritage associates exist for the communities: Los Isleños Heritage and Cultural Society of St. Bernard as well as the Canary Islanders Heritage Society of Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_511

The Fiesta de los Isleños is celebrated annually in St. Bernard Parish which features heritage performances from local groups and the Canary Islands. Louisiana_sentence_512

Languages Louisiana_section_33

According to a 2010 study by the Modern Language Association, among persons five years old and older, 91.26% of Louisiana residents speak only English at home, 3.45% speak French (standard French, French Creole, or Cajun French), 3.30% speak Spanish, and 0.59% speak Vietnamese. Louisiana_sentence_513

Historically, Native American peoples in the area at the time of European encounter were seven tribes distinguished by their languages: Caddo, Tunica, Natchez, Houma, Choctaw, Atakapa, and Chitimacha. Louisiana_sentence_514

Of these, only Tunica, Caddo and Choctaw still have living native speakers, although several other tribes are working to teach and revitalize their languages. Louisiana_sentence_515

Other Native American peoples migrated into the region, escaping from European pressure from the east. Louisiana_sentence_516

Among these were Alabama, Biloxi, Koasati, and Ofo peoples. Louisiana_sentence_517

Starting in the 1700s, French colonists began to settle along the coast and founded New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_518

They established French culture and language institutions. Louisiana_sentence_519

They imported thousands of slaves from tribes of West Africa, who spoke several different languages. Louisiana_sentence_520

In the creolization process, the slaves developed a Louisiana Creole dialect incorporating both French and African forms, which colonists adopted to communicate with them, and which persisted beyond slavery. Louisiana_sentence_521

In the 20th century, there were still people of mixed race, particularly, who spoke Louisiana Creole French. Louisiana_sentence_522

During the 19th century after the Louisiana Purchase by the United States, English gradually gained prominence for business and government due to the shift in population with settlement by numerous Americans who were English speakers. Louisiana_sentence_523

Many ethnic French families continued to use French in private. Louisiana_sentence_524

Slaves and some free people of color also spoke Louisiana Creole French. Louisiana_sentence_525

The State Constitution of 1812 gave English official status in legal proceedings, but use of French remained widespread. Louisiana_sentence_526

Subsequent state constitutions reflect the diminishing importance of French. Louisiana_sentence_527

The 1868 constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era before Louisiana was re-admitted to the Union, banned laws requiring the publication of legal proceedings in languages other than English. Louisiana_sentence_528

Subsequently, the legal status of French recovered somewhat, but it never regained its pre-Civil War prominence. Louisiana_sentence_529

Several unique dialects of French, Creole, and English are spoken in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_530

Dialects of the French language are: Colonial French and Houma French. Louisiana_sentence_531

Louisiana Creole French is the term for one of the Creole languages. Louisiana_sentence_532

Two unique dialects developed of the English language: Louisiana English, a French-influenced variety of English in which dropping of postvocalic /r/ is common ; and what is informally known as Yat, which resembles the New York City dialect sometimes with southern influences, particularly that of historical Brooklyn. Louisiana_sentence_533

Both accents were influenced by large communities of immigrant Irish and Italians, but the Yat dialect, which developed in New Orleans, was also influenced by French and Spanish. Louisiana_sentence_534

Colonial French was the dominant language of white settlers in Louisiana during the French colonial period; it was spoken primarily by the French Creoles (native-born). Louisiana_sentence_535

In addition to this dialect, the mixed-race people and slaves developed Louisiana Creole, with a base in West African languages. Louisiana_sentence_536

The limited years of Spanish rule at the end of the 18th century did not result in widespread adoption of the Spanish language. Louisiana_sentence_537

French and Louisiana Creole are still used in modern-day Louisiana, often in family gatherings. Louisiana_sentence_538

English and its associated dialects became predominant after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, after which the area became dominated by numerous English speakers. Louisiana_sentence_539

In some regions, English was influenced by French, as seen with Louisiana English. Louisiana_sentence_540

Colonial French, although mistakenly named Cajun French by some Cajuns, has persisted alongside English. Louisiana_sentence_541

Renewed interest in the French language in Louisiana has led to the establishment of Canadian-modeled French immersion schools, as well as bilingual signage in the historic French neighborhoods of New Orleans and Lafayette. Louisiana_sentence_542

In addition to private organizations, since 1968 the state has maintained the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL), which promotes use of the French language in the state's tourism, economic development, culture, education and international relations. Louisiana_sentence_543

In 2018, Louisiana became the first US state to join the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie as an observer. Louisiana_sentence_544

Literature Louisiana_section_34

Main article: Literature of Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_545

Music Louisiana_section_35

Main article: Music of Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_546

Education Louisiana_section_36

Further information: List of school districts in Louisiana, List of colleges and universities in Louisiana, and French immersion in Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_547

Louisiana is home to over 40 public and private colleges and universities, which include Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge and Tulane University in New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_548

Louisiana State University is the largest and most comprehensive university in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_549

Tulane University is a major private research university and the wealthiest university in Louisiana with an endowment over $1.1 billion. Louisiana_sentence_550

Tulane is also highly regarded for its academics nationwide, consistently ranked in the top 50 on U.S. Louisiana_sentence_551 News & World Report's list of best national universities. Louisiana_sentence_552

Louisiana's two oldest and largest HBCUs (Historically black colleges and universities) are Southern University in Baton Rouge and Grambling State University in Grambling. Louisiana_sentence_553

Both these Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) schools compete against each other in football annually in the much anticipated Bayou Classic during Thanksgiving weekend in the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. Louisiana_sentence_554

The Louisiana Science Education Act is a controversial law passed by the Louisiana Legislature on June 11, 2008, and signed into law by Governor Bobby Jindal on June 25. Louisiana_sentence_555

The act allows public school teachers to use supplemental materials in the science classroom which are critical of established science on such topics as the theory of evolution and global warming. Louisiana_sentence_556

In 2000, of all of the states, Louisiana had the highest percentage of students in private schools. Louisiana_sentence_557

Danielle Dreilinger of The Times Picayune wrote in 2014 that "Louisiana parents have a national reputation for favoring private schools." Louisiana_sentence_558

The number of students in enrolled in private schools in Louisiana declined by 9% from circa 2000-2005 until 2014, due to the proliferation of charter schools, the 2008 recession and Hurricane Katrina. Louisiana_sentence_559

Ten parishes in the Baton Rouge and New Orleans area had a combined 17% decline in private school enrollment in that period. Louisiana_sentence_560

This prompted private schools to lobby for school vouchers. Louisiana_sentence_561

Louisiana's school voucher program is known as the Louisiana Scholarship Program. Louisiana_sentence_562

It was available in the New Orleans area beginning in 2008 and in the rest of the state beginning in 2012. Louisiana_sentence_563

In 2013 the number of students using school vouchers to attend private schools was 6,751, and for 2014 it was projected to over 8,800. Louisiana_sentence_564

As per a ruling from Ivan Lemelle, a U.S. district judge, the federal government has the right to review the charter school placements to ensure they do not further racial segregation. Louisiana_sentence_565

Transportation Louisiana_section_37

See also: List of numbered highways in Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_566

The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development is the state government organization in charge of maintaining public transportation, roadways, bridges, canals, select levees, floodplain management, port facilities, commercial vehicles, and aviation which includes 69 airports. Louisiana_sentence_567

The Intracoastal Waterway is an important means of transporting commercial goods such as petroleum and petroleum products, agricultural produce, building materials and manufactured goods. Louisiana_sentence_568

In 2011, Louisiana ranked among the five deadliest states for debris/litter-caused vehicle accidents per total number of registered vehicles and population size. Louisiana_sentence_569

Figures derived from the NHTSA show at least 25 persons in Louisiana were killed per year in motor vehicle collisions with non-fixed objects, including debris, dumped litter, animals and their carcasses. Louisiana_sentence_570

Law and government Louisiana_section_38


  • Louisiana_item_4_22

In 1849, the state moved the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge. Louisiana_sentence_571

Donaldsonville, Opelousas, and Shreveport have briefly served as the seat of Louisiana state government. Louisiana_sentence_572

The Louisiana State Capitol and the Louisiana Governor's Mansion are both located in Baton Rouge. Louisiana_sentence_573

The Louisiana Supreme Court, however, did not move to Baton Rouge but remains headquartered in New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_574

The current Louisiana governor is Democrat John Bel Edwards. Louisiana_sentence_575

The current United States senators are Republicans John Neely Kennedy and Bill Cassidy. Louisiana_sentence_576

Louisiana has six congressional districts and is represented in the U.S. Louisiana_sentence_577 House of Representatives by five Republicans and one Democrat. Louisiana_sentence_578

Louisiana had eight votes in the Electoral College for the 2012 election. Louisiana_sentence_579

It lost one House seat due to stagnant population growth in the 2010 Census. Louisiana_sentence_580

Administrative divisions Louisiana_section_39

Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes (the equivalent of counties in most other states). Louisiana_sentence_581


Most parishes have an elected government known as the Police Jury, dating from the colonial days. Louisiana_sentence_582

It is the legislative and executive government of the parish, and is elected by the voters. Louisiana_sentence_583

Its members are called Jurors, and together they elect a president as their chairman. Louisiana_sentence_584

A more limited number of parishes operate under home rule charters, electing various forms of government. Louisiana_sentence_585

This include mayor–council, council–manager (in which the council hires a professional operating manager for the parish), and others. Louisiana_sentence_586

Civil law Louisiana_section_40

The Louisiana political and legal structure has maintained several elements from the times of French and Spanish governance. Louisiana_sentence_587

One is the use of the term "parish" (from the French: paroisse) in place of "county" for administrative subdivision. Louisiana_sentence_588

Another is the legal system of civil law based on French, German, and Spanish legal codes and ultimately Roman law, as opposed to English common law. Louisiana_sentence_589

Louisiana's civil law system is what the majority of nations in the world use, especially in Europe and its former colonies, excluding those that derive from the British Empire. Louisiana_sentence_590

However, it is incorrect to equate the Louisiana Civil Code with the Napoleonic Code. Louisiana_sentence_591

Although the Napoleonic Code and Louisiana law draw from common legal roots, the Napoleonic Code was never in force in Louisiana, as it was enacted in 1804, after the United States had purchased and annexed Louisiana in 1803. Louisiana_sentence_592

While the Louisiana Civil Code of 1808 has been continuously revised and updated since its enactment, it is still considered the controlling authority in the state. Louisiana_sentence_593

Differences are found between Louisianan civil law and the common law found in the other U.S. states. Louisiana_sentence_594

While some of these differences have been bridged due to the strong influence of common law tradition, the civil law tradition is still deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana private law. Louisiana_sentence_595

Thus property, contractual, business entities structure, much of civil procedure, and family law, as well as some aspects of criminal law, are still based mostly on traditional Roman legal thinking. Louisiana_sentence_596

Marriage Louisiana_section_41

In 1997, Louisiana became the first state to offer the option of a traditional marriage or a covenant marriage. Louisiana_sentence_597

In a covenant marriage, the couple waives their right to a "no-fault" divorce after six months of separation, which is available in a traditional marriage. Louisiana_sentence_598

To divorce under a covenant marriage, a couple must demonstrate cause. Louisiana_sentence_599

Marriages between ascendants and descendants, and marriages between collaterals within the fourth degree (i.e., siblings, aunt and nephew, uncle and niece, first cousins) are prohibited. Louisiana_sentence_600

Same-sex marriages were prohibited by statute, but the Supreme Court declared such bans unconstitutional in 2015, in its ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges. Louisiana_sentence_601

Same-sex marriages are now performed statewide. Louisiana_sentence_602

Louisiana is a community property state. Louisiana_sentence_603

Elections Louisiana_section_42

Main articles: Elections in Louisiana, Political party strength in Louisiana, and Louisiana congressional districts Louisiana_sentence_604

From 1898 to 1965, a period when Louisiana had effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites by provisions of a new constitution, this was essentially a one-party state dominated by white Democrats. Louisiana_sentence_605

Elites had control in the early 20th century, before populist Huey Long came to power as governor. Louisiana_sentence_606

In multiple acts of resistance, blacks left behind the segregation, violence and oppression of the state and moved out to seek better opportunities in northern and western industrial cities during the Great Migrations of 1910–1970, markedly reducing their proportion of population in Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_607

The franchise for whites was expanded somewhat during these decades, but blacks remained essentially disfranchised until after the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century, gaining enforcement of their constitutional rights through passage by Congress of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Louisiana_sentence_608

Since the 1960s, when civil rights legislation was passed under President Lyndon Johnson to protect voting and civil rights, most African Americans in the state have affiliated with the Democratic Party. Louisiana_sentence_609

In the same years, many white social conservatives have moved to support Republican Party candidates in national, gubernatorial and statewide elections. Louisiana_sentence_610

In 2004, David Vitter was the first Republican in Louisiana to be popularly elected as a U.S. senator. Louisiana_sentence_611

The previous Republican senator, John S. Harris, who took office in 1868 during Reconstruction, was chosen by the state legislature under the rules of the 19th century. Louisiana_sentence_612

Louisiana is unique among U.S. states in using a system for its state and local elections similar to that of modern France. Louisiana_sentence_613

All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, run in a nonpartisan blanket primary (or "jungle primary") on Election Day. Louisiana_sentence_614

If no candidate has more than 50% of the vote, the two candidates with the highest vote totals compete in a runoff election approximately one month later. Louisiana_sentence_615

This run-off method does not take into account party identification; therefore, it is not uncommon for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican. Louisiana_sentence_616

Congressional races have also been held under the jungle primary system. Louisiana_sentence_617

All other states (except Washington, California, and Maine) use single-party primaries followed by a general election between party candidates, each conducted by either a plurality voting system or runoff voting, to elect senators, representatives, and statewide officials. Louisiana_sentence_618

Between 2008 and 2010, federal congressional elections were run under a closed primary system—limited to registered party members. Louisiana_sentence_619

However, upon the passage of House Bill 292, Louisiana again adopted a nonpartisan blanket primary for its federal congressional elections. Louisiana_sentence_620

Louisiana has six seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, five of which are currently held by Republicans and one by a Democrat. Louisiana_sentence_621

The state lost a House seat at the end of the 112th Congress due to stagnant population growth as recorded by the 2010 United States Census. Louisiana_sentence_622

Louisiana is not classified as a "swing state" for future presidential elections, as since the late 20th century, it has regularly supported Republican candidates. Louisiana_sentence_623

The state's two U.S. senators are Bill Cassidy (R) John Neely Kennedy (R). Louisiana_sentence_624

Law enforcement Louisiana_section_43

See also: List of law enforcement agencies in Louisiana Louisiana_sentence_625

Louisiana's statewide police force is the Louisiana State Police. Louisiana_sentence_626

It began in 1922 with the creation of the Highway Commission. Louisiana_sentence_627

In 1927, a second branch, the Bureau of Criminal Investigations, was formed. Louisiana_sentence_628

In 1932, the State Highway Patrol was authorized to carry weapons. Louisiana_sentence_629

On July 28, 1936, the two branches were consolidated to form the Louisiana Department of State Police; its motto was "courtesy, loyalty, service". Louisiana_sentence_630

In 1942, this office was abolished and became a division of the Department of Public Safety, called the Louisiana State Police. Louisiana_sentence_631

In 1988, the Criminal Investigation Bureau was reorganized. Louisiana_sentence_632

Its troopers have statewide jurisdiction with power to enforce all laws of the state, including city and parish ordinances. Louisiana_sentence_633

Each year, they patrol over 12 million miles (20 million km) of roadway and arrest about 10,000 impaired drivers. Louisiana_sentence_634

The State Police are primarily a traffic enforcement agency, with other sections that delve into trucking safety, narcotics enforcement, and gaming oversight. Louisiana_sentence_635

The elected sheriff in each parish is the chief law enforcement officer in the parish. Louisiana_sentence_636

They are the keepers of the local parish prisons, which house felony and misdemeanor prisoners. Louisiana_sentence_637

They are the primary criminal patrol and first responder agency in all matters criminal and civil. Louisiana_sentence_638

They are also the official tax collectors in each parish. Louisiana_sentence_639

The sheriffs are responsible for general law enforcement in their respective parishes. Louisiana_sentence_640

Orleans Parish is an exception, as the general law enforcement duties fall to the New Orleans Police Department. Louisiana_sentence_641

Before 2010, Orleans parish was the only parish to have two sheriff's offices. Louisiana_sentence_642

Orleans Parish divided sheriffs' duties between criminal and civil, with a different elected sheriff overseeing each aspect. Louisiana_sentence_643

In 2006, a bill was passed which eventually consolidated the two sheriff's departments into one parish sheriff responsible for both civil and criminal matters. Louisiana_sentence_644

In 2015, Louisiana had a higher murder rate (10.3 per 100,000) than any other state in the country for the 27th straight year. Louisiana_sentence_645

Louisiana is the only state with an annual average murder rate (13.6 per 100,000) at least twice as high as the U.S. annual average (6.6 per 100,000) during that period, according to Bureau of Justice Statistics from FBI Uniform Crime Reports. Louisiana_sentence_646

In a different kind of criminal activity, the Chicago Tribune reports that Louisiana is the most corrupt state in the United States. Louisiana_sentence_647

According to the Times Picayune, Louisiana is the prison capital of the world. Louisiana_sentence_648

Many for-profit private prisons and sheriff-owned prisons have been built and operate here. Louisiana_sentence_649

Louisiana's incarceration rate is nearly five times Iran's, 13 times China's and 20 times Germany's. Louisiana_sentence_650

Minorities are incarcerated at rates disproportionate to their share of the state's population. Louisiana_sentence_651

The New Orleans Police Department began a new sanctuary policy to "no longer cooperate with federal immigration enforcement" beginning on February 28, 2016. Louisiana_sentence_652

Judiciary Louisiana_section_44

The judiciary of Louisiana is defined under the Constitution and law of Louisiana and is composed of the Louisiana Supreme Court, the Louisiana Circuit Courts of Appeal, the District Courts, the Justice of the Peace Courts, the Mayor's Courts, the City Courts, and the Parish Courts. Louisiana_sentence_653

The chief justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court is the chief administrator of the judiciary. Louisiana_sentence_654

Its administration is aided by the Judiciary Commission of Louisiana, the Louisiana Attorney Disciplinary Board, and the Judicial Council of the Supreme Court of Louisiana. Louisiana_sentence_655

National Guard Louisiana_section_45

Louisiana has more than 9,000 soldiers in the Louisiana Army National Guard, including the 225th Engineer Brigade and the 256th Infantry Brigade. Louisiana_sentence_656

Both these units have served overseas during the War on Terror. Louisiana_sentence_657

The Louisiana Air National Guard has more than 2,000 airmen, and its 159th Fighter Wing has likewise seen combat. Louisiana_sentence_658

Training sites in the state include Camp Beauregard near Pineville, Camp Villere near Slidell, Camp Minden near Minden, England Air Park (formerly England Air Force Base) near Alexandria, Gillis Long Center near Carville, and Jackson Barracks in New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_659

Sports Louisiana_section_46

See also: List of sports teams in Louisiana and Sports in New Orleans Louisiana_sentence_660

Louisiana is nominally the least populous state with more than one major professional sports league franchise: the National Basketball Association's New Orleans Pelicans and the National Football League's New Orleans Saints. Louisiana_sentence_661

Louisiana has 12 collegiate NCAA Division I programs, a high number given its population. Louisiana_sentence_662

The state has no NCAA Division II teams and only two NCAA Division III teams. Louisiana_sentence_663

The LSU Tigers football team has won 11 Southeastern Conference titles, six Sugar Bowls and four national championships. Louisiana_sentence_664

Each year New Orleans plays host to the Sugar Bowl, the Bayou Classic, and the New Orleans Bowl college football games, and Shreveport hosts the Independence Bowl. Louisiana_sentence_665

Also, New Orleans has hosted the Super Bowl a record seven times, as well as the BCS National Championship Game, NBA All-Star Game and NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship. Louisiana_sentence_666

The Zurich Classic of New Orleans, is a PGA Tour golf tournament held since 1938. Louisiana_sentence_667

The Rock 'n' Roll Mardi Gras Marathon and Crescent City Classic are two road running competitions held at New Orleans. Louisiana_sentence_668

As of 2016, Louisiana was the birthplace of the most NFL players per capita for the eighth year in a row. Louisiana_sentence_669

Notable people Louisiana_section_47

See also Louisiana_section_48


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana.