Lufthansa

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For other uses, see Lufthansa (disambiguation). Lufthansa_sentence_0

Deutsche Lufthansa AG (German pronunciation: [ˌdɔʏtʃə ˈlʊfthanzaː), commonly known as Lufthansa, is the largest German airline which, when combined with its subsidiaries, is the second largest airline in Europe in terms of passengers carried. Lufthansa_sentence_1

The name of the former flag carrier is derived from the German word Luft meaning "air" and Hansa for the Hanseatic League. Lufthansa_sentence_2

Lufthansa is one of the five founding members of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, formed in 1997. Lufthansa_sentence_3

The company slogan is 'Say yes to the world.' Lufthansa_sentence_4

Besides its own services, and owning subsidiary passenger airlines Austrian Airlines, Swiss International Air Lines, Brussels Airlines, and Eurowings (referred to in English by Lufthansa as its Passenger Airline Group), Deutsche Lufthansa AG owns several aviation-related companies, such as Lufthansa Technik and LSG Sky Chefs, as part of the Lufthansa Group. Lufthansa_sentence_5

In total, the group has over 700 aircraft, making it one of the largest airline fleets in the world. Lufthansa_sentence_6

Lufthansa's registered office and corporate headquarters are in Cologne. Lufthansa_sentence_7

The main operations base, called Lufthansa Aviation Center, is at Lufthansa's primary hub at Frankfurt Airport, and its secondary hub is at Munich Airport where a secondary Flight Operations Centre is maintained. Lufthansa_sentence_8

History Lufthansa_section_0

1950s: Post-war (re-)formation Lufthansa_section_1

Lufthansa traces its history to 1926 when Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. Lufthansa_sentence_9

(styled as Deutsche Lufthansa from 1933 onwards) was formed in Berlin. Lufthansa_sentence_10

DLH, as it was known, was Germany's flag carrier until 1945 when all services were terminated following the defeat of Nazi Germany. Lufthansa_sentence_11

In an effort to create a new national airline, a company called Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag), was founded in Cologne on 6 January 1953, with many of its staff having worked for the pre-war Lufthansa. Lufthansa_sentence_12

West Germany had not yet been granted sovereignty over its airspace, so it was not known when the new airline could become operational. Lufthansa_sentence_13

Nevertheless, in 1953 Luftag placed orders for four Convair CV-340s and four Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellations and set up a maintenance base at Hamburg Airport. Lufthansa_sentence_14

On 6 August 1954, Luftag acquired the name and logo of the liquidated Deutsche Lufthansa for DM 30,000 (equivalent to €35000 today), thus continuing the tradition of a German flag carrier of that name. Lufthansa_sentence_15

On 1 April 1955 Lufthansa won approval to start scheduled domestic flights, linking Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, and Munich. Lufthansa_sentence_16

International flights started on 15 May 1955, to London, Paris, and Madrid, followed by Super Constellation flights to New York City from 1 June of that year, and across the South Atlantic from August 1956. Lufthansa_sentence_17

In August 1958 fifteen Lufthansa 1049Gs and 1649s left Germany each week to Canada and the United States, three 1049Gs a week flew to South America, three flew to Tehran and one to Baghdad. Lufthansa_sentence_18

In parallel, the airline also initiated a marketing campaign to sell itself and West Germany. Lufthansa_sentence_19

The challenges involved encouraging travelers to consider visiting the country in the wake of World War II, as well as offering services to other nations via the Frankfurt airport hub. Lufthansa_sentence_20

More specifically, Lufthansa's efforts shaped and reflected the development of a modern form of consumerism and advertising through the sale of air travel. Lufthansa_sentence_21

By 1963, the airline, initially limited in its public relations efforts, had become a major purveyor of West Germany's image abroad. Lufthansa_sentence_22

The special status of Berlin meant that Lufthansa was not allowed to fly to either part of Berlin until German reunification in 1990. Lufthansa_sentence_23

Originally thought to be only a temporary matter (and with intentions to move the airline's headquarters and main base there once the political situation changed), the Division of Germany turned out to be longer than expected, which gradually led to Frankfurt Airport becoming Lufthansa's primary hub. Lufthansa_sentence_24

East Germany tried to establish its airline in 1955 using the Lufthansa name, but this resulted in a legal dispute with West Germany, where Lufthansa was operating. Lufthansa_sentence_25

East Germany instead established Interflug as its national airline in 1963, which coincided with the East German Lufthansa being shut down. Lufthansa_sentence_26

1960s: Introduction of jetliners Lufthansa_section_2

In 1958 Lufthansa ordered four Boeing 707s and started jet flights from Frankfurt to New York City in March 1960. Lufthansa_sentence_27

Boeing 720Bs were later bought to back up the 707 fleets. Lufthansa_sentence_28

In February 1961 Far East routes were extended beyond Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong and Tokyo. Lufthansa_sentence_29

Lagos, Nigeria, and Johannesburg, South Africa were added in 1962. Lufthansa_sentence_30

Lufthansa introduced the Boeing 727 in 1964 and that May began the Polar route from Frankfurt to Tokyo via Anchorage. Lufthansa_sentence_31

In February 1965 the company ordered twenty-one Boeing 737s that went into service in 1968. Lufthansa_sentence_32

Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing 737 and was one of four buyers of the 737-100s (the others were NASA, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines, and Avianca – while the NASA airframe was the first built, it was the last delivered and originally intended for delivery to Lufthansa). Lufthansa_sentence_33

Lufthansa was the first foreign launch customer for a Boeing airliner. Lufthansa_sentence_34

1970s–1980s: The wide-body era Lufthansa_section_3

The wide-body era for Lufthansa started with a Boeing 747 flight on 26 April 1970. Lufthansa_sentence_35

It was followed by the introduction of the DC-10-30 on 12 November 1973, and the first Airbus A300 in 1976. Lufthansa_sentence_36

In 1979 Lufthansa and Swissair became launch customers for the Airbus A310 with an order for twenty-five aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_37

The company's fleet modernization programme for the 1990s began on 29 June 1985, with an order for fifteen Airbus A320s and seven Airbus A300-600s. Lufthansa_sentence_38

Ten Boeing 737-300s were ordered a few days later. Lufthansa_sentence_39

All were delivered between 1987 and 1992. Lufthansa_sentence_40

Lufthansa also bought Airbus A321, Airbus A340, and Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_41

In 1987 Lufthansa, together with Air France, Iberia, and Scandinavian Airlines, founded Amadeus, an IT company (also known as a GDS) that would enable travel agencies to sell the founders and other airlines' products from a single system.] Lufthansa_sentence_42

Lufthansa adopted a new corporate identity in 1988. Lufthansa_sentence_43

The fleet was given a new livery, while cabins, city offices, and airport lounges were redesigned. Lufthansa_sentence_44

1990s–2000s: Further expansion Lufthansa_section_4

On 28 October 1990, 25 days after reunification, Berlin became a Lufthansa destination again. Lufthansa_sentence_45

On 18 May 1997, Lufthansa, Air Canada, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International, and United Airlines formed Star Alliance, the world's first multilateral airline alliance. Lufthansa_sentence_46

In 2000, Air One became a Lufthansa partner airline and nearly all Air One flights were code-shared with Lufthansa until Alitalia purchased Air One. Lufthansa_sentence_47

Lufthansa has a good track record for posting profits, even in 2001, after 9/11, the airline suffered a significant loss in profits but still managed to stay 'in the black'. Lufthansa_sentence_48

While many other airlines announced layoffs (typically 20% of their workforce), Lufthansa retained its current workforce. Lufthansa_sentence_49

On 6 December 2001, Lufthansa announced an order for 15 Airbus A380 superjumbos with 10 more options, which was confirmed on 20 December. Lufthansa_sentence_50

The A380 fleet would be used for long-haul flights from Frankfurt exclusively. Lufthansa_sentence_51

In June 2003, Lufthansa opened Terminal 2 at Munich's Franz Josef Strauß Airport to relieve its main hub, Frankfurt, which was suffering from capacity constraints. Lufthansa_sentence_52

It is one of the first terminals in Europe partially owned by an airline. Lufthansa_sentence_53

On 17 May 2004, Lufthansa became the launch customer for the Connexion by Boeing in-flight online connectivity service. Lufthansa_sentence_54

In autumn 2003, the implementation of a new sales strategy initiated by then-incumbent Executive Vice President Thierry Antinori to make the company fit for the digital era led to the abolition of commission payments for travel agencies and led to a revolution in the German travel business with many travel agencies disappearing from the market on the one hand, and the rise of new digital distribution platforms on the other hand. Lufthansa_sentence_55

On 22 March 2005, Swiss International Air Lines was purchased by Lufthansa's holding company. Lufthansa_sentence_56

The acquisition included the provision that the majority shareholders (the Swiss government and large Swiss companies) be offered payment if Lufthansa's share price outperforms an airline index during the years following the merger. Lufthansa_sentence_57

The two companies will continue to be run separately. Lufthansa_sentence_58

On 6 December 2006, Lufthansa placed an order for 20 Boeing 747-8s, becoming the launch customer of the passenger model. Lufthansa_sentence_59

The airline is also the second European airline to operate the Airbus A380 (after Air France). Lufthansa_sentence_60

The first A380 was delivered on 19 May 2010, while the first 747-8 entered service in 2012. Lufthansa_sentence_61

In September 2008, Lufthansa Group announced its intent to purchase a stake in Brussels Airlines (SN). Lufthansa_sentence_62

In June 2009, the EU Commission granted regulatory approval and Lufthansa acquired 45% of SN. Lufthansa_sentence_63

In September 2016, Lufthansa announced it would purchase the remainder of Brussels Airlines for €2.6 million euros. Lufthansa_sentence_64

The transaction was completed in early January 2017. Lufthansa_sentence_65

The decision was partially taken after the Brussels airport bombings of March 2016, which caused SN to lose almost €5 million per day until 3 April. Lufthansa_sentence_66

In September 2009, Lufthansa purchased Austrian Airlines with the approval of the European Commission. Lufthansa_sentence_67

On 11 June 2010, Airbus A380 service between Frankfurt and Tokyo (Narita) started. Lufthansa_sentence_68

2010s: Belt-tightening Lufthansa_section_5

After a loss of 381 million euros in the first quarter of 2010 and another 13 million loss in the year 2011 due to the economic recession and restructuring costs, Deutsche Lufthansa AG cut 3,500 administrative positions or around 20 percent of the clerical total of 16,800. Lufthansa_sentence_69

In 2012, Lufthansa announced a restructuring program called SCORE to improve its operating profit. Lufthansa_sentence_70

As a part of the restructuring plan, the company started to transfer all short-haul flights outside its hubs in Frankfurt, Munich, and Düsseldorf to the company's re-branded low-cost carrier Germanwings. Lufthansa_sentence_71

In September 2013, Lufthansa Group announced its biggest order, for 59 wide-body aircraft valued more than 14 billion euros at list prices. Lufthansa_sentence_72

Earlier in the same year, Lufthansa placed an order for 100 next-generation narrow-body aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_73

The group has had a long-standing dispute with the Vereinigung Cockpit union which has demanded a scheme in which pilots can retire at the age of 55, and 60% of their pay be retained, which Lufthansa insists is no longer affordable. Lufthansa_sentence_74

Lufthansa pilots were joined by pilots from the group's budget carrier Germanwings to stage a nationwide strike in support of their demands in April 2014 which lasted three days. Lufthansa_sentence_75

The pilots staged a six-hour strike at the end of the summer holidays in September 2014, which caused the cancellation of 200 Lufthansa flights and 100 Germanwings flights. Lufthansa_sentence_76

In November 2014, Lufthansa signed an outsourcing deal worth $1.25 billion with IBM that will see the US company take over the airline's IT infrastructure services division and staff. Lufthansa_sentence_77

In June 2015, Lufthansa announced plans to close its small long-haul base at Düsseldorf Airport for economic reasons by October 2015. Lufthansa_sentence_78

At the time, the base consisted of two Airbus A340-300s rotating between Newark and Chicago. Lufthansa_sentence_79

As a result, service to Chicago from Düsseldorf was first made seasonal, suspended for the winter 2015 season, and then canceled altogether. Lufthansa_sentence_80

Service to Newark, however, has been maintained. Lufthansa_sentence_81

From the winter 2015 schedule through the end of the winter 2016 schedule, Düsseldorf was served by aircraft which also flew the Munich-Newark route. Lufthansa_sentence_82

The Düsseldorf-Newark route ended on 30 November 2018, which was operated with an Airbus A330-300 aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_83

Their base was officially closed in March 2019. Lufthansa_sentence_84

On 22 March 2016, Lufthansa ended Boeing 737-500 operations. Lufthansa_sentence_85

The airline's last Boeing 737 (a 737-300) was retired on 29 October 2016, after a flight from Milan to Frankfurt. Lufthansa_sentence_86

Lufthansa operated the 737 in several variants for almost 50 years, the first aircraft having been delivered on 27 December 1967. Lufthansa_sentence_87

On 4 December 2017, Lufthansa became the first European airline to receive the Skytrax 5 star certification. Lufthansa_sentence_88

As stated by Skytrax, a key factor in the positive rating was the announcement of a new Business Class cabin and seating that was expected to be introduced in 2020. Lufthansa_sentence_89

While this makes Lufthansa the 10th airline to be holding this award, in reality the 5th star was given to a product that was supposed to be introduced two years after the evaluation. Lufthansa_sentence_90

In celebration, Lufthansa painted an Airbus A320 and a Boeing 747-8 in the "5 Starhansa" livery. Lufthansa_sentence_91

In March 2018, Lufthansa and other airlines like British Airways and American Airlines accepted a request from Beijing to list Taiwan as part of China. Lufthansa_sentence_92

In March 2019 Lufthansa ordered 20 Boeing 787-9 and an additional 20 Airbus A350-900 for its own and the group's fleet replacement and expansion. Lufthansa_sentence_93

Also, the airline announced it would sell six A380 aircraft back to Airbus, beginning in 2022. Lufthansa_sentence_94

2020s: COVID-19 pandemic and recovery Lufthansa_section_6

On 19 March 2020 Lufthansa cancelled 95 percent of all flights due to a travel ban because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Lufthansa_sentence_95

On 14 May, Lufthansa's Hans DeHaan said the airline would resume flights between Toronto and Frankfurt as of 3 June. Lufthansa_sentence_96

Flights were banned on all international non-essential travel between Canada and the European Union. Lufthansa_sentence_97

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, Lufthansa operated 64 weekly flights between the two countries. Lufthansa_sentence_98

The airline's recovery plans involve high-density cargo to replace paying customers. Lufthansa_sentence_99

The Lufthansa Group airlines now require all passengers to wear a mask while aboard. Lufthansa_sentence_100

On 26 June, Deutsche Lufthansa AG shareholders voted in favour of accepting the capital measures and the participation of the Economic Stabilisation Fund (WSF) of the Federal Republic of Germany in Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Lufthansa_sentence_101

In total, Lufthansa received about 9 billion euros in government assistance that summer. Lufthansa_sentence_102

Corporate affairs Lufthansa_section_7

Ownership Lufthansa_section_8

Lufthansa was a state-owned enterprise (and flag carrier) until 1994. Lufthansa_sentence_103

Deutsche Lufthansa AG shares have been publicly traded on all German stock exchanges since 1966. Lufthansa_sentence_104

In addition to floor trading, it is also traded electronically using the Xetra system. Lufthansa_sentence_105

It is a DAX index share and is listed in the German Stock Exchange's Prime Standard. Lufthansa_sentence_106

At the end of 2019, the shareholders’ register showed that German investors held 67.3% of the shares (previous year: 72.1%). Lufthansa_sentence_107

The second-largest group, with 10.4%, was shareholders from Luxembourg. Lufthansa_sentence_108

Investors from the US accounted for 8.1%, followed by Ireland and the United Kingdom, each with 3.6%. Lufthansa_sentence_109

This ensures compliance with the provisions of the German Aviation Compliance Documentation Act (LuftNaSiG). Lufthansa_sentence_110

As of the reporting date, 58% of the shares were held by institutional investors (previous year: 53%), and 42% were held by private individuals (previous year: 47%). Lufthansa_sentence_111

Lansdowne Partners International Ltd. and BlackRock, Inc. were the largest shareholders in the Lufthansa Group at year-end, with 4.9% and 3.1% respectively. Lufthansa_sentence_112

All the transactions requiring disclosure and published during the financial year 2019, as well as the quarterly updates on the shareholder structure, are available online. Lufthansa_sentence_113

During the 2020 COVID crisis Heinz Hermann Thiele increased his stake to more than 12%.The free float for Lufthansa shares was 67% in 2020, as per the definition of the Deutsche Börse. Lufthansa_sentence_114

German Government Bail-out Lufthansa_sentence_115

The German government offered a €9 billion bailout to support the airline through COVID-19 induced economic issues. Lufthansa_sentence_116

With this bailout, the government's stake in the airline increased to 20%, and also grant it board seats, while diluting existing shareholder stakes. Lufthansa_sentence_117

The shareholders of the company approved the bailout on Thursday, June 26, offering the airline a fresh lease of life. Lufthansa_sentence_118

Business trends Lufthansa_section_9

Key business and operating results of Lufthansa Group for recent years are shown below (as at year ending 31 December): Lufthansa_sentence_119

Headquarters Lufthansa_section_10

Lufthansa's corporate headquarters are in Cologne. Lufthansa_sentence_120

In 1971, Lawrence Fellows of The New York Times described the then-new headquarters building that Lufthansa occupied in Cologne as "gleaming". Lufthansa_sentence_121

In 1986, terrorists bombed the building. Lufthansa_sentence_122

No one was injured. Lufthansa_sentence_123

In 2006, builders laid the first stone of the new Lufthansa headquarters in Deutz, Cologne. Lufthansa_sentence_124

By the end of 2007, Lufthansa planned to move 800 employees, including the company's finance department, to the new building. Lufthansa_sentence_125

However, in early 2013 Lufthansa revealed plans to relocate its head office from Cologne to Frankfurt by 2017. Lufthansa_sentence_126

Several Lufthansa departments are not at the headquarters; instead they are in the Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport. Lufthansa_sentence_127

These departments include Corporate Communications, Investor Relations, and Media Relations. Lufthansa_sentence_128

Airline subsidiaries Lufthansa_section_11

In addition to its main passenger operation, Lufthansa has several airline subsidiaries, including: Lufthansa_sentence_129

Lufthansa_description_list_0

Lufthansa_unordered_list_1

Lufthansa_description_list_2

Lufthansa_unordered_list_3

  • AeroLogic – German cargo airline owned by a joint-venture of Lufthansa (50%) and DHL (50%)Lufthansa_item_3_11
  • SunExpress – Turkish leisure airline jointly owned by Lufthansa (50%) and Turkish Airlines (50%)Lufthansa_item_3_12

Lufthansa_description_list_4

Lufthansa_unordered_list_5

Other subsidiaries Lufthansa_section_12

In addition to the airlines mentioned above, Lufthansa maintains further aviation affiliated subsidiaries: Lufthansa_sentence_130

Lufthansa_unordered_list_6

  • Global Load Control, a world leader in remote weight and balance services.Lufthansa_item_6_19
  • LSG Sky Chefs, the world's largest airline caterer, which accounts for one-third of the world's airline meals.Lufthansa_item_6_20
  • Lufthansa Consulting, an international aviation consultancy for airlines, airports and related industries.Lufthansa_item_6_21
  • Lufthansa Flight Training, a provider of flight crew training services to various airlines and the main training arm for the airline's pilots.Lufthansa_item_6_22
  • Lufthansa Systems, the largest European aviation IT provider.Lufthansa_item_6_23
  • Lufthansa Technik, aircraft maintenance providers.Lufthansa_item_6_24
  • Lufthansa City Center International, a network of independent travel agents who are Lufthansa franchiseesLufthansa_item_6_25
  • Lufthansa AirPlus Servicekarten GMBH, (AirPlus International) travel payment company via UATP and Mastercard.Lufthansa_item_6_26

Brand history Lufthansa_section_13

The Lufthansa logo, an encircled stylized crane in flight, was first created in 1918 by Otto Firle. Lufthansa_sentence_131

It was part of the livery of the first German airline, Deutsche Luft-Reederei (abbreviated DLR), which began air service on 5 February 1919. Lufthansa_sentence_132

In 1926, Deutsche Luft Hansa adopted this symbol, and in 1954, Lufthansa expressed continuity by adopting it and later in 1963 – a variant thereof as redesigned by Robert Lisovskyi. Lufthansa_sentence_133

The original creator of the name Lufthansa is believed to be F.A. Lufthansa_sentence_134

Fischer von Puturzyn. Lufthansa_sentence_135

In 1925, he published a book entitled "Luft-Hansa" which examined the options open to aviation policymakers at the time. Lufthansa_sentence_136

Luft Hansa was the name given to the new airline, which resulted from the merger of Junkers' airline (Luftverkehr AG) and Deutscher Aero Lloyd. Lufthansa_sentence_137

After World War II, the company kept blue and yellow as its main colours and the crane logo. Lufthansa_sentence_138

Since the beginning of the 1960s, Helvetica was used for the company name in the livery. Lufthansa_sentence_139

The 1970s retro livery featured the top half of the fuselage painted in all-white on top and the lower fuselage (bottom half, including the engines) was gray/silver aluminium, below a blue cheatline window band and a black painted nose. Lufthansa_sentence_140

The crane logo was painted blue on the engines, on the bottom half of the fuselage just below the cockpit windows and on a yellow circle inside a blue band on the tail. Lufthansa_sentence_141

German designer Otl Aicher created a comprehensive corporate design for the airline in 1967. Lufthansa_sentence_142

The crane logo was now always displayed in a circle which, on the livery, was yellow on an otherwise blue tailfin. Lufthansa_sentence_143

Helvetica was used as the main typeface for both the livery and publications. Lufthansa_sentence_144

The blue band and general paint scheme of the aircraft were retained from the previous livery. Lufthansa_sentence_145

Aicher's concept was retained in the 1988 design. Lufthansa_sentence_146

The window band was removed and the fuselage was painted in grey. Lufthansa_sentence_147

In 2018, Lufthansa refreshed their livery. Lufthansa_sentence_148

The encircled crane was retained, however, the background was changed from yellow to dark blue. Lufthansa_sentence_149

The vertical stabilizer and the rear fuselage was all painted in dark blue, with the tail cone remained white. Lufthansa_sentence_150

The main fuselage was painted in all white, and the brand name "Lufthansa" was painted above the windows, also in dark blue. Lufthansa_sentence_151

Alliances and partnerships Lufthansa_section_14

Commercial Lufthansa_section_15

Lufthansa bought a 19% stake in JetBlue Airways in December 2007 and entered a code-sharing agreement with the airline. Lufthansa_sentence_152

It was the first major investment by a European carrier in an American carrier since the EU–U.S. Lufthansa_sentence_153 Open Skies Agreement came into effect in 2008. Lufthansa_sentence_154

Lufthansa sold its stake in JetBlue in March 2015. Lufthansa_sentence_155

In late 2007, Lufthansa Cargo was forced to relocate a hub from Kazakhstan to Russia. Lufthansa_sentence_156

On 28 August 2008, Lufthansa and Brussels Airlines announced that they were negotiating joining together. Lufthansa_sentence_157

Lufthansa acquired a 45% stake in Brussels Airlines in 2009. Lufthansa_sentence_158

It has an option to acquire the remaining 55% by 2017. Lufthansa_sentence_159

As a part of the deal Brussels Airlines joined Star Alliance in December 2009. Lufthansa_sentence_160

On 28 October 2008, Lufthansa exercised its option to purchase a further 60% share in BMI (in addition to the 20% Lufthansa already owned), this resulted in a dispute with the former owner Sir Michael Bishop. Lufthansa_sentence_161

Both parties reached an agreement at the end of June 2009, and the acquisition took place with effect from 1 July 2009. Lufthansa_sentence_162

Lufthansa acquired the remaining 20% from Scandinavian Airlines on 1 November 2009, taking complete control of BMI. Lufthansa_sentence_163

Lufthansa completed the purchase of Austrian Airlines from the Austrian government in January 2009. Lufthansa_sentence_164

In 2010, Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into price-fixing, but was not fined because it acted as a whistleblower. Lufthansa_sentence_165

In April 2012, Lufthansa completed the sale of BMI to International Airlines Group (IAG), owner of British Airways and Iberia for £172.5 million. Lufthansa_sentence_166

In July 2012, a Qantas–Lufthansa Technik maintenance deal for Tullamarine airport fell through due to having insufficient engine maintenance work to support the partnership. Lufthansa_sentence_167

This resulted in 164 engineers being made redundant. Lufthansa_sentence_168

This followed just months after the closing of heavy maintenance operations, which resulted in 400 additional job losses. Lufthansa_sentence_169

It was announced that the Lufthansa Technik–Qantas partnership would end in September. Lufthansa_sentence_170

Lufthansa also coordinates scheduling and ticket sales on transatlantic flights with Air Canada and United Airlines (as do Brussels Airlines, Swiss and Austrian Airlines). Lufthansa_sentence_171

Lufthansa (with Swiss and Austrian Airlines) cooperates similarly with ANA on flights to Japan. Lufthansa_sentence_172

Both ventures required the approval of competition authorities. Lufthansa_sentence_173

Technology Lufthansa_section_16

Until April 2009 Lufthansa inventory and departure control systems, based on Unisys were managed by LH Systems. Lufthansa_sentence_174

Lufthansa reservations systems were outsourced to Amadeus in the early 1990s. Lufthansa_sentence_175

Following a decision to outsource all components of the Passenger Service System, the functions were outsourced to the Altéa platform managed by Amadeus. Lufthansa_sentence_176

Partner airlines Lufthansa_section_17

Lufthansa describes Air Malta, Luxair, and LATAM as partner airlines. Lufthansa_sentence_177

The partnerships mainly involve code-sharing and recognition of each other's frequent flier programmes. Lufthansa_sentence_178

Sponsorships Lufthansa_section_18

Lufthansa sponsors Bundesliga club Eintracht Frankfurt. Lufthansa_sentence_179

The Lufthansa Group also sponsors the German Sports Aid Foundation - promoting its sociopolitical goals and the athletes it sponsors. Lufthansa_sentence_180

Destinations Lufthansa_section_19

Main article: List of Lufthansa destinations Lufthansa_sentence_181

Codeshare agreements Lufthansa_section_20

Lufthansa codeshares with the following airlines: Lufthansa_sentence_182

Part of the Lufthansa Group. Lufthansa_sentence_183

Fleet Lufthansa_section_21

Main article: Lufthansa fleet Lufthansa_sentence_184

Aircraft naming conventions Lufthansa_section_22

In September 1960, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (D-ABOC), which would serve the Frankfurt-New York intercontinental route, was christened Berlin after the divided city of Berlin by then-mayor Willy Brandt. Lufthansa_sentence_185

Following Berlin, other Lufthansa 707 planes were named "Hamburg", "Frankfurt", "München", and "Bonn." Lufthansa_sentence_186

With these names, the company established a tradition of naming the planes in its fleet after German cities and towns or federal states, with a rule of thumb that the airplane make, size, or route would correspond roughly to the relative size or importance of the city or town it was named after. Lufthansa_sentence_187

This tradition continued, with two notable exceptions, until 2010: The first was an Airbus A340-300 registered D-AIFC, named "Gander/Halifax", after Gander and Halifax, two Canadian cities along the standard flight path from Europe to North America. Lufthansa_sentence_188

It became the first Lufthansa airplane named after a non-German city. Lufthansa_sentence_189

The name commemorates the hospitality of the communities of Gander and Halifax, which served as improvised safe havens for the passengers and crew of the multitude of international aircraft unable to return to their originating airports during Operation Yellow Ribbon after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Lufthansa_sentence_190

The other aircraft not named after a German city was an Airbus A321-100 registered as D-AIRA, which was designated Finkenwerder in honor of the Airbus facility in the district of Hamburg-Finkenwerder, where about 40% of Airbus narrowbody models are manufactured. Lufthansa_sentence_191

In February 2010, Lufthansa announced that its first two Airbus A380s would be named Frankfurt am Main (D-AIMA) and München (D-AIMB) after Lufthansa's two hub airports. Lufthansa_sentence_192

Subsequent A380 aircraft were named after other Lufthansa Group hub airports Zurich, Wien (Vienna) and Brüssel (Brussels) and the major German cities of Düsseldorf and Berlin. Lufthansa_sentence_193

The remaining A380s were named after Star Alliance hub cities Tokyo, Beijing, Johannesburg, New York, San Francisco and Delhi. Lufthansa_sentence_194

However, D-AIMN San Francisco was renamed Deutschland (Germany) in 2016. Lufthansa_sentence_195

As of 2016, there are several short- and long-haul aircraft in Lufthansa's fleet that do not bear any name. Lufthansa_sentence_196

They either never received one or their former one has been given to a newer aircraft, which was the case for several Boeing 747-400s. Lufthansa_sentence_197

For example, the former Bayern (Bavaria), a Boeing 747-400 still in active service lost that name to a new Boeing 747-8I. Lufthansa_sentence_198

Vintage aircraft restoration Lufthansa_section_23

Lufthansa Technik, the airline's maintenance arm, restored a Junkers Ju 52/3m built in 1936 to airworthiness; this aircraft was in use on the 10-hour Berlin to Rome route, across the Alps, in the 1930s. Lufthansa_sentence_199

Lufthansa is now restoring a Lockheed Super Constellation, using parts from three such aircraft bought at auctions. Lufthansa_sentence_200

Lufthansa's Super Constellations and L1649 "Starliners" served routes such as Hamburg-Madrid-Dakar-Caracas-Santiago. Lufthansa_sentence_201

Lufthansa Technik recruits retired employees and volunteers for skilled labour. Lufthansa_sentence_202

Airbus A380 Lufthansa_section_24

Lufthansa had initially ordered a total of 15 Airbus A380-800, of which by June 2012 ten were delivered. Lufthansa_sentence_203

In September 2011, the order was increased by two more copies to 17, this order was confirmed on 14 March 2013. Lufthansa_sentence_204

However, in September 2013 it was announced that the Lufthansa Supervisory Board had approved the purchase of only twelve of the first 15 A380s. Lufthansa_sentence_205

Thus, a total of 14 A380s have been added to the fleet. Lufthansa_sentence_206

Lufthansa uses its A380s from and to Frankfurt am Main (9 aircraft) and since March 2018 to and from Munich as well (5 aircraft). Lufthansa_sentence_207

From 6 to 12 December 2011, Lufthansa already used an A380 once a day on the route from Munich to New York-JFK. Lufthansa_sentence_208

This happened mainly against the backdrop of Christmas shopping in New York City. Lufthansa_sentence_209

On 13 March 2019, Lufthansa announced that it will be removing 6 A380 aircraft from the fleet and replacing them with Boeing 787-9 and Airbus A350-900 aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_210

On 8 March 2020, Lufthansa announced that it would be grounding all of its A380 aircraft due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lufthansa_sentence_211

Services Lufthansa_section_25

Frequent-flyer programme Lufthansa_section_26

Main article: Miles & More Lufthansa_sentence_212

Lufthansa's frequent-flyer programme is called Miles & More, and is shared among several European airlines, including all of Lufthansa's subsidiary airlines (excluding the SunExpress joint ventures), plus Adria Airways, Condor Flugdienst (formerly owned by Lufthansa), Croatia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, and Luxair (stake formerly held by Lufthansa). Lufthansa_sentence_213

Miles & More members may earn miles on Lufthansa flights and Star Alliance partner flights, as well as through Lufthansa credit cards, and purchases made through the Lufthansa shops. Lufthansa_sentence_214

Status within Miles & More is determined by miles flown during one calendar year with specific partners. Lufthansa_sentence_215

Membership levels include: Miles & More member (no minimal threshold), Frequent Traveller (Silver, 35,000-mile (56,000 km) threshold or 30 individual flights), Senator (Gold, 100,000-mile (160,000 km) threshold), and HON Circle (Black, 600,000-mile (970,000 km) threshold over two calendar years). Lufthansa_sentence_216

All Miles & More status levels higher than Miles & More member offer lounge access and executive bonus miles, with the higher levels offering more exclusive benefits. Lufthansa_sentence_217

Cabins Lufthansa_section_27

First Class Lufthansa_section_28

First Class is offered on most long-haul aircraft (all A340-600s, the front part of the upper deck of all Airbus A380s, and the main deck nose section of all Boeing 747-8Is). Lufthansa_sentence_218

Each seat converts to a 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) bed, includes laptop power outlets, as well as entertainment facilities. Lufthansa_sentence_219

Meals are available on demand. Lufthansa_sentence_220

Lufthansa offers dedicated First Class check-in counters at most airports, and offers dedicated First Class lounges in Frankfurt and Munich, as well as a dedicated first-class terminal in Frankfurt. Lufthansa_sentence_221

Arriving passengers have the option of using Lufthansa's First Class arrival facilities, as well as the new Welcome Lounge. Lufthansa_sentence_222

Lufthansa has introduced a new First Class product aboard the Airbus A380 and plans to gradually introduce it on all of its long-haul aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_223

With the new program SCORE, introduced to boost profits by 1.5 billion euros over the following years, LH will stop route expansion and extensively decrease its First Class offerings on most routes. Lufthansa_sentence_224

However, First Class will not be completely eliminated, as the company plans to introduce a new First Class cabin on the Boeing 777-9, with a primary focus on privacy. Lufthansa_sentence_225

However, the new first class will not be on the first few 777-9s, since those will not have any first class cabin. Lufthansa_sentence_226

Business Class Lufthansa_section_29

Business Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_227

Seats convert to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) lie-flat beds and include laptop power outlets and entertainment facilities. Lufthansa_sentence_228

Lufthansa offers dedicated Business Class check-in counters at all airports, as well as dedicated Business Class lounges at most airports, or contract lounges at other airports, as well as the Lufthansa Welcome Lounge upon arrival in Frankfurt. Lufthansa_sentence_229

As of 2014, Business Class on all wide-body aircraft feature lie-flat seats. Lufthansa_sentence_230

Lufthansa released plans for a new business class set to be released on the Boeing 777-9 in 2020. Lufthansa_sentence_231

Premium Economy Class Lufthansa_section_30

Introduced in 2014, Lufthansa's long-haul Premium Economy is being rolled out on all long-haul aircraft, starting with some Boeing 747-8Is. Lufthansa_sentence_232

Similar in design to Air Canada's Premium Economy or British Airways' World Traveller Plus cabins, Premium Economy features 38-inch (970 mm) pitch along with up to 3 inches (76 mm) more width than economy class, depending on the aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_233

The seats also feature a 11 or 12 inches (280 or 300 mm) personal seat-back entertainment screen and a larger armrest separating seats. Lufthansa_sentence_234

Along with the planned introduction of the Boeing 777-9X, the airline plans to add a new Premium Economy cabin with a "shell" design. Lufthansa_sentence_235

These seats are also to be installed on SWISS' Boeing 777-300ERs and Airbus A340-300s from the first and second quarter of 2021, respectively. Lufthansa_sentence_236

Economy Class Lufthansa_section_31

Lufthansa's long-haul Economy Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. Lufthansa_sentence_237

All have a 31-inch (790 mm) seat pitch except the Airbus A380s, which have a 33-inch (840 mm) seat pitch. Lufthansa_sentence_238

Passengers receive meals, as well as free drinks. Lufthansa_sentence_239

The whole fleet offers Audio-Video-On-Demand (AVOD) screens in Economy Class. Lufthansa_sentence_240

Airport lounges and terminals Lufthansa_section_32

Lufthansa operates four types of lounges within its destination network: First Class, Senator, Business, and Welcome Lounges. Lufthansa_sentence_241

Each departure lounge is accessible both through travel class, or Miles and More/Star Alliance status; the Welcome Lounge is limited to arriving premium passengers of the Lufthansa Group and United Airlines only. Lufthansa_sentence_242

Lufthansa also operates a dedicated first class terminal at Frankfurt Airport. Lufthansa_sentence_243

The first terminal of its kind, access is limited only to departing Lufthansa First Class, same day Lufthansa Group first class and HON Circle members. Lufthansa_sentence_244

Approximately 200 staff care for approximately 300 passengers per day in the terminal, which features a full-service restaurant, full bar, cigar lounge, relaxation rooms, and offices, as well as bath facilities. Lufthansa_sentence_245

Guests are driven directly to their departing flight by Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Porsche Cayenne, Porsche Panamera, or Mercedes-Benz V-Class. Lufthansa_sentence_246

Bus service Lufthansa_section_33

Lufthansa previously operated a check-in point in the city limits of Nuremberg and a bus service from Nuremberg to Munich Airport. Lufthansa_sentence_247

Accidents and incidents Lufthansa_section_34

This is a list of accidents and incidents involving Lufthansa mainline aircraft since 1956. Lufthansa_sentence_248

For earlier occurrences, refer to Deutsche Luft Hansa. Lufthansa_sentence_249

For accidents and incidents on Lufthansa-branded flights which were operated by other airlines, see the respective articles (Lufthansa CityLine, Lufthansa Cargo, Contact Air, Germanwings, and Air Dolomiti). Lufthansa_sentence_250

Fatal Lufthansa_section_35

Lufthansa_unordered_list_7

  • On 11 January 1959, Lufthansa Flight 502, a Lufthansa Lockheed Super Constellation (registered D-ALAK) crashed onto a beach shortly off Galeão Airport in Rio de Janeiro following a scheduled passenger flight from Hamburg, Germany. Of the 29 passengers and 10 crew members on board, only the co-pilot and 2 flight attendants survived. The investigation into the accident resulted in blaming the pilots for having executed a too low approach, which may have been caused by fatigue.Lufthansa_item_7_27
  • On 4 December 1961, a Lufthansa Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOK) crashed of unknown causes near Mainz during a training flight from Frankfurt to Cologne, killing the three occupants. It was the first crash involving an aircraft of that type.Lufthansa_item_7_28
  • On 15 July 1964, another Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOP) crashed during a training flight, with the three people, including Werner Baake, on board losing their lives (in what was only the second crash for this aircraft type). The accident occurred near Ansbach after the pilots had lost control of the aircraft when executing an aileron roll.Lufthansa_item_7_29
  • On 28 January 1966 at 17:50 local time, Lufthansa Flight 5 from Frankfurt to Bremen, which was operated using a Convair CV-440 Metropolitan registered D-ACAT, crashed 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) short of Bremen Airport, killing all 42 passengers and 4 crew members on board. The pilots had tried to execute a go-around when approaching the airport, during which the aircraft stalled and went out of control, possibly due to pilot error.Lufthansa_item_7_30

Lufthansa_unordered_list_8

  • On 20 November 1974 at 07:54 local time, Lufthansa Flight 540, a Boeing 747-100 (registered D-ABYB), lost power and crashed shortly after take-off at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in what was the first air accident involving a Boeing 747. 55 out of the 140 passengers and 4 out of the 17 crew lost their lives, making it the worst accident in the history of the airline.Lufthansa_item_8_31
  • On 26 July 1979 at 21:32 UTC, a cargo-configured Boeing 707 (registered D-ABUY) that was en route Lufthansa Flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Dakar and onwards to Germany crashed into a mountain 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Galeão Airport during initial climb, killing the three crew members on board. A flawed communication between the pilots and the air traffic controller had resulted in the aircraft flying on a wrong path.Lufthansa_item_8_32
  • On 14 September 1993, Lufthansa Flight 2904, an Airbus A320-200 (registered D-AIPN) flying from Frankfurt to Warsaw with 64 passengers and 4 crew members on board, overran the runway upon landing at Warsaw-Okecie Airport, and crashed into an earth embankment, resulting in the death of the co-pilot and one passenger.Lufthansa_item_8_33

Non-fatal Lufthansa_section_36

Lufthansa_unordered_list_9

  • On 20 December 1973 at 00:33 local time, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (registered D-ABOT) with 98 passengers and 11 crew members on board collided with a middle marker shack upon approaching Palam Airport in Delhi following a scheduled passenger flight from Bangkok (as part of a multi-leg flight back to Germany). There were no injuries, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. Visibility was poor at the time of the accident.Lufthansa_item_9_34
  • On 18 October 1983, a Boeing 747-200 freighter ran off the runway at Kai Tak airport in Hong Kong and got bogged in the grass after an engine failure during take-off.Lufthansa_item_9_35
  • On 11 June 2018, one of the airline's Airbus A340-300s, registered as D-AIFA, was being towed to its departure gate at Frankfurt Airport when the towing vehicle caught fire. Despite the quick action of the airport fire brigade, the aircraft suffered substantial fire and smoke damage to the nose and flight deck. Six people were treated for smoke inhalation.Lufthansa_item_9_36

Hijackings Lufthansa_section_37

Lufthansa_unordered_list_10

  • In 1972, the year of the Munich Summer Olympics, there were four reported hijackings involving Lufthansa aircraft:Lufthansa_item_10_37
    • On 22 February, Flight 649, a Boeing 747-200 (registered D-ABYD) with 172 passengers and 15 crew members on board was hijacked en route from New Delhi to Athens (as part of a multi-leg flight from Tokyo to Frankfurt) by five Palestinian terrorists who thus wanted to press a $5 million ransom from the German government. The aircraft landed at Aden International Airport, and the hostages were released on the following day once the demands of the perpetrators were accepted.Lufthansa_item_10_38
    • On 10 July, a similar hijacking attempt occurred on board a Lufthansa Boeing 737-100 during a flight from Cologne to Munich.Lufthansa_item_10_39
    • 11 October a Boeing 727 was hijacked on a flight from Lisbon to Frankfurt. Upon landing at Frankfurt Airport, the perpetrator tried to flee but was captured by police forces.Lufthansa_item_10_40
    • On 29 October, two men hijacked Flight 615 with 11 other passengers and 7 crew members on board during a flight from Beirut to Ankara (and onwards to Germany), in order to liberate the three surviving members of the Black September group responsible for the Munich massacre. Whilst the hijacked Boeing 727 (registered D-ABIG) was forced to circle over Zagreb Airport in danger of eventual fuel starvation, the West German authorities decided to comply with the demands. The prisoners were handed over and the aircraft was allowed to be flown to Tripoli, where the hostages were released.Lufthansa_item_10_41
  • On 17 December 1973, in the wake of the events surrounding Pan Am Flight 110, a parked Lufthansa Boeing 737-100 (registered D-ABEY) was hijacked at Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport in Rome. 10 Italian hostages that had been taken by Palestinian terrorists at the airport were forced into the aircraft by 5 perpetrators, and the German crew (2 pilots and 2 flight attendants) that was on board preparing the departure to Munich had to fly the aircraft instead first to Athens and then to several other airports until the ordeal ended at Kuwait International Airport the next day, where the hijackers surrendered.Lufthansa_item_10_42
  • On 28 June 1977, a Lufthansa Boeing 727 was hijacked during a flight from Frankfurt to Istanbul and forced to divert to Munich.Lufthansa_item_10_43
  • The Hijacking of the Landshut occurred on 13 October 1977, at a time when West Germany had come under intense terroristic pressure known as German Autumn. The Boeing 737-200 (registered D-ABCE) was hijacked en route Flight 181 from Palma de Mallorca to Frankfurt by 4 terrorists of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, who thus wanted to force the German government to release several RAF terrorists. The crew had to divert the aircraft with 87 other passengers first to Rome, and then onwards to Larnaca, Bahrain, Dubai, Aden (where the captain was killed when he returned to the aircraft after negotiations with the local authorities), and finally to Mogadishu in an ordeal that took several days. At Mogadishu Airport, the German GSG 9 special forces stormed the aircraft in the early hours of 18 October local time, killing 3 terrorists and freeing all hostages.Lufthansa_item_10_44
  • On 12 September 1979, a hijacking attempt occurred on board a Lufthansa Boeing 727 on a flight from Frankfurt to Cologne, but the perpetrator quickly surrendered.Lufthansa_item_10_45
  • Three hijackings occurred in due course in early 1985:Lufthansa_item_10_46
    • On 27 February, a Boeing 727 was hijacked en route a Lufthansa flight from Frankfurt to Damascus. Two perpetrators forced the pilots to divert the aircraft (with 35 other passengers on board) to Vienna International Airport, where they surrendered.Lufthansa_item_10_47
    • On 27 March, another 727 was hijacked, this time on a flight from Munich to Athens. A man demanded the pilots to divert to Libya. During a fuel stop at Istanbul, the aircraft was stormed and the perpetrator arrested.Lufthansa_item_10_48
    • Only two days later, a mentally ill person on board a Lufthansa Boeing 737-200 on a flight from Hamburg to London demanded to be taken to Hawaii instead.Lufthansa_item_10_49
  • On 11 February 1993, Lufthansa Flight 592 from Frankfurt to Addis Ababa via Cairo with 94 passengers and 10 crew members was hijacked during the first leg by 20-year-old Nebiu Zewolde Demeke, who forced the pilots to divert the Airbus A310 (registered D-AIDM) to the United States, with the intent of securing the right of asylum there. Demeke, who had been on the flight to be deported back to his native Ethiopia, surrendered to authorities upon arrival at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City. No passengers or crew members were harmed during the 12-hour ordeal.Lufthansa_item_10_50

Criticism Lufthansa_section_38

Employment relations Lufthansa_section_39

Relations between Lufthansa and their pilots have been very tense in the past years, with many strikes occurring, causing many flights to be cancelled, as well as major losses to the company. Lufthansa_sentence_251

A major dispute between Lufthansa and the pilot's union has been settled after nearly five years and overall 14 strikes in December 2017. Lufthansa_sentence_252

Germanwings crisis management Lufthansa_section_40

Main article: Germanwings Flight 9525 Lufthansa_sentence_253

Germanwings was a subsidiary of Lufthansa. Lufthansa_sentence_254

Carsten Spohr, Lufthansa's CEO, oversaw the Germanwings Flight 9525 accident, "the darkest day for Lufthansa in its 60-year history". Lufthansa_sentence_255

Nonetheless, damage control by Spohr and his team was poor according to several sources, as compared to other CEOs in the face of a major accident, with contradictory information given about the mental health and the airworthiness of the co-pilot Andreas Lubitz. Lufthansa_sentence_256

It was revealed that Lubitz suffered from a severe case of depression and mental disorders and had intentionally crashed Germanwings Flight 9525 into the French Alps, killing all 150 aboard. Lufthansa_sentence_257

Spohr had misleadingly said the co-pilot "was 100% airworthy without any restrictions, without any conditions". Lufthansa_sentence_258

GDS surcharge Lufthansa_section_41

On 1 September 2015, Lufthansa implemented a 16 euro surcharge on Global Distribution System bookings. Lufthansa_sentence_259

The surcharge is payable unless tickets are purchased directly from the airline's website, or at its service centres and ticket counters at the airport. Lufthansa_sentence_260

In a statement responding to Lufthansa's strategy, Amadeus, a travel technology company, said the new model would make "comparison and transparency more difficult because travellers will now be forced to go to multiple channels to search for the best fares. Lufthansa_sentence_261

For the period between 1–14 September, the airline experienced a 16.1% drop in revenue, indicating to some that the new fee backfired, although the airline maintains the statement that the decrease was due to the pilot strike, and "other seasonal effects". Lufthansa_sentence_262

Deportation flights Lufthansa_section_42

Activists from Germany have criticised Lufthansa for performing deportation flights on behalf of the German government. Lufthansa_sentence_263

In 2019, 4,573 people were deported on their planes, while their subsidiary Eurowings performed 1,312 deportations. Lufthansa_sentence_264

This totals more than 25% of deportations in Germany in 2019. Lufthansa_sentence_265

At least two deportees perished during transport. Lufthansa_sentence_266

See also Lufthansa_section_43

Lufthansa_unordered_list_11


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lufthansa.