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This article is about publications. Magazine_sentence_0

For other uses, see Magazine (disambiguation). Magazine_sentence_1

"Quarterly" redirects here. Magazine_sentence_2

For quarterly in heraldry, see Quartering (heraldry). Magazine_sentence_3

A magazine is a periodical publication which is printed in gloss-coated and matte paper or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine). Magazine_sentence_4

Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content. Magazine_sentence_5

They are generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. Magazine_sentence_6

Definition Magazine_section_0

By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 ⁄8 in × 10 ⁄8 in (210 mm × 280 mm). Magazine_sentence_7

However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume. Magazine_sentence_8

Thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal. Magazine_sentence_9

Some professional or trade publications are also peer-reviewed, for example the Journal of Accountancy. Magazine_sentence_10

Non-peer-reviewed academic or professional publications are generally professional magazines. Magazine_sentence_11

That a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense; The Wall Street Journal is actually a newspaper. Magazine_sentence_12

Etymology Magazine_section_1

From Middle French magasin "warehouse, depot, store", from Italian magazzino, from Arabic makhazin, plural of makhzan "storehouse". Magazine_sentence_13

At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. Magazine_sentence_14

In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. Magazine_sentence_15

This explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French and Russian (adopted from French as Магазин), retail stores such as department stores. Magazine_sentence_16

Distribution Magazine_section_2

Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations. Magazine_sentence_17

The subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories: Magazine_sentence_18

In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Magazine_sentence_19

Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics. Magazine_sentence_20

Non-paid circulation Magazine_section_4

This means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Magazine_sentence_21

Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, and not who reads them. Magazine_sentence_22

Controlled circulation Magazine_section_5

This is the model used by many trade magazines (industry-based periodicals) distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. Magazine_sentence_23

Because of costs (e.g., printing and postage) associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one (unqualified leads); instead, they operate under controlled circulation, deciding who may receive free subscriptions based on each person's qualification as a member of the trade (and likelihood of buying, for example, likelihood of having corporate purchasing authority, as determined from job title). Magazine_sentence_24

This allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, and it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. Magazine_sentence_25

This latter model was widely used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. Magazine_sentence_26

For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, and in finance, Waters Magazine. Magazine_sentence_27

For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International. Magazine_sentence_28

History Magazine_section_6

The earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, which was launched in 1663 in Germany. Magazine_sentence_29

The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731 in London was the first general-interest magazine. Magazine_sentence_30

Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban," was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse. Magazine_sentence_31

Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. Magazine_sentence_32

Britain Magazine_section_7

The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, which was first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Magazine_sentence_33

Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734; and though its online platform is still updated daily it has not been published as a magazine since 2013 after 274 years. Magazine_sentence_34

France Magazine_section_8

Main articles: History of French journalism and History of journalism Magazine_sentence_35

Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, and Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Magazine_sentence_36

Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists. Magazine_sentence_37

He disseminated the weekly news of music, dance and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique (1650, 1660, 1665). Magazine_sentence_38

The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Magazine_sentence_39

Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris. Magazine_sentence_40

They were not totally quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. Magazine_sentence_41

They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. Magazine_sentence_42

During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Magazine_sentence_43

Jean-Paul Marat (1743–1793) was the most prominent editor. Magazine_sentence_44

His L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated; it closed when he was assassinated. Magazine_sentence_45

After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazine_sentence_46

Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Magazine_sentence_47

Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature, poetry and stories. Magazine_sentence_48

They served religious, cultural and political communities. Magazine_sentence_49

In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major elements in the changing political culture. Magazine_sentence_50

For example, there were eight Catholic periodicals in 1830 in Paris. Magazine_sentence_51

None were officially owned or sponsored by the Church and they reflected a range of opinion among educated Catholics about current issues, such as the 1830 July Revolution that overthrew the Bourbon monarchy. Magazine_sentence_52

Several were strong supporters of the Bourbon kings, but all eight ultimately urged support for the new government, putting their appeals in terms of preserving civil order. Magazine_sentence_53

They often discussed the relationship between church and state. Magazine_sentence_54

Generally, they urged priests to focus on spiritual matters and not engage in politics. Magazine_sentence_55

Historian M. Patricia Dougherty says this process created a distance between the Church and the new monarch and enabled Catholics to develop a new understanding of church-state relationships and the source of political authority. Magazine_sentence_56

Turkey Magazine_section_9

General Magazine_section_10

The Moniteur Ottoman was a gazette written in French and first published in 1831 on the order of Mahmud II. Magazine_sentence_57

It was the first official gazette of the Ottoman Empire, edited by Alexandre Blacque at the expense of the Sublime Porte. Magazine_sentence_58

Its name perhaps referred to the French newspaper Le Moniteur Universel. Magazine_sentence_59

It was issued weekly. Magazine_sentence_60

Takvim-i vekayi was published a few months later, intended as a translation of the Moniteur into Ottoman Turkish. Magazine_sentence_61

After having been edited by former Consul for Denmark "M. Franceschi", and later on by "Hassuna de Ghiez", it was lastly edited by Lucien Rouet. Magazine_sentence_62

However, facing the hostility of embassies, it was closed in the 1840s. Magazine_sentence_63

Satire Magazine_section_11

Satirical magazines of Turkey have a long tradition, with the first magazine (Diyojen) published in 1869. Magazine_sentence_64

There are currently around 20 satirical magazines; the leading ones are Penguen (70,000 weekly circulation), LeMan (50,000) and Uykusuz. Magazine_sentence_65

Historical examples include Oğuz Aral's magazine Gırgır (which reached a circulation of 500,000 in the 1970s) and Marko Paşa (launched 1946). Magazine_sentence_66

Others include L-Manyak and Lombak. Magazine_sentence_67

United States Magazine_section_12

Further information: History of American journalism and Mass media and American politics Magazine_sentence_68

Late 19th century Magazine_section_13

In the mid-1800s, monthly magazines gained popularity. Magazine_sentence_69

They were general interest to begin, containing some news, vignettes, poems, history, political events, and social discussion. Magazine_sentence_70

Unlike newspapers, they were more of a monthly record of current events along with entertaining stories, poems, and pictures. Magazine_sentence_71

The first periodicals to branch out from news were Harper's and The Atlantic, which focused on fostering the arts. Magazine_sentence_72

Both Harper's and The Atlantic persist to this day, with Harper's being a cultural magazine and The Atlantic focusing mainly on world events. Magazine_sentence_73

Early publications of Harper's even held famous works such as early publications of Moby Dick or famous events such as the laying of the world's first transatlantic telegraph cable; however, the majority of early content was trickle down from British events. Magazine_sentence_74

The development of the magazines stimulated an increase in literary criticism and political debate, moving towards more opinionated pieces from the objective newspapers. Magazine_sentence_75

The increased time between prints and the greater amount of space to write provided a forum for public arguments by scholars and critical observers. Magazine_sentence_76

The early periodical predecessors to magazines started to evolve to modern definition in the late 1800s. Magazine_sentence_77

Works slowly became more specialized and the general discussion or cultural periodicals were forced to adapt to a consumer market which yearned for more localization of issues and events. Magazine_sentence_78

Progressive Era: 1890s–1920s Magazine_section_14

Further information: Muckrakers and Mass media and American politics Magazine_sentence_79

Mass circulation magazines became much more common after 1900, some with circulations in the hundreds of thousands of subscribers. Magazine_sentence_80

Some passed the million-mark in the 1920s. Magazine_sentence_81

It was an age of mass media. Magazine_sentence_82

Because of the rapid expansion of national advertising, the cover price fell sharply to about 10 cents. Magazine_sentence_83

One cause was the heavy coverage of corruption in politics, local government and big business, especially by Muckrakers. Magazine_sentence_84

They were journalists who wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings. Magazine_sentence_85

They relied on their own investigative journalism reporting; muckrakers often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption. Magazine_sentence_86

Muckraking magazines–notably McClure's–took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues like child labor. Magazine_sentence_87

The journalists who specialized in exposing waste, corruption, and scandal operated at the state and local level, like Ray Stannard Baker, George Creel, and Brand Whitlock. Magazine_sentence_88

Other like Lincoln Steffens exposed political corruption in many large cities; Ida Tarbell went after John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Magazine_sentence_89

Samuel Hopkins Adams in 1905 showed the fraud involved in many patent medicines, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel The Jungle gave a horrid portrayal of how meat was packed, and, also in 1906, David Graham Phillips unleashed a blistering indictment of the U.S. Senate. Magazine_sentence_90

Roosevelt gave these journalists their nickname when he complained they were not being helpful by raking up all the muck. Magazine_sentence_91

21st century Magazine_section_15

In 2011, 152 magazines ceased operations. Magazine_sentence_92

Between the years of 2008 to 2015, Oxbridge communications announced that 227 magazines launched and 82 magazines closed in 2012 in North America. Magazine_sentence_93

Furthermore, according to, 93 new magazines launched between the first six months of 2014 and just 30 closed. Magazine_sentence_94

The category which produced the most new publications was "Regional interest", of which six new magazines were launched, including 12th & Broad and Craft Beer & Brewing. Magazine_sentence_95

However, two magazines had to change their print schedules. Magazine_sentence_96

Johnson Publishing's Jet stopped printing regular issues making the transition to digital format, however still print an annual print edition. Magazine_sentence_97

Ladies' Home Journal stopped their monthly schedule and home delivery for subscribers to become a quarterly newsstand-only special interest publication. Magazine_sentence_98

According to statistics from the end of 2013, subscription levels for 22 of the top 25 magazines declined from 2012 to 2013, with just Time, Glamour and ESPN The Magazine gaining numbers. Magazine_sentence_99

Types Magazine_section_16

Women's magazines Magazine_section_17

Fashion Magazine_section_18

Main article: Flapper Magazine_sentence_100

Immortalized in movies and magazines, young women's fashions of the 1920s set both a trend and social statement, a breaking-off from the rigid Victorian way of life. Magazine_sentence_101

Their glamorous life style was celebrated in the feature pages and in the advertisements, where tubhey learned the brands that best exemplified the look they sought. Magazine_sentence_102

These young, rebellious, middle-class women, labeled "flappers" by older generations, did away with the corset and donned slinky knee-length dresses, which exposed their legs and arms. Magazine_sentence_103

The hairstyle of the decade was a chin-length bob, which had several popular variations. Magazine_sentence_104

Cosmetics, which, until the 1920s, were not typically accepted in American society because of their association with prostitution, became, for the first time, extremely popular. Magazine_sentence_105

In the 1920s new magazines appealed to young German women with a sensuous image and advertisements for the appropriate clothes and accessories they would want to purchase. Magazine_sentence_106

The glossy pages of Die Dame and Das Blatt der Hausfrau displayed the "Neue Frauen," "New Girl" – what Americans called the flapper. Magazine_sentence_107

She was young and fashionable, financially independent, and was an eager consumer of the latest fashions. Magazine_sentence_108

The magazines kept her up to date on fashion, arts, sports, and modern technology such as automobiles and telephones. Magazine_sentence_109

Parenting Magazine_section_19

The first women’s magazine targeted toward wives and mothers was published in 1852. Magazine_sentence_110

Through the use of advice columns, advertisements, and various publications related to parenting, women’s magazines have influenced views of motherhood and child-rearing. Magazine_sentence_111

Mass-marketed women’s magazines have shaped and transformed cultural values related to parenting practices. Magazine_sentence_112

As such, magazines targeting women and parenthood have exerted power and influence over ideas about motherhood and child-rearing. Magazine_sentence_113

Religious magazines Magazine_section_20

Religious groups have used magazines for spreading and communicating religious doctrine for over 100 years. Magazine_sentence_114

The Friend was founded in Philadelphia in 1827 at the time of a major Quaker schism; it has been continually published and was renamed Friends Journal when the rival Quaker groups formally reconciled in the mid-1950s. Magazine_sentence_115

Several Catholic magazines launched at the turn of the 20th Century that still remain in circulation including; St. Magazine_sentence_116 Anthony Messenger founded in 1893 and published by the Franciscan Friars (O.F.M.) Magazine_sentence_117

of St. John the Baptist Province, Cincinnati, Ohio, Los Angeles based , founded in 1895 (renamed Angelus in 2016), and published jointly by The Tidings Corporation and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles, and , founded in 1907 by the which brings news about the organization's charitable and missionary work in over 100 countries. Magazine_sentence_118

There are over 100 Catholic magazines published in the United States, and thousands globally which range in scope from inspirational messages to specific religious orders, faithful family life, to global issues facing the world wide Church. Magazine_sentence_119

The Watchtower publication was started by Charles Taze Russell on July 1879 under the title Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence. Magazine_sentence_120

The Watchtower—Public Edition is one of the most widely circulated magazine in the world, with an average printing of approximately 62 million copies every two months in 200 languages. Magazine_sentence_121

See also Magazine_section_21

Lists Magazine_section_22

Categories Magazine_section_23


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