Magdalena River

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Magdalena River_table_infobox_0

MagdalenaMagdalena River_header_cell_0_0_0
EtymologyMagdalena River_header_cell_0_1_0 Biblical figure Mary MagdaleneMagdalena River_cell_0_1_1
LocationMagdalena River_header_cell_0_2_0
CountryMagdalena River_header_cell_0_3_0 ColombiaMagdalena River_cell_0_3_1
CitiesMagdalena River_header_cell_0_4_0 Magdalena River_cell_0_4_1
Physical characteristicsMagdalena River_header_cell_0_5_0
SourceMagdalena River_header_cell_0_6_0 La Magdalena lagoonMagdalena River_cell_0_6_1
locationMagdalena River_header_cell_0_7_0 Colombian Massif, ColombiaMagdalena River_cell_0_7_1
coordinatesMagdalena River_header_cell_0_8_0 Magdalena River_cell_0_8_1
elevationMagdalena River_header_cell_0_9_0 3,685 m (12,090 ft)Magdalena River_cell_0_9_1
MouthMagdalena River_header_cell_0_10_0 Caribbean SeaMagdalena River_cell_0_10_1
locationMagdalena River_header_cell_0_11_0 Barranquilla, ColombiaMagdalena River_cell_0_11_1
coordinatesMagdalena River_header_cell_0_12_0 Magdalena River_cell_0_12_1
elevationMagdalena River_header_cell_0_13_0 0 m (0 ft)Magdalena River_cell_0_13_1
LengthMagdalena River_header_cell_0_14_0 1,528 km (949 mi)Magdalena River_cell_0_14_1
Basin sizeMagdalena River_header_cell_0_15_0 257,438 km (99,397 sq mi)Magdalena River_cell_0_15_1
DischargeMagdalena River_header_cell_0_16_0 Magdalena River_cell_0_16_1
locationMagdalena River_header_cell_0_17_0 Calamar, BolívarMagdalena River_cell_0_17_1
averageMagdalena River_header_cell_0_18_0 7,200 m/s (250,000 cu ft/s)Magdalena River_cell_0_18_1
minimumMagdalena River_header_cell_0_19_0 2,000 m/s (71,000 cu ft/s)Magdalena River_cell_0_19_1
maximumMagdalena River_header_cell_0_20_0 12,000 m/s (420,000 cu ft/s)Magdalena River_cell_0_20_1
Basin featuresMagdalena River_header_cell_0_21_0
TributariesMagdalena River_header_cell_0_22_0 Magdalena River_cell_0_22_1
leftMagdalena River_header_cell_0_23_0 Páez River, Saldaña River, La Miel River, Nare River, Cauca River, San Jorge RiverMagdalena River_cell_0_23_1
rightMagdalena River_header_cell_0_24_0 Cabrera River, Bogotá River, Negro River, Carare River, Sogamoso River, Cesar RiverMagdalena River_cell_0_24_1
Ramsar WetlandMagdalena River_header_cell_0_25_0
Official nameMagdalena River_header_cell_0_26_0 Sistema Delta Estuarino del Río Magdalena, Ciénaga Grande de Santa MartaMagdalena River_cell_0_26_1
DesignatedMagdalena River_header_cell_0_27_0 18 June 1998Magdalena River_cell_0_27_1
Reference no.Magdalena River_header_cell_0_28_0 951Magdalena River_cell_0_28_1

The Magdalena River (Spanish: Río Magdalena, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈri.o maɣðaˈlena; Less commonly Rio Grande de la Magdalena) is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about 1,528 kilometres (949 mi) through the western half of the country. Magdalena River_sentence_0

It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene. Magdalena River_sentence_1

It is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as far as Honda, at the downstream base of its rapids. Magdalena River_sentence_2

It flows through the Magdalena River Valley. Magdalena River_sentence_3

Its drainage basin covers a surface of 273,000 square kilometres (105,000 sq mi), which is 24% of the country's area and where 66% of its population lives. Magdalena River_sentence_4

Course Magdalena River_section_0

The headwaters of the Magdalena River are in the south of Colombia, where the Andean subranges Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental separate, in Huila Department. Magdalena River_sentence_5

The river then runs east of north in a great valley between the two cordilleras. Magdalena River_sentence_6

It reaches the coastal plain at about nine degrees north, then runs west for about 100 km (62 mi), then north again, reaching the Caribbean Sea at the city of Barranquilla in the zone known as Bocas de Ceniza. Magdalena River_sentence_7

Flora and fauna Magdalena River_section_1

See also: Biodiversity of Colombia Magdalena River_sentence_8

Fish Magdalena River_section_2

See also: List of fishes in the Magdalena river Magdalena River_sentence_9

The Magdalena River basin, which includes the Cauca River and other tributaries, is very rich in fish. Magdalena River_sentence_10

As of 2008, 213 fish species were known from the basin. Magdalena River_sentence_11

Since then several new species have been described from the basin such as five Hemibrycon in 2013, two Ancistrus in 2013 and a Farlowella in 2014. Magdalena River_sentence_12

Among the more famous species in the basin are Kronoheros umbriferus, Ctenolucius hujeta, Geophagus steindachneri, Ichthyoelephas longirostris, Panaque cochliodon, Pimelodus blochii, Potamotrygon magdalenae, Prochilodus magdalenae, Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum and Salminus affinis. Magdalena River_sentence_13

About 55% of the fish species in the basin are endemic, including four endemic genera: The catfish Centrochir and Eremophilus, and the characids Carlastyanax (often included in Astyanax) and Genycharax. Magdalena River_sentence_14

In general, the fish fauna shows connections with surrounding basins, notably Atrato and Maracaibo, but to a lesser extent also AmazonOrinoco. Magdalena River_sentence_15

The most productive fishing areas in Colombia are in the basin, but there has been a drastic decrease in the annual harvest with a fall of about 90% between 1975 and 2008. Magdalena River_sentence_16

The primary threats are pollution (such as human waste, mining, farming and deforestation causing siltation) and habitat loss (such a dams). Magdalena River_sentence_17

Additional dams are being constructed, including El Quimbo (opened in 2015) and Ituango (expected operational in 2018), which has caused some controversy. Magdalena River_sentence_18

As a result of the pollution, heavy metals have also been detected in some commercially important fish in the river. Magdalena River_sentence_19

As of 2002, 19 fish species in the river basin were recognized as threatened. Magdalena River_sentence_20

Other animals Magdalena River_section_3

The Magdalena River and its valley crosses a wide variety of ecosystems, like páramo in its headwaters, dry forest in the upper part of its valley, rainforest in its middle course, and swamps and wetlands in its lower course. Magdalena River_sentence_21

The spectacled caiman, green iguana and brown pelican are abundant in these ecosystems but other animal species like the West Indian manatee, Magdalena tinamou, Todd's parakeet, American crocodile, Colombian slider, Magdalena River turtle, Dahl's toad-headed turtle and red-footed tortoise are in danger of extinction. Magdalena River_sentence_22

In addition, there is a possible risk posed by invasive hippopotamus. Magdalena River_sentence_23

Originally imported by Pablo Escobar, these hippopotami became feral following his demise, and have since expanded beyond their original home on Hacienda Napoles into nearby regions of the Magdalena River. Magdalena River_sentence_24

History Magdalena River_section_4

Due to its geographical position in the north of South America, the Magdalena River was since precolumbian times a route towards the interior of today Colombia and Ecuador. Magdalena River_sentence_25

Several Carib speaking peoples such as the Panche and the Yariguí ascended through the western bank of the river, while its eastern portion was inhabited by the Muisca civilization, which called the river Yuma. Magdalena River_sentence_26

Likewise, the Spanish conquistadores who arrived to today's Colombia early in the 16th century used the river to push to the wild and mountainous inland after Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered and named the river on April 1, 1501. Magdalena River_sentence_27

During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the river was the only transport link communicating Bogotá with the Caribbean Sea port Cartagena de Indias and thus with Europe. Magdalena River_sentence_28

In 1825, the Congress of Colombia awarded a concession to establish steam navigation in the Magdalena River to Juan Bernardo Elbers, but his company closed shortly after. Magdalena River_sentence_29

By 1845, steamboats regularly travelled on the river until 1961, when the last steamers ceased operation. Magdalena River_sentence_30

In mass media Magdalena River_section_5

Much of the film Love in the Time of Cholera takes place in the historic, walled city of Cartagena in Colombia. Magdalena River_sentence_31

Some screen shots showed the Magdalena River and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range. Magdalena River_sentence_32

The General in His Labyrinth, by Gabriel García Márquez, is a fictionalized account of the final voyage of Simón Bolívar down the Magdalena River, where he revisits many cities and villages along the river. Magdalena River_sentence_33

In Magdalena: River of Dreams (Knopf, 2020) Canadian writer, anthropologist, and explorer Wade Davis travels the length of the river by boat, on foot, by car, and on horseback combining descriptions of nature with episodes from Colombian history. Magdalena River_sentence_34

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: River.