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Not to be confused with Malesia. Malaysia_sentence_0


CapitalMalaysia_header_cell_0_1_0 Kuala Lumpur

Putrajaya (administrative)Malaysia_cell_0_1_1

Largest cityMalaysia_header_cell_0_2_0 Kuala LumpurMalaysia_cell_0_2_1
Official language
and national languageMalaysia_header_cell_0_3_0
Recognised languageMalaysia_header_cell_0_4_0 EnglishMalaysia_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groups (2018)Malaysia_header_cell_0_5_0 Malaysia_cell_0_5_1
ReligionMalaysia_header_cell_0_6_0 Malaysia_cell_0_6_1
Demonym(s)Malaysia_header_cell_0_7_0 MalaysianMalaysia_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentMalaysia_header_cell_0_8_0 Federal parliamentary constitutional elective monarchyMalaysia_cell_0_8_1
Yang di-Pertuan AgongMalaysia_header_cell_0_9_0 Abdullah al-HajMalaysia_cell_0_9_1
Prime MinisterMalaysia_header_cell_0_10_0 Muhyiddin YassinMalaysia_cell_0_10_1
LegislatureMalaysia_header_cell_0_11_0 ParliamentMalaysia_cell_0_11_1
Upper houseMalaysia_header_cell_0_12_0 Dewan Negara (Senate)Malaysia_cell_0_12_1
Lower houseMalaysia_header_cell_0_13_0 Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)Malaysia_cell_0_13_1
Independence from the United KingdomMalaysia_header_cell_0_14_0
Independence of the Federation of MalayaMalaysia_header_cell_0_15_0 31 August 1957Malaysia_cell_0_15_1
Sarawak self-governanceMalaysia_header_cell_0_16_0 22 July 1963Malaysia_cell_0_16_1
North Borneo self-governanceMalaysia_header_cell_0_17_0 31 August 1963Malaysia_cell_0_17_1
Proclamation of MalaysiaMalaysia_header_cell_0_18_0 16 September 1963Malaysia_cell_0_18_1
Secession of SingaporeMalaysia_header_cell_0_19_0 9 August 1965Malaysia_cell_0_19_1
Area Malaysia_header_cell_0_20_0
TotalMalaysia_header_cell_0_21_0 330,803 km (127,724 sq mi) (66th)Malaysia_cell_0_21_1
Water (%)Malaysia_header_cell_0_22_0 0.3Malaysia_cell_0_22_1
Q1 2020 estimateMalaysia_header_cell_0_24_0 32,730,000 (43rd)Malaysia_cell_0_24_1
2010 censusMalaysia_header_cell_0_25_0 28,334,135Malaysia_cell_0_25_1
DensityMalaysia_header_cell_0_26_0 92/km (238.3/sq mi) (116th)Malaysia_cell_0_26_1
GDP (PPP)Malaysia_header_cell_0_27_0 2020 estimateMalaysia_cell_0_27_1
TotalMalaysia_header_cell_0_28_0 $900.426 billion (29th)Malaysia_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaMalaysia_header_cell_0_29_0 $27,287 (51st)Malaysia_cell_0_29_1
GDP (nominal)Malaysia_header_cell_0_30_0 2020 estimateMalaysia_cell_0_30_1
TotalMalaysia_header_cell_0_31_0 $336.330 billion (39th)Malaysia_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaMalaysia_header_cell_0_32_0 $10,192 (60th)Malaysia_cell_0_32_1
Gini (2015)Malaysia_header_cell_0_33_0 41


HDI (2018)Malaysia_header_cell_0_34_0 0.804

very high · 61stMalaysia_cell_0_34_1

CurrencyMalaysia_header_cell_0_35_0 Ringgit (RM) (MYR)Malaysia_cell_0_35_1
Time zoneMalaysia_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC+8 (MST)Malaysia_cell_0_36_1
Date formatMalaysia_header_cell_0_37_0 dd-mm-yyyyMalaysia_cell_0_37_1
Driving sideMalaysia_header_cell_0_38_0 leftMalaysia_cell_0_38_1
Calling codeMalaysia_header_cell_0_39_0 +60Malaysia_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeMalaysia_header_cell_0_40_0 MYMalaysia_cell_0_40_1
Internet TLDMalaysia_header_cell_0_41_0 .myMalaysia_cell_0_41_1

Malaysia (/məˈleɪziə, -ʒə/ (listen) mə-LAY-zee-ə, -⁠zhə; Malay: [məlejsiə) is a country in Southeast Asia. Malaysia_sentence_1

The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_2

Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Malaysia_sentence_3

East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Malaysia_sentence_4

Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of the federal government. Malaysia_sentence_5

With a population of over 32 million, Malaysia is the world's 43rd-most populous country. Malaysia_sentence_6

The southernmost point of continental Eurasia is in Tanjung Piai. Malaysia_sentence_7

In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, home to a number of endemic species. Malaysia_sentence_8

Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate. Malaysia_sentence_9

Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaysia_sentence_10

Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaysia_sentence_11

Malaya united with North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_12

In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation. Malaysia_sentence_13

The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which has a significant effect on its politics. Malaysia_sentence_14

About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Chinese, Indians, and indigenous peoples. Malaysia_sentence_15

The country's official language is Malaysian, a standard form of the Malay language. Malaysia_sentence_16

English remains an active second language. Malaysia_sentence_17

While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. Malaysia_sentence_18

The government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. Malaysia_sentence_19

The head of state is an elected monarch, chosen from among the nine state sultans every five years. Malaysia_sentence_20

The head of government is the Prime Minister. Malaysia_sentence_21

After independence, the Malaysian GDP grew at an average of 6.5% per annum for almost 50 years. Malaysia_sentence_22

The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism. Malaysia_sentence_23

Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third-largest in Southeast Asia and 33rd-largest in the world. Malaysia_sentence_24

It is a founding member of ASEAN, EAS, OIC and a member of APEC, the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement. Malaysia_sentence_25

Etymology Malaysia_section_0

Main article: Malay people Malaysia_sentence_26

The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία which can be translated as "land of the Malays". Malaysia_sentence_27

The origin of the word 'Melayu' is subject to various theories. Malaysia_sentence_28

It may derive from the Sanskrit "Himalaya", referring to areas high in the mountains, or "Malaiyur-pura", meaning mountain town. Malaysia_sentence_29

Another similar theory claims its origin lies in the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. Malaysia_sentence_30

Another suggestion is that it derives from the Pamalayu campaign. Malaysia_sentence_31

A final suggestion is that it comes from a Javanese word meaning "to run", from which a river, the Sungai Melayu ('Melayu river'), was named due to its strong current. Malaysia_sentence_32

Similar-sounding variants have also appeared in accounts older than the 11th century, as toponyms for areas in Sumatra or referring to a larger region around the Strait of Malacca. Malaysia_sentence_33

The Sanskrit text Vayu Purana, thought to have been in existence since the first millennium CE, mentioned a land named 'Malayadvipa' which was identified by certain scholars as the modern Malay peninsula. Malaysia_sentence_34

Other notable accounts are by the 2nd century Ptolemy's Geographia that used the name Malayu Kulon for the west coast of Golden Chersonese, and the 7th century Yijing's account of Malayu. Malaysia_sentence_35

At some point, the Melayu Kingdom took its name from the Sungai Melayu. Malaysia_sentence_36

'Melayu' then became associated with Srivijaya, and remained associated with various parts of Sumatra, especially Palembang, where the founder of the Malacca Sultanate is thought to have come from. Malaysia_sentence_37

It is only thought to have developed into an ethnonym as Malacca became a regional power in the 15th century. Malaysia_sentence_38

Islamisation established an ethnoreligious identity in Malacca, with the term 'Melayu' beginning to appear as interchangeable with 'Melakans'. Malaysia_sentence_39

It may have specifically referred to local Malays speakers thought loyal to the Malaccan Sultan. Malaysia_sentence_40

The initial Portuguese use of Malayos reflected this, referring only to the ruling people of Malacca. Malaysia_sentence_41

The prominence of traders from Malacca led 'Melayu' to be associated with Muslim traders, and from there became associated with the wider cultural and linguistic group. Malaysia_sentence_42

Malacca and later Johor claimed they were the centre of Malay culture, a position supported by the British which led to the term 'Malay' becoming more usually linked to the Malay peninsula rather than Sumatra. Malaysia_sentence_43

Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu" ("Malay Land"). Malaysia_sentence_44

Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Malaysia_sentence_45

Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he later proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Malaysia_sentence_46

Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area commonly known as the East Indies". Malaysia_sentence_47

In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former. Malaysia_sentence_48

In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas. Malaysia_sentence_49

The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE. Malaysia_sentence_50

The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. Malaysia_sentence_51

One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Malaysia_sentence_52

Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Malaysia_sentence_53

History Malaysia_section_1

Main article: History of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_54

Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years. Malaysia_sentence_55

In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Malaysia_sentence_56

Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries. Malaysia_sentence_57

Their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, and the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Malaysia_sentence_58

Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fourth or fifth century. Malaysia_sentence_59

The Kingdom of Langkasuka arose around the second century in the northern area of the Malay Peninsula, lasting until about the 15th century. Malaysia_sentence_60

Between the 7th and 13th centuries, much of the southern Malay Peninsula was part of the maritime Srivijayan empire. Malaysia_sentence_61

By the 13th and the 14th century, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya. Malaysia_sentence_62

Islam began to spread among Malays in the 14th century. Malaysia_sentence_63

In the early 15th century, Parameswara, a runaway king of the former Kingdom of Singapura linked to the old Srivijayan court, founded the Malacca Sultanate. Malaysia_sentence_64

Malacca was an important commercial centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region. Malaysia_sentence_65

In 1511, Malacca was conquered by Portugal, after which it was taken by the Dutch in 1641. Malaysia_sentence_66

In 1786, the British Empire established a presence in Malaya, when the Sultan of Kedah leased Penang Island to the British East India Company. Malaysia_sentence_67

The British obtained the town of Singapore in 1819, and in 1824 took control of Malacca following the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. Malaysia_sentence_68

By 1826, the British directly controlled Penang, Malacca, Singapore, and the island of Labuan, which they established as the crown colony of the Straits Settlements. Malaysia_sentence_69

By the 20th century, the states of Pahang, Selangor, Perak, and Negeri Sembilan, known together as the Federated Malay States, had British residents appointed to advise the Malay rulers, to whom the rulers were bound to defer by treaty. Malaysia_sentence_70

The remaining five states in the peninsula, known as the Unfederated Malay States, while not directly under British rule, also accepted British advisers around the turn of the 20th century. Malaysia_sentence_71

Development on the peninsula and Borneo were generally separate until the 19th century. Malaysia_sentence_72

Under British rule the immigration of Chinese and Indians to serve as labourers was encouraged. Malaysia_sentence_73

The area that is now Sabah came under British control as North Borneo when both the Sultan of Brunei and the Sultan of Sulu transferred their respective territorial rights of ownership, between 1877 and 1878. Malaysia_sentence_74

In 1842, Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, whose successors ruled as the White Rajahs over an independent kingdom until 1946, when it became a crown colony. Malaysia_sentence_75

In the Second World War, the Japanese Army invaded and occupied Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore for over three years. Malaysia_sentence_76

During this time, ethnic tensions were raised and nationalism grew. Malaysia_sentence_77

Popular support for independence increased after Malaya was reconquered by Allied forces. Malaysia_sentence_78

Post-war British plans to unite the administration of Malaya under a single crown colony called the "Malayan Union" met with strong opposition from the Malays, who opposed the weakening of the Malay rulers and the granting of citizenship to the ethnic Chinese. Malaysia_sentence_79

The Malayan Union, established in 1946, and consisting of all the British possessions in the Malay Peninsula with the exception of Singapore, was quickly dissolved and replaced on 1 February 1948 by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under British protection. Malaysia_sentence_80

During this time, mostly Chinese rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. Malaysia_sentence_81

The Malayan Emergency lasted from 1948 to 1960, and involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya. Malaysia_sentence_82

On 31 August 1957, Malaya became an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malaysia_sentence_83

After this a plan was put in place to federate Malaya with the crown colonies of North Borneo (which joined as Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore. Malaysia_sentence_84

The date of federation was planned to be 31 August 1963 so as to coincide with the anniversary of Malayan independence; however, federation was delayed until 16 September 1963 in order for a United Nations survey of support for federation in Sabah and Sarawak, called for by parties opposed to federation including Indonesia's Sukarno and the Sarawak United Peoples' Party, to be completed. Malaysia_sentence_85

Federation brought heightened tensions including a conflict with Indonesia as well continuous conflicts against the Communists in Borneo and the Malayan Peninsula which escalates to the Sarawak Communist Insurgency and Second Malayan Emergency together with several other issues such as the cross border attacks into North Borneo by Moro pirates from the southern islands of the Philippines, Singapore being expelled from the Federation in 1965, and racial strife. Malaysia_sentence_86

This strife culminated in the 13 May race riots in 1969. Malaysia_sentence_87

After the riots, the controversial New Economic Policy was launched by Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak, trying to increase the share of the economy held by the bumiputera. Malaysia_sentence_88

Under Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanisation beginning in the 1980s. Malaysia_sentence_89

The economy shifted from being agriculturally based to one based on manufacturing and industry. Malaysia_sentence_90

Numerous mega-projects were completed, such as the Petronas Towers, the North–South Expressway, the Multimedia Super Corridor, and the new federal administrative capital of Putrajaya. Malaysia_sentence_91

However, in the late 1990s the Asian financial crisis almost caused the collapse of the currency and the stock and property markets. Malaysia_sentence_92

Government and politics Malaysia_section_2

Main articles: Politics of Malaysia and Government of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_93

Malaysia is a federal constitutional elective monarchy; the only federal country in Southeast Asia. Malaysia_sentence_94

The system of government is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British rule. Malaysia_sentence_95

The head of state is the King, whose official title is the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. Malaysia_sentence_96

The King is elected to a five-year term by and from among the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states. Malaysia_sentence_97

The other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection. Malaysia_sentence_98

By informal agreement the position is rotated among the nine, and has been held by Abdullah of Pahang since 31 January 2019. Malaysia_sentence_99

The King's role has been largely ceremonial since changes to the constitution in 1994, picking ministers and members of the upper house. Malaysia_sentence_100

Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. Malaysia_sentence_101

The bicameral federal parliament consists of the lower house, the House of Representatives and the upper house, the Senate. Malaysia_sentence_102

The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of five years from single-member constituencies. Malaysia_sentence_103

All 70 senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister's recommendation. Malaysia_sentence_104

The parliament follows a multi-party system and the government is elected through a first-past-the-post system. Malaysia_sentence_105

Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years, the most recent of which took place in May 2018. Malaysia_sentence_106

Before 2018, registered voters aged 21 and above could vote for the members of the House of Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Malaysia_sentence_107

Voting is not mandatory. Malaysia_sentence_108

In July 2019, a bill to lower the voting age to 18 years old was officially passed. Malaysia_sentence_109

Malaysia's ranking increased by 9 places in the 2019 Democracy Index to 43th compared to the previous year, and is classified as a 'flawed democracy'. Malaysia_sentence_110

Executive power is vested in the Cabinet, led by the Prime Minister. Malaysia_sentence_111

The prime minister must be a member of the House of Representatives, who in the opinion of His Majesty the King, commands the support of a majority of members. Malaysia_sentence_112

The Cabinet is chosen from members of both houses of Parliament. Malaysia_sentence_113

The Prime Minister is both the head of cabinet and the head of government. Malaysia_sentence_114

As a result of the 2018 general election Malaysia was governed by the Pakatan Harapan political alliance, however on 24 February 2020 Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad resigned. Malaysia_sentence_115

On 1 March 2020, a new coalition governed Malaysia led by a new 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin. Malaysia_sentence_116

Malaysia's legal system is based on English Common Law. Malaysia_sentence_117

Although the judiciary is theoretically independent, its independence has been called into question and the appointment of judges lacks accountability and transparency. Malaysia_sentence_118

The highest court in the judicial system is the Federal Court, followed by the Court of Appeal and two high courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia and one for East Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_119

Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty. Malaysia_sentence_120

The death penalty is in use for serious crimes such as murder, terrorism, drug trafficking, and kidnapping. Malaysia_sentence_121

Separate from and running parallel to the civil courts are the Syariah Courts, which apply Shariah law to Muslims in the areas of family law and religious observances. Malaysia_sentence_122

Homosexuality is illegal in Malaysia, and the authorities can impose punishment such as caning. Malaysia_sentence_123

Human trafficking and sex trafficking in Malaysia are significant problems. Malaysia_sentence_124

Race is a significant force in politics. Malaysia_sentence_125

Affirmative actions such as the New Economic Policy and the National Development Policy which superseded it, were implemented to advance the standing of the bumiputera, consisting of Malays and the indigenous tribes who are considered the original inhabitants of Malaysia, over non-bumiputera such as Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indians. Malaysia_sentence_126

These policies provide preferential treatment to bumiputera in employment, education, scholarships, business, and access to cheaper housing and assisted savings. Malaysia_sentence_127

However, it has generated greater interethnic resentment. Malaysia_sentence_128

There is ongoing debate over whether the laws and society of Malaysia should reflect secular or Islamic principles. Malaysia_sentence_129

Islamic criminal laws passed by the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party with the support of United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) state assemblymen in the state legislative assembly of Kelantan have been blocked by the federal government on the basis that criminal laws are the responsibility of the federal government. Malaysia_sentence_130

Malaysia's ranking in the 2020 Press Freedom Index increased by 22 places to 101th compared to the previous year, making it one of two countries in Southeast Asia without a 'Difficult situation' or 'Very Serious situation' with regards to press freedom. Malaysia_sentence_131

Malaysia is marked in the 50–59 range according to the 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, indicating a moderate level of corruption. Malaysia_sentence_132

Freedom House noted Malaysia as "partly free" in its 2018 survey. Malaysia_sentence_133

A lawsuit filed by Department of Justice (DOJ), alleged that at least $3.5 billion has been stolen from Malaysia's 1MDB state-owned fund. Malaysia_sentence_134

On 28 July 2020, former Prime Minister Najib Razak was found guilty on seven charges in the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal. Malaysia_sentence_135

He was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Malaysia_sentence_136

Administrative divisions Malaysia_section_3

Main articles: States and federal territories of Malaysia, Divisions of Malaysia, and Districts of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_137



Kedah Penang Kelantan Terengganu Perak Selangor Negeri Sembilan Melaka Johor Pahang Sarawak Sabah Labuan Kuala Lumpur Putrajaya West Malaysia East Malaysia (Blue) States (Red) Federal Territories South China Sea Strait of Malacca Gulf of Thailand Sulu Sea Celebes Sea Brunei Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia Philippines Singapore ThailandMalaysia_cell_1_0_0

Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories. Malaysia_sentence_138

These are divided between two regions, with 11 states and two federal territories on Peninsular Malaysia and the other two states and one federal territory in East Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_139

Each state is divided into districts, which are then divided into mukim. Malaysia_sentence_140

In Sabah and Sarawak districts are grouped into divisions. Malaysia_sentence_141

Governance of the states is divided between the federal and the state governments, with different powers reserved for each, and the Federal government has direct administration of the federal territories. Malaysia_sentence_142

Each state has a unicameral State Legislative Assembly whose members are elected from single-member constituencies. Malaysia_sentence_143

State governments are led by Chief Ministers, who are state assembly members from the majority party in the assembly. Malaysia_sentence_144

In each of the states with a hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is normally required to be a Malay, appointed by the ruler upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Malaysia_sentence_145

Except for state elections in Sarawak, by convention state elections are held concurrently with the federal election. Malaysia_sentence_146

Lower-level administration is carried out by local authorities, which include city councils, district councils, and municipal councils, although autonomous statutory bodies can be created by the federal and state governments to deal with certain tasks. Malaysia_sentence_147

The federal constitution puts local authorities outside of the federal territories under the exclusive jurisdictions of the state government, although in practice the federal government has intervened in the affairs of state local governments. Malaysia_sentence_148

There are 154 local authorities, consisting of 14 city councils, 38 municipal councils, and 97 district councils. Malaysia_sentence_149

The 13 states are based on historical Malay kingdoms, and 9 of the 11 Peninsular states, known as the Malay states, retain their royal families. Malaysia_sentence_150

The King is elected by and from the nine rulers to serve a five-year term. Malaysia_sentence_151

This King appoints governors serving a four-year term for the states without monarchies, after consultations with the chief minister of that state. Malaysia_sentence_152

Each state has its own written constitution. Malaysia_sentence_153

Sabah and Sarawak have considerably more autonomy than the other states, most notably having separate immigration policies and controls, and a unique residency status. Malaysia_sentence_154

Federal intervention in state affairs, lack of development, and disputes over oil royalties have occasionally led to statements about secession from leaders in several states such as Penang, Johor, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak, although these have not been followed up and no serious independence movements exist. Malaysia_sentence_155


A list of thirteen states and each state capital (in brackets): Malaysia_sentence_156



  1. Kuala_Lumpur Federal Territory of Kuala LumpurMalaysia_item_2_0
  2. Labuan Federal Territory of LabuanMalaysia_item_2_1
  3. Putrajaya Federal Territory of PutrajayaMalaysia_item_2_2

Foreign relations and military Malaysia_section_4

Main articles: Foreign relations of Malaysia and Malaysian Armed Forces Malaysia_sentence_157

A founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the country participates in many international organisations such as the United Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Developing 8 Countries, and the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Malaysia_sentence_158

It has chaired ASEAN, the OIC, and the NAM in the past. Malaysia_sentence_159

A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Malaysia_sentence_160

Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first East Asia Summit in 2005. Malaysia_sentence_161

Malaysia's foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system. Malaysia_sentence_162

The government attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia, and seeks to further develop relations with other countries in the region. Malaysia_sentence_163

Historically the government has tried to portray Malaysia as a progressive Islamic nation while strengthening relations with other Islamic states. Malaysia_sentence_164

A strong tenet of Malaysia's policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs. Malaysia_sentence_165

Malaysia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Malaysia_sentence_166

The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and a large portion of the South China Sea is claimed by China. Malaysia_sentence_167

Unlike its neighbours of Vietnam and the Philippines, Malaysia historically avoided conflicts with China. Malaysia_sentence_168

However, after the encroachment of Chinese ships in Malaysian territorial waters, Malaysia has become active in condemning China. Malaysia_sentence_169

Brunei and Malaysia in 2009 announced an end to claims of each other's land, and committed to resolve issues related to their maritime borders. Malaysia_sentence_170

The Philippines has a dormant claim to the eastern part of Sabah. Malaysia_sentence_171

Singapore's land reclamation has caused tensions, and minor maritime and land border disputes exist with Indonesia. Malaysia_sentence_172

Malaysia has never recognised Israel and has no diplomatic ties with it, and has called for the International Criminal Court to take action against Israel over its Gaza flotilla raid. Malaysia_sentence_173

Malaysia has stated it will establish official relations with Israel only when a peace agreement with the State of Palestine has been reached, and called for both parties to find a quick resolution to realise the two-state solution. Malaysia_sentence_174

Malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many UN peacekeeping missions, such as in Congo, Iran–Iraq, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Kosovo, East Timor and Lebanon. Malaysia_sentence_175

The Malaysian Armed Forces have three branches: the Royal Malaysian Navy, the Malaysian Army, and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Malaysia_sentence_176

There is no conscription, and the required age for voluntary military service is 18. Malaysia_sentence_177

The military uses 1.5% of the country's GDP, and employs 1.23% of Malaysia's manpower. Malaysia_sentence_178

The Five Power Defence Arrangements is a regional security initiative which has been in place for almost 40 years. Malaysia_sentence_179

It involves joint military exercises held among Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Malaysia_sentence_180

Joint exercises and war games have also been held with Brunei, China, India, Indonesia Japan and the United States. Malaysia_sentence_181

Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam have agreed to host joint security force exercises to secure their maritime border and tackle issues such as illegal immigration, piracy and smuggling. Malaysia_sentence_182

Previously there were fears that extremist militants activities in the Muslim areas of the southern Philippines and southern Thailand would spill over into Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_183

Because of this, Malaysia began to increase its border security. Malaysia_sentence_184

Geography Malaysia_section_5

Main article: Geography of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_185

Malaysia is the 66th largest country by total land area, with a land area of 329,613 km (127,264 sq mi). Malaysia_sentence_186

It has land borders with Thailand in West Malaysia, and Indonesia and Brunei in East Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_187

It is linked to Singapore by a narrow causeway and a bridge. Malaysia_sentence_188

The country also has maritime boundaries with Vietnam and the Philippines. Malaysia_sentence_189

The land borders are defined in large part by geological features such as the Perlis River, the Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst some of the maritime boundaries are the subject of ongoing contention. Malaysia_sentence_190

Brunei forms what is almost an enclave in Malaysia, with the state of Sarawak dividing it into two parts. Malaysia_sentence_191

Malaysia is the only country with territory on both the Asian mainland and the Malay archipelago. Malaysia_sentence_192

Tanjung Piai, located in the southern state of Johor, is the southernmost tip of continental Asia. Malaysia_sentence_193

The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the most important thoroughfares in global commerce, carrying 40 per cent of the world's trade. Malaysia_sentence_194

The two parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both Peninsular and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains. Malaysia_sentence_195

Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40 per cent of Malaysia's land area, extends 740 km (460 mi) from north to south, and its maximum width is 322 km (200 mi). Malaysia_sentence_196

It is divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains, rising to a peak elevation of 2,183 metres (7,162 ft) at Mount Korbu, part of a series of mountain ranges running down the centre of the peninsula. Malaysia_sentence_197

These mountains are heavily forested, and mainly composed of granite and other igneous rocks. Malaysia_sentence_198

Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape. Malaysia_sentence_199

The range is the origin of some of Peninsular Malaysia's river systems. Malaysia_sentence_200

The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximum width of 50 kilometres (31 mi), and the peninsula's coastline is nearly 1,931 km (1,200 mi) long, although harbours are only available on the western side. Malaysia_sentence_201

East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo, has a coastline of 2,607 km (1,620 mi). Malaysia_sentence_202

It is divided between coastal regions, hills and valleys, and a mountainous interior. Malaysia_sentence_203

The Crocker Range extends northwards from Sarawak, dividing the state of Sabah. Malaysia_sentence_204

It is the location of the 4,095 m (13,435 ft) high Mount Kinabalu, the tallest mountain in Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_205

Mount Kinabalu is located in the Kinabalu National Park, which is protected as one of the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_206

The highest mountain ranges form the border between Malaysia and Indonesia. Malaysia_sentence_207

Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest cave system in the world, in the Gunung Mulu National Park which is also a World Heritage Site. Malaysia_sentence_208

Around these two halves of Malaysia are numerous islands, the largest of which is Banggi. Malaysia_sentence_209

The local climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons. Malaysia_sentence_210

The temperature is moderated by the presence of the surrounding oceans. Malaysia_sentence_211

Humidity is usually high, and the average annual rainfall is 250 cm (98 in). Malaysia_sentence_212

The climates of the Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more maritime weather of the East. Malaysia_sentence_213

Local climates can be divided into three regions, highland, lowland, and coastal. Malaysia_sentence_214

Climate change is likely to affect sea levels and rainfall, increasing flood risks and leading to droughts. Malaysia_sentence_215

Biodiversity Malaysia_section_6

Main article: Wildlife of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_216

Malaysia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1993, and became a party to the convention on 24 June 1994. Malaysia_sentence_217

It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 16 April 1998. Malaysia_sentence_218

The country is megadiverse with a high number of species and high levels of endemism. Malaysia_sentence_219

It is estimated to contain 20 per cent of the world's animal species. Malaysia_sentence_220

High levels of endemism are found on the diverse forests of Borneo's mountains, as species are isolated from each other by lowland forest. Malaysia_sentence_221

There are about 210 mammal species in the country. Malaysia_sentence_222

Over 620 species of birds have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia, with many endemic to the mountains there. Malaysia_sentence_223

A high number of endemic bird species are also found in Malaysian Borneo. Malaysia_sentence_224

250 reptile species have been recorded in the country, with about 150 species of snakes and 80 species of lizards. Malaysia_sentence_225

There are about 150 species of frogs, and thousands of insect species. Malaysia_sentence_226

The Exclusive economic zone of Malaysia is 334,671 km (129,217 sq mi) and 1.5 times larger than its land area. Malaysia_sentence_227

It is mainly in the South China Sea. Malaysia_sentence_228

Some of its waters are in the Coral Triangle, a biodiversity hotspot. Malaysia_sentence_229

The waters around Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the world. Malaysia_sentence_230

Bordering East Malaysia, the Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hotspot, with around 600 coral species and 1200 fish species. Malaysia_sentence_231

The unique biodiversity of Malaysian Caves always attracts lovers of ecotourism from all over the world. Malaysia_sentence_232

Nearly 4,000 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species have been recorded from Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_233

Of the two fungal groups with the largest number of species in Malaysia, the Ascomycota and their asexual states have been surveyed in some habitats (decaying wood, marine and freshwater ecosystems, as parasites of some plants, and as agents of biodegradation), but have not been or have been only poorly surveyed in other habitats (as endobionts, in soils, on dung, as human and animal pathogens); the Basidiomycota are only partly surveyed: bracket fungi, and mushrooms and toadstools have been studied, but Malaysian rust and smut fungi remain very poorly known. Malaysia_sentence_234

Without doubt, many more fungal species in Malaysia have not yet been recorded, and it is likely that many of those, when found, will be new to science. Malaysia_sentence_235

About two thirds of Malaysia was covered in forest as of 2007, with some forests believed to be 130 million years old. Malaysia_sentence_236

The forests are dominated by dipterocarps. Malaysia_sentence_237

Lowland forest covers areas below 760 m (2,490 ft), and formerly East Malaysia was covered in such rainforest, which is supported by its hot wet climate. Malaysia_sentence_238

There are around 14,500 species of flowering plants and trees. Malaysia_sentence_239

Besides rainforests, there are over 1,425 km (550 sq mi) of mangroves in Malaysia, and a large amount of peat forest. Malaysia_sentence_240

At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and rhododendrons replace dipterocarps. Malaysia_sentence_241

There are an estimated 8,500 species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000 in the East. Malaysia_sentence_242

The forests of East Malaysia are estimated to be the habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees every hectare. Malaysia_sentence_243

These forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the world, with a maximum diameter of 1 m (3 ft 3 in). Malaysia_sentence_244

Conservation issues Malaysia_section_7

Main article: Environmental issues in Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_245

Logging, along with cultivation practices has devastated tree cover, causing severe environmental degradation in the country. Malaysia_sentence_246

Over 80 per cent of Sarawak's rainforest has been logged. Malaysia_sentence_247

Floods in East Malaysia have been worsened by the loss of trees, and over 60 per cent of the Peninsula's forest have been cleared. Malaysia_sentence_248

With current rates of deforestation, mainly for the palm oil industry, the forests are predicted to be extinct by 2020. Malaysia_sentence_249

Deforestation is a major problem for animals, fungi and plants, having caused species such as Begonia eiromischa to go extinct. Malaysia_sentence_250

Most remaining forest is found inside reserves and national parks. Malaysia_sentence_251

Habitat destruction has proved a threat for marine life. Malaysia_sentence_252

Illegal fishing is another major threat, with fishing methods such as dynamite fishing and poisoning depleting marine ecosystems. Malaysia_sentence_253

Leatherback turtle numbers have dropped 98 per cent since the 1950s. Malaysia_sentence_254

Hunting has also been an issue for some animals, with overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit endangering many animals, from marine life to tigers. Malaysia_sentence_255

Marine life is also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism. Malaysia_sentence_256

The Malaysian government aims to balance economic growth with environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment. Malaysia_sentence_257

Some state governments are now trying to counter the environmental impact and pollution created by deforestation; and the federal government is trying to cut logging by 10 per cent each year. Malaysia_sentence_258

28 national parks have been established; 23 in East Malaysia and five in the Peninsular. Malaysia_sentence_259

Tourism has been limited in biodiverse areas such as Sipadan island. Malaysia_sentence_260

Animal trafficking is a large issue, and the Malaysian government is holding talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardise anti-trafficking laws. Malaysia_sentence_261

Economy Malaysia_section_8

Main article: Economy of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_262

Malaysia is a relatively open state-oriented and newly industrialised market economy. Malaysia_sentence_263

The state plays a significant but declining role in guiding economic activity through macroeconomic plans. Malaysia_sentence_264

Malaysia has had one of the best economic records in Asia, with GDP growing an average 6.5 per cent annually from 1957 to 2005. Malaysia_sentence_265

Malaysia's economy in 2014–2015 was one of the most competitive in Asia, ranking 6th in Asia and 20th in the world, higher than countries like Australia, France and South Korea. Malaysia_sentence_266

In 2014, Malaysia's economy grew 6%, the second highest growth in ASEAN behind the Philippines' growth of 6.1%. Malaysia_sentence_267

The economy of Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) in April 2019 was estimated to be $999.397 billion, the third largest in ASEAN and the 25th largest in the world. Malaysia_sentence_268

In 1991, Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad (during his first period as Prime Minister) outlined his ideal in Vision 2020, in which Malaysia would become a self-sufficient industrialised nation by 2020. Malaysia_sentence_269

Najib Razak has said Malaysia could attain developed country status much earlier from the actual target in 2020, adding the country has two program concept such as Government Transformation Programme and the Economic Transformation Programme. Malaysia_sentence_270

According to a HSBC report, Malaysia will become the world's 21st largest economy by 2050, with a GDP of $1.2 trillion (Year 2000 dollars) and a GDP per capita of $29,247 (Year 2000 dollars). Malaysia_sentence_271

The report also says "The electronic equipment, petroleum, and liquefied natural gas producer will see a substantial increase in income per capita. Malaysia_sentence_272

Malaysian life expectancy, relatively high level of schooling, and above average fertility rate will help in its rapid expansion". Malaysia_sentence_273

Viktor Shvets, the managing director of Credit Suisse, has said "Malaysia has all the right ingredients to become a developed nation". Malaysia_sentence_274

In the 1970s, the predominantly mining and agricultural-based economy began a transition towards a more multi-sector economy. Malaysia_sentence_275

Since the 1980s, the industrial sector, with a high level of investment, has led the country's growth. Malaysia_sentence_276

The economy recovered from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis earlier than neighbouring countries did, and has since recovered to the levels of the pre-crisis era with a GDP per capita of $14,800. Malaysia_sentence_277

Economic inequalities exist between different ethnic groups. Malaysia_sentence_278

The Chinese make up about one-quarter of the population, but accounts for 70 per cent of the country's market capitalisation. Malaysia_sentence_279

Chinese businesses in Malaysia are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses in the Southeast Asian market sharing common family and cultural ties. Malaysia_sentence_280

International trade, facilitated by the shipping route in adjacent Strait of Malacca, and manufacturing are the key sectors. Malaysia_sentence_281

Malaysia is an exporter of natural and agricultural resources, and petroleum is a major export. Malaysia_sentence_282

Malaysia has once been the largest producer of tin, rubber and palm oil in the world. Malaysia_sentence_283

Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy, although Malaysia's economic structure has been moving away from it. Malaysia_sentence_284

Malaysia remains one of the world's largest producers of palm oil. Malaysia_sentence_285

In an effort to diversify the economy and make it less dependent on export goods, the government has pushed to increase tourism to Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_286

As a result, tourism has become Malaysia's third largest source of foreign exchange, although it is threatened by the negative effects of the growing industrial economy, with large amounts of air and water pollution along with deforestation affecting tourism. Malaysia_sentence_287

The tourism sector came under some pressure in 2014 when the national carrier Malaysia Airlines had one of its planes disappear in March, while another was brought down by a missile over Ukraine in July, resulting in the loss of a total 537 passengers and crew. Malaysia_sentence_288

The state of the airline, which had been unprofitable for 3 years, prompted the government in August 2014 to nationalise the airline by buying up the 30 per cent it did not already own. Malaysia_sentence_289

Between 2013 and 2014, Malaysia has been listed as one of the best places to retire to in the world, with the country in third position on the Global Retirement Index. Malaysia_sentence_290

This in part was the result of the Malaysia My Second Home programme to allow foreigners to live in the country on a long-stay visa for up to 10 years. Malaysia_sentence_291

In 2016, Malaysia ranked the fifth position on The World's Best Retirement Havens while getting in the first place as the best place in Asia to retire. Malaysia_sentence_292

Warm climate with British colonial background made foreigners easy to interact with the locals. Malaysia_sentence_293

The country has developed into a centre of Islamic banking, and is the country with the highest numbers of female workers in that industry. Malaysia_sentence_294

Knowledge-based services are also expanding. Malaysia_sentence_295

To create a self-reliant defensive ability and support national development, Malaysia privatised some of its military facilities in the 1970s. Malaysia_sentence_296

The privatisation has created defence industry, which in 1999 was brought under the Malaysia Defence Industry Council. Malaysia_sentence_297

The government continues to promote this sector and its competitiveness, actively marketing the defence industry. Malaysia_sentence_298

Science policies in Malaysia are regulated by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation. Malaysia_sentence_299

The country is one of the world's largest exporters of semiconductor devices, electrical devices, and IT and communication products. Malaysia_sentence_300

Malaysia began developing its own space programme in 2002, and in 2006, Russia agreed to transport one Malaysian to the International Space Station as part of a multibillion-dollar purchase of 18 Russian Sukhoi Su-30MKM fighter jets by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. Malaysia_sentence_301

The government has invested in building satellites through the RazakSAT programme. Malaysia_sentence_302

Infrastructure Malaysia_section_9

See also: Transport in Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_303

Malaysia's persistent drive to develop and upgrade its infrastructure has resulted in one of the most well-developed infrastructure among the newly industrializing countries of Asia. Malaysia_sentence_304

In 2014, Malaysia ranked 8th in Asia and 25th in the world in term of overall infrastructure development. Malaysia_sentence_305

The country's telecommunications network is second only to Singapore's in Southeast Asia, with 4.7 million fixed-line subscribers and more than 30 million cellular subscribers. Malaysia_sentence_306

The country has seven international ports, the major one being the Port Klang. Malaysia_sentence_307

There are 200 industrial parks along with specialised parks such as Technology Park Malaysia and Kulim Hi-Tech Park. Malaysia_sentence_308

Fresh water is available to over 95 per cent of the population with ground water accounts for 90 percent of the freshwater resources. Malaysia_sentence_309

During the colonial period, development was mainly concentrated in economically powerful cities and in areas forming security concerns. Malaysia_sentence_310

Although rural areas have been the focus of great development, they still lag behind areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_311

The telecommunication network, although strong in urban areas, is less available to the rural population. Malaysia_sentence_312

Malaysia's energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by Tenaga Nasional, the largest electric utility company in Southeast Asia, with over RM99.03 billion of assets. Malaysia_sentence_313

Customers are connected to electricity through the National Grid, with more than 420 transmission substations in the Peninsular linked together by approximately 11,000 km of transmission lines operating at 66, 132, 275, and 500 kilovolts. Malaysia_sentence_314

The other two electric utility companies in the country are Sarawak Energy and Sabah Electricity. Malaysia_sentence_315

In 2013, Malaysia's total power generation capacity was over 29,728 megawatts. Malaysia_sentence_316

Total electricity generation was 140,985.01 GWh and total electricity consumption was 116,087.51 GWh. Malaysia_sentence_317

Energy production in Malaysia is largely based on oil and natural gas, owing to Malaysia's oil reserves and natural gas reserves, which is the fourth largest in Asia-Pacific region. Malaysia_sentence_318

Malaysia's road network is one of the most comprehensive in Asia and covers a total of 144,403 kilometres (89,728 mi). Malaysia_sentence_319

The main national road network is the Malaysian Federal Roads System, which span over 49,935 km (31,028 mi). Malaysia_sentence_320

Most of the federal roads in Malaysia are 2-lane roads. Malaysia_sentence_321

In town areas, federal roads may become 4-lane roads to increase traffic capacity. Malaysia_sentence_322

Nearly all federal roads are paved with tarmac except for parts of the Skudai–Pontian Highway which are paved with concrete, while parts of the Federal Highway linking Klang to Kuala Lumpur are paved with asphalt. Malaysia_sentence_323

Malaysia has over 1,798 kilometres (1,117 mi) of highways and the longest highway, the North–South Expressway, extends over 800 kilometres (497 mi) on the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, connecting major urban centres like Kuala Lumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru. Malaysia_sentence_324

In 2015, the government announced a RM27 billion (US$8.23 billion) Pan-Borneo Highway project to upgrade all trunk roads to dual-carriageway expressways, bringing the standard of East Malaysian highways to the same level of quality as Peninsular highways. Malaysia_sentence_325

There are currently 1,833 kilometres (1,139 mi) of railways in Malaysia, of which 767 km (477 mi) are double tracked and electrified. Malaysia_sentence_326

Rail transport in Malaysia comprises heavy rail (KTM), light rapid transit and monorail (Rapid Rail), and a funicular railway line (Penang Hill Railway). Malaysia_sentence_327

Heavy rail is mostly used for intercity passenger and freight transport as well as some urban public transport, while LRTs are used for intra-city urban public transport. Malaysia_sentence_328

There are two commuter rail services linking Kuala Lumpur with the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. Malaysia_sentence_329

The sole monorail line in the country is used for public transport in Kuala Lumpur, while the only funicular railway line is in Penang. Malaysia_sentence_330

A rapid transit project, the KVMRT, is currently under construction to improve Kuala Lumpur's public transport system. Malaysia_sentence_331

The railway network covers most of the 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_332

In East Malaysia, only the state of Sabah has railways. Malaysia_sentence_333

The network is also connected to the Thai railway 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 ⁄8 in) network in the north. Malaysia_sentence_334

If the Burma Railway is rebuilt, services to Myanmar, India, and China could be initiated. Malaysia_sentence_335

Malaysia also operated the KTM ETS, (commercially known as "ETS", short for 'Electric Train Service') an inter-city rail passenger service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad using electric multiple-unit trains. Malaysia_sentence_336

The KTM ETS is the second electric train service to be operated by the Malaysian railway company, after the KTM Komuter service. Malaysia_sentence_337

The line length is 755 km (Padang BesarGemas) and additional 197 km from Gemas to Johor Bahru Sentral which is under construction. Malaysia_sentence_338

Malaysia has 118 airports, of which 38 are paved. Malaysia_sentence_339

The national airline is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air services. Malaysia_sentence_340

Major international routes and domestic routes crossing between Peninsula Malaysia and East Malaysia are served by Malaysia Airlines, AirAsia and Malindo Air while smaller domestic routes are supplemented by smaller airlines like MASwings, Firefly and Berjaya Air. Malaysia_sentence_341

Major cargo airlines include MASkargo and Transmile Air Services. Malaysia_sentence_342

Kuala Lumpur International Airport is the main and busiest airport of Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_343

In 2014, it was the world's 13th busiest airport by international passenger traffic, recording over 25.4 million international passenger traffic. Malaysia_sentence_344

It was also the world's 20th busiest airport by passenger traffic, recording over 48.9 million passengers. Malaysia_sentence_345

Other major airports include Kota Kinabalu International Airport, which is also Malaysia's second busiest airport and busiest airport in East Malaysia with over 6.9 million passengers in 2013, and Penang International Airport, which serves Malaysia's second largest urban area, with over 5.4 million passengers in 2013. Malaysia_sentence_346

Demographics Malaysia_section_10

Main article: Demographics of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_347

According to the Malaysian Department of Statistics, the country's population was 28,334,135 in 2010, making it the 42nd most populated country. Malaysia_sentence_348

According to a 2012 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.54 percent per year. Malaysia_sentence_349

Malaysia has an average population density of 96 people per km, ranking it 116th in the world for population density. Malaysia_sentence_350

People within the 15–64 age group constitute 69.5 percent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5 percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 6.0 percent. Malaysia_sentence_351

In 1960, when the first official census was recorded in Malaysia, the population was 8.11 million. Malaysia_sentence_352

91.8 per cent of the population are Malaysian citizens. Malaysia_sentence_353

Malaysian citizens are divided along local ethnic lines, with 67.4 per cent considered bumiputera. Malaysia_sentence_354

The largest group of bumiputera are Malays, who are defined in the constitution as Muslims who practice Malay customs and culture. Malaysia_sentence_355

They play a dominant role politically. Malaysia_sentence_356

Bumiputera status is also accorded to the non-Malay indigenous groups of Sabah and Sarawak: which includes Dayaks (Iban, Bidayuh, Orang Ulu), Kadazan-Dusun, Melanau, Bajau and others. Malaysia_sentence_357

Non-Malay bumiputeras make up more than half of Sarawak's population and over two thirds of Sabah's population. Malaysia_sentence_358

There are also indigenous or aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsular, where they are collectively known as the Orang Asli. Malaysia_sentence_359

Laws over who gets bumiputera status vary between states. Malaysia_sentence_360

There are also two other non-Bumiputera local ethnic groups. Malaysia_sentence_361

24.6 per cent of the population are Malaysian Chinese, while 7.3 per cent are Malaysian Indian. Malaysia_sentence_362

The local Chinese have historically been more dominant in the business community. Malaysia_sentence_363

Local Indian are majority of Tamil descent. Malaysia_sentence_364

Malaysian citizenship is not automatically granted to those born in Malaysia, but is granted to a child born of two Malaysian parents outside Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_365

Dual citizenship is not permitted. Malaysia_sentence_366

Citizenship in the states of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo are distinct from citizenship in Peninsular Malaysia for immigration purposes. Malaysia_sentence_367

Every citizen is issued a biometric smart chip identity card known as MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times. Malaysia_sentence_368

The education system features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education. Malaysia_sentence_369

Schools in the primary education system are divided into two categories: national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil. Malaysia_sentence_370

Secondary education is conducted for five years. Malaysia_sentence_371

In the final year of secondary education, students sit for the Malaysian Certificate of Education examination. Malaysia_sentence_372

Since the introduction of the matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. Malaysia_sentence_373

However, in the matriculation system, only 10 per cent of places are open to non-bumiputera students. Malaysia_sentence_374

The infant mortality rate in 2009 was 6 deaths per 1000 births, and life expectancy at birth in 2009 was 75 years. Malaysia_sentence_375

With the aim of developing Malaysia into a medical tourism destination, 5 per cent of the government social sector development budget is spent on health care. Malaysia_sentence_376

The number of live births in Malaysia stood at 508,203 babies in the year 2016. Malaysia_sentence_377

This is a decline compared to 521,136 the previous year. Malaysia_sentence_378

There was also a decline in crude birth rate from 16.7 (2015) to 16.1 (2016) per 1,000 population. Malaysia_sentence_379

Male babies account for 51.7% of all babies born in the year 2016. Malaysia_sentence_380

The highest crude birth rate was reported at Putrajaya (30.4) and the lowest was reported at Penang (12.7). Malaysia_sentence_381

The Julau district has the highest crude birth rate nationwide at 26.9 per 1000 population, meanwhile, the lowest crude birth rate was recorded in the Selangau district. Malaysia_sentence_382

The total fertility rate in Malaysia remains below the replacement level at 1.9 babies in 2017. Malaysia_sentence_383

This is a decline of 0.1 compared to the previous year. Malaysia_sentence_384

The highest crude death rate was reported in Perlis at 7.5 per 1000 population and the lowest crude death rate was reported in Putrajaya (1.9) in 2016. Malaysia_sentence_385

Kuala Penyu was the district with the highest crude death rate while Kinabatangan recorded the lowest crude death rate in the country. Malaysia_sentence_386

The population is concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia, where 20 million out of approximately 28 million Malaysians live. Malaysia_sentence_387

70 per cent of the population is urban. Malaysia_sentence_388

Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the largest city in Malaysia, as well as its main commercial and financial centre. Malaysia_sentence_389

Putrajaya, a purpose-built city constructed from 1999, is the seat of government, as many executive and judicial branches of the federal government were moved there to ease growing congestion within Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia_sentence_390

Due to the rise in labour-intensive industries, the country is estimated to have over 3 million migrant workers; about 10 per cent of the population. Malaysia_sentence_391

Sabah-based NGOs estimate that out of the 3 million that make up the population of Sabah, 2 million are illegal immigrants. Malaysia_sentence_392

Malaysia hosts a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 171,500. Malaysia_sentence_393

Of this population, approximately 79,000 are from Burma, 72,400 from the Philippines, and 17,700 from Indonesia. Malaysia_sentence_394

Malaysian officials are reported to have turned deportees directly over to human smugglers in 2007, and Malaysia employs RELA, a volunteer militia with a history of controversies, to enforce its immigration law. Malaysia_sentence_395

Religion Malaysia_section_11

Main article: Religion in Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_396

The constitution grants freedom of religion and makes Malaysia an officially secular state, while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Federation". Malaysia_sentence_397

According to the Population and Housing Census 2010 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. Malaysia_sentence_398

Approximately 61.3% of the population practice Islam, 19.8% practice Buddhism, 9.2% Christianity, 6.3% Hinduism and 1.3% practice Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. Malaysia_sentence_399

0.7% declared no religion and the remaining 1.4% practised other religions or did not provide any information. Malaysia_sentence_400

Sunni Islam of Shafi'i school of jurisprudence is the dominant branch of Islam in Malaysia, while 18% are nondenominational Muslims. Malaysia_sentence_401

The Malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a "Malay", considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay regularly, practise Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore. Malaysia_sentence_402

Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83.6% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (3.4%) and Christianity (11.1%), along with small Muslim populations in areas like Penang. Malaysia_sentence_403

The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism (86.2%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (6.0%) or Muslims (4.1%). Malaysia_sentence_404

Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay bumiputera community (46.5%) with an additional 40.4% identifying as Muslims. Malaysia_sentence_405

Muslims are obliged to follow the decisions of Syariah Courts (i.e. Shariah courts) in matters concerning their religion. Malaysia_sentence_406

The Islamic judges are expected to follow the Shafi'i legal school of Islam, which is the main madh'hab of Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_407

The jurisdiction of Syariah courts is limited to Muslims in matters such as marriage, inheritance, divorce, apostasy, religious conversion, and custody among others. Malaysia_sentence_408

No other criminal or civil offences are under the jurisdiction of the Syariah courts, which have a similar hierarchy to the Civil Courts. Malaysia_sentence_409

Despite being the supreme courts of the land, the Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices. Malaysia_sentence_410

Languages Malaysia_section_12

Main article: Languages of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_411

The official and national language of Malaysia is Malaysian, a standardised form of the Malay language. Malaysia_sentence_412

The terminology as per government policy is Bahasa Malaysia (literally "Malaysian language") but legislation continues to refer to the official language as Bahasa Melayu (literally "Malay language"). Malaysia_sentence_413

The National Language Act 1967 specifies the Latin (Rumi) script as the official script of the national language, but does not prohibit the use of the traditional Jawi script. Malaysia_sentence_414

English remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967. Malaysia_sentence_415

In Sarawak, English is an official state language alongside Malaysian. Malaysia_sentence_416

Historically, English was the de facto administrative language; Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots (13 May incident). Malaysia_sentence_417

Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English. Malaysia_sentence_418

Malaysian English is widely used in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. Malaysia_sentence_419

The government discourages the use of non-standard Malay but has no power to issue compounds or fines to those who use improper Malay on their advertisements. Malaysia_sentence_420

Many other languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages. Malaysia_sentence_421

Peninsular Malaysia contains speakers of 41 of these languages. Malaysia_sentence_422

The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Malaysia_sentence_423

Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Malaysia_sentence_424

Chinese Malaysians predominantly speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China. Malaysia_sentence_425

The more common Chinese varieties in the country are Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou. Malaysia_sentence_426

The Tamil language is used predominantly by a majority of Malaysian Indians along with Telugu, Malayalam. Malaysia_sentence_427

Other South Asian languages are also widely spoken in Malaysia, as well as Thai. Malaysia_sentence_428

A small number of Malaysians have Caucasian ancestry and speak creole languages, such as the Portuguese-based Malaccan Creoles, and the Spanish-based Chavacano language. Malaysia_sentence_429

Culture Malaysia_section_13

Main article: Culture of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_430

Malaysia has a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society. Malaysia_sentence_431

The original culture of the area stemmed from indigenous tribes that inhabited it, along with the Malays who later moved there. Malaysia_sentence_432

Substantial influence exists from Chinese and Indian culture, dating back to when foreign trade began. Malaysia_sentence_433

Other cultural influences include the Persian, Arabic, and British cultures. Malaysia_sentence_434

Due to the structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities. Malaysia_sentence_435

In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy", defining Malaysian culture. Malaysia_sentence_436

It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it. Malaysia_sentence_437

It also promoted the Malay language above others. Malaysia_sentence_438

This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Malaysia_sentence_439

Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy. Malaysia_sentence_440

Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbouring countries, notably Indonesia. Malaysia_sentence_441

The two countries have a similar cultural heritage, sharing many traditions and items. Malaysia_sentence_442

However, disputes have arisen over things ranging from culinary dishes to Malaysia's national anthem. Malaysia_sentence_443

Strong feelings exist in Indonesia about protecting their national heritage. Malaysia_sentence_444

The Malaysian government and the Indonesian government have met to defuse some of the tensions resulting from the overlaps in culture. Malaysia_sentence_445

Feelings are not as strong in Malaysia, where most recognise that many cultural values are shared. Malaysia_sentence_446

Fine arts Malaysia_section_14

Main article: Malaysian art Malaysia_sentence_447

See also: Music of Malaysia and Malaysian literature Malaysia_sentence_448

Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred on the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing. Malaysia_sentence_449

Traditional art ranges from handwoven baskets from rural areas to the silverwork of the Malay courts. Malaysia_sentence_450

Common artworks included ornamental kris, beetle nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. Malaysia_sentence_451

Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks. Malaysia_sentence_452

Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with little overlap between them. Malaysia_sentence_453

However, Malay art does show some North Indian influence due to the historical influence of India. Malaysia_sentence_454

Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in the Kelantan-Pattani region with influences from India, China, Thailand, and Indonesia. Malaysia_sentence_455

The music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). Malaysia_sentence_456

There are at least 14 types of traditional drums. Malaysia_sentence_457

Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials. Malaysia_sentence_458

Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest. Malaysia_sentence_459

It was once used as a form of long-distance communication. Malaysia_sentence_460

In East Malaysia, gong-based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are commonly used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings. Malaysia_sentence_461

These ensembles are also common in neighbouring regions such as in Mindanao in the Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei. Malaysia_sentence_462

Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Malaysia_sentence_463

Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam. Malaysia_sentence_464

The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. Malaysia_sentence_465

The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303. Malaysia_sentence_466

Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century. Malaysia_sentence_467

English has also become a common literary language. Malaysia_sentence_468

In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Malaysia_sentence_469

Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of Malaysia", literature in other bumiputera languages was called "regional literature", while literature in other languages was called "sectional literature". Malaysia_sentence_470

Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. Malaysia_sentence_471

The Hikayat form is popular, and the pantun has spread from Malay to other languages. Malaysia_sentence_472

Cuisine Malaysia_section_15

Main article: Malaysian cuisine Malaysia_sentence_473

Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population. Malaysia_sentence_474

Many cultures from within the country and from surrounding regions have greatly influenced the cuisine. Malaysia_sentence_475

Much of the influence comes from the Malay, Chinese, Indian, Thai, Javanese, and Sumatran cultures, largely due to the country being part of the ancient spice route. Malaysia_sentence_476

The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei, and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine. Malaysia_sentence_477

The different states have varied dishes, and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes. Malaysia_sentence_478

Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another; for example, Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malay dishes. Malaysia_sentence_479

Food from one culture is sometimes also cooked using styles taken from another culture, For example, sambal belacan (shrimp paste) are commonly used as ingredients by Chinese restaurants to create the stir fried water spinach (kangkung belacan). Malaysia_sentence_480

This means that although much of Malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity. Malaysia_sentence_481

Rice is popular in many dishes. Malaysia_sentence_482

Chili is commonly found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them spicy. Malaysia_sentence_483

Media Malaysia_section_16

Main article: Media of Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_484

Malaysia's main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the ruling coalition, although some major opposition parties also have their own, which are openly sold alongside regular newspapers. Malaysia_sentence_485

A divide exists between the media in the two halves of the country. Malaysia_sentence_486

Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the East, and often treats the eastern states as colonies of the Peninsula. Malaysia_sentence_487

As a result of this, East Malaysia region of Sarawak launched TV Sarawak as internet streaming beginning in 2014, and as TV station on 10 October 2020 to overcome the low priority and coverage of Peninsular-based media and to solidify the representation of East Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_488

The media have been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad image of Indonesians. Malaysia_sentence_489

The country has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies. Malaysia_sentence_490

Freedom of the press is limited, with numerous restrictions on publishing rights and information dissemination. Malaysia_sentence_491

The government has previously tried to crack down on opposition papers before elections. Malaysia_sentence_492

In 2007, a government agency issued a directive to all private television and radio stations to refrain from broadcasting speeches made by opposition leaders, a move condemned by politicians from the opposition Democratic Action Party. Malaysia_sentence_493

Sabah, where all tabloids but one are independent of government control, has the freest press in Malaysia. Malaysia_sentence_494

Laws such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression. Malaysia_sentence_495

Holidays and festivals Malaysia_section_17

Main article: Public holidays in Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_496

Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Malaysia_sentence_497

Some are federally gazetted public holidays and some are observed by individual states. Malaysia_sentence_498

Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. Malaysia_sentence_499

The most observed national holiday is Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957. Malaysia_sentence_500

Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963. Malaysia_sentence_501

Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May) and the King's birthday (first week of June). Malaysia_sentence_502

Muslim holidays are prominent as Islam is the state religion; Hari Raya Puasa (also called Hari Raya Aidilfitri, Malay for Eid al-Fitr), Hari Raya Haji (also called Hari Raya Aidiladha, Malay for Eid ul-Adha), Maulidur Rasul (birthday of the Prophet), and others being observed. Malaysia_sentence_503

Malaysian Chinese celebrate festivals such as Chinese New Year and others relating to traditional Chinese beliefs. Malaysia_sentence_504

Wesak Day is observed and celebrated by Buddhists. Malaysia_sentence_505

Hindus in Malaysia celebrate Deepavali, the festival of lights, while Thaipusam is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the country converge at the Batu Caves. Malaysia_sentence_506

Malaysia's Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. Malaysia_sentence_507

In addition to this, the Dayak community in Sarawak celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai, and the Kadazandusun community celebrate Kaamatan. Malaysia_sentence_508

Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. Malaysia_sentence_509

In a custom known as "open house" Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival. Malaysia_sentence_510

Sports Malaysia_section_18

Main article: Sport in Malaysia Malaysia_sentence_511

Popular sports in Malaysia include association football, badminton, field hockey, bowls, tennis, squash, martial arts, horse riding, sailing, and skate boarding. Malaysia_sentence_512

Football is the most popular sport in Malaysia and the country is currently studying the possibility of bidding as a joint host for 2034 FIFA World Cup. Malaysia_sentence_513

Badminton matches also attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948 Malaysia has been one of four countries to hold the Thomas Cup, the world team championship trophy of men's badminton. Malaysia_sentence_514

The Malaysian Lawn Bowls Federation was registered in 1997. Malaysia_sentence_515

Squash was brought to the country by members of the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939. Malaysia_sentence_516

The Squash Racquets Association Of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972. Malaysia_sentence_517

Malaysia has proposed a Southeast Asian football league. Malaysia_sentence_518

The men's national field hockey team ranked 13th in the world as of December 2015. Malaysia_sentence_519

The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted at Merdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup. Malaysia_sentence_520

The country also has its own Formula One track–the Sepang International Circuit. Malaysia_sentence_521

It runs for 310.408 kilometres (192.88 mi), and held its first Grand Prix in 1999. Malaysia_sentence_522

Traditional sports include Silat Melayu, the most common style of martial arts practised by ethnic Malays in Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore. Malaysia_sentence_523

The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. Malaysia_sentence_524

It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. Malaysia_sentence_525

The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. Malaysia_sentence_526

The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. Malaysia_sentence_527

Malaysian athletes have won a total of eleven Olympic medals: eight in badminton, two in platform diving, and one in cycling. Malaysia_sentence_528

The country has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998. Malaysia_sentence_529

See also Malaysia_section_19


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