Malcolm Turnbull

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Malcolm Turnbull_table_infobox_0

The Honourable

Malcolm TurnbullMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_0_0

29th Prime Minister of AustraliaMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_1_0
MonarchMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_2_0 Elizabeth IIMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_2_1
DeputyMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_3_0 Warren Truss

Barnaby Joyce Michael McCormackMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_3_1

Governor-GeneralMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_4_0 Sir Peter CosgroveMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_4_1
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_5_0 Tony AbbottMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_5_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_6_0 Scott MorrisonMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_6_1
12th Leader of the Liberal PartyMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_7_0
DeputyMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_8_0 Julie BishopMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_8_1
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_9_0 Tony AbbottMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_9_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_10_0 Scott MorrisonMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_10_1
DeputyMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_11_0 Julie BishopMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_11_1
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_12_0 Brendan NelsonMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_12_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_13_0 Tony AbbottMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_13_1
Minister for CommunicationsMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_14_0
Prime MinisterMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_15_0 Tony AbbottMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_15_1
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_16_0 Anthony AlbaneseMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_16_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_17_0 Mitch FifieldMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_17_1
Leader of the OppositionMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_18_0
Prime MinisterMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_19_0 Kevin RuddMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_19_1
DeputyMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_20_0 Julie BishopMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_20_1
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_21_0 Brendan NelsonMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_21_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_22_0 Tony AbbottMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_22_1
Minister for the Environment and WaterMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_23_0
Prime MinisterMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_24_0 John HowardMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_24_1
Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_25_0 Ian CampbellMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_25_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_26_0 Peter GarrettMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_26_1
Member of the Australian Parliament

for WentworthMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_27_0

Preceded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_28_0 Peter KingMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_28_1
Succeeded byMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_29_0 Kerryn PhelpsMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_29_1
Personal detailsMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_30_0
BornMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_31_0 Malcolm Bligh Turnbull
(1954-10-24) 24 October 1954 (age 66)

Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_31_1

Political partyMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_32_0 LiberalMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_32_1
Other political

affiliationsMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_33_0

CoalitionMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_33_1
Spouse(s)Malcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_34_0 Lucy Hughes ​(m. 1980)​Malcolm Turnbull_cell_0_34_1
ChildrenMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_35_0 2Malcolm Turnbull_cell_0_35_1
ParentsMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_36_0 Bruce Turnbull

Coral LansburyMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_36_1

EducationMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_37_0 Vaucluse Public School

Sydney Grammar St Ives Preparatory School Sydney Grammar SchoolMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_37_1

Alma materMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_38_0 University of Sydney

Brasenose College, OxfordMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_38_1

ProfessionMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_39_0 Barrister

Businessman PoliticianMalcolm Turnbull_cell_0_39_1

WebsiteMalcolm Turnbull_header_cell_0_40_0 Malcolm Turnbull_cell_0_40_1

Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is a retired Australian politician who was the 29th Prime Minister of Australia from 2015 to 2018. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_0

He served twice as Leader of the Liberal Party, from 2008 to 2009 when he was Leader of the Opposition, and from 2015 to 2018 when he was Prime Minister. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_1

He was the MP for Wentworth in the House of Representatives from 2004 to 2018. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_2

Turnbull graduated from the University of Sydney with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws, before attending Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, earning a Bachelor of Civil Law. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_3

For over two decades prior to entering politics, he worked as a journalist, lawyer, merchant banker, and venture capitalist. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_4

He served as Chair of the Australian Republican Movement from 1993 to 2000, and was one of the leaders of the unsuccessful "Yes" campaign in the 1999 republic referendum. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_5

He was first elected to the Australian House of Representatives for the Division of Wentworth in New South Wales at the 2004 federal election, and was Minister for the Environment and Water from January 2007 until December 2007. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_6

After coming second in the 2007 leadership election, Turnbull won the leadership of the Liberal Party in September 2008 and became Leader of the Opposition. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_7

However, his support of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in December 2009 led to a leadership challenge by Tony Abbott, who defeated Turnbull by a single vote. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_8

Though initially planning to leave politics after this, Turnbull chose to stay and was later appointed Minister for Communications in the Abbott Government following the 2013 federal election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_9

Citing consistently poor opinion polling for the government, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet on 14 September 2015 and challenged Abbott, reclaiming the leadership of the Liberal Party by ten votes. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_10

He was sworn in as Prime Minister of Australia the following day. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_11

The Turnbull Government initiated the National Innovation and Science Agenda as a key economic priority, working to promote STEM education and increase venture capital funding for new start-ups. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_12

Turnbull also pursued "city deals" with local and state governments to improve planning outcomes and encourage investment in projects such as the Western Sydney Airport. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_13

At the 2016 federal election, Turnbull led the Coalition to victory by a single seat, the smallest majority since the 1961 federal election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_14

In his second term, Turnbull sought and campaigned for a plebiscite to legalise same-sex marriage in Australia, which was ultimately successful. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_15

In late 2017, his government experienced a parliamentary eligibility crisis that saw fifteen parliamentarians leave parliament due to concerns about dual citizenship. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_16

To address climate change and reform energy policy, Turnbull proposed the National Energy Guarantee which was ultimately rejected by the party room and led to calls for a leadership spill. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_17

In August 2018, a challenge by Peter Dutton led to two Liberal leadership spills. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_18

When the second spill motion passed on 24 August 2018, Turnbull did not contest the ballot and subsequently resigned as Prime Minister. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_19

Treasurer Scott Morrison defeated Dutton and deputy leader Julie Bishop in the contest. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_20

Turnbull resigned from parliament on 31 August 2018, triggering a by-election in his former seat of Wentworth. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_21

The Liberal Party lost the by-election to independent candidate Kerryn Phelps, which resulted in the Coalition losing its majority in the House of Representatives. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_22

Since leaving Parliament, Turnbull has become an advisor to Kasada, an Australian cybersecurity start-up. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_23

Early life and education Malcolm Turnbull_section_0

Malcolm Bligh Turnbull was born in Sydney, New South Wales, on 24 October 1954, the only child of Bruce Bligh Turnbull and Coral Magnolia Lansbury. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_24

His father was a hotel broker, while his mother was a radio actor, writer, and academic, and a second cousin of the British film and television actress Angela Lansbury. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_25

His maternal grandmother, May Lansbury (née Morle), was born in England, while his other grandparents were Australian-born. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_26

He is also of Scottish descent; his great-great-great-grandfather John Turnbull (1751–1834) arrived on the Coromandel in 1802 in New South Wales and became a tailor. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_27

In an interview in 2015, Turnbull said that his middle name "Bligh" has been a family tradition for generations, originally given in honour of Governor William Bligh. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_28

Turnbull's parents married in December 1955, fourteen months after his birth. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_29

They separated when he was nine, with his mother leaving first for New Zealand and then the United States. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_30

Turnbull was from then raised solely by his father. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_31

Turnbull suffered from asthma as a young child. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_32

Turnbull spent his first three years of school at Vaucluse Public School. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_33

He then boarded at Sydney Grammar Preparatory School in St Ives, before attending Grammar's high school campus on College Street on a partial scholarship. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_34

During this time he lived at the school's former Randwick boarding facilities. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_35

He was made senior school co-captain in 1972, as well as winning the Lawrence Campbell Oratory Competition, excelling particularly in the literary subjects such as English and history. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_36

However, contrary to certain sources, Turnbull was not the dux of his graduating year at Sydney Grammar. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_37

In 1987, in memory of his late father, he set up the Bruce Turnbull means-tested scholarship at Sydney Grammar, which offers full remission of fees to a student unable to afford them. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_38

In 1973, Turnbull attended the University of Sydney, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1977 and a Bachelor of Laws in 1978. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_39

During his studies, he was involved in student politics, serving as board director of the University of Sydney Union. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_40

He also worked part-time as a political journalist for Nation Review, Radio 2SM and Channel 9, covering state politics. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_41

In 1978, Turnbull won a Rhodes Scholarship and attended Brasenose College, Oxford, where he studied for a Bachelor of Civil Law from 1978 to 1980, graduating with honours. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_42

While at Oxford, he worked for The Sunday Times and contributed to newspapers and magazines in both the United States and Australia. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_43

During Turnbull's time at Oxford, a university don wrote of him that he was "always going to enter life's rooms without knocking". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_44

Professional career Malcolm Turnbull_section_1

After graduating from Oxford, Turnbull returned to Australia and began working as a barrister. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_45

He was general counsel and secretary for Australian Consolidated Press Holdings Group from 1983 to 1985. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_46

During this time, he defended Kerry Packer against the "Goanna" allegations made by the Costigan Commission. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_47

Turnbull attempted to use the press to goad the counsel assisting the commission, Douglas Meagher QC, into suing him and Packer for the withering public attack both undertook to sully Meagher's and Costigan's names. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_48

Turnbull accused Meagher and Costigan of being "unjust, capricious, dishonest and malicious". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_49

Turnbull later advised Packer to sue Meagher for defamation, an action that was struck down by Justice David Hunt as being an abuse of process, saying that Turnbull had managed "to poison the fountain of justice". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_50

These tactics made Turnbull enemies within the NSW Bar Association, leading to Turnbull's departure from that organisation. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_51

In partnership with Bruce McWilliam, he established his own law firm, Turnbull McWilliam. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_52

During 1986, Turnbull defended Peter Wright, a former MI5 official who wrote the book Spycatcher, successfully stopping the British government's attempts to suppress the book's publication in Australia. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_53

The case was widely reported, making Turnbull a public figure in Australia and the United Kingdom; Turnbull later wrote a book on the trial. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_54

In 1987, Turnbull established an investment banking firm, Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd, in partnership with Neville Wran, the former Labor Premier of New South Wales, and Nicholas Whitlam, the former Chief Executive of the State Bank of New South Wales and the son of former Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_55

Whitlam parted company with the firm in 1990; it operated as Turnbull & Partners Ltd until 1997. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_56

Turnbull left the firm he co-founded in 1997 to become a managing director of Goldman Sachs Australia, eventually becoming a partner in Goldman Sachs and Co. Additionally, he worked as a director of Star Technology Systems from 1993 to 1995. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_57

During this time Turnbull was also the chairman of Axiom Forest Resources, which conducted logging in the Solomon Islands under the trading name Silvania Forest Products. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_58

The latter's work was described by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau as a "clear-felling operation", and the then Solomon Islands Prime Minister Solomon Mamaloni reportedly threatened to close it down for "constant breaches of logging practices", according to a critical article in the Solomon Times. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_59

Turnbull purchased a stake in the internet service provider OzEmail in 1994 for $500,000. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_60

He sold this stake several months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million to then-telecommunications giant MCI Worldcom. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_61

In May 2002, Turnbull appeared before the HIH Insurance royal commission to be questioned on Goldman Sachs's involvement in the possible privatisation of one of the acquisitions of the collapsed insurance company. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_62

The Royal Commissioner's report made no adverse findings against him or Goldman Sachs, however, Turnbull was one of nine defendants who settled later litigation over the collapse in undisclosed payments, thought to be worth as much as $500m. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_63

Early political involvement Malcolm Turnbull_section_2

In 1981, Turnbull stood for Liberal Party preselection in the Division of Wentworth prior to the 1981 Wentworth by-election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_64

He was defeated by Peter Coleman, who went on to win the seat. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_65

In 1982, following his retirement from politics, former prime minister William McMahon nominated Turnbull as his preferred successor in Lowe; the Liberals chose another candidate, and lost the by-election to Labor. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_66

Turnbull later attempted preselection in the safe state seat of Mosman in 1983, losing to Phillip Smiles. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_67

He let his membership of the Liberal Party lapse in 1986, before rejoining in 2000. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_68

Turnbull was made Federal Treasurer of the Liberal Party in 2000, and was a member of the party's federal and New South Wales executives from 2002 to 2003. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_69

He also spent time as a director of the Menzies Research Centre, the Liberal Party's research centre. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_70

Australian Republican Movement Malcolm Turnbull_section_3

In 1993, Turnbull was appointed by Prime Minister Paul Keating as Chair of the Republic Advisory Committee, charged with exploring ways of moving Australia to a republican form of government by replacing the Queen of Australia with an elected Australian head of state. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_71

Later that year, Turnbull became Chair of the Australian Republican Movement, a position he would hold until 2000. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_72

He was an elected delegate at the 1998 Australian Constitutional Convention in Canberra. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_73

At the Convention, Turnbull cautioned against mixing the roles of President and Prime Minister, advocating a parliamentary republic, and supported the bi-partisan appointment republican model adopted by the convention. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_74

Turnbull was an active campaigner in the unsuccessful 1999 referendum to establish an Australian republic, serving as Chair of the Yes Committee. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_75

He published a book on the campaign, titled Fighting for the Republic. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_76

When the referendum failed, he accused incumbent Prime Minister and monarchist John Howard of "breaking the nation's heart". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_77

Turnbull retired from the Australian Republican Movement in 2000, having already left the board of Ausflag in 1994; he joined the Australian National Flag Association in 2004. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_78

Choice of political party Malcolm Turnbull_section_4

Turnbull has had a long affiliation with the Liberal Party of Australia throughout his career. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_79

During his time in the Australian Republican Movement however, he considered running for preselection for the Australian Labor Party. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_80

In 2015, it was revealed that Turnbull had held talks with Labor state politician John Della Bosca during the 1990s on a possible party switch, and that he had harboured aspirations in his youth to head the Australian Workers' Union, which is linked with the Labor Party. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_81

The accusation, made by former Labor Foreign Minister Bob Carr, was cited by Labor Leader Bill Shorten during the Royal Commission into Trade Union Governance and Corruption. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_82

Howard Government Malcolm Turnbull_section_5

Entry to parliament Malcolm Turnbull_section_6

In 2000, Turnbull intended to seek Liberal preselection for Wentworth but did not eventually contest after concluding that preselection hopeful Peter King had the numbers in the branches. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_83

In 2003, Turnbull announced that he would challenge King for the seat and successfully defeated him to become the Liberal candidate. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_84

During what was a bitter preselection campaign, King accused Turnbull of branch stacking, by having local members transferring their membership to a branch that would decide the pre-selection, what King referred to as "branch stripping". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_85

Following his preselection loss, King stood against Turnbull at the 2004 federal election as an independent candidate. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_86

As a result, the traditionally safe Liberal seat became an electoral wildcard, the contest becoming a three-person race between Turnbull, King and the Labor candidate David Patch. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_87

During the campaign, Turnbull spent over A$600,000 on his campaign. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_88

While the Liberal primary vote eventually fell by 10.3% to a total 41.8%, King received only 18% of the primary vote with a 57%/43% Liberal/Labor preference split which meant Turnbull was elected, albeit on a reduced 55.5% two-party vote after a 2.4% swing. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_89

The result meant that Wentworth was classified as a marginal seat for the first time since the 1993 federal election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_90

Cabinet Minister Malcolm Turnbull_section_7

Main article: Fourth Howard Ministry Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_91

Announcing a cabinet reshuffle on 24 January 2006, Prime Minister John Howard promoted Turnbull from the backbench to the role of parliamentary secretary, giving him special responsibility for water at the height of the 2000s Australian drought. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_92

On 26 September 2006, Howard announced the creation of a new Office of Water Resources, sitting within the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, to address the problem of drought in Australia; Turnbull was given responsibility for this office. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_93

In January 2007, Howard promoted Turnbull to the Cabinet as Minister for the Environment and Water. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_94

In this position, Turnbull approved a proposed A$1.7 billion Bell Bay Pulp Mill in north Tasmania, near Launceston. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_95

Turnbull's approval of the Bell Bay Pulp Mill project of Gunns came on 4 October 2007 and followed a report by the Government's chief scientist Jim Peacock on the project's potential environmental impact, which required the project to meet 48 "strict environmental" conditions. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_96

In February 2007, Turnbull was criticised for claiming a government allowance of A$175 a night and paying it to his wife as rent while living in a townhouse owned by her in Canberra. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_97

During the 2007 federal election campaign, Turnbull announced that if re-elected the Government would contribute A$10 million to the investigation of an untried Russian technology that aims to trigger rainfall from the atmosphere, even when there are no clouds. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_98

The Australian Rain Corporation presented research documents written in Russian, explained by a Russian researcher who spoke to local experts in Russian. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_99

Although Turnbull claimed that the Australian Rain Corporation was Australian-based, investigations revealed that it was 75% Swiss-owned. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_100

It was also revealed that a prominent stakeholder in the Australian Rain Corporation, Matt Handbury, is a nephew of Rupert Murdoch. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_101

Turnbull refused to answer questions regarding Handbury's contribution to the Wentworth Forum, the main fund-raising organisation for Turnbull's 2007 election campaign. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_102

Opposition Malcolm Turnbull_section_8

Aftermath of 2007 election Malcolm Turnbull_section_9

Turnbull retained his seat at the 2007 federal election with a two-party vote 1.3% swing in Wentworth, despite a 5.6% swing away from the Coalition in the state, and a 5.4% swing against them nationwide. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_103

After John Howard lost his seat of Bennelong, on 25 November 2007 Peter Costello, who Howard stated publicly should succeed him, announced he would not seek the party leadership. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_104

Turnbull declared his candidacy later that same day, and was considered by the media as a favourite. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_105

On 29 November he narrowly lost the leadership vote to Brendan Nelson by three votes; Nelson quickly appointed Turnbull Shadow Treasurer. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_106

Shortly after the vote, fellow Shadow Cabinet Minister Nick Minchin publicly suggested that Turnbull's failure to consult with party colleagues before declaring his opinion to the media on issues such as an apology to the Stolen Generations was what had cost him the leadership. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_107

This led to a disagreement between the two and culminated in Minchin privately telling Turnbull that he was "too fucking sensitive." Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_108

In May 2008, Turnbull led the Coalition response to the 2008 Australian federal budget, criticising the increased taxes on luxury cars and certain alcoholic drinks, citing a possible increase in inflation as a concern. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_109

Leader of the Opposition (2008–2009) Malcolm Turnbull_section_10

After months of consistently poor opinion polling, Turnbull challenged Brendan Nelson for the leadership on 16 September 2008. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_110

He won the ballot by four votes and became Leader of the Opposition. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_111

Later that month, Turnbull confessed that he had smoked marijuana in his younger days, becoming the first Liberal Leader to make such an admission. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_112

In early 2009, Turnbull appointed Chris Kenny, a former staffer to Alexander Downer and an Advertiser journalist, as his chief of staff. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_113

In May 2009, Turnbull attacked the 2009 Australian federal budget which came amidst the fallout from the global financial crisis. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_114

In June 2009, Godwin Grech, a Treasury civil servant, privately contacted Turnbull, alleging that a car dealer with links to the Labor Party had received preferential treatment under the OzCar program, sparking the 'OzCar affair'. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_115

Turnbull later repeated these allegations in Parliament, stating that Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and Treasurer Wayne Swan had "used their offices and taxpayers' resources to seek advantage for one of their mates and then lied about it to the Parliament" and that they needed to "either explain their actions or resign". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_116

On 22 June, the email Grech had secretly provided to Turnbull supporting allegation was alleged to have been faked by Grech. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_117

Grech subsequently admitted the forgery, with an Australian National Audit Office inquiry on 4 August clearing both Rudd and Swan of any wrongdoing. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_118

The resulting embarrassment of having repeated false allegations, as well as Turnbull's demeanour throughout the OzCar affair, was judged as the cause of a subsequent significant decline in his approval ratings in opinion polls. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_119

On 24 November 2009, Liberal and National MPs and Senators met to discuss the Rudd Government's proposed Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS). Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_120

Turnbull announced that his policy would be to support the CPRS, despite significant disagreement among his colleagues. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_121

In response, Liberal MPs Wilson Tuckey and Dennis Jensen looked to move a leadership spill motion, intending to nominate Kevin Andrews as a challenger to Turnbull. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_122

While this attempt failed, increasing numbers of MPs and Senators publicly criticised the position, with several resigning from the Shadow Cabinet, including Tony Abbott. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_123

On 1 December 2009, just one week after Turnbull announced the policy on the CPRS, Abbott announced he would challenge Turnbull for the leadership. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_124

Though initially regarded as having little chance of success, with Turnbull stating in public that Abbott did not have the numbers to win, Abbott defeated Turnbull in the ballot by a single vote. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_125

After the shock result, Turnbull returned to the backbench and said he would serve out the remainder of his term as Member for Wentworth. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_126

On 6 April 2010, he announced he would not seek re-election to the Australian Parliament. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_127

However, on 1 May 2010 he reversed this decision saying that he had been convinced by former Prime Minister John Howard to not give up his political career. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_128

Shadow Minister (2010–2013) Malcolm Turnbull_section_11

At the 2010 federal election, Turnbull was re-elected with an 11.01% two-party swing towards him. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_129

After discussing the possibility of a return to the Shadow Cabinet with Tony Abbott, Turnbull was made Shadow Minister for Communications. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_130

In his first policy announcement in the role, Turnbull stated that a Coalition Government would "demolish" the recently introduced National Broadband Network. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_131

Delivering the 2012 Alfred Deakin Lecture on digital liberty, he spoke out strongly against the Gillard Government's proposed two-year data retention law. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_132

In July 2012, Turnbull was criticised by some Liberal MPs for saying that civil unions should be introduced as a first step towards establishing same-sex marriage in Australia. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_133

Tony Abbott rejected Turnbull's suggestion of holding a conscience vote on the issue. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_134

Abbott Government Malcolm Turnbull_section_12

Minister for Communications (2013–2015) Malcolm Turnbull_section_13

On 9 April 2013, Turnbull and Tony Abbott presented their party's alternative National Broadband Network (NBN) plan. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_135

The plan prioritised a modified and scaled-down NBN with "fibre to the node" (FTTN) and last-mile by copper cable. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_136

The new policy contrasted with the previous position which had called for the dismantling of the entire NBN. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_137

After the Coalition victory in the 2013 federal election, Turnbull was appointed Minister for Communications and began implementing the alternative NBN strategy. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_138

In 2014, Turnbull announced that the Vertigan Report, a cost–benefit analysis of providing fast broadband to regional and rural Australia through wireless and satellite services, revealed that continuing the plan would cost nearly A$5 billion and was expected to produce only A$600 million in economic benefits – a return of just 10%. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_139

In spite of the economic cost, Turnbull stated that whilst subsidising broadband to regional areas is "fiendishly expensive", there was no other option. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_140

In December 2014, Turnbull brokered a deal between the Australian Government, NBN Co and Telstra whereby NBN Co acquired Telstra's copper network and hybrid-fibre coaxial (HFC) to deliver the NBN. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_141

Telstra and NBN Co agreed to work together on the FTTN trial involving 200,000 premises. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_142

In August 2015, Turnbull revealed that the overall end cost of the network build would likely expand up to an additional $15 billion, with NBN Co likely to take on the additional expenditure as debt. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_143

Though still cheaper than the original Labor Party NBN policy, which aimed to deliver much faster connection speeds, the peak funding requirement under the Liberal model ran to between $46 billion and $56 billion. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_144

February 2015 leadership spill motion Malcolm Turnbull_section_14

Main article: February 2015 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spill motion Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_145

Following persistent leadership tensions amidst poor opinion polling, a leadership spill motion was moved against Tony Abbott on 9 February 2015. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_146

Although the spill motion was defeated 61 votes to 39, Turnbull had been reported as considering a run for the leadership if the spill motion had succeeded. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_147

Before the motion Turnbull had told reporters that "if, for whatever reason, the leadership of a political party is vacant then anyone, any member of the party can stand, whether they be a minister or a backbencher, without any disloyalty to the person whose leadership has been declared vacant." Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_148

Prime Minister of Australia Malcolm Turnbull_section_15

Main article: Turnbull Government Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_149

See also: First Turnbull Ministry and Second Turnbull Ministry Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_150

September 2015 leadership election Malcolm Turnbull_section_16

Main article: September 2015 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spill Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_151

Despite the defeat of the February 2015 spill motion, questions over Abbott's leadership did not abate, with the Government consistently performing poorly in opinion polls. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_152

On 14 September 2015, after 30 consecutive Newspolls had put the Liberals far behind Labor, Turnbull resigned from the Cabinet and announced he would challenge Abbott for the leadership of the Liberal Party. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_153

Turnbull stated that Abbott "was not capable of providing the economic leadership we need" and that the Liberal Party needs a "style of leadership that respects the people's intelligence." Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_154

Turnbull defeated Abbott by 54 votes to 44 at the subsequent leadership ballot. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_155

He was sworn in as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia the following day. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_156

Turnbull announced an extensive reshuffle of the Cabinet on 20 September 2015 to form the First Turnbull Ministry. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_157

Notably, he increased the number of female Cabinet Ministers from two to five and appointed Marise Payne as Australia's first female Minister for Defence. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_158

The number of Cabinet Ministers rose from 19 to 21. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_159

On Turnbull's key policy differences with Abbott, particularly climate change, republicanism and same-sex marriage, he stated that there would be no immediate change before any election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_160

The Nationals successfully negotiated a total of $4 billion worth of deals from Turnbull, as well as control of the water portfolio, in exchange for a continued Coalition agreement. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_161

Turnbull stated that he would not lead a government that did not take climate change seriously. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_162

2016 federal election Malcolm Turnbull_section_17

Main article: 2016 Australian federal election Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_163

On 21 March 2016, Turnbull announced that Parliament would consider bills to reinstate the Australian Building and Construction Commission (ABCC), with the bills having previously been rejected twice before. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_164

Turnbull stated if the Senate rejected the bills a third time, he would advise the Governor-General to call a double dissolution of Parliament and a federal election for 2 July. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_165

Turnbull also brought forward the delivery of the federal budget from 10 May to 3 May to facilitate this. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_166

On 18 April, the Senate once again rejected the bills to reinstate the ABCC. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_167

On 8 May, Turnbull visited Government House to advise the Governor-General to issue the writs for a double dissolution on 9 May; this confirmed the date of the election as 2 July 2016. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_168

During the 2016 federal election campaign, a ReachTEL opinion poll of 626 Wentworth voters conducted on 31 May predicted a two-party swing against Turnbull for the first time since his election to Wentworth, revealing a reduced 58% two-party vote from a large 10.9% two-party swing. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_169

A controversy occurred during the election campaign, when the president of the Australian National Imams Council, Sheikh Shady Alsuleiman participated in an Iftar dinner hosted by Turnbull at Kirribilli House. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_170

Turnbull said he would not have invited Alsuleiman if he had known of his position regarding homosexuals. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_171

At the election, the Coalition lost 14 seats and retained majority government by a single seat. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_172

The result was the closest since the 1961 federal election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_173

In the days following the election, when the result was still not certain, Turnbull had to negotiate with the crossbench to secure confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_174

In February 2017, Turnbull confirmed he had donated $1.75 million to the Liberal Party's election campaign. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_175

Asylum seeker policy Malcolm Turnbull_section_18

See also: Abbott Government § Asylum seekers, and Gillard Government § Asylum seekers Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_176

Asylum seeker policy is a contentious wedge issue in Australian politics, especially since the Tampa affair. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_177

Continuing the bipartisan stance of Operation Sovereign Borders has been at the forefront the Coalition's asylum seeker policy. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_178

Around 1,250 asylum seekers remain in the offshore processing centres on Manus Island and Nauru. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_179

In August 2016, protestors called for the closure of camps on Manus and Nauru after The Guardian released leaked incident reports alleging "routine dysfunction and cruelty" on Nauru. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_180

In July 2016, the Obama administration set up a refugee center in Costa Rica in response to a Central American migration crisis. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_181

In November, Turnbull and Peter Dutton announced that Australia would accept 1,250 refugees from Central America, in exchange for the U.S. accepting refugees on Nauru and Manus. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_182

Turnbull and President Donald Trump held a phone conversation on 28 January 2017, the transcript of which was later leaked to The Washington Post. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_183

On 2 February 2017, Trump tweeted that Obama's deal was "dumb". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_184

US Vice President Mike Pence later confirmed that the United States would honour the deal, subject to "extreme vetting" of asylum seekers. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_185

Australia began receiving Central American asylum seekers in July 2017. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_186

Energy policy Malcolm Turnbull_section_19

Since the 2016 election, the Turnbull government had followed prior Coalition government energy policies. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_187

This involved the wholesale dismissal of renewable energy targets and emissions intensity schemes. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_188

This had only hardened when South Australia faced large blackouts, which Turnbull had blamed on the state's "ambitious" renewable energy target. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_189

In response to the gas and energy crisis that occurred in March 2017, Malcolm Turnbull announced a 50% increase in the capacity of Snowy Hydro through "pumped hydro" technology. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_190

In April 2017, Turnbull announced that he would use the Commonwealth government's powers to place export restrictions on the nation's liquified natural gas ("LNG") industry. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_191

He announced that these changes were in response to the high wholesale gas prices that were a result of a shortage of gas in the domestic gas market, and that it was "unacceptable" that domestic prices were so high, indicating that a consequence of these restrictions would be a decrease in the wholesale gas price. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_192

The multinational gas companies and the gas industry association heavily criticised the policy, saying that it would neither increase supply nor reduce the wholesale price of gas. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_193

Same-sex marriage plebiscite Malcolm Turnbull_section_20

See also: Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey and Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act 2017 Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_194

Prior to Turnbull becoming Prime Minister, the parliamentary Liberal Party voted to resolve the issue of same-sex marriage by putting the question to Australians voters via a plebiscite. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_195

Enabling legislation was rejected twice by the Senate, and so the government decided to adopt a postal plebiscite option, which involved the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducting a nationwide survey asking voters whether they would like to see a change in the definition of marriage. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_196

Sending out of ballots began on 12 September 2017, as attempts to prevent the survey through a High Court challenge failed. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_197

The survey ended 7 November 2017 and results released 15 November the same year. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_198

It returned with a total of 7,817,247 (61.6%) "Yes" responses and 4,873,987 (38.4%) "No" responses. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_199

Following the vote, after four days of debates regarding amendments which included proposals to increase religious protections to refuse services to same-sex couples, on the 7 December 2017 same-sex marriage was legalised through a parliamentary vote by the House of Representatives. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_200

The first same-sex marriages in Australia occurred as a result of the law change from 9 January 2018. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_201

Parliamentary eligibility crisis Malcolm Turnbull_section_21

See also: 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_202

Members of Turnbull's government were among those embroiled in the parliamentary eligibility crisis that arose in 2017, which disqualified several parliamentarians who held dual citizenship in accordance with subsection 44(i) of the Australian Constitution. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_203

Three Cabinet members were among the "Citizenship Seven" whose cases were heard in the High Court of Australia: the leader and deputy leader of the co-governing National Party, Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce, Senator Fiona Nash, and Resources Minister Matt Canavan, who resigned from Cabinet after discovering his potential dual citizenship. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_204

The High Court ruled that Canavan was eligible, but disqualified dual citizens Joyce and Nash from Parliament. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_205

The Turnbull Government temporarily lost its one-seat majority in the House of Representatives after Joyce's disqualification and the resignation of Liberal Party MP John Alexander, who also held dual citizenship. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_206

However, in December 2017 both Joyce and Alexander, having renounced their foreign citizenships, contested and won by-elections in their former seats of New England and Bennelong respectively, thereby retaining Turnbull's governing majority in the House of Representatives. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_207

August 2018 leadership spills Malcolm Turnbull_section_22

Main article: 2018 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spills Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_208

On 21 August 2018, Turnbull survived a challenge to his leadership of the Liberal Party by Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton, winning by 48 votes to 35. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_209

The spill highlighted ideological tensions within the Liberal Party, between the moderate wing led by Turnbull and the conservative wing represented by Dutton and Tony Abbott. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_210

From 21 to 23 August, tensions mounted and Dutton announced that he would seek a second spill. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_211

Turnbull responded that, pending a report from the Solicitor-General of Australia on the eligibility of Dutton to serve in Parliament and the receipt of a petition calling for a party room meeting that bore the signatures of at least half (43) of the parliamentary party, he would call such a meeting, vacate the leadership (regarding the petition as a vote of no confidence) and not stand in the subsequent leadership election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_212

On the morning of 24 August, the Solicitor-General advised that Peter Dutton was "not ineligible" to serve. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_213

Later that morning, Dutton presented to Turnbull a document calling for a party room meeting that contained the minimum 43 signatures. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_214

A party meeting was then called and the leadership was spilled, with Scott Morrison elected as Turnbull's successor by 45 votes over Dutton with 40. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_215

In his final press conference as Prime Minister, Turnbull denounced Dutton and Abbott as "wreckers". Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_216

On 27 August Turnbull announced that he would resign from Parliament over the coming days. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_217

On 31 August 2018 he tendered a formal notice of resignation to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_218

Life after politics Malcolm Turnbull_section_23

On 1 June 2019, Turnbull returned to the private sector as a senior advisor to major global private equity firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (KKR). Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_219

Turnbull returned to Australia in December 2019 and appeared on the final episode of Q&A hosted by Tony Jones on 9 December 2019. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_220

Turnbull has publicly criticised the Morrison Government for not taking strong enough action on climate change, arguing that they should readopt his National Energy Guarantee (NEG) policy. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_221

In a piece in The Guardian, he stated that, "Scott Morrison can't afford to waste the bushfire crisis when Australia urgently needs its own green new deal...There are simply no more excuses. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_222

We cannot allow political prejudice and vested interests to hold us up any longer. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_223

If ever there was a crisis not to waste, it is this one. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_224

Morrison has the chance now to reinstate the NEG with higher targets. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_225

Both he and Josh Frydenberg were among its strongest supporters when I was PM. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_226

They abandoned it in the lead-up to an election, to pacify the right wing of the Coalition that sabotaged it in the first place." Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_227

On 25 October 2020, Turnbull gave his support to former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's petition for a "Royal Commission to ensure a strong, diverse Australian news media" with the goal of investigating Rupert Murdoch's control over Australian news media, tweeting that he had signed it and encouraging others to follow suit. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_228

The petition is now the most signed parliamentary e-petition in Australia, with more than 500,000 signatures. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_229

The petition was tabled in the House of Representatives by Labor MP Andrew Leigh on 9 November 2020. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_230

Personal life Malcolm Turnbull_section_24

Turnbull is married to Lucy Turnbull (née Hughes), who was the Lord Mayor of Sydney from 2003 to 2004 and has held a number of other prominent positions. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_231

The couple were married on 22 March 1980 at Cumnor, Oxfordshire, by a Church of England priest while Turnbull was attending the University of Oxford. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_232

They live in the eastern suburbs of Sydney. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_233

Turnbull and Lucy have two adult children, Alex and Daisy, and as of July 2016, three grandchildren. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_234

Alex Turnbull is married to Yvonne Wang, who is of Chinese descent. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_235

The use of Bligh as a male middle name is a tradition in the Turnbull family. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_236

It is also Turnbull's son's middle name. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_237

One of Turnbull's ancestors was colonist John Turnbull, who named his youngest son William Bligh Turnbull in honour of deposed Governor William Bligh at the time of the Rum Rebellion. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_238

Religion Malcolm Turnbull_section_25

Raised Presbyterian, Turnbull became agnostic in the beginning of his adult life and later converted to Roman Catholicism "by mid-2002"; his wife's family is Roman Catholic. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_239

However, he has found himself at odds with the church's teaching on abortion, stem cell research and same-sex marriage. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_240

Turnbull supported legislation relaxing restrictions on abortion pill RU486, and he also voted for the legalisation of somatic cell nuclear transfer. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_241

He did so despite the vocal public opposition to both proposals by Cardinal George Pell, the then-Archbishop of Sydney. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_242

Personal wealth Malcolm Turnbull_section_26

In 2005, the combined net worth of Malcolm and Lucy Turnbull was estimated at A$133 million, making him Australia's richest parliamentarian until the election of billionaire Clive Palmer in the 2013 election. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_243

Turnbull made the BRW Rich 200 list for the second year running in 2010, and although he slipped from 182 to 197, his estimated net worth increased to A$186 million, and he continued to be the only sitting politician to make the list. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_244

Turnbull was not listed in the 2014 list of the BRW Rich 200. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_245

As of 2015, his estimated net worth is in excess of A$200 million. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_246

Honours Malcolm Turnbull_section_27

On 1 January 2001, Turnbull received the Centenary Medal for services to the corporate sector. Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_247

Published works Malcolm Turnbull_section_28

Turnbull has written several books: Malcolm Turnbull_sentence_248

Malcolm Turnbull_unordered_list_0

  • Turnbull, Malcolm (1988). The Spycatcher Trial. William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 978-0-85561-239-9.Malcolm Turnbull_item_0_0
  • Turnbull, Malcolm (1993). The Reluctant Republic. William Heinemann Australia. ISBN 978-0-85561-372-3.Malcolm Turnbull_item_0_1
  • Turnbull, Malcolm (1999). Fighting for the Republic: The Ultimate Insider's Account. Hardie Grant. ISBN 978-1-86498-107-0.Malcolm Turnbull_item_0_2
  • Turnbull, Malcolm (2020). A Bigger Picture. Hardie Grant. ISBN 978-1-74379-563-7.Malcolm Turnbull_item_0_3

See also Malcolm Turnbull_section_29

Malcolm Turnbull_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Turnbull.