For other uses, see Maliki (disambiguation).
It was founded by Malik ibn Anas in the 8th century.
Sharia based on Maliki doctrine is predominantly found in North Africa (excluding northern and eastern Egypt), West Africa, Chad, Sudan, Kuwait, Bahrain, the Emirate of Dubai (UAE), and in northeastern parts of Saudi Arabia.
A major historical center of Maliki teaching, from the 9th to 11th centuries, was in the Mosque of Uqba of Tunisia.
Although Malik ibn Anas was himself a native of Medina, his school faced fierce competition for followers in the Muslim east, with the Shafi'i, Hanbali, and Zahiri schools all enjoying more success than Malik's school.
Imam Malik (who was a teacher of Imam Ash-Shafi‘i, who in turn was a teacher of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal) was a Shi'ite Imam Ja'far (a descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad), as with Imam Abu Hanifah.
Thus all of the four great Imams of Sunni Fiqh are connected to Ja'far, whether directly or indirectly.
The Malikis enjoyed considerably more success in Africa, and for a while in Spain and Sicily.
Under the Umayyads and their remnants, the Maliki school was promoted as the official state code of law, and Maliki judges had free rein over religious practices; in return, the Malikis were expected to support and legitimize the government's right to power.
The Almoravids eventually gave way to the predominantly-Zahiri Almohads, at which point Malikis were tolerated at times but lost official favor.
With the Reconquista, the Iberian Peninsula was lost to the Muslims in totality.
Although Al-Andalus was eventually lost, the Maliki has been able to retain its dominance throughout North and West Africa to this day.
Additionally, the school has traditionally been the preferred school in the small Arab States of the Persian Gulf (Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar).
While the majority of the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia follows Hanbali laws, the country's Eastern Province has been known as a Maliki stronghold for centuries.
Maliki school's sources for Sharia are hierarchically prioritized as follows: Quran and then trustworthy Hadiths (sayings, customs and actions of Muhammad); if these sources were ambiguous on an issue, then `Amal (customs and practices of the people of Medina), followed by consensus of the Sahabah (the companions of Muhammad), then individual's opinion from the Sahabah, Qiyas (analogy), Istislah (interest and welfare of Islam and Muslims), and finally Urf (custom of people throughout the Muslim world if it did not contradict the hierarchically higher sources of Sharia).
The Muwaṭṭa relies on Sahih Hadiths, includes Malik ibn Anas' commentary, but it is so complete that it is considered in Maliki school to be a sound hadith in itself.
Mālik included the practices of the people of Medina and where the practices are in compliance with or in variance with the hadiths reported.
This is because Mālik regarded the practices of Medina (the first three generations) to be a superior proof of the "living" sunnah than isolated, although sound, hadiths.
Mālik was particularly scrupulous about authenticating his sources when he did appeal to them, however, and his comparatively small collection of aḥādith, known as al-Muwaṭṭah (or, The Straight Path).
The Mudawwanah consists of the notes of Ibn Qāsim from his sessions of learning with Mālik and answers to legal questions raised by Saḥnūn in which Ibn Qāsim quotes from Mālik, and where no notes existed, his own legal reasoning based upon the principles he learned from Mālik.
These two books, i.e. the Muwaṭṭah and Mudawwanah, along with other primary books taken from other prominent students of Mālik, would find their way into the Mukhtaṣar Khalīl, which would form the basis for the later Mālikī madhhab.
Maliki school is most closely related to the Hanafi school, and the difference between them is more of a degree, rather than nature.
However, unlike the Hanafi school, the Maliki school does not assign as much weight to analogy, but derives its rulings from pragmatism using the principles of istislah (public interest) wherever the Quran and Sahih Hadiths do not provide explicit guidance.
Notable differences from other schools
The Maliki school differs from the other Sunni schools of law most notably in the sources it uses for derivation of rulings.
Consensus was only accepted as a valid source of law if it was drawn from the first generation of Muslims in general, or the first, second or third generations from Medina, while analogy was only accepted as valid as a last resort when an answer was not found in other sources.
- Ibn Abd al-Hakam (d. 829), one of the Egyptian scholars who developed the Maliki school in Egypt
- Asbagh ibn al-Faraj (d. 840), Egyptian scholar
- Yahya al-Laithi (d. 848), Andalusian scholar, introduced the Maliki school in Al-Andalus
- Sahnun (AH 160/776–77 – AH 240/854–55), Sunnī jurist and author of the Mudawwanah, one of the most important works in Mālikī law
- Abd al-Malik ibn Habīb (AH 174/790-241/853), a prominent student of the direct students of Imām Mālik. He collected the opinions of Imām Mālik and his students in his al-Wādiḥah, which is one of the most important works in Mālikī law and the main authoritative book on Mālikī law in al-Andalus and the Maghrib.
- Ibn Abi Zayd (310/922–386/996), Tunisian Sunnī jurist and author of the Risālah, a standard work in Mālikī law
- Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr (978–1071), Andalusian scholar
- Ibn Tashfin (1061–1106), one of the prominent leaders of the Almoravid dynasty
- Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126–1198), philosopher and scholar
- Al-Qurtubi (1214–1273)
- Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi (1228–1285), Moroccan jurist and author who lived in Egypt
- Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Jundi (d. ca. 1365), Egyptian jurist, author of Mukhtasar
- Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 – 1377), explorer
- Ibn Khaldūn (1332/AH 732–1406/AH 808), scholar, historian and author of the Muqaddimah
- Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi (d. 1388), a famous Andalusian Maliki jurist
- Qadi Iyad
- Usman dan Fodio (1754–1817), founder of the Sokoto Caliphate
- El Hadj Umar Tall (1794–1864), founder of the Toucouleur Empire
- Emir Abdelkader (1808–1883), Algerian sufi and politician, religious and military leader who led a struggle against the French colonial invasion
- Ahmad al-Alawi (1869–1934), Algerian Sufi leader
- Omar Mukhtar (1862–1931), Libyan resistance leader
- Abdallah Bin Bayyah (1935) Mauritania professor of Islamic in King AbdulAziz university Jedda
- Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi, Moroccan resistance leader.
- Abu-Abdullah Adelabu
- Sherman Jackson
- Hamza Yusuf
- Suhaib Webb
- Ahmed Saad Al-Azhari, British Islamic scholar and a graduate of Al-Azhar university. Saad was formerly a Shafi’i before adopting the Maliki school
- Umar Faruq Abd-Allah
- Outline of Islam
- Glossary of Islam
- List of Islamic scholars
- The Seven Fuqaha of Medina
- Islamic views on sin
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maliki.