Maliki

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For other uses, see Maliki (disambiguation). Maliki_sentence_0

The Mālikī (Arabic: مَالِكِي‎) school is one of the four major madhhabs of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Maliki_sentence_1

It was founded by Malik ibn Anas in the 8th century. Maliki_sentence_2

The Maliki school of jurisprudence relies on the Quran and hadiths as primary sources. Maliki_sentence_3

Unlike other Islamic fiqhs, Maliki fiqh also considers the consensus of the people of Medina to be a valid source of Islamic law. Maliki_sentence_4

The Maliki madhhab is one of the largest groups of Sunni Muslims, comparable to the Shafi`i madhhab in adherents, but smaller than the Hanafi madhhab. Maliki_sentence_5

Sharia based on Maliki doctrine is predominantly found in North Africa (excluding northern and eastern Egypt), West Africa, Chad, Sudan, Kuwait, Bahrain, the Emirate of Dubai (UAE), and in northeastern parts of Saudi Arabia. Maliki_sentence_6

In the medieval era, the Maliki school was also found in parts of Europe under Islamic rule, particularly Islamic Spain and the Emirate of Sicily. Maliki_sentence_7

A major historical center of Maliki teaching, from the 9th to 11th centuries, was in the Mosque of Uqba of Tunisia. Maliki_sentence_8

History Maliki_section_0

Although Malik ibn Anas was himself a native of Medina, his school faced fierce competition for followers in the Muslim east, with the Shafi'i, Hanbali, and Zahiri schools all enjoying more success than Malik's school. Maliki_sentence_9

It was eventually the Hanafi school, however, that earned official government favor from the Abbasids. Maliki_sentence_10

Imam Malik (who was a teacher of Imam Ash-Shafi‘i, who in turn was a teacher of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal) was a Shi'ite Imam Ja'far (a descendant of the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad), as with Imam Abu Hanifah. Maliki_sentence_11

Thus all of the four great Imams of Sunni Fiqh are connected to Ja'far, whether directly or indirectly. Maliki_sentence_12

The Malikis enjoyed considerably more success in Africa, and for a while in Spain and Sicily. Maliki_sentence_13

Under the Umayyads and their remnants, the Maliki school was promoted as the official state code of law, and Maliki judges had free rein over religious practices; in return, the Malikis were expected to support and legitimize the government's right to power. Maliki_sentence_14

This dominance in Spanish Andalus from the Umayyads up to the Almoravids continued, with Islamic law in the region dominated by the opinions of Malik and his students. Maliki_sentence_15

The Sunnah and Hadith, or prophetic tradition in Islam, played lesser roles as Maliki jurists viewed both with suspicion, and few were well versed in either. Maliki_sentence_16

The Almoravids eventually gave way to the predominantly-Zahiri Almohads, at which point Malikis were tolerated at times but lost official favor. Maliki_sentence_17

With the Reconquista, the Iberian Peninsula was lost to the Muslims in totality. Maliki_sentence_18

Although Al-Andalus was eventually lost, the Maliki has been able to retain its dominance throughout North and West Africa to this day. Maliki_sentence_19

Additionally, the school has traditionally been the preferred school in the small Arab States of the Persian Gulf (Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar). Maliki_sentence_20

While the majority of the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia follows Hanbali laws, the country's Eastern Province has been known as a Maliki stronghold for centuries. Maliki_sentence_21

Principles Maliki_section_1

Maliki school's sources for Sharia are hierarchically prioritized as follows: Quran and then trustworthy Hadiths (sayings, customs and actions of Muhammad); if these sources were ambiguous on an issue, then `Amal (customs and practices of the people of Medina), followed by consensus of the Sahabah (the companions of Muhammad), then individual's opinion from the Sahabah, Qiyas (analogy), Istislah (interest and welfare of Islam and Muslims), and finally Urf (custom of people throughout the Muslim world if it did not contradict the hierarchically higher sources of Sharia). Maliki_sentence_22

The Mālikī school primarily derives from the work of Malik ibn Anas, particularly the Muwatta Imam Malik, also known as Al-Muwatta. Maliki_sentence_23

The Muwaṭṭa relies on Sahih Hadiths, includes Malik ibn Anas' commentary, but it is so complete that it is considered in Maliki school to be a sound hadith in itself. Maliki_sentence_24

Mālik included the practices of the people of Medina and where the practices are in compliance with or in variance with the hadiths reported. Maliki_sentence_25

This is because Mālik regarded the practices of Medina (the first three generations) to be a superior proof of the "living" sunnah than isolated, although sound, hadiths. Maliki_sentence_26

Mālik was particularly scrupulous about authenticating his sources when he did appeal to them, however, and his comparatively small collection of aḥādith, known as al-Muwaṭṭah (or, The Straight Path). Maliki_sentence_27

The second source, the Al-Mudawwana, is the collaborator work of Mālik's longtime student, Ibn Qāsim and his mujtahid student, Sahnun. Maliki_sentence_28

The Mudawwanah consists of the notes of Ibn Qāsim from his sessions of learning with Mālik and answers to legal questions raised by Saḥnūn in which Ibn Qāsim quotes from Mālik, and where no notes existed, his own legal reasoning based upon the principles he learned from Mālik. Maliki_sentence_29

These two books, i.e. the Muwaṭṭah and Mudawwanah, along with other primary books taken from other prominent students of Mālik, would find their way into the Mukhtaṣar Khalīl, which would form the basis for the later Mālikī madhhab. Maliki_sentence_30

Maliki school is most closely related to the Hanafi school, and the difference between them is more of a degree, rather than nature. Maliki_sentence_31

However, unlike the Hanafi school, the Maliki school does not assign as much weight to analogy, but derives its rulings from pragmatism using the principles of istislah (public interest) wherever the Quran and Sahih Hadiths do not provide explicit guidance. Maliki_sentence_32

Notable differences from other schools Maliki_section_2

The Maliki school differs from the other Sunni schools of law most notably in the sources it uses for derivation of rulings. Maliki_sentence_33

Like all Sunni schools of Sharia, the Maliki school uses the Qur'an as primary source, followed by the sayings, customs/traditions and practices of Muhammad, transmitted as hadiths. Maliki_sentence_34

In the Mālikī school, said tradition includes not only what was recorded in hadiths, but also the legal rulings of the four rightly guided caliphs – especially Umar. Maliki_sentence_35

Malik bin Anas himself also accepted binding consensus and analogical reasoning along with the majority of Sunni jurists, though with conditions. Maliki_sentence_36

Consensus was only accepted as a valid source of law if it was drawn from the first generation of Muslims in general, or the first, second or third generations from Medina, while analogy was only accepted as valid as a last resort when an answer was not found in other sources. Maliki_sentence_37

Notable Mālikīs Maliki_section_3

Maliki_unordered_list_0

  • Ibn Abd al-Hakam (d. 829), one of the Egyptian scholars who developed the Maliki school in EgyptMaliki_item_0_0
  • Asbagh ibn al-Faraj (d. 840), Egyptian scholarMaliki_item_0_1
  • Yahya al-Laithi (d. 848), Andalusian scholar, introduced the Maliki school in Al-AndalusMaliki_item_0_2
  • Sahnun (AH 160/776–77 – AH 240/854–55), Sunnī jurist and author of the Mudawwanah, one of the most important works in Mālikī lawMaliki_item_0_3
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Habīb (AH 174/790-241/853), a prominent student of the direct students of Imām Mālik. He collected the opinions of Imām Mālik and his students in his al-Wādiḥah, which is one of the most important works in Mālikī law and the main authoritative book on Mālikī law in al-Andalus and the Maghrib.Maliki_item_0_4
  • Ibn Abi Zayd (310/922–386/996), Tunisian Sunnī jurist and author of the Risālah, a standard work in Mālikī lawMaliki_item_0_5
  • Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr (978–1071), Andalusian scholarMaliki_item_0_6
  • Ibn Tashfin (1061–1106), one of the prominent leaders of the Almoravid dynastyMaliki_item_0_7
  • Ibn Rushd (Averroes) (1126–1198), philosopher and scholarMaliki_item_0_8
  • Al-Qurtubi (1214–1273)Maliki_item_0_9
  • Shihab al-Din al-Qarafi (1228–1285), Moroccan jurist and author who lived in EgyptMaliki_item_0_10
  • Khalil ibn Ishaq al-Jundi (d. ca. 1365), Egyptian jurist, author of MukhtasarMaliki_item_0_11
  • Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 – 1377), explorerMaliki_item_0_12
  • Ibn Khaldūn (1332/AH 732–1406/AH 808), scholar, historian and author of the MuqaddimahMaliki_item_0_13
  • Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi (d. 1388), a famous Andalusian Maliki juristMaliki_item_0_14
  • Qadi IyadMaliki_item_0_15

Contemporary Malikis Maliki_section_4

Maliki_unordered_list_1

See also Maliki_section_5

Maliki_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maliki.