Maltese language

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Maltese language_table_infobox_0

MalteseMaltese language_header_cell_0_0_0
Native toMaltese language_header_cell_0_1_0 MaltaMaltese language_cell_0_1_1
EthnicityMaltese language_header_cell_0_2_0 MalteseMaltese language_cell_0_2_1
Native speakersMaltese language_header_cell_0_3_0 520,000 (2012)Maltese language_cell_0_3_1
Language familyMaltese language_header_cell_0_4_0 Afro-AsiaticMaltese language_cell_0_4_1
Writing systemMaltese language_header_cell_0_5_0 Latin (Maltese alphabet)

Maltese BrailleMaltese language_cell_0_5_1

Official statusMaltese language_header_cell_0_6_0
Official language inMaltese language_header_cell_0_7_0 Malta

 European UnionMaltese language_cell_0_7_1

Regulated byMaltese language_header_cell_0_8_0 National Council for the Maltese Language

Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ilsien MaltiMaltese language_cell_0_8_1

Language codesMaltese language_header_cell_0_9_0
ISO 639-1Maltese language_header_cell_0_10_0 Maltese language_cell_0_10_1
ISO 639-2Maltese language_header_cell_0_11_0 Maltese language_cell_0_11_1
ISO 639-3Maltese language_header_cell_0_12_0 Maltese language_cell_0_12_1
GlottologMaltese language_header_cell_0_13_0 Maltese language_cell_0_13_1
LinguasphereMaltese language_header_cell_0_14_0 12-AAC-cMaltese language_cell_0_14_1

Maltese (Maltese: Malti) is a Semitic language spoken by the Maltese people. Maltese language_sentence_0

It is the national language of Malta and also serves as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished. Maltese language_sentence_1

Maltese is a Latinised variety of spoken historical Arabic through its descent from Siculo-Arabic, which developed as a Maghrebi Arabic dialect during the Emirate of Sicily between 831 and 1091. Maltese language_sentence_2

As a result of the Norman invasion of Malta and the subsequent re-Christianisation of the island, Maltese evolved independently of Classical Arabic in a gradual process of Latinisation. Maltese language_sentence_3

It is therefore exceptional as a variety of historical Arabic that has no diglossic relationship with Classical or Modern Standard Arabic. Maltese language_sentence_4

Maltese is thus classified separately from the 30 varieties constituting the modern Arabic macrolanguage. Maltese language_sentence_5

Maltese is also distinguished from Arabic and other Semitic languages since its morphology has been deeply influenced by Romance languages, namely Italian and Sicilian. Maltese language_sentence_6

The original Arabic base comprises around one-third of the Maltese vocabulary, especially words that denote basic ideas and the function words, but about half of the vocabulary is derived from standard Italian and Sicilian; and English words make up between 6% and 20% of the vocabulary. Maltese language_sentence_7

A 2016 study shows that, in terms of basic everyday language, speakers of Maltese are able to understand around a third of what is said to them in Tunisian Arabic, which is a Maghrebi Arabic related to Siculo-Arabic, whereas speakers of Tunisian Arabic are able to understand about 40% of what is said to them in Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_8

This reported level of asymmetric intelligibility is considerably lower than the mutual intelligibility found between other varieties of Arabic. Maltese language_sentence_9

Maltese has always been written in the Latin script, the earliest surviving example dating from the late Middle Ages. Maltese language_sentence_10

It continues to be the only standardised Semitic language written exclusively in the Latin script. Maltese language_sentence_11

History Maltese language_section_0

See also: History of Malta Maltese language_sentence_12

The origins of the Maltese language are attributed to the arrival, early in the eleventh century, of settlers from neighbouring Sicily, where Siculo-Arabic was spoken, following the Fatimid Caliphate's conquest of the island at the end of the ninth century. Maltese language_sentence_13

This claim has been corroborated by genetic studies, which show that contemporary Maltese people share common ancestry with Sicilians and Calabrians, with little genetic input from North Africa and the Levant. Maltese language_sentence_14

The Norman conquest in 1091, followed by the expulsion of the Muslims—complete by 1249—permanently isolated the vernacular from its Arabic source, creating the conditions for its evolution into a distinct language. Maltese language_sentence_15

In contrast to Sicily—where Siculo-Arabic became extinct and replaced by Sicilian—the vernacular in Malta continued to develop alongside Italian, eventually replacing it as official language in 1934 – alongside English. Maltese language_sentence_16

The first written reference to the Maltese language is in a will of 1436, where it is called lingua maltensi. Maltese language_sentence_17

The oldest known document in Maltese, Il-Kantilena (Xidew il-Qada) by Pietru Caxaro, dates from the 15th century. Maltese language_sentence_18

The earliest known Maltese dictionary was a 16th-century manuscript entitled "Maltese-Italiano"; it was included in the Biblioteca Maltese of Mifsud in 1764, but is now lost. Maltese language_sentence_19

A list of Maltese words was included in both the Thesaurus Polyglottus (1603) and Propugnaculum Europae (1606) of Hieronymus Megiser, who had visited Malta in 1588–1589; Domenico Magri gave the etymologies of some Maltese words in his Hierolexicon, sive sacrum dictionarium (1677). Maltese language_sentence_20

An early manuscript dictionary, Dizionario Italiano e Maltese, was discovered in the Biblioteca Vallicelliana in Rome in the 1980s, together with a grammar, the Regole per la Lingua Maltese, attributed to a French Knight named Thezan. Maltese language_sentence_21

The first systematic lexicon is that of Giovanni Pietro Francesco Agius de Soldanis, who also wrote the first systematic grammar of the language and proposed a standard orthography. Maltese language_sentence_22

Demographics Maltese language_section_1

SIL Ethnologue (2015) reports a total of 522,000 Maltese speakers, with 371,000 residing in Malta (close to 90% of Maltese population) according to the European Commission (2012). Maltese language_sentence_23

This implies a number of around 150,000 speakers in the Maltese diaspora. Maltese language_sentence_24

Most speakers are bilingual, the majority of speakers (345,000) regularly use English, and a reported 66,800 regularly use French. Maltese language_sentence_25

The largest diaspora community of Maltese speakers is in Australia, with 36,000 speakers reported in 2006 (down from 45,000 in 1996, and expected to decline further). Maltese language_sentence_26

The Maltese linguistic community in Tunisia originates in the 18th century. Maltese language_sentence_27

Numbering at several thousand in the 19th century, it was reported at only 100 to 200 people as of 2017. Maltese language_sentence_28

Classification Maltese language_section_2

Maltese is descended from Siculo-Arabic, a Semitic language within the Afroasiatic family, that in the course of its history has been influenced by Sicilian and Italian, to a lesser extent French, and more recently English. Maltese language_sentence_29

Today, the core vocabulary (including both the most commonly used vocabulary and function words) is Semitic, with large numbers of loanwords. Maltese language_sentence_30

Because of the Sicilian influence on Siculo-Arabic, Maltese has many language contact features and is most commonly described as a language with a large number of loanwords. Maltese language_sentence_31

The Maltese language has historically been classified in various ways, with some claiming that the ancient Punic language (another Semitic language) was its origin instead of Siculo-Arabic, while others believed the language to be one of the Berber languages (another family within Afroasiatic), and under the Fascist Kingdom of Italy, it was classified as regional Italian. Maltese language_sentence_32

Dialects Maltese language_section_3

Main articles: Żejtun dialect, Qormi dialect, and Maltralian Maltese language_sentence_33

SIL reports six varieties, besides Standard Maltese: Gozo, Port Maltese, Rural Central Maltese, Rural East Maltese, Rural West Maltese, and Zurrieq. Maltese language_sentence_34

Urban varieties of Maltese are closer to Standard Maltese than rural varieties, which have some characteristics that distinguish them from Standard Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_35

They tend to show some archaic features such as the realisation of ⟨kh⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ and the imāla of Arabic ā into ē (or ī especially in Gozo), considered archaic because they are reminiscent of 15th-century transcriptions of this sound. Maltese language_sentence_36

Another archaic feature is the realisation of Standard Maltese ā as ō in rural dialects. Maltese language_sentence_37

There is also a tendency to diphthongise simple vowels, e.g., ū becomes eo or eu. Maltese language_sentence_38

Rural dialects also tend to employ more Semitic roots and broken plurals than Standard Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_39

In general, rural Maltese is less distant from its Siculo-Arabic ancestor than Standard Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_40

Phonology Maltese language_section_4

Consonants Maltese language_section_5

Maltese language_table_general_1

Consonant phonemesMaltese language_table_caption_1
Maltese language_header_cell_1_0_0 LabialMaltese language_header_cell_1_0_1 Dental/

AlveolarMaltese language_header_cell_1_0_3

PalatalMaltese language_header_cell_1_0_5 VelarMaltese language_header_cell_1_0_7 PharyngealMaltese language_header_cell_1_0_9 GlottalMaltese language_header_cell_1_0_11
NasalMaltese language_header_cell_1_1_0 Maltese language_cell_1_1_1 mMaltese language_cell_1_1_2 Maltese language_cell_1_1_3 nMaltese language_cell_1_1_4 Maltese language_cell_1_1_5 Maltese language_cell_1_1_6 Maltese language_cell_1_1_7 Maltese language_cell_1_1_8 Maltese language_cell_1_1_9 Maltese language_cell_1_1_10 Maltese language_cell_1_1_11 Maltese language_cell_1_1_12
PlosiveMaltese language_header_cell_1_2_0 pMaltese language_cell_1_2_1 bMaltese language_cell_1_2_2 tMaltese language_cell_1_2_3 dMaltese language_cell_1_2_4 Maltese language_cell_1_2_5 Maltese language_cell_1_2_6 kMaltese language_cell_1_2_7 ɡMaltese language_cell_1_2_8 Maltese language_cell_1_2_9 Maltese language_cell_1_2_10 ʔMaltese language_cell_1_2_11 Maltese language_cell_1_2_12
AffricateMaltese language_header_cell_1_3_0 Maltese language_cell_1_3_1 Maltese language_cell_1_3_2 t͡sMaltese language_cell_1_3_3 d͡zMaltese language_cell_1_3_4 t͡ʃMaltese language_cell_1_3_5 d͡ʒMaltese language_cell_1_3_6 Maltese language_cell_1_3_7 Maltese language_cell_1_3_8 Maltese language_cell_1_3_9 Maltese language_cell_1_3_10 Maltese language_cell_1_3_11 Maltese language_cell_1_3_12
FricativeMaltese language_header_cell_1_4_0 fMaltese language_cell_1_4_1 vMaltese language_cell_1_4_2 sMaltese language_cell_1_4_3 zMaltese language_cell_1_4_4 ʃMaltese language_cell_1_4_5 ʒMaltese language_cell_1_4_6 Maltese language_cell_1_4_7 Maltese language_cell_1_4_8 ħMaltese language_cell_1_4_9 Maltese language_cell_1_4_10 Maltese language_cell_1_4_11 Maltese language_cell_1_4_12
TrillMaltese language_header_cell_1_5_0 Maltese language_cell_1_5_1 Maltese language_cell_1_5_2 Maltese language_cell_1_5_3 rMaltese language_cell_1_5_4 Maltese language_cell_1_5_5 Maltese language_cell_1_5_6 Maltese language_cell_1_5_7 Maltese language_cell_1_5_8 Maltese language_cell_1_5_9 Maltese language_cell_1_5_10 Maltese language_cell_1_5_11 Maltese language_cell_1_5_12
ApproximantMaltese language_header_cell_1_6_0 Maltese language_cell_1_6_1 Maltese language_cell_1_6_2 Maltese language_cell_1_6_3 lMaltese language_cell_1_6_4 Maltese language_cell_1_6_5 jMaltese language_cell_1_6_6 Maltese language_cell_1_6_7 wMaltese language_cell_1_6_8 Maltese language_cell_1_6_9 Maltese language_cell_1_6_10 Maltese language_cell_1_6_11 Maltese language_cell_1_6_12

Voiceless stops are only lightly aspirated and voiced stops are fully voiced. Maltese language_sentence_41

Voicing is carried over from the last segment in obstruent clusters; thus, two- and three-obstruent clusters are either voiceless or voiced throughout, e.g. /niktbu/ is realised [ˈniɡdbu] "we write". Maltese language_sentence_42

Maltese has final-obstruent devoicing of voiced obstruents and voiceless stops have no audible release, making voiceless–voiced pairs phonetically indistinguishable. Maltese language_sentence_43

Gemination is distinctive word-medially and word-finally in Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_44

The distinction is most rigid intervocalically after a stressed vowel. Maltese language_sentence_45

Stressed, word-final closed syllables with short vowels end in a long consonant, and those with a long vowel in a single consonant; the only exception is where historic *ʕ and *ɣ meant the compensatory lengthening of the succeeding vowel. Maltese language_sentence_46

Some speakers have lost length distinction in clusters. Maltese language_sentence_47

The two nasals /m/ and /n/ assimilate for place of articulation in clusters. Maltese language_sentence_48

/t/ and /d/ are usually dental, whereas /t͡s d͡z s z n r l/ are all alveolar. Maltese language_sentence_49

/t͡s d͡z/ are found mostly in words of Italian origin, retaining length (if not word-initial). Maltese language_sentence_50

/d͡z/ and /ʒ/ are only found in loanwords, e.g. /ɡad͡zd͡zɛtta/ "newspaper" and /tɛlɛˈviʒin/ "television". Maltese language_sentence_51

The pharyngeal fricative /ħ/ is velar (x) or glottal (h) for some speakers. Maltese language_sentence_52

Vowels Maltese language_section_6

Maltese has five short vowels, /ɐ ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ/, written a e i o u; six long vowels, /ɐː ɛː ɪː iː ɔː ʊː/, written a, e, ie, i, o, u, all of which (with the exception of ie /ɪː/) can only be known to represent long vowels in writing if they are followed by an orthographic għ or h (otherwise, one needs to know the pronunciation; e.g. nar (fire) is pronounced /na:r/); and seven diphthongs, /ɐɪ ɐʊ ɛɪ ɛʊ ɪʊ ɔɪ ɔʊ/, written aj or għi, aw or għu, ej or għi, ew, iw, oj, and ow or għu. Maltese language_sentence_53

Stress Maltese language_section_7

Stress is generally on the penultimate syllable, unless some other syllable is heavy (has a long vowel or final consonant), or unless a stress-shifting suffix is added. Maltese language_sentence_54

(Suffixes marking gender, possession, and verbal plurals do not cause the stress to shift). Maltese language_sentence_55

Historically when vowel a and u were long or stressed they were written as â or û, for example in the word baħħâr (sailor) to differentiate from baħħar (to sail), but nowadays these accents are mostly omitted. Maltese language_sentence_56

When two syllables are equally heavy, the penultimate takes the stress, but otherwise the heavier syllable does, e.g. bajjad [ˈbɐj.jɐt] 'he painted' vs bajjad [bɐj.ˈjɐːt] 'a painter'. Maltese language_sentence_57

Historical phonology Maltese language_section_8

Many Classical Arabic consonants underwent mergers and modifications in Maltese: Maltese language_sentence_58

Maltese language_table_general_2

Classical ArabicMaltese language_header_cell_2_0_0 ت‎ /t/Maltese language_cell_2_0_1 ث‎ /θ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_2 ط‎ /tˤ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_3 د‎ /d/Maltese language_cell_2_0_4 ض‎ /dˤ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_5 ذ‎ /ð/Maltese language_cell_2_0_6 ظ‎ /ðˤ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_7 س‎ /s/Maltese language_cell_2_0_8 ص‎ /sˤ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_9 ح‎ /ħ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_10 خ‎ /χ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_11 ع‎ /ʕ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_12 غ‎ /ɣ/Maltese language_cell_2_0_13 ق‎ /q/Maltese language_cell_2_0_14 ه‎ /h/Maltese language_cell_2_0_15
MalteseMaltese language_header_cell_2_1_0 /t/Maltese language_cell_2_1_1 /d/Maltese language_cell_2_1_4 /s/Maltese language_cell_2_1_8 /ħ/Maltese language_cell_2_1_10 /Vː/Maltese language_cell_2_1_12 /ʔ~k/Maltese language_cell_2_1_14 not pronouncedMaltese language_cell_2_1_15

Orthography Maltese language_section_9

Alphabet Maltese language_section_10

Main articles: Maltese alphabet and Maltese Braille Maltese language_sentence_59

The modern system of Maltese orthography was introduced in 1924. Maltese language_sentence_60

Below is the Maltese alphabet, with IPA symbols and approximate English pronunciation: Maltese language_sentence_61

Maltese language_table_general_3

LetterMaltese language_header_cell_3_0_0 NameMaltese language_header_cell_3_0_1 IPA (Alphabet Name(s))Maltese language_header_cell_3_0_2 Maltese exampleMaltese language_header_cell_3_0_3 IPA (orthographically representing)Maltese language_header_cell_3_0_4 Approximate English pronunciationMaltese language_header_cell_3_0_5
A aMaltese language_cell_3_1_0 aMaltese language_cell_3_1_1 a:Maltese language_cell_3_1_2 anġlu (angel)Maltese language_cell_3_1_3 ɐ, a:, æ:Maltese language_cell_3_1_4 similar to 'u' in nut in RP [a:] similar to father in Irish English [æ:] similar to cat in American English, in some dialects it may be [ɒ:] in some locations as in what in some American English DialectsMaltese language_cell_3_1_5
B bMaltese language_cell_3_2_0 beMaltese language_cell_3_2_1 be:Maltese language_cell_3_2_2 ballun (ball)Maltese language_cell_3_2_3 bMaltese language_cell_3_2_4 bar, but at the end of a word it is devoiced to [p].Maltese language_cell_3_2_5
Ċ ċMaltese language_cell_3_3_0 ċeMaltese language_cell_3_3_1 t͡ʃe:Maltese language_cell_3_3_2 ċavetta (key)Maltese language_cell_3_3_3 t͡ʃMaltese language_cell_3_3_4 church (note: undotted 'c' has been replaced by 'k', so when 'c' does appear, it is to be spoken the same way as 'ċ')Maltese language_cell_3_3_5
D dMaltese language_cell_3_4_0 deMaltese language_cell_3_4_1 de:Maltese language_cell_3_4_2 dar (home)Maltese language_cell_3_4_3 dMaltese language_cell_3_4_4 day, but at the end of a word it is devoiced to [t].Maltese language_cell_3_4_5
E eMaltese language_cell_3_5_0 eMaltese language_cell_3_5_1 e:Maltese language_cell_3_5_2 envelopp (envelope)Maltese language_cell_3_5_3 e:, ɛ, ø:, əMaltese language_cell_3_5_4 [e:] somewhat like beet in some English dialects/French é when long [ɛ] end when short ,it is often changed to [ø:, œ] when following and more often when followed by a w, when at the end in an unstressed syllable it is pronounced as schwa [ə, Vᵊ] butterMaltese language_cell_3_5_5
F fMaltese language_cell_3_6_0 effeMaltese language_cell_3_6_1 ɛf(ː)ᵊMaltese language_cell_3_6_2 fjura (flower)Maltese language_cell_3_6_3 fMaltese language_cell_3_6_4 farMaltese language_cell_3_6_5
Ġ ġMaltese language_cell_3_7_0 ġeMaltese language_cell_3_7_1 d͡ʒø:Maltese language_cell_3_7_2 ġelat (ice cream)Maltese language_cell_3_7_3 d͡ʒMaltese language_cell_3_7_4 gem, but at the end of a word it is devoiced to [tʃ].Maltese language_cell_3_7_5
G gMaltese language_cell_3_8_0 geMaltese language_cell_3_8_1 ge:Maltese language_cell_3_8_2 gallettina (biscuit)Maltese language_cell_3_8_3 ɡMaltese language_cell_3_8_4 game, but at the end of a word it is devoiced to [k].Maltese language_cell_3_8_5
GĦ għMaltese language_cell_3_9_0 ajnMaltese language_cell_3_9_1 ajn, æ:nMaltese language_cell_3_9_2 għasfur (bird)Maltese language_cell_3_9_3 (ˤ)ː, ħːMaltese language_cell_3_9_4 has the effect of lengthening and pharyngealising associated vowels (għi and għu are [i̞(ˤ)j] (may be transcribed as [ə(ˤ)j]) and [oˤ]). When found at the end of a word or immediately before 'h' it has the sound of a double 'ħ' (see below).Maltese language_cell_3_9_5
H hMaltese language_cell_3_10_0 akkaMaltese language_cell_3_10_1 ak(:)ɐMaltese language_cell_3_10_2 hu (he)Maltese language_cell_3_10_3 Maltese language_cell_3_10_4 not pronounced unless it is at the end of a word, in which case it has the sound of 'ħ'.Maltese language_cell_3_10_5
Ħ ħMaltese language_cell_3_11_0 ħeMaltese language_cell_3_11_1 ħe:, he:, xe:Maltese language_cell_3_11_2 ħanut (shop)Maltese language_cell_3_11_3 ħMaltese language_cell_3_11_4 no English equivalent; sounds similar to /h/ but is articulated with a lowered larynx.Maltese language_cell_3_11_5
I iMaltese language_cell_3_12_0 iMaltese language_cell_3_12_1 i:Maltese language_cell_3_12_2 ikel (food)Maltese language_cell_3_12_3 i̞:, i:, ɪMaltese language_cell_3_12_4 [i̞:] bite(the way commonly realized in Irish English or [i:] in other words as beet but more forward) and when short as [ɪ] bit, occasionally 'i' is used to display il-vokali tal-leħen(the vowel of the voice) as in words like l-iskola or l-iMdina ,in this case it takes the schwa sound.Maltese language_cell_3_12_5
IE ieMaltese language_cell_3_13_0 ieMaltese language_cell_3_13_1 i:ᵊ, ɛ:Maltese language_cell_3_13_2 ieqaf (stop)Maltese language_cell_3_13_3 ɛ:, iːᵊMaltese language_cell_3_13_4 sounds similar to /ie/, as in yield, but opened up slightly towards /ɛ/ some English dialects may produce this sound when realizing words that have ea as in dead or meatMaltese language_cell_3_13_5
J jMaltese language_cell_3_14_0 jeMaltese language_cell_3_14_1 jə, jæ, jɛMaltese language_cell_3_14_2 jum (day)Maltese language_cell_3_14_3 jMaltese language_cell_3_14_4 yardMaltese language_cell_3_14_5
K kMaltese language_cell_3_15_0 keMaltese language_cell_3_15_1 kə, kæ, kɛMaltese language_cell_3_15_2 kelb (dog)Maltese language_cell_3_15_3 kMaltese language_cell_3_15_4 kettleMaltese language_cell_3_15_5
L lMaltese language_cell_3_16_0 elleMaltese language_cell_3_16_1 ɛl(:)ᵊMaltese language_cell_3_16_2 libsa (dress)Maltese language_cell_3_16_3 lMaltese language_cell_3_16_4 lineMaltese language_cell_3_16_5
M mMaltese language_cell_3_17_0 emmeMaltese language_cell_3_17_1 ɛm(:)ᵊMaltese language_cell_3_17_2 mara (woman)Maltese language_cell_3_17_3 mMaltese language_cell_3_17_4 marchMaltese language_cell_3_17_5
N nMaltese language_cell_3_18_0 enneMaltese language_cell_3_18_1 ɛn(:)ᵊMaltese language_cell_3_18_2 nanna (granny)Maltese language_cell_3_18_3 nMaltese language_cell_3_18_4 nextMaltese language_cell_3_18_5
O oMaltese language_cell_3_19_0 oMaltese language_cell_3_19_1 o:Maltese language_cell_3_19_2 ors (bear)Maltese language_cell_3_19_3 o, ɔ, ɒMaltese language_cell_3_19_4 [o] as in somewhere between similar to Scottish English o in no [ɔ] like 'aw' in RP law, but short or [ɒ] as in water in some American dialects.Maltese language_cell_3_19_5
P pMaltese language_cell_3_20_0 peMaltese language_cell_3_20_1 pe:, pəMaltese language_cell_3_20_2 paġna (page, sheet)Maltese language_cell_3_20_3 pMaltese language_cell_3_20_4 partMaltese language_cell_3_20_5
Q qMaltese language_cell_3_21_0 qeMaltese language_cell_3_21_1 ʔø, ʔ(ʷ)ɛ, ʔ(ʷ)æ, ʔ(ʷ)əMaltese language_cell_3_21_2 qattus (cat)Maltese language_cell_3_21_3 ʔMaltese language_cell_3_21_4 glottal stop, found in the Cockney English pronunciation of "bottle" or the phrase "uh-oh" /ʔʌʔoʊ/.Maltese language_cell_3_21_5
R rMaltese language_cell_3_22_0 erreMaltese language_cell_3_22_1 ɛɹ(:)ᵊ, æɹ(:)ᵊ, ɚ(:)ᵊ or ɛr(:)ᵊ, ær(:)ᵊ, ər(:)ᵊMaltese language_cell_3_22_2 re (king)Maltese language_cell_3_22_3 r, ɹMaltese language_cell_3_22_4 [r] as in General American English Butter ,or ɹ road (r realization changes depending on dialect or location in the word)Maltese language_cell_3_22_5
S sMaltese language_cell_3_23_0 esseMaltese language_cell_3_23_1 ɛs(:)ᵊMaltese language_cell_3_23_2 sliem (peace)Maltese language_cell_3_23_3 sMaltese language_cell_3_23_4 sandMaltese language_cell_3_23_5
T tMaltese language_cell_3_24_0 teMaltese language_cell_3_24_1 te:Maltese language_cell_3_24_2 tieqa (window)Maltese language_cell_3_24_3 tMaltese language_cell_3_24_4 tiredMaltese language_cell_3_24_5
U uMaltese language_cell_3_25_0 uMaltese language_cell_3_25_1 u:, ʉMaltese language_cell_3_25_2 uviera (egg cup)Maltese language_cell_3_25_3 u, ʉ, ʊMaltese language_cell_3_25_4 [u] as in General American English boot or in some dialects it may be realized as [ʉ] as in some American English realizations of student, short u is [ʊ] putMaltese language_cell_3_25_5
V vMaltese language_cell_3_26_0 veMaltese language_cell_3_26_1 vø:, ve:, vəMaltese language_cell_3_26_2 vjola (violet)Maltese language_cell_3_26_3 vMaltese language_cell_3_26_4 vast, but at the end of a word it is devoiced to [f] may be said as [w] in the word Iva(yes) sometimes this is just written as Iwa.Maltese language_cell_3_26_5
W wMaltese language_cell_3_27_0 ve doppja /u doppja/weMaltese language_cell_3_27_1 vedɒp(:)jɐ, u:dɒp(:)jɐ, wø:Maltese language_cell_3_27_2 widna (ear)Maltese language_cell_3_27_3 wMaltese language_cell_3_27_4 westMaltese language_cell_3_27_5
X xMaltese language_cell_3_28_0 xeMaltese language_cell_3_28_1 ʃə, ʃø:Maltese language_cell_3_28_2 xadina (monkey)Maltese language_cell_3_28_3 ʃ / ʒMaltese language_cell_3_28_4 shade, sometimes as measure; when doubled the sound is elongated, as in "Cash shin" vs. "Cash in".Maltese language_cell_3_28_5
Ż żMaltese language_cell_3_29_0 że/żetaMaltese language_cell_3_29_1 zə, zø:, ze:t(ɐ)Maltese language_cell_3_29_2 żraben (shoes)Maltese language_cell_3_29_3 zMaltese language_cell_3_29_4 maze, but at the end of a word it is devoiced to [s].Maltese language_cell_3_29_5
Z zMaltese language_cell_3_30_0 zeMaltese language_cell_3_30_1 t͡sə, t͡sø:, t͡se:t(ɐ)Maltese language_cell_3_30_2 zalza (sauce)Maltese language_cell_3_30_3 t͡s / d͡zMaltese language_cell_3_30_4 pizzaMaltese language_cell_3_30_5

Final vowels with grave accents (à, è, ì, ò, ù) are also found in some Maltese words of Italian origin, such as libertà ("freedom"), sigurtà (old Italian: sicurtà, "security"), or soċjetà (Italian: società, "society"). Maltese language_sentence_62

The official rules governing the structure of the Maltese language are found in the official guidebook issued by the Akkademja tal-Malti, the Academy of the Maltese language, which is named Tagħrif fuq il-Kitba Maltija, that is, Knowledge on Writing in Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_63

The first edition of this book was printed in 1924 by the Maltese government's printing press. Maltese language_sentence_64

The rules were further expanded in the 1984 book, iż-Żieda mat-Tagħrif, which focused mainly on the increasing influence of Romance and English words. Maltese language_sentence_65

In 1992 the Academy issued the Aġġornament tat-Tagħrif fuq il-Kitba Maltija, which updated the previous works. Maltese language_sentence_66

All these works were included in a revised and expanded guidebook published in 1996. Maltese language_sentence_67

The National Council for the Maltese Language (KNM) is the main regulator of the Maltese language (see Maltese Language Act, below) and not the Akkademja tal-Malti. Maltese language_sentence_68

However, these orthography rules are still valid and official. Maltese language_sentence_69

Written Maltese Maltese language_section_11

Since Maltese evolved after the Italo-Normans ended Arab rule of the islands, a written form of the language was not developed for a long time after the Arabs' expulsion in the middle of the thirteenth century. Maltese language_sentence_70

Under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller, both French and Italian were used for official documents and correspondence. Maltese language_sentence_71

During the British colonial period, the use of English was encouraged through education, with Italian regarded as the next-most important language. Maltese language_sentence_72

In the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century, philologists and academics such as Mikiel Anton Vassalli made a concerted effort to standardise written Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_73

Many examples of written Maltese exist from before this period, always in the Latin alphabet, Il Cantilena being the earliest example of written Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_74

In 1934, Maltese was recognised as an official language. Maltese language_sentence_75

Sample Maltese language_section_12

The Maltese language has a tendency to have both Semitic vocabulary and also vocabulary derived from Romance languages, primarily Italian. Maltese language_sentence_76

Below are two versions of the same translations, one in vocabulary derived mostly from Semitic root words while the other uses Romance loanwords (from the , see ): Maltese language_sentence_77

Maltese language_table_general_4

EnglishMaltese language_header_cell_4_0_0 Maltese (Semitic vocabulary)Maltese language_header_cell_4_0_1 Maltese (Romance vocabulary)Maltese language_header_cell_4_0_2
The Union is founded on the values of respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. These values are common to the Member States in a society in which pluralism, non-discrimination, tolerance, justice, solidarity and equality between women and men prevail.Maltese language_cell_4_1_0 L-Għaqda hija mibnija fuq is-siwi ta' għadir għall-ġieħ il-bniedem, ta' ħelsien, ta' għażil il-ġemgħa, ta' ndaqs bejn il-ġnus, tas-saltna tad-dritt* u tal-għadir għall-ħaqq tal-bniedem, wkoll il-ħaqq ta' wħud li huma f'minoranzi*. Dan is-siwi huwa mqassam bejn il-Pajjiżi* Msieħba, f'nies li tħaddan il-kotrija, li ma tgħejjibx, li ddann, li tgħaqqad u li tiżen indaqs in-nisa u l-irġiel.Maltese language_cell_4_1_1 L-Unjoni hija mibnija fuq il-valuri ta' rispett għad-dinjità tal-bniedem, ta' libertà, ta' demokrazija, ta' ugwaljanza, ta' l-istat tad-dritt u tar-rispett għad-drittijiet tal-bniedem, inklużi d-drittijiet ta' persuni li jagħmlu parti minn minoranzi. Dawn il-valuri huma komuni għall-Istati Membri f'soċjetà karatterizzata mill-pluraliżmu, in-non-diskriminazzjoni, it-tolleranza, il-ġustizzja, is-solidarjetà u l-ugwaljanza bejn in-nisa u l-irġiel.Maltese language_cell_4_1_2
  • Note: the words dritt (pl. drittijiet), minoranza (pl. minoranzi), pajjiż (pl pajjiżi) are derived from diritto (right), minoranza (minority) and paese (county) respectively. Maltese language_sentence_78

Vocabulary Maltese language_section_13

Although the original vocabulary of the language was Siculo-Arabic, it has incorporated a large number of borrowings from Romance sources of influence (Sicilian, Italian, and French), and more recently Germanic ones (from English). Maltese language_sentence_79

The historical source of modern Maltese vocabulary is 52% Italian/Sicilian, 32% Siculo-Arabic, and 6% English, with some of the remainder being French. Maltese language_sentence_80

Today, most function words are Semitic. Maltese language_sentence_81

In this way, it is similar to English, which is a Germanic language that had large influence from Norman French. Maltese language_sentence_82

As a result of this, Romance language-speakers may easily be able to comprehend conceptual ideas expressed in Maltese, such as "Ġeografikament, l-Ewropa hi parti tas-superkontinent ta' l-Ewrasja" (Geographically, Europe is part of the Supercontinent of Eurasia), while not understanding a single word of a functional sentence such as "Ir-raġel qiegħed fid-dar" (The man is in the house), which would be easily understood by any Arabic speaker. Maltese language_sentence_83

Romance Maltese language_section_14

An analysis of the etymology of the 41,000 words in Aquilina's Maltese-English Dictionary shows that words of Romance origin make up 52% of the Maltese vocabulary, although other sources claim from as low as 40%, to as high as 55%. Maltese language_sentence_84

This vocabulary tends to deal with more complicated concepts. Maltese language_sentence_85

They are mostly derived from Sicilian and thus exhibit Sicilian phonetic characteristics, such as /u/ in place of /o/, and /i/ in place of /e/ (e.g. tiatru not teatro and fidi not fede). Maltese language_sentence_86

Also, as with Old Sicilian, /ʃ/ (English 'sh') is written 'x' and this produces spellings such as: ambaxxata /ambaʃːaːta/ ('embassy'), xena /ʃeːna/ ('scene' cf. Maltese language_sentence_87

Italian ambasciata, scena). Maltese language_sentence_88

Maltese language_table_general_5

MalteseMaltese language_header_cell_5_0_0 SicilianMaltese language_header_cell_5_0_1 ItalianMaltese language_header_cell_5_0_2 EnglishMaltese language_header_cell_5_0_3
skolaMaltese language_cell_5_1_0 scolaMaltese language_cell_5_1_1 scuolaMaltese language_cell_5_1_2 schoolMaltese language_cell_5_1_3
gvernMaltese language_cell_5_2_0 cuvernuMaltese language_cell_5_2_1 governoMaltese language_cell_5_2_2 governmentMaltese language_cell_5_2_3
repubblikaMaltese language_cell_5_3_0 ripùbblicaMaltese language_cell_5_3_1 repubblicaMaltese language_cell_5_3_2 republicMaltese language_cell_5_3_3
reMaltese language_cell_5_4_0 reMaltese language_cell_5_4_1 reMaltese language_cell_5_4_2 cognate:; translation: kingMaltese language_cell_5_4_3
naturaMaltese language_cell_5_5_0 naturaMaltese language_cell_5_5_1 naturaMaltese language_cell_5_5_2 natureMaltese language_cell_5_5_3
pulizijaMaltese language_cell_5_6_0 pulizzìaMaltese language_cell_5_6_1 poliziaMaltese language_cell_5_6_2 policeMaltese language_cell_5_6_3
ċentruMaltese language_cell_5_7_0 centruMaltese language_cell_5_7_1 centroMaltese language_cell_5_7_2 centreMaltese language_cell_5_7_3
teatruMaltese language_cell_5_8_0 tiatruMaltese language_cell_5_8_1 teatroMaltese language_cell_5_8_2 theatreMaltese language_cell_5_8_3

A tendency in modern Maltese is to adopt further influences from English and Italian. Maltese language_sentence_89

Complex Latinate English words adopted into Maltese are often given Italianate or Sicilianate forms, even if the resulting words do not appear in either of those languages. Maltese language_sentence_90

For instance, the words "evaluation", "industrial action", and "chemical armaments" become "evalwazzjoni", "azzjoni industrjali", and "armamenti kimiċi" in Maltese, while the Italian terms are valutazione, vertenza sindacale, and armi chimiche respectively. Maltese language_sentence_91

English words of Germanic origin are generally preserved relatively unchanged. Maltese language_sentence_92

Some impacts of African Romance on Arabic and Berber spoken in the Maghreb are theorised, which may then have passed into Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_93

For example, in calendar month names, the word furar "February" is only found in the Maghreb and in Maltese - proving the word's ancient origins. Maltese language_sentence_94

The region also has a form of another Latin named month in awi/ussu < augustus. Maltese language_sentence_95

This word does not appear to be a loan word through Arabic, and may have been taken over directly from Late Latin or African Romance. Maltese language_sentence_96

Scholars theorise that a Latin-based system provided forms such as awi/ussu and furar in African Romance, with the system then mediating Latin/Romance names through Arabic for some month names during the Islamic period. Maltese language_sentence_97

The same situation exists for Maltese which mediated words from Italian, and retains both non-Italian forms such as awissu/awwissu and frar, and Italian forms such as april. Maltese language_sentence_98

Siculo-Arabic Maltese language_section_15

Siculo-Arabic is the ancestor of the Maltese language, and supplies between 32% and 40% of the language's vocabulary. Maltese language_sentence_99

Maltese language_table_general_6

MalteseMaltese language_header_cell_6_0_0 Siculo-Arabic

(in Sicilian)Maltese language_header_cell_6_0_1

ArabicMaltese language_header_cell_6_0_2 EnglishMaltese language_header_cell_6_0_3
bebbuxuMaltese language_cell_6_1_0 babbaluciuMaltese language_cell_6_1_1 ببوش‎ (babbūš)

(Moroccan)Maltese language_cell_6_1_2

snailMaltese language_cell_6_1_3
ġiebjaMaltese language_cell_6_2_0 gebbiaMaltese language_cell_6_2_1 جب‎ (jabb)Maltese language_cell_6_2_2 cisternMaltese language_cell_6_2_3
ġunġlienMaltese language_cell_6_3_0 giuggiulenaMaltese language_cell_6_3_1 جنجلان‎ (junjulān)Maltese language_cell_6_3_2 sesame seedMaltese language_cell_6_3_3
saqqajjaMaltese language_cell_6_4_0 saiaMaltese language_cell_6_4_1 ساقية‎ (sāqiyyah)Maltese language_cell_6_4_2 canalMaltese language_cell_6_4_3
kenurMaltese language_cell_6_5_0 tanuraMaltese language_cell_6_5_1 تنور‎ (tannūr)Maltese language_cell_6_5_2 ovenMaltese language_cell_6_5_3
żagħfranMaltese language_cell_6_6_0 zaffaranaMaltese language_cell_6_6_1 زعفران‎ (zaʿfarān)Maltese language_cell_6_6_2 saffronMaltese language_cell_6_6_3
żahraMaltese language_cell_6_7_0 zagaraMaltese language_cell_6_7_1 زهرة‎ (zahrah)Maltese language_cell_6_7_2 blossomMaltese language_cell_6_7_3
żbibMaltese language_cell_6_8_0 zibbibbuMaltese language_cell_6_8_1 زبيب‎ (zabīb)Maltese language_cell_6_8_2 raisinsMaltese language_cell_6_8_3
zokkMaltese language_cell_6_9_0 zuccuMaltese language_cell_6_9_1 ساق‎ (sāq)Maltese language_cell_6_9_2 tree trunkMaltese language_cell_6_9_3
tebutMaltese language_cell_6_10_0 tabbutuMaltese language_cell_6_10_1 تابوت‎ (tābūt)Maltese language_cell_6_10_2 coffinMaltese language_cell_6_10_3
kapunataMaltese language_cell_6_11_0 caponataMaltese language_cell_6_11_1 (non-Arabic origin)Maltese language_cell_6_11_2 caponataMaltese language_cell_6_11_3
qassataMaltese language_cell_6_12_0 cassataMaltese language_cell_6_12_1 savoury pastry pieMaltese language_cell_6_12_2

found that 40% of a sample of 1,821 Quranic Arabic roots were found in Maltese, a lower percentage than found in Moroccan (58%) and Lebanese Arabic (72%). Maltese language_sentence_100

An analysis of the etymology of the 41,000 words in Aquilina's Maltese-English Dictionary shows that 32% of the Maltese vocabulary is of Arabic origin, although another source claims 40%. Maltese language_sentence_101

Usually, words expressing basic concepts and ideas, such as raġel (man), mara (woman), tifel (boy), dar (house), xemx (sun), sajf (summer), are of Arabic origin. Maltese language_sentence_102

Moreover, belles lettres in Maltese tend to aim mainly at diction belonging to this group. Maltese language_sentence_103

The Maltese language has merged many of the original Arabic consonants, in particular the emphatic consonants, with others that are common in European languages. Maltese language_sentence_104

Thus, original Arabic /d/, /ð/, and /dˤ/ all merged into Maltese /d/. Maltese language_sentence_105

The vowels, however, separated from the three in Arabic (/a i u/) to five, as is more typical of other European languages (/a ɛ i o u/). Maltese language_sentence_106

Some unstressed short vowels have been elided. Maltese language_sentence_107

The common Arabic greeting as salāmu 'alaykum is cognate with is-sliem għalikom in Maltese (lit. Maltese language_sentence_108

the peace for you, peace be with you), as are similar greetings in other Semitic languages (e.g. shalom ʿalekhem in Hebrew). Maltese language_sentence_109

Since the attested vocabulary of Siculo-Arabic is limited, the following table compares cognates in Maltese and some other varieties of Arabic (all forms are written phonetically, as in the source): Maltese language_sentence_110

Maltese language_table_general_7

MalteseMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_0 CaireneMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_1 DamasceneMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_2 IraqiMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_3 Negev

(bedouin)Maltese language_header_cell_7_0_4


(Sanaani)Maltese language_header_cell_7_0_5

MoroccanMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_6 Modern Standard ArabicMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_7 EnglishMaltese language_header_cell_7_0_8
qalbMaltese language_cell_7_1_0 'albMaltese language_cell_7_1_1 'alebMaltese language_cell_7_1_2 qalbMaltese language_cell_7_1_3 galbMaltese language_cell_7_1_4 galbMaltese language_cell_7_1_5 qalbMaltese language_cell_7_1_6 قلب (qalb)Maltese language_cell_7_1_7 heartMaltese language_cell_7_1_8
waqtMaltese language_cell_7_2_0 wa'tMaltese language_cell_7_2_1 wa'etMaltese language_cell_7_2_2 Maltese language_cell_7_2_3 wagtMaltese language_cell_7_2_4 wagtMaltese language_cell_7_2_5 waqtMaltese language_cell_7_2_6 وقت (waqt)Maltese language_cell_7_2_7 timeMaltese language_cell_7_2_8
qamarMaltese language_cell_7_3_0 'amarMaltese language_cell_7_3_1 'amarMaltese language_cell_7_3_2 qamaɣMaltese language_cell_7_3_3 gumarMaltese language_cell_7_3_4 gamarMaltese language_cell_7_3_5 qmarMaltese language_cell_7_3_6 قمر (qamar)Maltese language_cell_7_3_7 moonMaltese language_cell_7_3_8
kelbMaltese language_cell_7_4_0 kalbMaltese language_cell_7_4_1 kalebMaltese language_cell_7_4_2 kalbMaltese language_cell_7_4_3 čalbMaltese language_cell_7_4_4 kalbMaltese language_cell_7_4_5 kalbMaltese language_cell_7_4_6 كلب (kalb)Maltese language_cell_7_4_7 dogMaltese language_cell_7_4_8

English Maltese language_section_16

It is estimated that English loanwords, which are becoming more commonplace, make up 20% of the Maltese vocabulary, although other sources claim amounts as low as 6%. Maltese language_sentence_111

This percentage discrepancy is due to the fact that a number of new English loanwords are sometimes not officially considered part of the Maltese vocabulary; hence, they are not included in certain dictionaries. Maltese language_sentence_112

Also, English loanwards of Latinate origin are very often Italianised, as discussed above. Maltese language_sentence_113

English loanwords are generally transliterated, although standard English pronunciation is virtually always retained. Maltese language_sentence_114

Below are a few examples: Maltese language_sentence_115

Maltese language_table_general_8

MalteseMaltese language_header_cell_8_0_0 EnglishMaltese language_header_cell_8_0_1
futbolMaltese language_cell_8_1_0 footballMaltese language_cell_8_1_1
baskitbolMaltese language_cell_8_2_0 basketballMaltese language_cell_8_2_1
klabbMaltese language_cell_8_3_0 clubMaltese language_cell_8_3_1
friġġMaltese language_cell_8_4_0 fridgeMaltese language_cell_8_4_1

Note "fridge", which is a frequent shortening of "refrigerator", a Latinate word which might be expected to be rendered as rifriġeratori (Italian uses two different words: frigorifero or refrigeratore). Maltese language_sentence_116

Grammar Maltese language_section_17

Maltese grammar is fundamentally derived from Siculo-Arabic, although Romance and English noun pluralisation patterns are also used on borrowed words. Maltese language_sentence_117

Adjectives and adverbs Maltese language_section_18

Adjectives follow nouns. Maltese language_sentence_118

There are no separately formed native adverbs, and word order is fairly flexible. Maltese language_sentence_119

Both nouns and adjectives of Semitic origin take the definite article (for example, It-tifel il-kbir, lit. Maltese language_sentence_120

"The boy the elder"="The elder boy"). Maltese language_sentence_121

This rule does not apply to adjectives of Romance origin. Maltese language_sentence_122

Nouns Maltese language_section_19

Nouns are pluralised and also have a dual marker. Maltese language_sentence_123

Semitic plurals are complex; if they are regular, they are marked by -iet/-ijiet, e.g., art, artijiet "lands (territorial possessions or property)" (cf. Maltese language_sentence_124

Arabic -at and Hebrew -ot/-oth) or -in (cf. Maltese language_sentence_125

Arabic -īn and Hebrew -im). Maltese language_sentence_126

If irregular, they fall in the pluralis fractus category, in which a word is pluralised by internal vowel changes: ktieb, kotba " book", "books"; raġel, irġiel "man", "men". Maltese language_sentence_127

Words of Romance origin are usually pluralised in two manners: addition of -i or -jiet. Maltese language_sentence_128

For example, lingwa, lingwi "languages", from Sicilian lingua, lingui. Maltese language_sentence_129

Words of English origin are pluralised by adding either an "-s" or "-jiet", for example, friġġ, friġis from the word fridge. Maltese language_sentence_130

Some words can be pluralised with either of the suffixes to denote the plural. Maltese language_sentence_131

A few words borrowed from English can amalgamate both suffixes, like brikksa from the English brick, which can adopt either collective form brikks or the plural form brikksiet. Maltese language_sentence_132

Article Maltese language_section_20

The proclitic il- is the definite article, equivalent to "the" in English and "al-" in Arabic. Maltese language_sentence_133

The Maltese article becomes l- before or after a vowel. Maltese language_sentence_134

Maltese language_unordered_list_0

  • l-omm (the mother)Maltese language_item_0_0
  • rajna l-Papa (we saw the Pope)Maltese language_item_0_1
  • il-missier (the father)Maltese language_item_0_2

The Maltese article assimilates to a following coronal consonant (called konsonanti xemxin "sun consonants"), namely: Maltese language_sentence_135

Maltese language_unordered_list_1

  • Ċ iċ-ċikkulata (the chocolate)Maltese language_item_1_3
  • D id-dar (the house)Maltese language_item_1_4
  • N in-nar (the fire)Maltese language_item_1_5
  • R ir-razzett (the farm)Maltese language_item_1_6
  • S is-serrieq (the saw)Maltese language_item_1_7
  • T it-tifel (the boy)Maltese language_item_1_8
  • X ix-xemx (the sun)Maltese language_item_1_9
  • Ż iż-żarbuna (the shoe)Maltese language_item_1_10
  • Z iz-zalzett (the sausage)Maltese language_item_1_11

Maltese il- is coincidentally identical in pronunciation to one of the Italian masculine articles, il. Maltese language_sentence_136

Consequently, many nouns borrowed from Standard Italian did not change their original article when used in Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_137

Romance vocabulary taken from Sicilian did change where the Sicilian articles u and a, before a consonant, are used. Maltese language_sentence_138

In spite of its Romance appearance, il- is related to the Arabic article al-. Maltese language_sentence_139

Verbs Maltese language_section_21

Verbs show a triliteral Semitic pattern, in which a verb is conjugated with prefixes, suffixes, and infixes (for example ktibna, Arabic katabna, Hebrew kathabhnu (Modern Hebrew: katavnu) "we wrote"). Maltese language_sentence_140

There are two tenses: present and perfect. Maltese language_sentence_141

The Maltese verb system incorporates Romance verbs and adds Maltese suffixes and prefixes to them (for example, iddeċidejna "we decided" ← (i)ddeċieda "decide", a Romance verb + -ejna, a Maltese first person plural perfect marker). Maltese language_sentence_142

Media Maltese language_section_22

Main article: Language in the media in Malta Maltese language_sentence_143

With Malta being a multilingual country, the usage of Maltese in the mass media is shared with other European languages, namely English and Italian. Maltese language_sentence_144

The majority of television stations broadcast from Malta in English or Maltese, although broadcasts from Italy in Italian are also received on the islands. Maltese language_sentence_145

Similarly, there are more Maltese-language radio programs than English ones broadcast from Malta, but again, as with television, Italian broadcasts are also picked up. Maltese language_sentence_146

Maltese generally receives equal usage in newspaper periodicals to English. Maltese language_sentence_147

By the early 2000s, the use of the Maltese language on the Internet is uncommon, and the number of websites written in Maltese are few. Maltese language_sentence_148

In a survey of Maltese cultural websites conducted in 2004 on behalf of the Maltese Government, 12 of 13 were in English only, while the remaining one was multilingual but did not include Maltese. Maltese language_sentence_149

Code-switching Maltese language_section_23

The Maltese population, being fluent in both Maltese and English, displays code-switching (referred to as Maltenglish) in certain localities and between certain social groups. Maltese language_sentence_150

See also Maltese language_section_24

Maltese language_unordered_list_2

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