Manchester

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This article is about the English city and metropolitan borough. Manchester_sentence_0

For other uses, see Manchester (disambiguation). Manchester_sentence_1

Manchester_table_infobox_0

ManchesterManchester_header_cell_0_0_0
Sovereign stateManchester_header_cell_0_1_0 United KingdomManchester_cell_0_1_1
CountryManchester_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglandManchester_cell_0_2_1
RegionManchester_header_cell_0_3_0 North West EnglandManchester_cell_0_3_1
City regionManchester_header_cell_0_4_0 ManchesterManchester_cell_0_4_1
Ceremonial countyManchester_header_cell_0_5_0 Greater ManchesterManchester_cell_0_5_1
Historic countyManchester_header_cell_0_6_0 Salford Hundred, Lancashire
(north of River Mersey)
Cheshire
(south of River Mersey, after 1931)Manchester_cell_0_6_1
FoundedManchester_header_cell_0_7_0 1st centuryManchester_cell_0_7_1
Town charterManchester_header_cell_0_8_0 1301Manchester_cell_0_8_1
City statusManchester_header_cell_0_9_0 29 March 1853Manchester_cell_0_9_1
Administrative HQManchester_header_cell_0_10_0 Manchester (Town Hall)Manchester_cell_0_10_1
GovernmentManchester_header_cell_0_11_0
TypeManchester_header_cell_0_12_0 Metropolitan boroughManchester_cell_0_12_1
BodyManchester_header_cell_0_13_0 Manchester City CouncilManchester_cell_0_13_1
LeadershipManchester_header_cell_0_14_0 Leader and CabinetManchester_cell_0_14_1
ExecutiveManchester_header_cell_0_15_0 LabourManchester_cell_0_15_1
LeaderManchester_header_cell_0_16_0 Sir Richard LeeseManchester_cell_0_16_1
Lord MayorManchester_header_cell_0_17_0 Abid Latif ChohanManchester_cell_0_17_1
Chief ExecutiveManchester_header_cell_0_18_0 Joanne RoneyManchester_cell_0_18_1
AreaManchester_header_cell_0_19_0
CityManchester_header_cell_0_20_0 115.6 km (44.6 sq mi)Manchester_cell_0_20_1
UrbanManchester_header_cell_0_21_0 630.3 km (243.4 sq mi)Manchester_cell_0_21_1
Area rankManchester_header_cell_0_22_0 199thManchester_cell_0_22_1
ElevationManchester_header_cell_0_23_0 38 m (125 ft)Manchester_cell_0_23_1
Population (mid-2019 est.)Manchester_header_cell_0_24_0
CityManchester_header_cell_0_25_0 552,858Manchester_cell_0_25_1
RankManchester_header_cell_0_26_0 5thManchester_cell_0_26_1
DensityManchester_header_cell_0_27_0 4,735/km (12,260/sq mi)Manchester_cell_0_27_1
UrbanManchester_header_cell_0_28_0 2,705,000 (List of urban areas in Europe)Manchester_cell_0_28_1
Urban densityManchester_header_cell_0_29_0 4,051/km (10,490/sq mi)Manchester_cell_0_29_1
MetroManchester_header_cell_0_30_0 3,348,274 (List of metropolitan areas in Europe)Manchester_cell_0_30_1
EthnicityManchester_header_cell_0_31_0 White groups (66.7% )
Asian (14.4%)

Black (8.6%) Mixed (4.7%) Chinese (2.7%) Arab (1.9%)

Other (1.2%)Manchester_cell_0_31_1
DemonymsManchester_header_cell_0_32_0 Mancunian

Manc (colloq.)Manchester_cell_0_32_1

Time zoneManchester_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC+0 (Greenwich Mean Time)Manchester_cell_0_33_1
Summer (DST)Manchester_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC+1 (British Summer Time)Manchester_cell_0_34_1
Postcode areasManchester_header_cell_0_35_0 M, WA (Ringway)Manchester_cell_0_35_1
Dialling codeManchester_header_cell_0_36_0 0161Manchester_cell_0_36_1
ISO 3166 codeManchester_header_cell_0_37_0 GB-MANManchester_cell_0_37_1
GSS codeManchester_header_cell_0_38_0 E08000003Manchester_cell_0_38_1
NUTS 3 codeManchester_header_cell_0_39_0 UKD33Manchester_cell_0_39_1
OS grid referenceManchester_header_cell_0_40_0 Manchester_cell_0_40_1
MotorwaysManchester_header_cell_0_41_0 M56

M60 A57(M) A635(M)Manchester_cell_0_41_1

Trunk primary routesManchester_header_cell_0_42_0 A5103Manchester_cell_0_42_1
Major railway stationsManchester_header_cell_0_43_0 Manchester Airport (B)

Manchester Oxford Road (C1) Manchester Piccadilly (A) Manchester Victoria (B)Manchester_cell_0_43_1

TramwaysManchester_header_cell_0_44_0 MetrolinkManchester_cell_0_44_1
International airportsManchester_header_cell_0_45_0 Manchester (MAN)Manchester_cell_0_45_1
GDPManchester_header_cell_0_46_0 US$ 113.3 billionManchester_cell_0_46_1
– Per capitaManchester_header_cell_0_47_0 US$ 38,233Manchester_cell_0_47_1
MPsManchester_header_cell_0_48_0 Graham Stringer (L)

Lucy Powell (L) Afzal Khan (L) Jeff Smith (L) Mike Kane (L)Manchester_cell_0_48_1

CouncillorsManchester_header_cell_0_49_0 96Manchester_cell_0_49_1
PoliceManchester_header_cell_0_50_0 Greater ManchesterManchester_cell_0_50_1
Fire and RescueManchester_header_cell_0_51_0 Greater ManchesterManchester_cell_0_51_1
AmbulanceManchester_header_cell_0_52_0 North WestManchester_cell_0_52_1
WebsiteManchester_header_cell_0_53_0 Manchester_cell_0_53_1

Manchester (/ˈmæntʃɪstər, -tʃɛs-/) is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. Manchester_sentence_2

The city has a population of 547,627 (as of 2018) and lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.7 million and second-most populous metropolitan area, with a population of 3.3 million. Manchester_sentence_3

It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. Manchester_sentence_4

The local authority for the city is Manchester City Council. Manchester_sentence_5

The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Manchester_sentence_6

Although historically and traditionally a part of Lancashire, areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated into Manchester in the 20th century. Manchester_sentence_7

The first to be included, Wythenshawe, was added to the city in 1931. Manchester_sentence_8

Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester_sentence_9

Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city. Manchester_sentence_10

Manchester achieved city status in 1853. Manchester_sentence_11

The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles (58 km) to the west. Manchester_sentence_12

Its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. Manchester_sentence_13

Following successful redevelopment after the IRA bombing, Manchester was the host city for the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Manchester_sentence_14

The city is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester_sentence_15

Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester_sentence_16

At the University of Manchester, Ernest Rutherford first split the atom in 1917, Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill developed the world's first stored-program computer in 1948, and Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov isolated the first graphene in 2004. Manchester_sentence_17

Etymology Manchester_section_0

The name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunio and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians (/mænˈkjuːniən/). Manchester_sentence_18

These names are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name. Manchester_sentence_19

The generally accepted etymology of this name is that it comes from Brittonic *mamm- ("breast", in reference to a "breast-like hill"). Manchester_sentence_20

However, more recent work suggests that it could come from *mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess). Manchester_sentence_21

Both usages are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. Manchester_sentence_22

The suffix -chester is from Old English ceaster ("Roman fortification", itself a loanword from Latin castra, "fort; fortified town"). Manchester_sentence_23

History Manchester_section_1

Main article: History of Manchester Manchester_sentence_24

See also: Timeline of Manchester history Manchester_sentence_25

Early history Manchester_section_2

Main article: Mamucium Manchester_sentence_26

The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the bank of the River Irwell. Manchester_sentence_27

Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. Manchester_sentence_28

Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix (Chester) and Eboracum (York) were protected from the Brigantes. Manchester_sentence_29

Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. Manchester_sentence_30

A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. Manchester_sentence_31

The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century. Manchester_sentence_32

After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Manchester_sentence_33

Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Manchester_sentence_34

In the Domesday Book of 1086, Manchester is recorded as within the hundred of Salford and held as tenant in chief by a Norman named Roger of Poitou, later being held by the family of Grelley, lord of the manor and residents of Manchester Castle until 1215 before a Manor House was built. Manchester_sentence_35

By 1421 Thomas de la Warre founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish, now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library. Manchester_sentence_36

The library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester_sentence_37

Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Manchester_sentence_38

Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester_sentence_39

Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire." Manchester_sentence_40

The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. Manchester_sentence_41

During the English Civil War Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest. Manchester_sentence_42

Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Manchester_sentence_43

Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. Manchester_sentence_44

He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656. Manchester_sentence_45

Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance. Manchester_sentence_46

The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. Manchester_sentence_47

The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester. Manchester_sentence_48

The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. Manchester_sentence_49

The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton. Manchester_sentence_50

Manchester became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns. Manchester_sentence_51

A commodities exchange, opened in 1729, and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. Manchester_sentence_52

In 1780, Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill. Manchester_sentence_53

In the early 1800s, John Dalton formulated his atomic theory in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_54

Industrial Revolution Manchester_section_3

Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Manchester_sentence_55

The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing. Manchester_sentence_56

Manchester became known as the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods and was dubbed "Cottonopolis" and "Warehouse City" during the Victorian era. Manchester_sentence_57

In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term "manchester" is still used for household linen: sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc. Manchester_sentence_58

The industrial revolution brought about huge change in Manchester and was key to the increase in Manchester's population. Manchester_sentence_59

Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution. Manchester_sentence_60

It developed a wide range of industries, so that by 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world." Manchester_sentence_61

Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture. Manchester_sentence_62

Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Manchester_sentence_63

Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance. Manchester_sentence_64

Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Manchester_sentence_65

Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down. Manchester_sentence_66

In 1878 the GPO (the forerunner of British Telecom) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_67

The Manchester Ship Canal was built between 1888 and 1894, in some sections by canalisation of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running 36 miles (58 km) from Salford to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. Manchester_sentence_68

This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_69

On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park. Manchester_sentence_70

Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world. Manchester_sentence_71

A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. Manchester_sentence_72

One such gathering ended with the Peterloo massacre of 16 August 1819. Manchester_sentence_73

The economic school of Manchester Capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from 1838 onward. Manchester_sentence_74

Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester, and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library. Manchester_sentence_75

The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet. Manchester_sentence_76

The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester (at the Mechanics' Institute, David Street), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester_sentence_77

Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement. Manchester_sentence_78

At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the Manchester School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation. Manchester_sentence_79

It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. Manchester_sentence_80

A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow." Manchester_sentence_81

Manchester's golden age was perhaps the last quarter of the 19th century. Manchester_sentence_82

Many of the great public buildings (including Manchester Town Hall) date from then. Manchester_sentence_83

The city's cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the Hallé Orchestra. Manchester_sentence_84

In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy. Manchester_sentence_85

Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population. Manchester_sentence_86

Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". Manchester_sentence_87

An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments". Manchester_sentence_88

The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853. Manchester_sentence_89

Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by Bolton in the 1850s and Oldham in the 1860s. Manchester_sentence_90

However, this period of decline coincided with the rise of the city as the financial centre of the region. Manchester_sentence_91

Manchester continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65% of the world's cotton was processed in the area. Manchester_sentence_92

The First World War interrupted access to the export markets. Manchester_sentence_93

Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_94

Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture. Manchester_sentence_95

Blitz Manchester_section_4

Like most of the UK, the Manchester area was mobilised extensively during the Second World War. Manchester_sentence_96

For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons; and just outside the city in Trafford Park, engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them. Manchester_sentence_97

Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets. Manchester_sentence_98

The biggest took place during the "Christmas Blitz" on the nights of 22/23 and 24 December 1940, when an estimated 474 tonnes (467 long tons) of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. Manchester_sentence_99

A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. Manchester_sentence_100

376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged. Manchester_sentence_101

Manchester Cathedral, Royal Exchange and Free Trade Hall were among the buildings seriously damaged; restoration of the cathedral took 20 years. Manchester_sentence_102

Post-Second World War Manchester_section_5

Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968. Manchester_sentence_103

By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK's third largest, and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships. Manchester_sentence_104

Traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982. Manchester_sentence_105

Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by Margaret Thatcher's government after 1979. Manchester_sentence_106

Manchester lost 150,000 jobs in manufacturing between 1961 and 1983. Manchester_sentence_107

Regeneration began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink, the Bridgewater Concert Hall, the Manchester Arena, and (in Salford) the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Manchester_sentence_108

Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city. Manchester_sentence_109

Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992. Manchester_sentence_110

On Saturday 15 June 1996, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out the 1996 Manchester bombing, the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. Manchester_sentence_111

The largest to be detonated on British soil, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows ⁄2 mile (800 m) away. Manchester_sentence_112

The cost of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards. Manchester_sentence_113

The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade. Manchester_sentence_114

Since 2000 Manchester_section_6

Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, the city centre has undergone extensive regeneration. Manchester_sentence_115

New and renovated complexes such as The Printworks and Corn Exchange have become popular shopping, eating and entertainment areas. Manchester_sentence_116

Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city-centre shopping centre. Manchester_sentence_117

Large city sections from the 1960s have been demolished, re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel. Manchester_sentence_118

Old mills have been converted into apartments. Manchester_sentence_119

Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration, with million-pound loft-house apartments being developed. Manchester_sentence_120

The 47-storey, 554-foot (169 m) Beetham Tower was the tallest UK building outside London and the highest residential accommodation in Europe when completed in 2006. Manchester_sentence_121

It was surpassed in 2018 by the 659-foot (201 m) South Tower of the Deansgate Square project, also in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_122

In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel licensed Manchester to build the UK's only supercasino, but plans were abandoned in February 2008. Manchester_sentence_123

On 22 May 2017, an Islamist terrorist carried out a bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in the Manchester Arena; the bomb killed 23, including the attacker, and injured over 800. Manchester_sentence_124

It was the deadliest terrorist attack and first suicide bombing in Britain since the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Manchester_sentence_125

It caused worldwide condemnation and changed the UK's threat level to "critical" for the first time since 2007. Manchester_sentence_126

Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded as one of the candidates for the unofficial title of second city of the United Kingdom alongside Birmingham by sections of the international press, British public, and government ministers. Manchester_sentence_127

The BBC reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester is the second city of the UK. Manchester_sentence_128

Manchester and Birmingham traditionally compete as front runners for this unofficial title. Manchester_sentence_129

Government Manchester_section_7

Main articles: Politics in Manchester and Manchester City Council Manchester_sentence_130

See also: Manchester local elections, List of Lord Mayors of Manchester, and Healthcare in Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_131

The City of Manchester is governed by the Manchester City Council. Manchester_sentence_132

The Greater Manchester Combined Authority, with a directly elected mayor, has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis. Manchester_sentence_133

Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in 1995. Manchester_sentence_134

The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its borough status in a court case of 1359. Manchester_sentence_135

Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts, the last of which was dissolved in 1846. Manchester_sentence_136

From a very early time, the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire. Manchester_sentence_137

Pevsner wrote "That [neighbouring] Stretford and Salford are not administratively one with Manchester is one of the most curious anomalies of England". Manchester_sentence_138

A stroke of a baron's pen is said to have divorced Manchester and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its humbler line of lords, that was separated from Salford. Manchester_sentence_139

It was this separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of Salfordshire, which included the ancient parish of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_140

Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester". Manchester_sentence_141

In 1792, Commissioners—usually known as "Police Commissioners"—were established for the social improvement of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_142

Manchester regained its borough status in 1838, and comprised the townships of Beswick, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme. Manchester_sentence_143

By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialisation, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the "Police Commissioners". Manchester_sentence_144

In 1853, Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom. Manchester_sentence_145

In 1885, Bradford, Harpurhey, Rusholme and parts of Moss Side and Withington townships became part of the City of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_146

In 1889, the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council. Manchester_sentence_147

Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city which had been administered by Lancashire County Council, including former villages such as Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Fallowfield, Levenshulme, Longsight, and Withington. Manchester_sentence_148

In 1931, the Cheshire civil parishes of Baguley, Northenden and Northen Etchells from the south of the River Mersey were added. Manchester_sentence_149

In 1974, by way of the Local Government Act 1972, the City of Manchester became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. Manchester_sentence_150

That year, Ringway, the village where the Manchester Airport is located, was added to the city. Manchester_sentence_151

In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor. Manchester_sentence_152

The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area. Manchester_sentence_153

Andy Burnham was elected as the first Mayor of Greater Manchester in 2017. Manchester_sentence_154

In 2018, Andy Burnham, appointed Sacha Lord as Greater Manchester's first Night Time Economy Adviser, following in the footsteps of Amy Lamé, who was appointed by London Mayor Sadiq Khan in 2016 to be the first London night czar. Manchester_sentence_155

Geography Manchester_section_8

See also: Geography of Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_156

At , 160 miles (260 km) northwest of London, Manchester lies in a bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the Pennines, an upland chain that runs the length of northern England, and to the south by the Cheshire Plain. Manchester_sentence_157

Manchester is 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-east of Liverpool and 35.0 miles (56.3 km) north-west of Sheffield, making the city the halfway point between the two. Manchester_sentence_158

The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres (115 to 138 feet) above sea level. Manchester_sentence_159

The River Mersey flows through the south of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_160

Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months. Manchester_sentence_161

Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. Manchester_sentence_162

These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves. Manchester_sentence_163

The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area. Manchester_sentence_164

The "Manchester City Zone", "Manchester post town" and the "Manchester Congestion Charge" are all examples of this. Manchester_sentence_165

For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area, the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation. Manchester_sentence_166

There is a mix of high-density urban and suburban locations. Manchester_sentence_167

The largest open space in the city, at around 260 hectares (642 acres), is Heaton Park. Manchester_sentence_168

Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. Manchester_sentence_169

The M60 and M56 motorways pass through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively in the south of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_170

Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station. Manchester_sentence_171

Climate Manchester_section_9

Manchester experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), like much of the British Isles, with warm summers and cool winters. Manchester_sentence_172

Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, quite often reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days during July and August in particular. Manchester_sentence_173

In more recent years, temperatures have occasionally reached over 30 Celsius. Manchester_sentence_174

There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. Manchester_sentence_175

The city's average annual rainfall is 806.6 millimetres (31.76 in) compared to a UK average of 1,125.0 millimetres (44.29 in), and its mean rain days are 140.4 per annum, compared to the UK average of 154.4. Manchester_sentence_176

Manchester has a relatively high humidity level, and this, along with abundant soft water, was one factor that led to advancement of the textile industry in the area. Manchester_sentence_177

Snowfalls are not common in the city because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors to the north-west, South Pennines to the north-east and Peak District to the east receive more snow, which can close roads leading out of the city. Manchester_sentence_178

They include the A62 via Oldham and Standedge, the A57, Snake Pass, towards Sheffield, and the Pennine section of the M62. Manchester_sentence_179

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Manchester was −17.6 °C (0.3 °F) on 7 January 2010. Manchester_sentence_180

Green belt Manchester_section_10

Further information: North West Green Belt Manchester_sentence_181

Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region extending into the wider surrounding counties. Manchester_sentence_182

This reduces urban sprawl, prevents towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protects the identity of outlying communities, and preserves nearby countryside. Manchester_sentence_183

It is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building. Manchester_sentence_184

Due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green-belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, with minimal development opportunities, at Clayton Vale, Heaton Park, Chorlton Water Park along with the Chorlton Ees & Ivy Green nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, as well as the southern area around Manchester Airport. Manchester_sentence_185

The green belt was first drawn up in 1961. Manchester_sentence_186

Demographics Manchester_section_11

See also: Demography of Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_187

Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era, estimated at 354,930 for Manchester and 110,833 for Salford in 1865, and peaking at 766,311 in 1931. Manchester_sentence_188

From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley. Manchester_sentence_189

The 2012 mid-year estimate for the population of Manchester was 510,700. Manchester_sentence_190

This was an increase of 7,900, or 1.6 per cent, since the 2011 estimate. Manchester_sentence_191

Since 2001, the population has grown by 87,900, or 20.8 per cent, making Manchester the third fastest-growing area in the 2011 census. Manchester_sentence_192

The city experienced the greatest percentage population growth outside London, with an increase of 19 per cent to over 500,000. Manchester_sentence_193

Manchester's population is projected to reach 532,200 by 2021, an increase of 5.8 per cent from 2011. Manchester_sentence_194

This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade. Manchester_sentence_195

The Greater Manchester Built-up Area in 2011 had an estimated population of 2,553,400. Manchester_sentence_196

In 2012 an estimated 2,702,200 people lived in Greater Manchester. Manchester_sentence_197

An 6,547,000 people were estimated in 2012 to live within 30 miles (50 km) of Manchester and 11,694,000 within 50 miles (80 km). Manchester_sentence_198

Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (mid-year estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. Manchester_sentence_199

Migration (internal and international) and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3,100 people between July 2011 and June 2012. Manchester_sentence_200

Compared with Greater Manchester and with England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20–35 age group. Manchester_sentence_201

There were 76,095 undergraduate and postgraduate students at Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Manchester and Royal Northern College of Music in the 2011/2012 academic year. Manchester_sentence_202

Since the 2001 census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has fallen by 22 per cent from 62.4 per cent to 48.7 per cent. Manchester_sentence_203

The proportion of those with no religious affiliation rose by 58.1 per cent from 16 per cent to 25.3 per cent, whilst the proportion of Muslims increased by 73.6 per cent from 9.1 per cent to 15.8 per cent. Manchester_sentence_204

The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain outside London. Manchester_sentence_205

Of all households in Manchester, 0.23 per cent were Same-Sex Civil Partnership households, compared with an English national average of 0.16 per cent in 2011. Manchester_sentence_206

In terms of ethnic composition, the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Manchester_sentence_207

Statistics from the 2011 census showed that 66.7 per cent of the population was White (59.3 per cent White British, 2.4 per cent White Irish, 0.1 per cent Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 4.9 per cent Other White – although the size of mixed European and British ethnic groups is unclear, there are reportedly over 25,000 people in Greater Manchester of at least partial Italian descent alone, which represents 5.5 per cent of the population of Greater Manchester). Manchester_sentence_208

4.7 per cent were mixed race (1.8 per cent White and Black Caribbean, 0.9 per cent White and Black African, 1.0 per cent White and Asian, 1.0 per cent other mixed), 17.1 per cent Asian (2.3 per cent Indian, 8.5 per cent Pakistani, 1.3 per cent Bangladeshi, 2.7 per cent Chinese, 2.3 per cent other Asian), 8.6 per cent Black (5.1 per cent African, 1.6 per cent other Black), 1.9 per cent Arab and 1.2 per cent of other ethnic heritage. Manchester_sentence_209

Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for ethnic minorities. Manchester_sentence_210

Manchester's Irish Festival, including a St Patrick's Day parade, is one of Europe's largest. Manchester_sentence_211

There is also a well-established Chinatown in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. Manchester_sentence_212

The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities, contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe. Manchester_sentence_213

The Manchester Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, had a population of 2,539,100 in 2004. Manchester_sentence_214

In addition to Manchester itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of Greater Manchester. Manchester_sentence_215

The Manchester LUZ is the second largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London. Manchester_sentence_216

Economy Manchester_section_12

Main article: Economy of Manchester Manchester_sentence_217

See also: List of companies based in Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_218

Manchester_table_general_1

GVA for Greater Manchester South 2002–2012Manchester_table_caption_1
YearManchester_header_cell_1_0_0 GVA

(£ million)Manchester_header_cell_1_0_1

Growth (%)Manchester_header_cell_1_0_2
2002Manchester_cell_1_1_0 24,011Manchester_cell_1_1_1 03.8%Manchester_cell_1_1_2
2003Manchester_cell_1_2_0 25,063Manchester_cell_1_2_1 04.4%Manchester_cell_1_2_2
2004Manchester_cell_1_3_0 27,862Manchester_cell_1_3_1 011.2%Manchester_cell_1_3_2
2005Manchester_cell_1_4_0 28,579Manchester_cell_1_4_1 02.6%Manchester_cell_1_4_2
2006Manchester_cell_1_5_0 30,384Manchester_cell_1_5_1 06.3%Manchester_cell_1_5_2
2007Manchester_cell_1_6_0 32,011Manchester_cell_1_6_1 05.4%Manchester_cell_1_6_2
2008Manchester_cell_1_7_0 32,081Manchester_cell_1_7_1 00.2%Manchester_cell_1_7_2
2009Manchester_cell_1_8_0 33,186Manchester_cell_1_8_1 03.4%Manchester_cell_1_8_2
2010Manchester_cell_1_9_0 33,751Manchester_cell_1_9_1 01.7%Manchester_cell_1_9_2
2011Manchester_cell_1_10_0 33,468Manchester_cell_1_10_1 00.8%Manchester_cell_1_10_2
2012Manchester_cell_1_11_0 34,755Manchester_cell_1_11_1 03.8%Manchester_cell_1_11_2
2013Manchester_cell_1_12_0 37,560Manchester_cell_1_12_1 09.6%Manchester_cell_1_12_2

The Office for National Statistics does not produce economic data for the City of Manchester alone, but includes four other metropolitan boroughs, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, in an area named Greater Manchester South, which had a GVA of £34.8 billion. Manchester_sentence_219

The economy grew relatively strongly between 2002 and 2012, when growth was 2.3 per cent above the national average. Manchester_sentence_220

The wider metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom. Manchester_sentence_221

It is ranked as a beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Manchester_sentence_222

As the UK economy continues to recover from its 2008–2010 downturn, Manchester compares favourably according to recent figures. Manchester_sentence_223

In 2012 it showed the strongest annual growth in business stock (5 per cent) of all core cities. Manchester_sentence_224

The city had a relatively sharp increase in the number of business deaths, the largest increase in all the core cities, but this was offset by strong growth in new businesses, resulting in strong net growth. Manchester_sentence_225

Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen. Manchester_sentence_226

It owns two of the country's four busiest airports and uses its earnings to fund local projects. Manchester_sentence_227

Meanwhile, KPMG's competitive alternative report found that in 2012 Manchester had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialised city in the world, and fiscal devolution has come earlier to Manchester than to any other British city: it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from transport investment. Manchester_sentence_228

KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than the Dutch cities of Rotterdam and Amsterdam, which all have a cost-of-living index of less than 95. Manchester_sentence_229

Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found. Manchester_sentence_230

According to 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation, Manchester is the 4th most deprived local council in England. Manchester_sentence_231

Unemployment throughout 2012–2013 averaged 11.9 per cent, which was above national average, but lower than some of the country's comparable large cities. Manchester_sentence_232

On the other hand, Greater Manchester is home to more multi-millionaires than anywhere outside London, with the City of Manchester taking up most of the tally. Manchester_sentence_233

In 2013 Manchester was ranked 6th in the UK for quality of life, according to a rating of the UK's 12 largest cities. Manchester_sentence_234

Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in comparative pay with men. Manchester_sentence_235

The per hours-worked gender pay gap is 3.3 per cent compared with 11.1 per cent for Britain. Manchester_sentence_236

37 per cent of the working-age population in Manchester have degree-level qualifications, as opposed to an average of 33 per cent across other core cities, although its schools under-perform slightly compared with the national average. Manchester_sentence_237

Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London, according to GVA Grimley, with a quarterly office uptake (averaged over 2010–2014) of some 250,000 square ft – equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds, Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90,000 square feet more than the nearest rival, Birmingham. Manchester_sentence_238

The strong office market in Manchester has been partly attributed to "northshoring", (from offshoring) which entails the relocation or alternative creation of jobs away from the overheated South to areas where office space is possibly cheaper and the workforce market less saturated. Manchester_sentence_239

According to 2019 property investment research, Manchester is rated as No. Manchester_sentence_240

2 location for "Best Places To Invest in Property in the UK". Manchester_sentence_241

This was attributed to a 5.6 per cent increase in house prices and local investment in infrastructure and in Manchester Airport. Manchester_sentence_242

Landmarks Manchester_section_13

Main article: Architecture of Manchester Manchester_sentence_243

See also: List of tallest buildings and structures in Manchester, List of streets and roads in Manchester, Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester, Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester, and List of public art in Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_244

Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. Manchester_sentence_245

The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade. Manchester_sentence_246

Just outside the immediate city centre are a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure, while many have been redeveloped as apartment buildings and office space. Manchester_sentence_247

Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the Gothic revival style and is seen as one of the most important Victorian buildings in England. Manchester_sentence_248

Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built in the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest being the CIS Tower near Manchester Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in 2006. Manchester_sentence_249

The latter exemplifies a new surge in high-rise building. Manchester_sentence_250

It includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant and apartments. Manchester_sentence_251

The largest skyscraper is now Deansgate Square South Tower, at 201 metres (659 feet). Manchester_sentence_252

The Green Building, opposite Oxford Road station, is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed One Angel Square, is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world. Manchester_sentence_253

The award-winning Heaton Park in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe, covering 610 acres (250 ha) of parkland. Manchester_sentence_254

The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces. Manchester_sentence_255

Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Manchester_sentence_256

Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Ewart Gladstone and John Bright. Manchester_sentence_257

Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. Manchester_sentence_258

The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead. Manchester_sentence_259

Designed by Edwin Lutyens, it echoes the original on Whitehall in London. Manchester_sentence_260

The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. Manchester_sentence_261

A larger-than-life statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square (having stood for many years in Platt Fields) was presented to the city by Mr and Mrs Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the part Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of 1861–1865. Manchester_sentence_262

A Concorde is on display near Manchester Airport. Manchester_sentence_263

Manchester has six designated local nature reserves: Chorlton Water Park, Blackley Forest, Clayton Vale and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, Boggart Hole Clough and Highfield Country Park. Manchester_sentence_264

Transport Manchester_section_14

Main article: Transport in Manchester Manchester_sentence_265

See also: Transport for Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_266

Rail Manchester_section_15

Manchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway – the world's first inter-city passenger railway. Manchester_sentence_267

It is still extant and its buildings form part of the Museum of Science and Industry. Manchester_sentence_268

Two of the city's four main line termini did not survive the 1960s: Manchester Central and Manchester Exchange each closed in 1969. Manchester_sentence_269

In addition, Manchester Mayfield station closed to passenger services in 1960; its buildings and platforms are still extant, next to Piccadilly station, but are due to be redeveloped in the 2020s. Manchester_sentence_270

Today, the city is well served by its rail network although it is now working to capacity, and is at the centre of an extensive county-wide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line, with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria. Manchester_sentence_271

The Manchester station group – comprising Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road and Deansgate – is the third busiest in the United Kingdom, with 44.9 million passengers recorded in 2017/2018. Manchester_sentence_272

The High Speed 2 link to Birmingham and London is also planned, which if built will include a 12 km (7 mi) tunnel under Manchester on the final approach into an upgraded Piccadilly station. Manchester_sentence_273

Recent improvements in Manchester as part of the Northern Hub in the 2010s have been numerous electrification schemes into and through Manchester, redevelopment of Victoria station and construction of the Ordsall Chord directly linking Victoria and Piccadilly. Manchester_sentence_274

Work on two new through platforms at Piccadilly and an extensive upgrade at Oxford Road had not commenced as of 2019. Manchester_sentence_275

Manchester city centre suffers from constrained rail capacity that frequently leads to delays and cancellations – a 2018 report found that all three major Manchester stations are among the top ten worst stations in the United Kingdom for punctuality, with Oxford Road deemed the worst in the country. Manchester_sentence_276

Metrolink (tram) Manchester_section_16

Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. Manchester_sentence_277

In 2016–2017, 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system. Manchester_sentence_278

The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines. Manchester_sentence_279

The network consists of eight lines with 99 stops. Manchester_sentence_280

A new line to the Trafford Centre opened in 2020. Manchester_sentence_281

Manchester city centre is also serviced by over a dozen heavy and light rail-based park and ride sites. Manchester_sentence_282

Bus Manchester_section_17

The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London, with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city. Manchester_sentence_283

In 2011, 80 per cent of public transport journeys in Greater Manchester were made by bus, amounting to 220 million passenger journeys each year. Manchester_sentence_284

After deregulation in 1986, the bus system was taken over by GM Buses, which after privatisation was split into GM Buses North and GM Buses South. Manchester_sentence_285

Later these were taken over by First Greater Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester. Manchester_sentence_286

Much of the First Greater Manchester business was sold to Diamond Bus North West and Go North West in 2019. Manchester_sentence_287

Go North West operate a three-route zero-fare bus service, called "Metroshuttle", which carries 2.8 million commuters a year around Manchester's business districts. Manchester_sentence_288

Stagecoach Manchester is the Stagecoach Group's largest subsidiary and operates around 690 buses. Manchester_sentence_289

Air Manchester_section_18

Manchester Airport serves Manchester, Northern England and North Wales. Manchester_sentence_290

The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom, with over double the number of annual passengers of the next busiest non-London airport. Manchester_sentence_291

Services cover many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain). Manchester_sentence_292

A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. Manchester_sentence_293

The airport has the highest rating available: "Category 10", encompassing an elite group of airports able to handle "Code F" aircraft, including the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8. Manchester_sentence_294

From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the only UK airport other than Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport to operate the Airbus A380. Manchester_sentence_295

A smaller City Airport Manchester exists 9.3 km (6 mi) to the west of Manchester city centre. Manchester_sentence_296

It was Manchester's first municipal airport and became the site of the first air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry. Manchester_sentence_297

Today, private charter flights and general aviation use City. Manchester_sentence_298

It also has a flight school, and both the Greater Manchester Police Air Support Unit and the North West Air Ambulance have helicopters based there. Manchester_sentence_299

Canal Manchester_section_19

An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal, was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed for leisure use. Manchester_sentence_300

In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a water taxi service between Manchester city centre and MediaCityUK at Salford Quays. Manchester_sentence_301

This ceased to operate in June 2018, citing poor infrastructure. Manchester_sentence_302

Cycling Manchester_section_20

Further information: Cycling in Greater Manchester Manchester_sentence_303

Cycling for transportation and leisure enjoys popularity in Manchester and the city also plays a major role in British cycle racing. Manchester_sentence_304

Culture Manchester_section_21

Main article: Culture of Manchester Manchester_sentence_305

See also: List of people from Manchester Manchester_sentence_306

Music Manchester_section_22

See also: Popular music of Manchester, List of music artists and bands from Manchester, and Madchester Manchester_sentence_307

Bands that have emerged from the Manchester music scene include Van der Graaf Generator, Oasis, The Smiths, Joy Division and its successor group New Order, Buzzcocks, The Stone Roses, The Fall, The Durutti Column, 10cc, Godley & Creme, The Verve, Elbow, Doves, The Charlatans, M People, The 1975, Simply Red, Take That, Dutch Uncles, Everything Everything, Pale Waves and The Outfield. Manchester_sentence_308

Manchester was credited as the main driving force behind British indie music of the 1980s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, and James. Manchester_sentence_309

The later groups came from what became known as the "Madchester" scene that also centred on The Haçienda nightclub developed by the founder of Factory Records, Tony Wilson. Manchester_sentence_310

Although from southern England, The Chemical Brothers subsequently formed in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_311

Former Smiths frontman Morrissey, whose lyrics often refer to Manchester locations and culture, later found international success as a solo artist. Manchester_sentence_312

Previously, notable Manchester acts of the 1960s include The Hollies, Herman's Hermits, and Davy Jones of the Monkees (famed in the mid-1960s for their albums and their American TV show), and the earlier Bee Gees, who grew up in Chorlton. Manchester_sentence_313

Another notable contemporary band from near Manchester is The Courteeners consisting of Liam Fray and four close friends. Manchester_sentence_314

Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester. Manchester_sentence_315

Its main pop music venue is Manchester Arena, voted "International Venue of the Year" in 2007 With over 21,000 seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe. Manchester_sentence_316

In terms of concertgoers, it is the busiest indoor arena in the world, ahead of Madison Square Garden in New York and The O2 Arena in London, which are second and third busiest. Manchester_sentence_317

Other venues include Manchester Apollo, Albert Hall, Victoria Warehouse and the Manchester Academy. Manchester_sentence_318

Smaller venues include the Band on the Wall, the Night and Day Café, the Ruby Lounge, and The Deaf Institute. Manchester_sentence_319

Manchester also has the most indie and rock music events outside London. Manchester_sentence_320

Manchester has two symphony orchestras, the Hallé and the BBC Philharmonic, and a chamber orchestra, the Manchester Camerata. Manchester_sentence_321

In the 1950s, the city was home to a so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which was composed of Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester_sentence_322

Manchester is a centre for musical education: the Royal Northern College of Music and Chetham's School of Music. Manchester_sentence_323

Forerunners of the RNCM were the Northern School of Music (founded 1920) and the Royal Manchester College of Music (founded 1893), which merged in 1973. Manchester_sentence_324

One of the earliest instructors and classical music pianists/conductors at the RNCM, shortly after its founding, was the Russian-born Arthur Friedheim, (1859–1932), who later had the music library at the famed Peabody Institute conservatory of music in Baltimore, Maryland, named after him. Manchester_sentence_325

The main classical music venue was the Free Trade Hall on Peter Street until the opening in 1996 of the 2,500 seat Bridgewater Hall. Manchester_sentence_326

Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is important to Manchester's musical heritage; some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band, are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass-band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside. Manchester_sentence_327

Performing arts Manchester_section_23

Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, with a number of large performance venues, including Manchester Opera House, which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, which is the largest theatre in the round in the UK. Manchester_sentence_328

Smaller venues include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. Manchester_sentence_329

The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions. Manchester_sentence_330

In 2014, HOME, a new custom-built arts complex opened. Manchester_sentence_331

Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre. Manchester_sentence_332

Since 2007 the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival, a biennial international arts festival with a focus on original work, which has included major new commissions by artists, including Bjork. Manchester_sentence_333

A government statement in 2014 announced a £78 million grant for a new "large-scale, ultra-flexible arts space" for the city. Manchester_sentence_334

Later the council stated it had secured a further £32 million. Manchester_sentence_335

The £110 million venue was confirmed in July 2016. Manchester_sentence_336

The theatre, to be called The Factory, after Manchester's Factory Records, will provide a permanent home for the Manchester International Festival. Manchester_sentence_337

It is due to open at the end of 2019. Manchester_sentence_338

Museums and galleries Manchester_section_24

Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution, the textile industry, the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football. Manchester_sentence_339

A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. Manchester_sentence_340

The Science and Industry Museum, housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station, has a large collection of steam locomotives, industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program (known as the Manchester Baby). Manchester_sentence_341

The Museum of Transport displays a collection of historic buses and trams. Manchester_sentence_342

Trafford Park in the neighbouring borough of Trafford is home to Imperial War Museum North. Manchester_sentence_343

The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable Egyptology and natural history collections. Manchester_sentence_344

The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery in Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting and one of Britain's main collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings. Manchester_sentence_345

In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was voted Museum of the Year in 2015. Manchester_sentence_346

Other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include Islington Mill in Salford, the National Football Museum at Urbis, Castlefield Gallery, the Manchester Costume Gallery at Platt Fields Park, the People's History Museum and the Manchester Jewish Museum. Manchester_sentence_347

The work of Stretford-born painter L. Manchester_sentence_348 S. Lowry, known for "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in the City and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays (in the neighbouring borough of Salford), which devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works. Manchester_sentence_349

Literature Manchester_section_25

Manchester is a UNESCO City of Literature known for a "radical literary history". Manchester_sentence_350

Manchester in the 19th century featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialisation had brought. Manchester_sentence_351

They include Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester Life (1848), and studies such as The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 by Friedrich Engels, while living and working here. Manchester_sentence_352

Manchester was the meeting place of Engels and Karl Marx. Manchester_sentence_353

The two began writing The Communist Manifesto in Chetham's Library – founded in 1653 and claiming to be the oldest public library in the English-speaking world. Manchester_sentence_354

Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing. Manchester_sentence_355

The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display there. Manchester_sentence_356

Letitia Landon's poem Manchester in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835, records the rapid growth of the city and its cultural importance. Manchester_sentence_357

Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and though partly modelled on Preston, it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell. Manchester_sentence_358

Gaskell penned all her novels but Mary Barton at her home in 84 Plymouth Grove. Manchester_sentence_359

Often her house played host to influential authors: Dickens, Charlotte Brontë, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Charles Eliot Norton, for example. Manchester_sentence_360

It is now open as a literary museum. Manchester_sentence_361

Charlotte Brontë began writing her novel Jane Eyre in 1846, while staying at lodgings in Hulme. Manchester_sentence_362

She was accompanying her father Patrick, who was convalescing in the city after cataract surgery. Manchester_sentence_363

She probably envisioned Manchester Cathedral churchyard as the burial place for Jane's parents and the birthplace of Jane herself. Manchester_sentence_364

Also associated with the city is the Victorian poet and novelist Isabella Banks, famed for her 1876 novel The Manchester Man. Manchester_sentence_365

Anglo-American author Frances Hodgson Burnett was born in the city's Cheetham Hill district in 1849, and wrote much of her classic children's novel The Secret Garden while visiting nearby Salford's Buile Hill Park. Manchester_sentence_366

Anthony Burgess is among the 20th-century writers who made Manchester their home. Manchester_sentence_367

He wrote here the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in 1962. Manchester_sentence_368

Dame Carol Ann Duffy, Poet Laureate from 2009 to 2019, moved to the city in 1996 and lives in West Didsbury. Manchester_sentence_369

Nightlife Manchester_section_26

The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities. Manchester_sentence_370

The more than 500 licensed premises in the city centre have a capacity to deal with more than 250,000 visitors, with 110,000–130,000 people visiting on a typical weekend night, making Manchester the most popular city for events at 79 per thousand people. Manchester_sentence_371

The night-time economy has a value of about £100 million. Manchester_sentence_372

and supports 12,000 jobs. Manchester_sentence_373

The Madchester scene of the 1980s, from which groups including The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based around clubs such as The Haçienda. Manchester_sentence_374

The period was the subject of the movie 24 Hour Party People. Manchester_sentence_375

Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded (and given) and drugs were openly dealt. Manchester_sentence_376

Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Haçienda closed in 1997. Manchester_sentence_377

Gay Village Manchester_section_27

Public houses in the Canal Street area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940, and now form the centre of Manchester's LGBTQ+ community. Manchester_sentence_378

Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride, each August since 1995. Manchester_sentence_379

Education Manchester_section_28

See also: List of schools in Manchester Manchester_sentence_380

There are three universities in the City of Manchester. Manchester_sentence_381

The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and Royal Northern College of Music. Manchester_sentence_382

The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom, created in 2004 by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester, founded in 1904, and UMIST, founded in 1956 having developed from the Mechanics' Institute founded, as indicated in the university's logo, in 1824. Manchester_sentence_383

The University of Manchester includes the Manchester Business School, which offered the first MBA course in the UK in 1965. Manchester_sentence_384

Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. Manchester_sentence_385

It gained university status in 1992, and in the same year absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education in South Cheshire. Manchester_sentence_386

The University of Law, the largest provider of vocation legal training in Europe, has a campus in the city. Manchester_sentence_387

The three universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher-education precinct. Manchester_sentence_388

Together they have a combined population of 76,025 students in higher education as of 2015, although almost 6,000 of them were based at Manchester Metropolitan University's campuses at Crewe and Alsager in Cheshire. Manchester_sentence_389

One of Manchester's notable secondary schools is Manchester Grammar School. Manchester_sentence_390

Established in 1515, as a free grammar school next to what is now the cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body. Manchester_sentence_391

In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school (i.e. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system. Manchester_sentence_392

Its previous premises are now used by Chetham's School of Music. Manchester_sentence_393

There are three schools nearby: William Hulme's Grammar School, Withington Girls' School and Manchester High School for Girls. Manchester_sentence_394

In 2010, the Manchester Local Education Authority was ranked last out of Greater Manchester's ten LEAs and 147th out of 150 in the country LEAs based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least five A*–C grades at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) including maths and English (38.6 per cent compared with the national average of 50.7 per cent). Manchester_sentence_395

The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences: 11.11 per cent of "half-day sessions missed by pupils", well above the national average of 5.8 per cent. Manchester_sentence_396

Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90 per cent or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English: Manchester High School for Girls, St Bede's College, Manchester Islamic High School for Girls, and The King David High School. Manchester_sentence_397

Three managed 25 per cent or less: Plant Hill Arts College, North Manchester High School for Boys, Brookway High School and Sports College. Manchester_sentence_398

Sport Manchester_section_29

Main article: Sport in Manchester Manchester_sentence_399

Manchester is well known as a city of sport. Manchester_sentence_400

Two decorated Premier League football clubs bear the city name – Manchester United and Manchester City. Manchester_sentence_401

Manchester United play its home games at Old Trafford, in the Manchester suburb of Trafford, the largest club football ground in the United Kingdom. Manchester_sentence_402

Manchester City's home ground is the City of Manchester Stadium (also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes); its former ground, Maine Road was demolished in 2003. Manchester_sentence_403

The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games and was then reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival. Manchester_sentence_404

Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium, Maine Road, Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium. Manchester_sentence_405

Competitions hosted in city include the FIFA World Cup (1966), UEFA European Football Championship (1996), Olympic Football (2012), UEFA Champions League Final (2003), UEFA Cup Final (2008), four FA Cup Finals (1893, 1911, 1915, 1970) and three League Cup Finals (1977, 1978, 1984). Manchester_sentence_406

First-class sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City of Manchester Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Aquatics Centre. Manchester_sentence_407

Manchester has competed twice to host the Olympic Games, beaten by Atlanta for 1996 and Sydney for 2000. Manchester_sentence_408

The National Cycling Centre includes a velodrome, BMX Arena and Mountainbike trials, and is the home of British Cycling, UCI ProTeam Team Sky and Sky Track Cycling. Manchester_sentence_409

The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling. Manchester_sentence_410

The velodrome hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships for a record third time in 2008. Manchester_sentence_411

The National Indoor BMX Arena (2,000 capacity) adjacent to the velodrome opened in 2011. Manchester_sentence_412

The Manchester Arena hosted the FINA World Swimming Championships in 2008. Manchester_sentence_413

Manchester Cricket Club evolved into Lancashire County Cricket Club and play at Old Trafford Cricket Ground, as do Manchester Originals, a new city-based cricket team founded in 2019 which will play in the new cricket competition The Hundred, representing Lancashire and Manchester. Manchester_sentence_414

Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in 2008, and also hosted the 2010 World Lacrosse Championship in July 2010. Manchester_sentence_415

Recent sporting events hosted by Manchester include the 2013 Ashes series, 2013 Rugby League World Cup and the 2015 Rugby World Cup. Manchester_sentence_416

Media Manchester_section_30

Main article: Media in Manchester Manchester_sentence_417

See also: List of television programmes set, produced or filmed in Manchester; Films set in Manchester; and List of national radio programmes made in Manchester Manchester_sentence_418

Print Manchester_section_31

The Guardian newspaper was founded in the city in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian. Manchester_sentence_419

Until 2008, its head office was still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in 1964. Manchester_sentence_420

For many years most national newspapers had offices in Manchester: The Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mail, Daily Mirror, The Sun. Manchester_sentence_421

At its height, 1,500 journalists were employed, earning the city the nickname "second Fleet Street". Manchester_sentence_422

In the 1980s the titles closed their northern offices and centred their operations in London. Manchester_sentence_423

The main regional newspaper in the city is the Manchester Evening News, which was for over 80 years the sister publication of The Manchester Guardian. Manchester_sentence_424

The Manchester Evening News has the largest circulation of a UK regional evening newspaper and is distributed free of charge in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs. Manchester_sentence_425

Despite its title, it is available all day. Manchester_sentence_426

Several local weekly free papers are distributed by the MEN group. Manchester_sentence_427

The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, rail stations and other busy locations. Manchester_sentence_428

An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988. Manchester_sentence_429

Another attempt was made with the North West Enquirer, which hoped to provide a true "regional" newspaper for the North West, much in the same vein as the Yorkshire Post does for Yorkshire or The Northern Echo does for the North East; it folded in October 2006. Manchester_sentence_430

Television Manchester_section_32

Manchester has been a centre of television broadcasting since the 1950s. Manchester_sentence_431

A number of television studios have been in operation around the city, and have since relocated to MediaCityUK in neighbouring Salford. Manchester_sentence_432

The ITV franchise Granada Television has been based in Manchester since 1954. Manchester_sentence_433

Now based at MediaCityUK, the company's former headquarters at Granada Studios on Quay Street with its distinctive illuminated sign were a prominent landmark on the Manchester skyline for several decades. Manchester_sentence_434

Granada produces Coronation Street, local news and programmes for North West England. Manchester_sentence_435

Although its influence has waned, Granada had been described as "the best commercial television company in the world". Manchester_sentence_436

With the growth in regional television in the 1950s, Manchester became one of the BBC's three main centres in England. Manchester_sentence_437

In 1954, the BBC opened its first regional BBC Television studio outside London, Dickenson Road Studios, in a converted Methodist chapel in Rusholme. Manchester_sentence_438

The first edition of Top of the Pops was broadcast here on New Year's Day 1964. Manchester_sentence_439

From 1975, BBC programmes including Mastermind, and Real Story, were made at New Broadcasting House on Oxford Road. Manchester_sentence_440

The Cutting It series set in the city's Northern Quarter and The Street were set in Manchester as was Life on Mars. Manchester_sentence_441

Manchester was the regional base for BBC One North West Region programmes before it relocated to MediaCityUK in nearby Salford Quays. Manchester_sentence_442

The Manchester television channel, Channel M, owned by the Guardian Media Group operated from 2000, but closed in 2012. Manchester_sentence_443

Manchester is also covered by two internet television channels: Quays News and Manchester.tv. Manchester_sentence_444

The city had a new terrestrial channel from January 2014 when YourTV Manchester, which won the OFCOM licence bid in February 2013. Manchester_sentence_445

It began its first broadcast, but in 2015, That's Manchester took over to air on 31 May and launched the freeview channel 8 service slot, before moving to channel 7 in April 2016. Manchester_sentence_446

Radio Manchester_section_33

The city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London, including BBC Radio Manchester, Hits Radio Manchester, Capital Manchester, Greatest Hits Manchester, Heart North West, Smooth North West, Gold, NMFM (North Manchester FM) and XS Manchester. Manchester_sentence_447

Student radio stations include Fuse FM at the University of Manchester and MMU Radio at the Manchester Metropolitan University. Manchester_sentence_448

A community radio network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering Ardwick, Longsight and Levenshulme (All FM 96.9) and Wythenshawe (Wythenshawe FM 97.2). Manchester_sentence_449

Defunct radio stations include Sunset 102, which became Kiss 102, then Galaxy Manchester), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire (now Imagine FM). Manchester_sentence_450

These stations and pirate radio played a significant role in the city's house music culture, the Madchester scene. Manchester_sentence_451

International relations Manchester_section_34

Manchester has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places. Manchester_sentence_452

In addition, the British Council maintains a metropolitan centre in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_453

Manchester_unordered_list_0

Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London. Manchester_sentence_454

The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester. Manchester_sentence_455

Manchester hosts consular services for most of the north of England. Manchester_sentence_456

See also Manchester_section_35

Manchester_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester.