Manhattan

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This article is about the New York City borough. Manhattan_sentence_0

For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). Manhattan_sentence_1

Manhattan_table_infobox_0

Manhattan

New York County, New YorkManhattan_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryManhattan_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesManhattan_cell_0_1_1
StateManhattan_header_cell_0_2_0 New YorkManhattan_cell_0_2_1
CountyManhattan_header_cell_0_3_0 New York County (coterminous)Manhattan_cell_0_3_1
CityManhattan_header_cell_0_4_0 New York CityManhattan_cell_0_4_1
SettledManhattan_header_cell_0_5_0 1624Manhattan_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentManhattan_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeManhattan_header_cell_0_7_0 Borough (New York City)Manhattan_cell_0_7_1
Borough PresidentManhattan_header_cell_0_8_0 Gale Brewer (D)

— (Borough of Manhattan)Manhattan_cell_0_8_1

District AttorneyManhattan_header_cell_0_9_0 Cyrus Vance Jr. (D)

— (New York County)Manhattan_cell_0_9_1

AreaManhattan_header_cell_0_10_0
TotalManhattan_header_cell_0_11_0 33.58 sq mi (87.0 km)Manhattan_cell_0_11_1
LandManhattan_header_cell_0_12_0 22.83 sq mi (59.1 km)Manhattan_cell_0_12_1
WaterManhattan_header_cell_0_13_0 10.76 sq mi (27.9 km)  32%Manhattan_cell_0_13_1
Highest elevationManhattan_header_cell_0_14_0 265 ft (81 m)Manhattan_cell_0_14_1
Population (2019)Manhattan_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalManhattan_header_cell_0_16_0 1,628,706Manhattan_cell_0_16_1
DensityManhattan_header_cell_0_17_0 69,467.5/sq mi (26,821.6/km)Manhattan_cell_0_17_1
DemonymManhattan_header_cell_0_18_0 Manhattanite

Knickerbocker (historical)Manhattan_cell_0_18_1

Time zoneManhattan_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC−05:00 (EST)Manhattan_cell_0_19_1
Summer (DST)Manhattan_header_cell_0_20_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Manhattan_cell_0_20_1
ZIP Code formatManhattan_header_cell_0_21_0 100xx, 101xx, 102xxManhattan_cell_0_21_1
Area codeManhattan_header_cell_0_22_0 212/646/332, 917Manhattan_cell_0_22_1
GDP (2019)Manhattan_header_cell_0_23_0 US$635.3 billion · 2nd by U.S. county; 1st per capitaManhattan_cell_0_23_1
WebsiteManhattan_header_cell_0_24_0 Manhattan_cell_0_24_1

Manhattan (/mænˈhætən, mən-/), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of the U.S. Manhattan_sentence_2

state of New York. Manhattan_sentence_3

Manhattan serves as the city's economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. Manhattan_sentence_4

The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; as well as several small adjacent islands. Manhattan_sentence_5

Manhattan additionally contains Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. Manhattan_sentence_6

mainland, separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem Ship Canal and later connected using landfill to the Bronx. Manhattan_sentence_7

Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_8

Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world, and the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Manhattan_sentence_9

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Manhattan_sentence_10

Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, and the borough has been the setting for numerous books, films, and television shows. Manhattan_sentence_11

Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013; median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated US$1,600 per square foot ($17,000/m) as of 2018, with Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commanding the highest retail rents in the world, at US$3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m) per year in 2017. Manhattan_sentence_12

Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. Manhattan_sentence_13

Manhattan is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals roughly $1059 in current terms. Manhattan_sentence_14

The territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. Manhattan_sentence_15

New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. Manhattan_sentence_16

The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th century and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. Manhattan_sentence_17

Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. Manhattan_sentence_18

New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area (larger only than Kalawao County, Hawaii), and is also the most densely populated U.S. county. Manhattan_sentence_19

It is also one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2019 population of 1,628,706 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles (59.13 km), or 72,918 residents per square mile (28,154/km), higher than the density of any individual U.S. city. Manhattan_sentence_20

On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile (65,600/km). Manhattan_sentence_21

Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan_sentence_22

If each borough were ranked as a city, Manhattan would rank as the sixth-most populous in the U.S. Manhattan_sentence_23

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, and Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, and Grand Central Terminal. Manhattan_sentence_24

The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn, Manhattan, Williamsburg, Queensboro, Triborough, and George Washington Bridges; tunnels such as the Holland and Lincoln Tunnels; skyscrapers such as the Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, and One World Trade Center; and parks, such as Central Park. Manhattan_sentence_25

Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, and the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Manhattan_sentence_26

The City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Manhattan_sentence_27

Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world. Manhattan_sentence_28

Etymology Manhattan_section_0

The name Manhattan derives from the Munsee Lenape language term manaháhtaan (where manah- means "gather", -aht- means "bow", and -aan is an abstract element used to form verb stems). Manhattan_sentence_29

The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the (wood to make) bows". Manhattan_sentence_30

According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end that was considered ideal for the making of bows. Manhattan_sentence_31

It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). Manhattan_sentence_32

A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). Manhattan_sentence_33

Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and simply "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate. Manhattan_sentence_34

History Manhattan_section_1

See also: History of New York City Manhattan_sentence_35

Colonial era Manhattan_section_2

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. Manhattan_sentence_36

In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City. Manhattan_sentence_37

He entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York Harbor New Angoulême, in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the Bay of Santa Margarita – what is now Upper New York Bay – after Marguerite de Navarre, the elder sister of the king. Manhattan_sentence_38

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Manhattan_sentence_39

Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present-day Albany. Manhattan_sentence_40

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624, with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. Manhattan_sentence_41

In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam), in what is now Lower Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_42

The 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City. Manhattan_sentence_43

According to a letter by Pieter Janszoon Schagen, Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan on May 24, 1626, from unnamed Native American people, who are believed to have been Canarsee Indians of the Lenape, in exchange for traded goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24. Manhattan_sentence_44

The figure of 60 guilders comes from a letter by a representative of the Dutch Estates General and member of the board of the Dutch West India Company, Pieter Janszoon Schagen, to the Estates General in November 1626. Manhattan_sentence_45

In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 (or 60 guilders) to US$24 (because 24 = 60/2.5, 1 dollar = confused with rijksdaalder = 2.5 guilders). Manhattan_sentence_46

"[A] variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars," as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Manhattan_sentence_47

Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, according to the Institute for Social History of Amsterdam. Manhattan_sentence_48

Based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. Manhattan_sentence_49

Historians James and Michelle Nevius revisited the issue in 2014, suggesting that using the prices of beer and brandy as monetary equivalencies, the price Minuit paid would have the purchasing power of somewhere between $2,600 and $15,600 in current dollars. Manhattan_sentence_50

According to the writer Nathaniel Benchley, Minuit conducted the transaction with Seyseys, chief of the Canarsee Native Americans, who were willing to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for the island that was mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks, a band of the Wappinger. Manhattan_sentence_51

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony. Manhattan_sentence_52

New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. Manhattan_sentence_53

In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. Manhattan_sentence_54

The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under their new English rulers. Manhattan_sentence_55

The Dutch Republic re-captured the city in August 1673, renaming it "New Orange". Manhattan_sentence_56

New Netherland was ultimately ceded to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster. Manhattan_sentence_57

American Revolution and the early United States Manhattan_section_3

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. Manhattan_sentence_58

The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. Manhattan_sentence_59

The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan_sentence_60

The military center for the colonists was established in New Jersey. Manhattan_sentence_61

British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city. Manhattan_sentence_62

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). Manhattan_sentence_63

New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Manhattan_sentence_64

Federal Hall was also the site where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union. Manhattan_sentence_65

19th century Manhattan_section_4

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of Alexander Hamilton's policies and practices as the first Secretary of the Treasury and, later, with the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825, which connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the Midwestern United States and Canada. Manhattan_sentence_66

By 1810, New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_67

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 laid out the island of Manhattan in its familiar grid plan. Manhattan_sentence_68

Tammany Hall, a Democratic Party political machine, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor, Fernando Wood, in 1854. Manhattan_sentence_69

Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades. Manhattan_sentence_70

Central Park, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city. Manhattan_sentence_71

New York City played a complex role in the American Civil War. Manhattan_sentence_72

The city's strong commercial ties to the southern United States existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River, which allowed trade with stops such as the West Point Foundry, one of the great manufacturing operations in the early United States; and the city's Atlantic Ocean ports, rendering New York City the American powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between the northern and southern United States. Manhattan_sentence_73

New York's growing immigrant population, which had originated largely from Germany and Ireland, began in the late 1850s to include waves of Italians and Central and Eastern European Jews flowing in en masse. Manhattan_sentence_74

Anger arose about conscription, with resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service leading to resentment against Lincoln's war policies and fomenting paranoia about free Blacks taking the poor immigrants' jobs, culminating in the three-day-long New York Draft Riots of July 1863. Manhattan_sentence_75

These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of civil disorder in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred. Manhattan_sentence_76

The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and Manhattan became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the Statue of Liberty on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France. Manhattan_sentence_77

The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. Manhattan_sentence_78

In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city became a hotbed of revolution (including anarchists and communists among others), syndicalism, racketeering, and unionization. Manhattan_sentence_79

In 1883, the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge established a road connection to Brooklyn, across the East River. Manhattan_sentence_80

In 1874 the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County from Westchester County, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed. Manhattan_sentence_81

In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the City of Greater New York", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate boroughs. Manhattan_sentence_82

On January 1, 1914, the New York State Legislature created Bronx County and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries. Manhattan_sentence_83

20th century Manhattan_section_5

Further information: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire and Stonewall riots Manhattan_sentence_84

The construction of the New York City Subway, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. Manhattan_sentence_85

In the 1920s Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the Harlem Renaissance, part of a larger boom time in the Prohibition era that included new skyscrapers competing for the skyline. Manhattan_sentence_86

New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. Manhattan_sentence_87

Manhattan's majority white ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990. Manhattan_sentence_88

On March 25, 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Greenwich Village killed 146 garment workers. Manhattan_sentence_89

The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department, building codes, and workplace regulations. Manhattan_sentence_90

The period between the World Wars saw the election of reformist mayor Fiorello La Guardia and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance. Manhattan_sentence_91

As the city's demographics stabilized, labor unionization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Manhattan_sentence_92

Despite the Great Depression, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous Art Deco masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline, most notably the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, and the 30 Rockefeller Plaza. Manhattan_sentence_93

Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, the largest being Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Town, which opened in 1947. Manhattan_sentence_94

In 1951–1952, the United Nations relocated to a new headquarters the East Side of Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_95

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_96

They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights. Manhattan_sentence_97

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. Manhattan_sentence_98

While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. Manhattan_sentence_99

The 1980s saw a rebirth of Wall Street, and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide financial industry. Manhattan_sentence_100

The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. Manhattan_sentence_101

The organizations Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) and AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease. Manhattan_sentence_102

By the 1990s crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Manhattan_sentence_103

Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeted to 537 by 2008, and the crack epidemic and its associated drug-related violence came under greater control. Manhattan_sentence_104

The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low interest rates and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market. Manhattan_sentence_105

Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in Manhattan's economy. Manhattan_sentence_106

21st century Manhattan_section_6

Further information: September 11 attacks Manhattan_sentence_107

On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center, and the towers subsequently collapsed. Manhattan_sentence_108

7 World Trade Center collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. Manhattan_sentence_109

The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. Manhattan_sentence_110

The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Manhattan_sentence_111

Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, although there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. Manhattan_sentence_112

Many rescue workers and residents of the area developed several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths. Manhattan_sentence_113

A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014. Manhattan_sentence_114

In 2014, the new One World Trade Center, at 1,776 feet (541 m) and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site. Manhattan_sentence_115

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide. Manhattan_sentence_116

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residents and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. Manhattan_sentence_117

The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future. Manhattan_sentence_118

Around 15 percent of the borough is considered to be in flood-risk zones. Manhattan_sentence_119

On October 31, 2017, a terrorist took a rental pickup truck and deliberately drove down a bike path alongside the West Side Highway in Lower Manhattan, killing eight people and injuring a dozen others before crashing into a school bus. Manhattan_sentence_120

Geography Manhattan_section_7

See also: Geography of New York City Manhattan_sentence_121

Components Manhattan_section_8

The borough consists of Manhattan Island, Marble Hill, and several small islands, including Randalls Island and Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan_sentence_122

According to the United States Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km) (32%) is water. Manhattan_sentence_123

The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan_sentence_124

Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street). Manhattan_sentence_125

Icebergs are often compared in size to the area of Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_126

Manhattan Island Manhattan_section_9

Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan lengthwise into its East Side and West Side. Manhattan_sentence_127

Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. Manhattan_sentence_128

To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from the Bronx and the mainland United States. Manhattan_sentence_129

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. Manhattan_sentence_130

When building the World Trade Center in 1968, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m) of material was excavated from the site. Manhattan_sentence_131

Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. Manhattan_sentence_132

The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks; Hudson River Park was subsequently opened in stages beginning in 1998. Manhattan_sentence_133

Marble Hill Manhattan_section_10

One neighborhood of New York County, Marble Hill, is contiguous with the U.S. mainland. Manhattan_sentence_134

Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_135

Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland. Manhattan_sentence_136

Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. Manhattan_sentence_137

The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in its topography has been evened out. Manhattan_sentence_138

Smaller islands Manhattan_section_11

See also: List of smaller islands in New York City Manhattan_sentence_139

In New York Harbor, there are three smaller islands: Manhattan_sentence_140

Manhattan_unordered_list_0

Other smaller islands, in the East River, include (from north to south): Manhattan_sentence_141

Manhattan_unordered_list_1

Geology Manhattan_section_12

Bedrock Manhattan_section_13

The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan is a mica schist known as Manhattan schist of the Manhattan Prong physiographic region. Manhattan_sentence_142

It is a strong, competent metamorphic rock that was created when Pangaea formed. Manhattan_sentence_143

It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. Manhattan_sentence_144

In Central Park, outcrops of Manhattan schist occur and Rat Rock is one rather large example. Manhattan_sentence_145

Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street and Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_146

It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas. Manhattan_sentence_147

However, research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers. Manhattan_sentence_148

Updated seismic analysis Manhattan_section_14

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Manhattan_sentence_149

Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city. Manhattan_sentence_150

Locations Manhattan_section_15

Adjacent counties Manhattan_section_16

Manhattan_unordered_list_2

National protected areas Manhattan_section_17

Manhattan_unordered_list_3

Neighborhoods Manhattan_section_18

Main articles: Neighborhoods in New York City and List of Manhattan neighborhoods Manhattan_sentence_151

Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Manhattan_sentence_152

Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy). Manhattan_sentence_153

Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly"). Manhattan_sentence_154

and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park"). Manhattan_sentence_155

Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands. Manhattan_sentence_156

Alphabet City comprises Avenues A, B, C, and D, to which its name refers. Manhattan_sentence_157

Some have simple folkloric names, such as Hell's Kitchen, alongside their more official but lesser used title (in this case, Clinton). Manhattan_sentence_158

Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, which is mixed use, are known for upscale shopping as well as residential use. Manhattan_sentence_159

Others, such as Greenwich Village, the Lower East Side, Alphabet City and the East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemian subculture. Manhattan_sentence_160

Chelsea is one of several Manhattan neighborhoods with large gay populations and has become a center of both the international art industry and New York's nightlife. Manhattan_sentence_161

Washington Heights is a primary destination for immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Manhattan_sentence_162

Chinatown has the highest concentration of people of Chinese descent outside of Asia. Manhattan_sentence_163

Koreatown is roughly bounded by 6th and Madison Avenues, between 31st and 33rd Streets, where Hangul (한글) signage is ubiquitous. Manhattan_sentence_164

Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as Curry Hill. Manhattan_sentence_165

Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing in Nolita, Lower Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_166

In Manhattan, uptown means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its street grid system are oriented) and downtown means south (south-southwest). Manhattan_sentence_167

This usage differs from that of most American cities, where downtown refers to the central business district. Manhattan_sentence_168

Manhattan has two central business districts, the Financial District at the southern tip of the island, and Midtown Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_169

The term uptown also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street and downtown to the southern portion below 14th Street, with Midtown covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation. Manhattan_sentence_170

Fifth Avenue roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block on most streets. Manhattan_sentence_171

South of Waverly Place, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Manhattan_sentence_172

Although the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (the southernmost street divided in west and east portions; pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Manhattan_sentence_173

Streets in Midtown are usually one-way, with the few exceptions generally being the busiest cross-town thoroughfares (14th, 23rd, 34th, and 42nd Streets, for example), which are bidirectional across the width of Manhattan Island. Manhattan_sentence_174

The rule of thumb is that odd-numbered streets run west, while even-numbered streets run east. Manhattan_sentence_175

Climate Manhattan_section_19

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. Manhattan_sentence_176

The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). Manhattan_sentence_177

The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually. Manhattan_sentence_178

The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone. Manhattan_sentence_179

Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. Manhattan_sentence_180

The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C); temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, and reach 60 °F (16 °C) several days in the coldest winter month. Manhattan_sentence_181

Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Manhattan_sentence_182

Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. Manhattan_sentence_183

Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C). Manhattan_sentence_184

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936. Manhattan_sentence_185

Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as 7 °F (4 °C) when winds are slow. Manhattan_sentence_186

Manhattan receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Manhattan_sentence_187

Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably from year to year. Manhattan_sentence_188

Manhattan_table_general_1

Climate data for New YorkManhattan_header_cell_1_0_0
MonthManhattan_header_cell_1_1_0 JanManhattan_header_cell_1_1_1 FebManhattan_header_cell_1_1_2 MarManhattan_header_cell_1_1_3 AprManhattan_header_cell_1_1_4 MayManhattan_header_cell_1_1_5 JunManhattan_header_cell_1_1_6 JulManhattan_header_cell_1_1_7 AugManhattan_header_cell_1_1_8 SepManhattan_header_cell_1_1_9 OctManhattan_header_cell_1_1_10 NovManhattan_header_cell_1_1_11 DecManhattan_header_cell_1_1_12 YearManhattan_header_cell_1_1_13
Average sea temperature °F (°C)Manhattan_header_cell_1_2_0 41.7

(5.4)Manhattan_cell_1_2_1

39.7

(4.3)Manhattan_cell_1_2_2

40.2

(4.5)Manhattan_cell_1_2_3

45.1

(7.3)Manhattan_cell_1_2_4

52.5

(11.4)Manhattan_cell_1_2_5

64.5

(18.1)Manhattan_cell_1_2_6

72.1

(22.3)Manhattan_cell_1_2_7

74.1

(23.4)Manhattan_cell_1_2_8

70.1

(21.2)Manhattan_cell_1_2_9

63.0

(17.3)Manhattan_cell_1_2_10

54.3

(12.4)Manhattan_cell_1_2_11

47.2

(8.4)Manhattan_cell_1_2_12

55.4

(13.0)Manhattan_cell_1_2_13

Source: Weather AtlasManhattan_header_cell_1_3_0

Boroughscape Manhattan_section_20

Demographics Manhattan_section_21

Main article: Demographics of Manhattan Manhattan_sentence_189

See also: Demographics of New York City Manhattan_sentence_190

Manhattan_table_general_2

New York City's five boroughsManhattan_header_cell_2_0_0
JurisdictionManhattan_header_cell_2_1_0 PopulationManhattan_header_cell_2_1_2 Gross Domestic ProductManhattan_header_cell_2_1_3 Land areaManhattan_header_cell_2_1_5 DensityManhattan_header_cell_2_1_7
BoroughManhattan_header_cell_2_2_0 CountyManhattan_header_cell_2_2_1 Estimate
(2019)Manhattan_header_cell_2_2_2
billions

(2012 US$)Manhattan_header_cell_2_2_3

per capita

(US$)Manhattan_header_cell_2_2_4

square
milesManhattan_header_cell_2_2_5
square

kmManhattan_header_cell_2_2_6

persons /

miManhattan_header_cell_2_2_7

persons /

kmManhattan_header_cell_2_2_8

The BronxManhattan_cell_2_3_0 BronxManhattan_cell_2_3_1 1,418,207Manhattan_cell_2_3_2 42.695Manhattan_cell_2_3_3 30,100Manhattan_cell_2_3_4 42.10Manhattan_cell_2_3_5 109.04Manhattan_cell_2_3_6 33,867Manhattan_cell_2_3_7 13,006Manhattan_cell_2_3_8
BrooklynManhattan_cell_2_4_0 KingsManhattan_cell_2_4_1 2,559,903Manhattan_cell_2_4_2 91.559Manhattan_cell_2_4_3 35,800Manhattan_cell_2_4_4 70.82Manhattan_cell_2_4_5 183.42Manhattan_cell_2_4_6 36,147Manhattan_cell_2_4_7 13,957Manhattan_cell_2_4_8
ManhattanManhattan_cell_2_5_0 New YorkManhattan_cell_2_5_1 1,628,706Manhattan_cell_2_5_2 600.244Manhattan_cell_2_5_3 368,500Manhattan_cell_2_5_4 22.83Manhattan_cell_2_5_5 59.13Manhattan_cell_2_5_6 71,341Manhattan_cell_2_5_7 27,544Manhattan_cell_2_5_8
QueensManhattan_cell_2_6_0 QueensManhattan_cell_2_6_1 2,253,858Manhattan_cell_2_6_2 93.310Manhattan_cell_2_6_3 41,400Manhattan_cell_2_6_4 108.53Manhattan_cell_2_6_5 281.09Manhattan_cell_2_6_6 20,767Manhattan_cell_2_6_7 8,018Manhattan_cell_2_6_8
Staten IslandManhattan_cell_2_7_0 RichmondManhattan_cell_2_7_1 476,143Manhattan_cell_2_7_2 14.514Manhattan_cell_2_7_3 30,500Manhattan_cell_2_7_4 58.37Manhattan_cell_2_7_5 151.18Manhattan_cell_2_7_6 8,157Manhattan_cell_2_7_7 3,150Manhattan_cell_2_7_8
City of New YorkManhattan_cell_2_8_0 8,336,817Manhattan_cell_2_8_2 842.343Manhattan_cell_2_8_3 101,000Manhattan_cell_2_8_4 302.64Manhattan_cell_2_8_5 783.83Manhattan_cell_2_8_6 27,547Manhattan_cell_2_8_7 10,636Manhattan_cell_2_8_8
State of New YorkManhattan_cell_2_9_0 19,453,561Manhattan_cell_2_9_2 1,731.910Manhattan_cell_2_9_3 89,000Manhattan_cell_2_9_4 47,126.40Manhattan_cell_2_9_5 122,056.82Manhattan_cell_2_9_6 412Manhattan_cell_2_9_7 159Manhattan_cell_2_9_8
Sources: and see individual borough articlesManhattan_cell_2_10_0

Manhattan_table_general_3

Racial compositionManhattan_header_cell_3_0_0 2018Manhattan_header_cell_3_0_1 2010Manhattan_header_cell_3_0_2 1990Manhattan_header_cell_3_0_3 1950Manhattan_header_cell_3_0_4 1900Manhattan_header_cell_3_0_5
WhiteManhattan_cell_3_1_0 64.5%Manhattan_cell_3_1_1 57.4%Manhattan_cell_3_1_2 58.3%Manhattan_cell_3_1_3 79.4%Manhattan_cell_3_1_4 97.8%Manhattan_cell_3_1_5
—Non-HispanicManhattan_cell_3_2_0 47%Manhattan_cell_3_2_1 48%Manhattan_cell_3_2_2 48.9%Manhattan_cell_3_2_3 n/aManhattan_cell_3_2_4 n/aManhattan_cell_3_2_5
Black or African AmericanManhattan_cell_3_3_0 17.9%Manhattan_cell_3_3_1 15.6%Manhattan_cell_3_3_2 22.0%Manhattan_cell_3_3_3 19.6%Manhattan_cell_3_3_4 2.0%Manhattan_cell_3_3_5
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Manhattan_cell_3_4_0 25.9%Manhattan_cell_3_4_1 25.4%Manhattan_cell_3_4_2 26.0%Manhattan_cell_3_4_3 n/aManhattan_cell_3_4_4 n/aManhattan_cell_3_4_5
AsianManhattan_cell_3_5_0 12.8%Manhattan_cell_3_5_1 11.3%Manhattan_cell_3_5_2 7.4%Manhattan_cell_3_5_3 0.8%Manhattan_cell_3_5_4 0.3%Manhattan_cell_3_5_5

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Manhattan_sentence_191

Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.7% to 1,628,706 as of 2018, representing 19.5% of New York City's population of 8,336,817 and 8.4% of New York State's population of 19,745,289. Manhattan_sentence_192

As of the 2017 Census estimates, the population density of New York County was around 72,918 people per square mile (28,154/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_193

In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). Manhattan_sentence_194

In 2006, the New York City Department of City Planning projected that Manhattan's population would increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period. Manhattan_sentence_195

However, since then, Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. Manhattan_sentence_196

The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census. Manhattan_sentence_197

The southern tip of Manhattan became the fastest growing part of New York City between 1990 and 2014. Manhattan_sentence_198

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Manhattan_sentence_199

Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Manhattan_sentence_200

Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. Manhattan_sentence_201

People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. Manhattan_sentence_202

German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively. Manhattan_sentence_203

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. Manhattan_sentence_204

As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan_sentence_205

Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. Manhattan_sentence_206

However, from 2011–2015 Census data of New York County, the per capita income was recorded in 2015 dollars as $64,993, with the median household income at $72,871, and poverty at 17.6%. Manhattan_sentence_207

In 2012, The New York Times reported that inequality was higher than in most developing countries, stating, "The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries". Manhattan_sentence_208

Religion Manhattan_section_22

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Manhattan was the Archdiocese of New York, with 323,325 Catholics worshipping at 109 parishes, followed by 64,000 Orthodox Jews with 77 congregations, an estimated 42,545 Muslims with 21 congregations, 42,502 non-denominational adherents with 54 congregations, 26,178 TEC Episcopalians with 46 congregations, 25,048 ABC-USA Baptists with 41 congregations, 24,536 Reform Jews with 10 congregations, 23,982 Mahayana Buddhists with 35 congregations, 10,503 PC-USA Presbyterians with 30 congregations, and 10,268 RCA Presbyterians with 10 congregations. Manhattan_sentence_209

Altogether, 44.0% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information. Manhattan_sentence_210

In 2014, Manhattan had 703 religious organizations, the seventeenth most out of all US counties. Manhattan_sentence_211

Languages Manhattan_section_23

As of 2010, 59.98% (902,267) of Manhattan residents, aged five and older, spoke only English at home, while 23.07% (347,033) spoke Spanish, 5.33% (80,240) Chinese, 2.03% (30,567) French, 0.78% (11,776) Japanese, 0.77% (11,517) Russian, 0.72% (10,788) Korean, 0.70% (10,496) German, 0.66% (9,868) Italian, 0.64% (9,555) Hebrew, and 0.48% (7,158) spoke African languages at home. Manhattan_sentence_212

In total, 40.02% (602,058) of Manhattan's population, aged five and older, spoke a language other than English at home. Manhattan_sentence_213

Landmarks and architecture Manhattan_section_24

Main article: Architecture of New York City Manhattan_sentence_214

See also: List of skyscrapers in New York City Manhattan_sentence_215

Points of interest on Manhattan Island include the American Museum of Natural History, Broadway and the Theater District, Bryant Park, Central Park, Chinatown, the Chrysler Building, Columbia University, the Empire State Building, Flatiron Building, Fulton Center, Grand Central Terminal, Harlem and Spanish Harlem, the High Line, Koreatown, Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Little Italy, Madison Square Garden, Museum Mile on Fifth Avenue (including the Metropolitan Museum of Art), the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, New York University and the Washington Square Arch in Greenwich Village, Penn Station, Port Authority Bus Terminal, Rockefeller Center (including Radio City Music Hall), South Street Seaport, Stonewall Inn, The Battery, Times Square, Trump Tower, and the World Trade Center (including the National September 11 Museum and One World Trade Center). Manhattan_sentence_216

There are also numerous iconic bridges across rivers that connect to Manhattan Island, as well as an emerging number of supertall skyscrapers. Manhattan_sentence_217

The Statue of Liberty rests on a pedestal on Liberty Island, an exclave of Manhattan, and part of Ellis Island is also an exclave of Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_218

The borough has many energy-efficient, environmentally friendly office buildings, such as the Hearst Tower, the rebuilt 7 World Trade Center, and the Bank of America Tower—the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum LEED Certification. Manhattan_sentence_219

Architectural history Manhattan_section_25

The skyscraper, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. Manhattan_sentence_220

From 1890 to 1973, the title of world's tallest building resided continually in Manhattan (with a gap between 1894 and 1908, when the title was held by Philadelphia City Hall), with eight different buildings holding the title. Manhattan_sentence_221

The New York World Building on Park Row, was the first to take the title in 1890, standing 309 feet (94 m) until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge. Manhattan_sentence_222

The nearby Park Row Building, with its 29 stories standing 391 feet (119 m) high, became the world's tallest office building when it opened in 1899. Manhattan_sentence_223

The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood 612 feet (187 m) high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished. Manhattan_sentence_224

The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing 700 feet (210 m) at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice. Manhattan_sentence_225

The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive Gothic architecture, took the title in 1913, topping off at 792 feet (241 m). Manhattan_sentence_226

Structures such as the Equitable Building of 1915, which rises vertically forty stories from the sidewalk, prompted the passage of the 1916 Zoning Resolution, requiring new buildings to contain setbacks withdrawing progressively at a defined angle from the street as they rose, in order to preserve a view of the sky at street level. Manhattan_sentence_227

The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. Manhattan_sentence_228

As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown. Manhattan_sentence_229

At 927 feet (283 m), 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in only eleven months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title. Manhattan_sentence_230

At Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alen developed plans to build the structure's trademark 185-foot (56 m) spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to 1,046 feet (319 m) and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929. Manhattan_sentence_231

Both buildings were soon surpassed with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its Art Deco tower reaching 1,250 feet (380 m) at the top of the building. Manhattan_sentence_232

The 203-foot (62 m) high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to 1,453 ft (443 m). Manhattan_sentence_233

The former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were located in Lower Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_234

At 1,368 and 1,362 feet (417 and 415 m), the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972 until they were surpassed by the construction of the Willis Tower in 1974 (formerly known as the Sears Tower, located in Chicago). Manhattan_sentence_235

One World Trade Center, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere. Manhattan_sentence_236

In 1961, the Pennsylvania Railroad unveiled plans to tear down the old Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and office building complex. Manhattan_sentence_237

Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead & White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City. Manhattan_sentence_238

Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. Manhattan_sentence_239

The loss of Penn Station—called "an act of irresponsible public vandalism" by historian Lewis Mumford—led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage". Manhattan_sentence_240

The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including over 1,000 in New York City. Manhattan_sentence_241

In 2017, a multibillion-dollar rebuilding plan was unveiled to restore the historic grandeur of Penn Station, in the process of upgrading the landmark's status as a critical transportation hub. Manhattan_sentence_242

Parkland Manhattan_section_26

Parkland composes 17.8% of the borough, covering a total of 2,686 acres (10.87 km). Manhattan_sentence_243

The 843-acre (3.41 km) Central Park, the largest park comprising 30% of Manhattan's parkland, is bordered on the north by West 110th Street (Central Park North), on the west by Eighth Avenue (Central Park West), on the south by West 59th Street (Central Park South), and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Manhattan_sentence_244

Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and several lawns and sporting areas, as well as 21 playgrounds and a 6-mile (9.7 km) road from which automobile traffic is banned. Manhattan_sentence_245

While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped, and the construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects, with some 20,000 workers crafting the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create. Manhattan_sentence_246

The remaining 70% of Manhattan's parkland includes 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts, and many other amenities. Manhattan_sentence_247

The next-largest park in Manhattan is the Hudson River Park, stretches 4.5 miles (7.2 km) on the Hudson River and comprises 550 acres (220 ha). Manhattan_sentence_248

Other major parks include: Manhattan_sentence_249

Economy Manhattan_section_27

Main article: Economy of New York City Manhattan_sentence_250

Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire New York metropolitan area accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City. Manhattan_sentence_251

In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_252

Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white collar professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct. Manhattan_sentence_253

Manhattan also has the highest per capita income of any county in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_254

In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. Manhattan_sentence_255

The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any county or city in the country, and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C. Manhattan_sentence_256

Financial sector Manhattan_section_28

Main article: Wall Street Manhattan_sentence_257

Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. Manhattan_sentence_258

financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. Manhattan_sentence_259

The borough's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine for Manhattan, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of private sector jobs in New York City, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of the city's tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Manhattan_sentence_260

Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually. Manhattan_sentence_261

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. Manhattan_sentence_262

The NYSE American (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), New York Board of Trade, and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) are also located downtown. Manhattan_sentence_263

In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association. Manhattan_sentence_264

Corporate sector Manhattan_section_29

New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the United States, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_265

Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m) of office space in 2018, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m) in 2018, is the largest central business district in the world. Manhattan_sentence_266

New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue". Manhattan_sentence_267

Tech and biotech Manhattan_section_30

Further information: Tech companies in Manhattan, Biotech companies in Manhattan, Silicon Alley, and Tech:NYC Manhattan_sentence_268

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high tech industries, including the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (fintech), and other fields within information technology that are supported by the area's entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. Manhattan_sentence_269

As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector. Manhattan_sentence_270

In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment, most based in Manhattan, as well as in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. Manhattan_sentence_271

High technology startup companies and employment are growing in Manhattan and across New York City, bolstered by the city's emergence as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, the city's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. Manhattan_sentence_272

Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. Manhattan_sentence_273

As of October 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector, with a significant proportion in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_274

The technology sector has been expanding across Manhattan since 2010. Manhattan_sentence_275

The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. Manhattan_sentence_276

By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. Manhattan_sentence_277

The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology. Manhattan_sentence_278

In 2011, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg had announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. Manhattan_sentence_279

Tourism Manhattan_section_31

Main article: Tourism in New York City Manhattan_sentence_280

Tourism is vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's tourists, enumerating an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. Manhattan_sentence_281

According to The Broadway League, shows on Broadway sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season; attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million. Manhattan_sentence_282

As of June 2016, Manhattan had nearly 91,500 hotel rooms, a 26% increase from 2010. Manhattan_sentence_283

Real estate Manhattan_section_32

Real estate is a major force in Manhattan's economy, and indeed the city's, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$914.8 billion for the 2015 fiscal year. Manhattan_sentence_284

Manhattan has perennially been home to some of the nation's, as well as the world's, most valuable real estate, including the Time Warner Center, which had the highest-listed market value in the city in 2006 at US$1.1 billion, to be subsequently surpassed in October 2014 by the Waldorf Astoria New York, which became the most expensive hotel ever sold after being purchased by the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, for US$1.95 billion. Manhattan_sentence_285

When 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007, for US$510 million, about US$1,589 per square foot (US$17,104/m²), it broke the barely month-old record for an American office building of US$1,476 per square foot (US$15,887/m²) based on the sale of 660 Madison Avenue. Manhattan_sentence_286

In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States by median housing price. Manhattan_sentence_287

In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States occurred in Manhattan, at a selling price of US$238 million, for a 24,000 square feet (2,200 m) penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park. Manhattan_sentence_288

Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_289

Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation based on office space, while Lower Manhattan is the third-largest (after Chicago's Loop). Manhattan_sentence_290

Media Manhattan_section_33

Main article: Media in New York City Manhattan_sentence_291

Further information: New Yorkers in journalism Manhattan_sentence_292

News Manhattan_section_34

Manhattan is served by the major New York City daily news publications, including The New York Times, New York Daily News, and New York Post, which are all headquartered in the borough. Manhattan_sentence_293

The nation's largest newspaper by circulation, The Wall Street Journal, is also based there. Manhattan_sentence_294

Other daily newspapers include AM New York and The Villager. Manhattan_sentence_295

The New York Amsterdam News, based in Harlem, is one of the leading African American weekly newspapers in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_296

The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture. Manhattan_sentence_297

Television, radio, film Manhattan_section_35

See also: List of films set in New York City and List of television shows set in New York City Manhattan_sentence_298

The television industry developed in Manhattan and is a significant employer in the borough's economy. Manhattan_sentence_299

The four major American broadcast networks, ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox, as well as Univision, are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central. Manhattan_sentence_300

In 1971, WLIB became New York City's first black-owned radio station and began broadcasts geared toward the African-American community in 1949. Manhattan_sentence_301

WQHT, also known as Hot 97, claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_302

WNYC, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_303

WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_304

The oldest public-access television cable TV channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming. Manhattan_sentence_305

NY1, Time Warner Cable's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics. Manhattan_sentence_306

Education Manhattan_section_36

See also: Education in New York City, List of high schools in New York City, and List of colleges and universities in New York City Manhattan_sentence_307

Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Manhattan_sentence_308

Public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_309

Charter schools include Success Academy Harlem 1 through 5, Success Academy Upper West, and Public Prep. Manhattan_sentence_310

Some notable New York City public high schools are located in Manhattan, including Beacon High School, Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Eleanor Roosevelt High School, NYC Lab School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics, Hunter College High School, and High School for Math, Science and Engineering at City College. Manhattan_sentence_311

Bard High School Early College, a hybrid school created by Bard College, serves students from around the city. Manhattan_sentence_312

Many private preparatory schools are also situated in Manhattan, including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Browning School, Spence School, Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, Convent of the Sacred Heart, Hewitt School, Saint David's School, Loyola School, and Regis High School. Manhattan_sentence_313

The Upper West Side is home to the Collegiate School and Trinity School. Manhattan_sentence_314

The borough is also home to Manhattan Country School, Trevor Day School, and the United Nations International School. Manhattan_sentence_315

Based on data from the 2011–2015 American Community Survey, 59.9% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree. Manhattan_sentence_316

As of 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people. Manhattan_sentence_317

Manhattan has various colleges and universities, including Columbia University (and its affiliate Barnard College), Cooper Union, Marymount Manhattan College, New York Institute of Technology, New York University (NYU), The Juilliard School, Pace University, Berkeley College, The New School, Yeshiva University, and a campus of Fordham University. Manhattan_sentence_318

Other schools include Bank Street College of Education, Boricua College, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music, Metropolitan College of New York, Parsons School of Design, School of Visual Arts, Touro College, and Union Theological Seminary. Manhattan_sentence_319

Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them Mercy College, St. John's University, The College of New Rochelle, The King's College, and Pratt Institute. Manhattan_sentence_320

Cornell Tech is developing on Roosevelt Island. Manhattan_sentence_321

The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students. Manhattan_sentence_322

A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. Manhattan_sentence_323

CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctorate granting institution). Manhattan_sentence_324

The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College. Manhattan_sentence_325

The State University of New York is represented by the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York State College of Optometry, and Stony Brook University – Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_326

Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences. Manhattan_sentence_327

The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities, the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Weill Cornell Medical College, and New York University School of Medicine. Manhattan_sentence_328

Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country. Manhattan_sentence_329

The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, 53rd Street Library, the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_330

More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough. Manhattan_sentence_331

Culture and contemporary life Manhattan_section_37

See also: Culture of New York City Manhattan_sentence_332

Further information: Broadway theatre, LGBT culture in New York City, List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City, Met Gala, Music of New York City, and New York Fashion Week Manhattan_sentence_333

Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; regionally, residents within the New York City metropolitan area, including natives of New York City's boroughs outside Manhattan, will often describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the City". Manhattan_sentence_334

Journalist Walt Whitman characterized the streets of Manhattan as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds". Manhattan_sentence_335

Manhattan has been the scene of many important American cultural movements. Manhattan_sentence_336

In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched upon Washington Square Park to commemorate the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, which killed 146 workers on March 25, 1911. Manhattan_sentence_337

Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of women's liberation, reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements. Manhattan_sentence_338

The Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States and introduced writers Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston. Manhattan_sentence_339

Manhattan's vibrant visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the American pop art movement, which gave birth to such giants as Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein. Manhattan_sentence_340

The downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s included artist Andy Warhol and clubs like Serendipity 3 and Studio 54, where he socialized. Manhattan_sentence_341

Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_342

Plays and musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square. Manhattan_sentence_343

Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats. Manhattan_sentence_344

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. Manhattan_sentence_345

Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_346

Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive art collections in the world, both contemporary and classical art, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the Frick Collection, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Guggenheim Museum. Manhattan_sentence_347

The Upper East Side has many art galleries, and the downtown neighborhood of Chelsea is known for its more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both upcoming and established artists. Manhattan_sentence_348

Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_349

Manhattan is the center of LGBT culture in New York City. Manhattan_sentence_350

The borough is widely acclaimed as the cradle of the modern LGBTQ rights movement, with its inception at the June 1969 Stonewall Riots in Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan – widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_351

Multiple gay villages have developed, spanning the length of the borough from the Lower East Side, East Village, and Greenwich Village, through Chelsea and Hell's Kitchen, uptown to Morningside Heights. Manhattan_sentence_352

The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village; the Manhattan parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. Manhattan_sentence_353

Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest international Pride celebration in history, produced by Heritage of Pride and enhanced through a partnership with the I ❤ NY program's LGBT division, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising, with 150,000 participants and five million spectators attending in Manhattan alone. Manhattan_sentence_354

The borough has a place in several American idioms. Manhattan_sentence_355

The phrase is meant to convey an extremely short time such as an instant, sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible," referring to the rapid pace of life in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_356

The expression "melting pot" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side in Israel Zangwill's play The Melting Pot, which was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908. Manhattan_sentence_357

The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building. Manhattan_sentence_358

The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's horse racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple". Manhattan_sentence_359

Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term. Manhattan_sentence_360

Manhattan, Kansas, a city of 53,000 people, was named by New York investors after the borough and is nicknamed the "little apple". Manhattan_sentence_361

Manhattan is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. Manhattan_sentence_362

The majority of higher profile parades in New York City are held in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_363

The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. Manhattan_sentence_364

The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Manhattan_sentence_365

Other notable parades including the annual St. Manhattan_sentence_366

Patrick's Day Parade in March, the New York City Pride Parade in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Manhattan_sentence_367

Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_368

New York Fashion Week, held at various locations in Manhattan, is a high-profile semiannual event featuring models displaying the latest wardrobes created by prominent fashion designers worldwide in advance of these fashions proceeding to the retail marketplace. Manhattan_sentence_369

Sports Manhattan_section_38

Manhattan is home to the NBA's New York Knicks and the NHL's New York Rangers, both of which play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough. Manhattan_sentence_370

The Garden was also home to the WNBA's New York Liberty through the 2017 season, but that team's primary home is now the Westchester County Center in White Plains, New York. Manhattan_sentence_371

The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, and they now play at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey. Manhattan_sentence_372

Manhattan is the only borough in New York City that does not have a professional baseball franchise. Manhattan_sentence_373

The Bronx has the Yankees (American League) and Queens has the Mets (National League) of Major League Baseball. Manhattan_sentence_374

The Minor League Baseball Brooklyn Cyclones, affiliated with the Mets, play in Brooklyn, while the Staten Island Yankees, affiliated with the Yankees, play in Staten Island. Manhattan_sentence_375

However, three of the four major league baseball teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_376

The original New York Giants baseball team played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed to California with the Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season. Manhattan_sentence_377

The New York Yankees began their franchise as the Highlanders, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. Manhattan_sentence_378

The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the New York Yankees, remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium. Manhattan_sentence_379

The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964. Manhattan_sentence_380

After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing. Manhattan_sentence_381

The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. Manhattan_sentence_382

The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home. Manhattan_sentence_383

The New York Liberty of the WNBA shared the Garden with the Knicks from their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams through the 2017 season, after which the team moved nearly all of its home schedule to White Plains in Westchester County. Manhattan_sentence_384

Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its streetball style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league. Manhattan_sentence_385

Although both of New York City's football teams play today across the Hudson River in MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. Manhattan_sentence_386

The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956. Manhattan_sentence_387

The New York Jets, originally known as the Titans of New York, started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens at Shea Stadium in 1964. Manhattan_sentence_388

The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since the team's founding in the 1926–1927 season. Manhattan_sentence_389

The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the Brooklyn Americans. Manhattan_sentence_390

The New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. Manhattan_sentence_391

The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in unsatisfactory condition, however, and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. Manhattan_sentence_392

The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium, which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pelé's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club. Manhattan_sentence_393

Government Manhattan_section_39

Main article: Government of New York City Manhattan_sentence_394

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a strong mayor–council system since its revision in 1989. Manhattan_sentence_395

The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_396

The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Manhattan_sentence_397

Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. Manhattan_sentence_398

In 1989, the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision. Manhattan_sentence_399

Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan_sentence_400

Manhattan's current Borough President is Gale Brewer, elected as a Democrat in November 2013 with 82.9% of the vote. Manhattan_sentence_401

Brewer replaced Scott Stringer, who went on to become New York City Comptroller. Manhattan_sentence_402

Cyrus Vance Jr., a Democrat, has been the District Attorney of New York County since 2010. Manhattan_sentence_403

Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. Manhattan_sentence_404

It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Manhattan_sentence_405

Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. Manhattan_sentence_406

As the host of the United Nations, the borough is home to the world's largest international consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates. Manhattan_sentence_407

It is also the home of New York City Hall, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. Manhattan_sentence_408

The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1914, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world. Manhattan_sentence_409

Manhattan_table_general_4

United States presidential election results for New York County, New YorkManhattan_table_caption_4
YearManhattan_header_cell_4_0_0 Republican / WhigManhattan_header_cell_4_0_1 DemocraticManhattan_header_cell_4_0_3 Third partyManhattan_header_cell_4_0_5
No.Manhattan_header_cell_4_1_0 %Manhattan_header_cell_4_1_1 No.Manhattan_header_cell_4_1_2 %Manhattan_header_cell_4_1_3 No.Manhattan_header_cell_4_1_4 %Manhattan_header_cell_4_1_5
2020Manhattan_cell_4_2_0 85,185Manhattan_cell_4_2_1 12.26%Manhattan_cell_4_2_2 603,040Manhattan_cell_4_2_3 86.78%Manhattan_cell_4_2_4 6,679Manhattan_cell_4_2_5 0.96%Manhattan_cell_4_2_6
2016Manhattan_cell_4_3_0 64,930Manhattan_cell_4_3_1 9.71%Manhattan_cell_4_3_2 579,013Manhattan_cell_4_3_3 86.56%Manhattan_cell_4_3_4 24,997Manhattan_cell_4_3_5 3.74%Manhattan_cell_4_3_6
2012Manhattan_cell_4_4_0 89,559Manhattan_cell_4_4_1 14.92%Manhattan_cell_4_4_2 502,674Manhattan_cell_4_4_3 83.74%Manhattan_cell_4_4_4 8,058Manhattan_cell_4_4_5 1.34%Manhattan_cell_4_4_6
2008Manhattan_cell_4_5_0 89,949Manhattan_cell_4_5_1 13.47%Manhattan_cell_4_5_2 572,370Manhattan_cell_4_5_3 85.70%Manhattan_cell_4_5_4 5,566Manhattan_cell_4_5_5 0.83%Manhattan_cell_4_5_6
2004Manhattan_cell_4_6_0 107,405Manhattan_cell_4_6_1 16.73%Manhattan_cell_4_6_2 526,765Manhattan_cell_4_6_3 82.06%Manhattan_cell_4_6_4 7,781Manhattan_cell_4_6_5 1.21%Manhattan_cell_4_6_6
2000Manhattan_cell_4_7_0 82,113Manhattan_cell_4_7_1 14.38%Manhattan_cell_4_7_2 454,523Manhattan_cell_4_7_3 79.60%Manhattan_cell_4_7_4 34,370Manhattan_cell_4_7_5 6.02%Manhattan_cell_4_7_6
1996Manhattan_cell_4_8_0 67,839Manhattan_cell_4_8_1 13.76%Manhattan_cell_4_8_2 394,131Manhattan_cell_4_8_3 79.96%Manhattan_cell_4_8_4 30,929Manhattan_cell_4_8_5 6.27%Manhattan_cell_4_8_6
1992Manhattan_cell_4_9_0 84,501Manhattan_cell_4_9_1 15.88%Manhattan_cell_4_9_2 416,142Manhattan_cell_4_9_3 78.20%Manhattan_cell_4_9_4 31,475Manhattan_cell_4_9_5 5.92%Manhattan_cell_4_9_6
1988Manhattan_cell_4_10_0 115,927Manhattan_cell_4_10_1 22.89%Manhattan_cell_4_10_2 385,675Manhattan_cell_4_10_3 76.14%Manhattan_cell_4_10_4 4,949Manhattan_cell_4_10_5 0.98%Manhattan_cell_4_10_6
1984Manhattan_cell_4_11_0 144,281Manhattan_cell_4_11_1 27.39%Manhattan_cell_4_11_2 379,521Manhattan_cell_4_11_3 72.06%Manhattan_cell_4_11_4 2,869Manhattan_cell_4_11_5 0.54%Manhattan_cell_4_11_6
1980Manhattan_cell_4_12_0 115,911Manhattan_cell_4_12_1 26.23%Manhattan_cell_4_12_2 275,742Manhattan_cell_4_12_3 62.40%Manhattan_cell_4_12_4 50,245Manhattan_cell_4_12_5 11.37%Manhattan_cell_4_12_6
1976Manhattan_cell_4_13_0 117,702Manhattan_cell_4_13_1 25.54%Manhattan_cell_4_13_2 337,438Manhattan_cell_4_13_3 73.22%Manhattan_cell_4_13_4 5,698Manhattan_cell_4_13_5 1.24%Manhattan_cell_4_13_6
1972Manhattan_cell_4_14_0 178,515Manhattan_cell_4_14_1 33.38%Manhattan_cell_4_14_2 354,326Manhattan_cell_4_14_3 66.25%Manhattan_cell_4_14_4 2,022Manhattan_cell_4_14_5 0.38%Manhattan_cell_4_14_6
1968Manhattan_cell_4_15_0 135,458Manhattan_cell_4_15_1 25.59%Manhattan_cell_4_15_2 370,806Manhattan_cell_4_15_3 70.04%Manhattan_cell_4_15_4 23,128Manhattan_cell_4_15_5 4.37%Manhattan_cell_4_15_6
1964Manhattan_cell_4_16_0 120,125Manhattan_cell_4_16_1 19.20%Manhattan_cell_4_16_2 503,848Manhattan_cell_4_16_3 80.52%Manhattan_cell_4_16_4 1,746Manhattan_cell_4_16_5 0.28%Manhattan_cell_4_16_6
1960Manhattan_cell_4_17_0 217,271Manhattan_cell_4_17_1 34.19%Manhattan_cell_4_17_2 414,902Manhattan_cell_4_17_3 65.28%Manhattan_cell_4_17_4 3,394Manhattan_cell_4_17_5 0.53%Manhattan_cell_4_17_6
1956Manhattan_cell_4_18_0 300,004Manhattan_cell_4_18_1 44.26%Manhattan_cell_4_18_2 377,856Manhattan_cell_4_18_3 55.74%Manhattan_cell_4_18_4 0Manhattan_cell_4_18_5 0.00%Manhattan_cell_4_18_6
1952Manhattan_cell_4_19_0 300,284Manhattan_cell_4_19_1 39.30%Manhattan_cell_4_19_2 446,727Manhattan_cell_4_19_3 58.47%Manhattan_cell_4_19_4 16,974Manhattan_cell_4_19_5 2.22%Manhattan_cell_4_19_6
1948Manhattan_cell_4_20_0 241,752Manhattan_cell_4_20_1 32.75%Manhattan_cell_4_20_2 380,310Manhattan_cell_4_20_3 51.51%Manhattan_cell_4_20_4 116,208Manhattan_cell_4_20_5 15.74%Manhattan_cell_4_20_6
1944Manhattan_cell_4_21_0 258,650Manhattan_cell_4_21_1 33.47%Manhattan_cell_4_21_2 509,263Manhattan_cell_4_21_3 65.90%Manhattan_cell_4_21_4 4,864Manhattan_cell_4_21_5 0.63%Manhattan_cell_4_21_6
1940Manhattan_cell_4_22_0 292,480Manhattan_cell_4_22_1 37.59%Manhattan_cell_4_22_2 478,153Manhattan_cell_4_22_3 61.45%Manhattan_cell_4_22_4 7,466Manhattan_cell_4_22_5 0.96%Manhattan_cell_4_22_6
1936Manhattan_cell_4_23_0 174,299Manhattan_cell_4_23_1 24.51%Manhattan_cell_4_23_2 517,134Manhattan_cell_4_23_3 72.71%Manhattan_cell_4_23_4 19,820Manhattan_cell_4_23_5 2.79%Manhattan_cell_4_23_6
1932Manhattan_cell_4_24_0 157,014Manhattan_cell_4_24_1 27.78%Manhattan_cell_4_24_2 378,077Manhattan_cell_4_24_3 66.89%Manhattan_cell_4_24_4 30,114Manhattan_cell_4_24_5 5.33%Manhattan_cell_4_24_6
1928Manhattan_cell_4_25_0 186,396Manhattan_cell_4_25_1 35.74%Manhattan_cell_4_25_2 317,227Manhattan_cell_4_25_3 60.82%Manhattan_cell_4_25_4 17,935Manhattan_cell_4_25_5 3.44%Manhattan_cell_4_25_6
1924Manhattan_cell_4_26_0 190,871Manhattan_cell_4_26_1 41.20%Manhattan_cell_4_26_2 183,249Manhattan_cell_4_26_3 39.55%Manhattan_cell_4_26_4 89,206Manhattan_cell_4_26_5 19.25%Manhattan_cell_4_26_6
1920Manhattan_cell_4_27_0 275,013Manhattan_cell_4_27_1 59.22%Manhattan_cell_4_27_2 135,249Manhattan_cell_4_27_3 29.12%Manhattan_cell_4_27_4 54,158Manhattan_cell_4_27_5 11.66%Manhattan_cell_4_27_6
1916Manhattan_cell_4_28_0 113,254Manhattan_cell_4_28_1 42.65%Manhattan_cell_4_28_2 139,547Manhattan_cell_4_28_3 52.55%Manhattan_cell_4_28_4 12,759Manhattan_cell_4_28_5 4.80%Manhattan_cell_4_28_6
1912Manhattan_cell_4_29_0 63,107Manhattan_cell_4_29_1 18.15%Manhattan_cell_4_29_2 166,157Manhattan_cell_4_29_3 47.79%Manhattan_cell_4_29_4 118,391Manhattan_cell_4_29_5 34.05%Manhattan_cell_4_29_6
1908Manhattan_cell_4_30_0 154,958Manhattan_cell_4_30_1 44.71%Manhattan_cell_4_30_2 160,261Manhattan_cell_4_30_3 46.24%Manhattan_cell_4_30_4 31,393Manhattan_cell_4_30_5 9.06%Manhattan_cell_4_30_6
1904Manhattan_cell_4_31_0 155,003Manhattan_cell_4_31_1 42.11%Manhattan_cell_4_31_2 189,712Manhattan_cell_4_31_3 51.54%Manhattan_cell_4_31_4 23,357Manhattan_cell_4_31_5 6.35%Manhattan_cell_4_31_6
1900Manhattan_cell_4_32_0 153,001Manhattan_cell_4_32_1 44.16%Manhattan_cell_4_32_2 181,786Manhattan_cell_4_32_3 52.47%Manhattan_cell_4_32_4 11,700Manhattan_cell_4_32_5 3.38%Manhattan_cell_4_32_6
1896Manhattan_cell_4_33_0 156,359Manhattan_cell_4_33_1 50.73%Manhattan_cell_4_33_2 135,624Manhattan_cell_4_33_3 44.00%Manhattan_cell_4_33_4 16,249Manhattan_cell_4_33_5 5.27%Manhattan_cell_4_33_6
1892Manhattan_cell_4_34_0 98,967Manhattan_cell_4_34_1 34.73%Manhattan_cell_4_34_2 175,267Manhattan_cell_4_34_3 61.50%Manhattan_cell_4_34_4 10,750Manhattan_cell_4_34_5 3.77%Manhattan_cell_4_34_6
1888Manhattan_cell_4_35_0 106,922Manhattan_cell_4_35_1 39.20%Manhattan_cell_4_35_2 162,735Manhattan_cell_4_35_3 59.67%Manhattan_cell_4_35_4 3,076Manhattan_cell_4_35_5 1.13%Manhattan_cell_4_35_6
1884Manhattan_cell_4_36_0 90,095Manhattan_cell_4_36_1 39.54%Manhattan_cell_4_36_2 133,222Manhattan_cell_4_36_3 58.47%Manhattan_cell_4_36_4 4,530Manhattan_cell_4_36_5 1.99%Manhattan_cell_4_36_6
1844Manhattan_cell_4_37_0 26,385Manhattan_cell_4_37_1 48.15%Manhattan_cell_4_37_2 28,296Manhattan_cell_4_37_3 51.64%Manhattan_cell_4_37_4 117Manhattan_cell_4_37_5 0.21%Manhattan_cell_4_37_6

Politics Manhattan_section_40

See also: Community boards of Manhattan Manhattan_sentence_410

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Manhattan_sentence_411

Registered Republicans are a minority in the borough, constituting 9.88% of the electorate as of April 2016. Manhattan_sentence_412

Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the Upper East Side and the Financial District as of 2016. Manhattan_sentence_413

Democrats accounted for 68.41% of those registered to vote, while 17.94% of voters were unaffiliated. Manhattan_sentence_414

No Republican has won the presidential election in Manhattan since 1924, when Calvin Coolidge won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat John W. Davis, 41.20%–39.55%. Manhattan_sentence_415

Warren G. Harding was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59.22% of the 1920 vote. Manhattan_sentence_416

In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 82.1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican George W. Bush received 16.7%. Manhattan_sentence_417

The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions. Manhattan_sentence_418

The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the United States presidential election for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election. Manhattan_sentence_419

Representatives in the U.S. Congress Manhattan_section_41

In 2018, four Democrats represented Manhattan in the United States House of Representatives. Manhattan_sentence_420

Manhattan_unordered_list_4

Federal offices Manhattan_section_42

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_421

The James Farley Post Office at 421 Eighth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, between 31st Street and 33rd Street, is New York City's main post office. Manhattan_sentence_422

Both the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit are located in Lower Manhattan's Foley Square, and the U.S. Manhattan_sentence_423 Attorney and other federal offices and agencies maintain locations in that area. Manhattan_sentence_424

Crime and public safety Manhattan_section_43

Main article: Crime in New York City Manhattan_sentence_425

Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. Manhattan_sentence_426

After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of New York City Hall. Manhattan_sentence_427

By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and brothels, and was known as a dangerous place to go. Manhattan_sentence_428

In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen. Manhattan_sentence_429

The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union speech in 1860. Manhattan_sentence_430

The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities. Manhattan_sentence_431

As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including Al Capone, who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang. Manhattan_sentence_432

The Mafia (also known as Cosa Nostra) first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. Manhattan_sentence_433

Lucky Luciano established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period. Manhattan_sentence_434

From 1920–1933, Prohibition helped create a thriving black market in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize. Manhattan_sentence_435

As in the whole of New York City, Manhattan experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s. Manhattan_sentence_436

Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. Manhattan_sentence_437

A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 88% to 62 in 2008 and has continued to decline since then. Manhattan_sentence_438

Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 93%. Manhattan_sentence_439

In the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990, and year-to-date statistics through May 2009 show continuing declines. Manhattan_sentence_440

Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_441

Housing Manhattan_section_44

During Manhattan's early history, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. Manhattan_sentence_442

In 1776, shortly after the Continental Army evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses. Manhattan_sentence_443

The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. Manhattan_sentence_444

Tenements were usually five stories high, constructed on the then-typical 25 by 100 feet (7.6 by 30.5 m) lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants. Manhattan_sentence_445

By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough. Manhattan_sentence_446

Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. Manhattan_sentence_447

There were 852,575 housing units in 2013 at an average density of 37,345 per square mile (14,419/km²). Manhattan_sentence_448

As of 2003, only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx. Manhattan_sentence_449

Although the city of New York has the highest average cost for rent in the United States, it simultaneously hosts a higher average of income per capita. Manhattan_sentence_450

Because of this, rent is a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities. Manhattan_sentence_451

Manhattan's real estate market for luxury housing continues to be among the most expensive in the world, and Manhattan residential property continues to have the highest sale price per square foot in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_452

Manhattan's apartments cost $$1,773 per square foot ($19,080/m), compared to San Francisco housing at $$1,185 per square foot ($12,760/m), Boston housing at $751 per square foot ($8,080/m), and Los Angeles housing at $$451 per square foot ($4,850/m). Manhattan_sentence_453

Infrastructure Manhattan_section_45

Transportation Manhattan_section_46

See also: Transportation in New York City Manhattan_sentence_454

Public transportation Manhattan_section_47

Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of public transportation and lack of private car ownership. Manhattan_sentence_455

While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs, with only 5% using public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport to get to work, while only 18% drove. Manhattan_sentence_456

According to the 2000 United States Census, 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car. Manhattan_sentence_457

In 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed a congestion pricing system to regulate entering Manhattan south of 60th Street. Manhattan_sentence_458

The state legislature rejected the proposal in June 2008. Manhattan_sentence_459

The New York City Subway, the largest subway system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island. Manhattan_sentence_460

There are 151 subway stations in Manhattan, out of the 472 stations. Manhattan_sentence_461

A second subway, the PATH system, connects six stations in Manhattan to northern New Jersey. Manhattan_sentence_462

Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains. Manhattan_sentence_463

There are 7-day and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses). Manhattan_sentence_464

The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, having been replaced by the SmartLink. Manhattan_sentence_465

The MTA is testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard. Manhattan_sentence_466

Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island; the Metro-North Railroad, which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut; and NJ Transit trains, which run to various points in New Jersey. Manhattan_sentence_467

The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal, is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2022; this project will create a new train tunnel beneath the East River, connecting the East Side of Manhattan with Long Island City, Queens. Manhattan_sentence_468

Four multi-billion-dollar projects were completed in the mid-2010s: the $1.4 billion Fulton Center in November 2014, the $2.4 billion 7 Subway Extension in September 2015, the $4 billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub in March 2016, and Phase 1 of the $4.5 billion Second Avenue Subway in January 2017. Manhattan_sentence_469

MTA New York City Transit offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand New York City Bus. Manhattan_sentence_470

An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_471

The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system. Manhattan_sentence_472

The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978. Manhattan_sentence_473

(The other system in North America is the Portland Aerial Tram.) Manhattan_sentence_474

The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Manhattan_sentence_475

Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips. Manhattan_sentence_476

The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated. Manhattan_sentence_477

In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to traditionally underserved communities in the city. Manhattan_sentence_478

The first routes of NYC Ferry opened in 2017. Manhattan_sentence_479

All of the system's routes have termini in Manhattan, and the Lower East Side and Soundview routes also have intermediate stops on the East River. Manhattan_sentence_480

The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Penn Station and Grand Central Terminal, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. Manhattan_sentence_481

They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. Manhattan_sentence_482

About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs. Manhattan_sentence_483

Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York and New England; cross-Canadian border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the Southern and Midwestern United States. Manhattan_sentence_484

Major highways Manhattan_section_48

Manhattan_unordered_list_5

Taxis Manhattan_section_49

Main article: Taxicabs of New York City Manhattan_sentence_485

New York's iconic yellow taxicabs, which number 13,087 city-wide and must have the requisite medallion authorizing the pick up of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough. Manhattan_sentence_486

Various private vehicle for hire companies provide significant competition for taxicab drivers in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_487

Bicycles Manhattan_section_50

Main article: Cycling in New York City Manhattan_sentence_488

Manhattan also has tens of thousands of bicycle commuters. Manhattan_sentence_489

Streets and roads Manhattan_section_51

See also: List of numbered streets in Manhattan and List of eponymous streets in New York City Manhattan_sentence_490

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue on the west side. Manhattan_sentence_491

There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village. Manhattan_sentence_492

The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are generally 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. Manhattan_sentence_493

With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. Manhattan_sentence_494

The typical block in Manhattan is 250 by 600 feet (76 by 183 m). Manhattan_sentence_495

According to the original Commissioner's Plan, there were 155 numbered crosstown streets, but later the grid was extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is 220th Street. Manhattan_sentence_496

Moreover, the numbering system continues even in The Bronx, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that the grid plan is not as regular in that borough, whose last numbered street is 263rd Street. Manhattan_sentence_497

Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets, which became some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues. Manhattan_sentence_498

Broadway is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. Manhattan_sentence_499

In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square (Park Avenue South/Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street). Manhattan_sentence_500

"Crosstown traffic" refers primarily to vehicular traffic between Manhattan's East Side and West Side. Manhattan_sentence_501

The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy congestion on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, absence of express roads other than the Trans-Manhattan Expressway at the far north end of Manhattan Island; and restricted to very limited crosstown automobile travel within Central Park. Manhattan_sentence_502

Proposals in the mid-1900s to build express roads through the city's densest neighborhoods, namely the Mid-Manhattan Expressway and Lower Manhattan Expressway, did not go forward. Manhattan_sentence_503

Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. Manhattan_sentence_504

In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present, significantly shaping traffic patterns in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_505

Another consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge). Manhattan_sentence_506

On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level. Manhattan_sentence_507

A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December. Manhattan_sentence_508

The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive, both designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses, comprise a single, long limited-access parkway skirting the east side of Manhattan along the East River and Harlem River south of Dyckman Street. Manhattan_sentence_509

The Henry Hudson Parkway is the corresponding parkway on the West Side north of 57th Street. Manhattan_sentence_510

River crossings Manhattan_section_52

Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, of various sizes. Manhattan_sentence_511

Manhattan has fixed highway connections with New Jersey to its west by way of the George Washington Bridge, the Holland Tunnel, and the Lincoln Tunnel, and to three of the four other New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast, and Brooklyn and Queens (both on Long Island) to the east and south. Manhattan_sentence_512

Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough, Staten Island, is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. Manhattan_sentence_513

The ferry terminal is located near Battery Park at Manhattan's southern tip. Manhattan_sentence_514

It is also possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge. Manhattan_sentence_515

The George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connects Washington Heights, in Upper Manhattan, to Bergen County, in New Jersey. Manhattan_sentence_516

There are numerous bridges to the Bronx across the Harlem River, and five (listed north to south)—the Triborough (known officially as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), Ed Koch Queensboro (also known as the 59th Street Bridge), Williamsburg, Manhattan, and Brooklyn Bridges—that cross the East River to connect Manhattan to Long Island. Manhattan_sentence_517

Several tunnels also link Manhattan Island to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey. Manhattan_sentence_518

The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. Manhattan_sentence_519

The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sail through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. Manhattan_sentence_520

The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel. Manhattan_sentence_521

The Queens–Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940; President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. Manhattan_sentence_522

The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn. Manhattan_sentence_523

Several ferry services operate between New Jersey and Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_524

These ferries mainly serve midtown (at W. 39th St.), Battery Park City (WFC at Brookfield Place), and Wall Street (Pier 11). Manhattan_sentence_525

Heliports Manhattan_section_53

Manhattan has three public heliports: the East 34th Street Heliport (also known as the Atlantic Metroport) at East 34th Street, owned by New York City and run by the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC); the Port Authority Downtown Manhattan/Wall Street Heliport, owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and run by the NYCEDC; and the West 30th Street Heliport, a privately owned heliport that is owned by the Hudson River Park Trust. Manhattan_sentence_526

US Helicopter offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, before going out of business in 2009. Manhattan_sentence_527

Utilities Manhattan_section_54

Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_528

Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. Manhattan_sentence_529

The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station. Manhattan_sentence_530

Con Edison operates the world's largest district steam system, which consists of 105 miles (169 km) of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning by some 1,800 Manhattan customers. Manhattan_sentence_531

Cable service is provided by Time Warner Cable and telephone service is provided by Verizon Communications, although AT&T is available as well. Manhattan_sentence_532

Manhattan witnessed the doubling of the natural gas supply delivered to the borough when a new gas pipeline opened on November 1, 2013. Manhattan_sentence_533

The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal. Manhattan_sentence_534

The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. Manhattan_sentence_535

A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Manhattan_sentence_536

Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung areas. Manhattan_sentence_537

New York City has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. Manhattan_sentence_538

It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan. Manhattan_sentence_539

Health care Manhattan_section_55

Main article: List of hospitals in New York City § Manhattan Manhattan_sentence_540

There are many hospitals in Manhattan, including two of the 25 largest in the United States (as of 2017): Manhattan_sentence_541

Manhattan_unordered_list_6

Water purity and availability Manhattan_section_56

Main articles: Food and water in New York City and New York City water supply system Manhattan_sentence_542

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. Manhattan_sentence_543

As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. Manhattan_sentence_544

The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. Manhattan_sentence_545

Manhattan, surrounded by two brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water. Manhattan_sentence_546

To satisfy its growing population, the City of New York acquired land in adjacent Westchester County and constructed the old Croton Aqueduct system there, which went into service in 1842 and was superseded by the new Croton Aqueduct, which opened in 1890. Manhattan_sentence_547

This, however, was interrupted in 2008 for the ongoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant that can supply an estimated 290 million gallons daily when completed, representing an almost 20% addition to the city's availability of water, with this addition going to Manhattan and the Bronx. Manhattan_sentence_548

Water comes to Manhattan through the tunnels 1 and 2, completed in 1917 and 1935, and in future through Tunnel No. Manhattan_sentence_549 3, begun in 1970. Manhattan_sentence_550

Address algorithm Manhattan_section_57

Main article: Manhattan address algorithm Manhattan_sentence_551

The address algorithm of Manhattan refers to the formulas used to estimate the closest east–west cross street for building numbers on north–south avenues. Manhattan_sentence_552

It is commonly noted in telephone directories, New York City travel guides, and MTA Manhattan bus maps. Manhattan_sentence_553

See also Manhattan_section_58

Manhattan_unordered_list_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan.