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This article is about the Canadian province. Manitoba_sentence_0

For other uses, see Manitoba (disambiguation). Manitoba_sentence_1



Manitou-wapow  (Cree) Manidoobaa  (Ojibwe)Manitoba_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryManitoba_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaManitoba_cell_0_1_1
ConfederationManitoba_header_cell_0_2_0 15 July 1870 (5th)Manitoba_cell_0_2_1
CapitalManitoba_header_cell_0_3_0 WinnipegManitoba_cell_0_3_1
Largest cityManitoba_header_cell_0_4_0 WinnipegManitoba_cell_0_4_1
Largest metroManitoba_header_cell_0_5_0 Winnipeg Capital RegionManitoba_cell_0_5_1
Lieutenant GovernorManitoba_header_cell_0_7_0 Janice FilmonManitoba_cell_0_7_1
PremierManitoba_header_cell_0_8_0 Brian Pallister (Progressive Conservative)Manitoba_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureManitoba_header_cell_0_9_0 Legislative Assembly of ManitobaManitoba_cell_0_9_1
Federal representationManitoba_header_cell_0_10_0 Parliament of CanadaManitoba_cell_0_10_1
House seatsManitoba_header_cell_0_11_0 14 of 338 (4.1%)Manitoba_cell_0_11_1
Senate seatsManitoba_header_cell_0_12_0 6 of 105 (5.7%)Manitoba_cell_0_12_1
TotalManitoba_header_cell_0_14_0 649,950 km (250,950 sq mi)Manitoba_cell_0_14_1
LandManitoba_header_cell_0_15_0 548,360 km (211,720 sq mi)Manitoba_cell_0_15_1
WaterManitoba_header_cell_0_16_0 101,593 km (39,225 sq mi)  15.6%Manitoba_cell_0_16_1
Area rankManitoba_header_cell_0_17_0 Ranked 8thManitoba_cell_0_17_1
Manitoba_header_cell_0_18_0 6.5% of CanadaManitoba_cell_0_18_1
TotalManitoba_header_cell_0_20_0 1,278,365Manitoba_cell_0_20_1
Estimate (2020 Q3)Manitoba_header_cell_0_21_0 1,379,263Manitoba_cell_0_21_1
RankManitoba_header_cell_0_22_0 Ranked 5thManitoba_cell_0_22_1
DensityManitoba_header_cell_0_23_0 2.33/km (6.0/sq mi)Manitoba_cell_0_23_1
Demonym(s)Manitoba_header_cell_0_24_0 ManitobanManitoba_cell_0_24_1
Official languagesManitoba_header_cell_0_25_0 EnglishManitoba_cell_0_25_1
RankManitoba_header_cell_0_27_0 6thManitoba_cell_0_27_1
Total (2015)Manitoba_header_cell_0_28_0 C$65.862 billionManitoba_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaManitoba_header_cell_0_29_0 C$50,820 (9th)Manitoba_cell_0_29_1
Time zoneManitoba_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC-06:00 (Central)Manitoba_cell_0_30_1
Summer (DST)Manitoba_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC-05:00 (Central DST)Manitoba_cell_0_31_1

Manitoba (/ˌmænɪˈtoʊbə/ (listen)) is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. Manitoba_sentence_2

It is one of the three prairie provinces (with Alberta and Saskatchewan) and is Canada's fifth-most populous province, with an estimated 1.377 million people. Manitoba_sentence_3

Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres (250,900 sq mi) with a widely varied landscape, from arctic tundra and the Hudson Bay coastline in the north to dense boreal forest, lakes and prairie farmland in the central and southern regions. Manitoba_sentence_4

Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, and Northwest Territories to the northwest, Hudson Bay to the northeast, and the U.S. Manitoba_sentence_5 states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. Manitoba_sentence_6

Indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Manitoba for thousands of years. Manitoba_sentence_7

In the early 17th century, fur traders began arriving in the area and establishing settlements along the Nelson, Assiniboine, and Red rivers, and on the Hudson Bay shoreline. Manitoba_sentence_8

The Kingdom of England secured control of the region in 1673, and subsequently created a territory named Rupert's Land which was placed under the administration of the Hudson's Bay Company. Manitoba_sentence_9

Rupert's Land, which covered the entirety of present-day Manitoba, grew and evolved from 1673 until 1869 with significant settlements of Indigenous and Métis people in the Red River Colony. Manitoba_sentence_10

In 1869, negotiations with the Government of Canada for the creation of the province of Manitoba commenced. Manitoba_sentence_11

During the negotiations, several factors led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion. Manitoba_sentence_12

The resolution of the rebellion and further negotiations led to Manitoba becoming the fifth province to join Canadian Confederation, when the Parliament of Canada passed the Manitoba Act on July 15, 1870. Manitoba_sentence_13

Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Manitoba_sentence_14

Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Steinbach, Thompson, Portage la Prairie, and Winkler. Manitoba_sentence_15

Etymology Manitoba_section_0

The name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Cree, Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. Manitoba_sentence_16

The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwe manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_17

It may also be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie", which is rendered in the language as minnetoba. Manitoba_sentence_18

The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies. Manitoba_sentence_19

Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Manitoba_sentence_20

Métis leader Louis Riel also chose the name, and it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba_sentence_21

Geography Manitoba_section_1

Main article: Geography of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_22

See also: List of provincial parks in Manitoba, List of protected areas of Manitoba, and List of lakes of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_23

Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territory of Nunavut to the north, and the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. Manitoba_sentence_24

The province possibly meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba_sentence_25

Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, and is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline. Manitoba_sentence_26

The Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Manitoba_sentence_27

Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Manitoba_sentence_28

Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba_sentence_29

Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land. Manitoba_sentence_30

It was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade. Manitoba_sentence_31

Hydrography and terrain Manitoba_section_2

The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering approximately 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres (39,225 sq mi) of its surface area. Manitoba_sentence_32

Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Manitoba_sentence_33

29,000 square kilometres of traditional First Nations lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side were officially designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site known as Pimachiowin Aki in 2018. Manitoba_sentence_34

Manitoba is at the center of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and then north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. Manitoba_sentence_35

This basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, and east into Ontario. Manitoba_sentence_36

Major watercourses include the Red, Assiniboine, Nelson, Winnipeg, Hayes, Whiteshell and Churchill rivers. Manitoba_sentence_37

Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz. Manitoba_sentence_38

This region, particularly the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile; receding glaciers left hilly and rocky areas throughout the province. Manitoba_sentence_39

Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres (2,730 ft) above sea level, and the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level. Manitoba_sentence_40

Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, and the Canadian Shield are also upland regions. Manitoba_sentence_41

Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell, Atikaki, and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Manitoba_sentence_42

Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region (near The Pas). Manitoba_sentence_43

The most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry (34.6%), followed by assorted grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%). Manitoba_sentence_44

Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_45

Climate Manitoba_section_3

Main article: Climate of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_46

Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Manitoba_sentence_47

Temperatures and precipitation generally decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba_sentence_48

Manitoba is far from the moderating influences of mountain ranges or large bodies of water. Manitoba_sentence_49

Because of the generally flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. Manitoba_sentence_50

In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico. Manitoba_sentence_51

Temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) numerous times each summer, and the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Manitoba_sentence_52

Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex ever in Canada in 2007, with 53.0. Manitoba_sentence_53

According to Environment Canada, Manitoba ranked first for clearest skies year round, and ranked second for clearest skies in the summer and for the sunniest province in the winter and spring. Manitoba_sentence_54

Southern Manitoba (including the city of Winnipeg), falls into the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb). Manitoba_sentence_55

This area is cold and windy in the winter and often has blizzards because of the open landscape. Manitoba_sentence_56

Summers are warm with a moderate length. Manitoba_sentence_57

This region is the most humid area in the prairie provinces, with moderate precipitation. Manitoba_sentence_58

Southwestern Manitoba, though under the same climate classification as the rest of Southern Manitoba, is closer to the semi-arid interior of Palliser's Triangle. Manitoba_sentence_59

The area is drier and more prone to droughts than other parts of southern Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_60

This area is cold and windy in the winter and has frequent blizzards due to the openness of the Canadian Prairie landscape. Manitoba_sentence_61

Summers are generally warm to hot, with low to moderate humidity. Manitoba_sentence_62

Southern parts of the province just north of Tornado Alley, experience tornadoes, with 16 confirmed touchdowns in 2016. Manitoba_sentence_63

In 2007, on 22 and 23 June, numerous tornadoes touched down, the largest an F5 tornado that devastated parts of Elie (the strongest recorded tornado in Canada). Manitoba_sentence_64

The province's northern sections (including the city of Thompson) fall in the subarctic climate zone (Köppen climate classification Dfc). Manitoba_sentence_65

This region features long and extremely cold winters and brief, warm summers with little precipitation. Manitoba_sentence_66

Overnight temperatures as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) occur on several days each winter. Manitoba_sentence_67


CommunityManitoba_header_cell_1_0_0 RegionManitoba_header_cell_1_0_1 July daily


January daily





hardiness zoneManitoba_header_cell_1_0_5

MordenManitoba_cell_1_1_0 Pembina ValleyManitoba_cell_1_1_1 26 °C (79 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_1_2 −10 °C (14 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_1_3 541 mm (21 in)Manitoba_cell_1_1_4 3AManitoba_cell_1_1_5
WinnipegManitoba_cell_1_2_0 WinnipegManitoba_cell_1_2_1 26 °C (79 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_2_2 −11 °C (12 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_2_3 521 mm (21 in)Manitoba_cell_1_2_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_2_5
PiersonManitoba_cell_1_3_0 Westman RegionManitoba_cell_1_3_1 27 °C (81 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_3_2 −9 °C (16 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_3_3 457 mm (18 in)Manitoba_cell_1_3_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_3_5
DauphinManitoba_cell_1_4_0 ParklandManitoba_cell_1_4_1 25 °C (77 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_4_2 −10 °C (14 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_4_3 482 mm (19 in)Manitoba_cell_1_4_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_4_5
SteinbachManitoba_cell_1_5_0 EastmanManitoba_cell_1_5_1 25 °C (77 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_5_2 −11 °C (12 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_5_3 581 mm (23 in)Manitoba_cell_1_5_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_5_5
Portage la PrairieManitoba_cell_1_6_0 Central PlainsManitoba_cell_1_6_1 26 °C (79 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_6_2 −9 °C (16 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_6_3 532 mm (21 in)Manitoba_cell_1_6_4 3AManitoba_cell_1_6_5
BrandonManitoba_cell_1_7_0 WestmanManitoba_cell_1_7_1 25 °C (77 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_7_2 −11 °C (12 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_7_3 474 mm (19 in)Manitoba_cell_1_7_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_7_5
The PasManitoba_cell_1_8_0 NorthernManitoba_cell_1_8_1 24 °C (75 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_8_2 −14 °C (7 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_8_3 450 mm (18 in)Manitoba_cell_1_8_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_8_5
ThompsonManitoba_cell_1_9_0 NorthernManitoba_cell_1_9_1 23 °C (73 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_9_2 −18 °C (0 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_9_3 474 mm (19 in)Manitoba_cell_1_9_4 2BManitoba_cell_1_9_5
ChurchillManitoba_cell_1_10_0 NorthernManitoba_cell_1_10_1 18 °C (64 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_10_2 −22 °C (−8 °F)Manitoba_cell_1_10_3 453 mm (18 in)Manitoba_cell_1_10_4 0AManitoba_cell_1_10_5

Flora and fauna Manitoba_section_4

Manitoba natural communities may be grouped within five ecozones: boreal plains, prairie, taiga shield, boreal shield and Hudson plains. Manitoba_sentence_68

Three of these—taiga shield, boreal shield and Hudson plain—contain part of the Boreal forest of Canada which covers the province's eastern, southeastern, and northern reaches. Manitoba_sentence_69

Forests make up about 263,000 square kilometres (102,000 sq mi), or 48 percent, of the province's land area. Manitoba_sentence_70

The forests consist of pines (Jack Pine, Red Pine, Eastern White Pine), spruces (White Spruce, Black Spruce), Balsam Fir, Tamarack (larch), poplars (Trembling Aspen, Balsam Poplar), birches (White Birch, Swamp Birch) and small pockets of Eastern White Cedar. Manitoba_sentence_71

Two sections of the province are not dominated by forest. Manitoba_sentence_72

The province's northeast corner bordering Hudson Bay is above the treeline and is considered tundra. Manitoba_sentence_73

The tallgrass prairie once dominated the south central and southeastern parts including the Red River Valley. Manitoba_sentence_74

Mixed grass prairie is found in the southwestern region. Manitoba_sentence_75

Agriculture has replaced much of the natural prairie but prairie still can be found in parks and protected areas; some are notable for the presence of the endangered western prairie fringed orchid,. Manitoba_sentence_76

Manitoba is especially noted for its northern polar bear population; Churchill is commonly referred to as the "Polar Bear Capital". Manitoba_sentence_77

Other large animals, including moose, white-tailed deer, black bears, cougars, lynx, and wolves, are common throughout the province, especially in the provincial and national parks. Manitoba_sentence_78

There is a large population of red sided garter snakes near Narcisse; the dens there are home to the world's largest concentration of snakes. Manitoba_sentence_79

Manitoba's bird diversity is enhanced by its position on two major migration routes, with 392 confirmed identified species; 287 of these nesting within the province. Manitoba_sentence_80

These include the great grey owl, the province's official bird, and the endangered peregrine falcon. Manitoba_sentence_81

Manitoba's lakes host 18 species of game fish, particularly species of trout, pike, and goldeye, as well as many smaller fish. Manitoba_sentence_82

History Manitoba_section_5

Main article: History of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_83

First Nations Homeland and European settlement Manitoba_section_6

Modern-day Manitoba was inhabited by the First Nations people shortly after the last ice age glaciers retreated in the southwest about 10,000 years ago; the first exposed land was the Turtle Mountain area. Manitoba_sentence_84

The Ojibwe, Cree, Dene, Sioux, Mandan, and Assiniboine peoples founded settlements, and other tribes entered the area to trade. Manitoba_sentence_85

In Northern Manitoba, quartz was mined to make arrowheads. Manitoba_sentence_86

The first farming in Manitoba was along the Red River, where corn and other seed crops were planted before contact with Europeans. Manitoba_sentence_87

In 1611, Henry Hudson was one of the first Europeans to sail into what is now known as Hudson Bay, where he was abandoned by his crew. Manitoba_sentence_88

The first European to reach present-day central and southern Manitoba was Sir Thomas Button, who travelled upstream along the Nelson River to Lake Winnipeg in 1612 in an unsuccessful attempt to find and rescue Hudson. Manitoba_sentence_89

When the British ship Nonsuch sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668–1669, she became the first trading vessel to reach the area; that voyage led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company, to which the British government gave absolute control of the entire Hudson Bay watershed. Manitoba_sentence_90

This watershed was named Rupert's Land, after Prince Rupert, who helped to subsidize the Hudson's Bay Company. Manitoba_sentence_91

York Factory was founded in 1684 after the original fort of the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Nelson (built in 1682), was destroyed by rival French traders. Manitoba_sentence_92

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, visited the Red River Valley in the 1730s to help open the area for French exploration and trade. Manitoba_sentence_93

As French explorers entered the area, a Montreal-based company, the North West Company, began trading with the local Indigenous people. Manitoba_sentence_94

Both the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company built fur-trading forts; the two companies competed in southern Manitoba, occasionally resulting in violence, until they merged in 1821 (the Hudson's Bay Company Archives in Winnipeg preserve the history of this era). Manitoba_sentence_95

Great Britain secured the territory in 1763 after their victory over France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War, better known as the French and Indian War in North America; lasting from 1754 to 1763. Manitoba_sentence_96

The founding of the first agricultural community and settlements in 1812 by Lord Selkirk, north of the area which is now downtown Winnipeg, led to conflict between British colonists and the Métis. Manitoba_sentence_97

Twenty colonists, including the governor, and one Métis were killed in the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. Manitoba_sentence_98

Thomas Spence attempted to be President of the Republic of Manitobah in 1867, that he and his council named. Manitoba_sentence_99

Confederation Manitoba_section_7

Rupert's Land was ceded to Canada by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869 and incorporated into the Northwest Territories; a lack of attention to Métis concerns caused Métis leader Louis Riel to establish a local provisional government which formed into the Convention of Forty and the subsequent elected Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia on 9 March 1870. Manitoba_sentence_100

This assembly subsequently sent three delegates to Ottawa to negotiate with the Canadian government. Manitoba_sentence_101

This resulted in the Manitoba Act and that province's entry into the Canadian Confederation. Manitoba_sentence_102

Prime Minister John A. Macdonald introduced the Manitoba Act in the House of Commons of Canada, the bill was given Royal Assent and Manitoba was brought into Canada as a province in 1870. Manitoba_sentence_103

Louis Riel was pursued by British army officer Garnet Wolseley because of the rebellion, and Riel fled into exile. Manitoba_sentence_104

The Canadian government blocked the Métis' attempts to obtain land promised to them as part of Manitoba's entry into confederation. Manitoba_sentence_105

Facing racism from the new flood of white settlers from Ontario, large numbers of Métis moved to what would become Saskatchewan and Alberta. Manitoba_sentence_106

Numbered Treaties were signed in the late 19th century with the chiefs of First Nations that lived in the area. Manitoba_sentence_107

They made specific promises of land for every family. Manitoba_sentence_108

As a result, a reserve system was established under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government. Manitoba_sentence_109

The prescribed amount of land promised to the native peoples was not always given; this led Indigenous groups to assert rights to the land through land claims, many of which are still ongoing. Manitoba_sentence_110

The original province of Manitoba was a square one-eighteenth of its current size, and was known colloquially as the "postage stamp province". Manitoba_sentence_111

Its borders were expanded in 1881, taking land from the Northwest Territories and the District of Keewatin, but Ontario claimed a large portion of the land; the disputed portion was awarded to Ontario in 1889. Manitoba_sentence_112

Manitoba grew to its current size in 1912, absorbing land from the Northwest Territories to reach 60°N, uniform with the northern reach of its western neighbours Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. Manitoba_sentence_113

The Manitoba Schools Question showed the deep divergence of cultural values in the territory. Manitoba_sentence_114

The Catholic Franco-Manitobans had been guaranteed a state-supported separate school system in the original constitution of Manitoba, but a grassroots political movement among English Protestants from 1888 to 1890 demanded the end of French schools. Manitoba_sentence_115

In 1890, the Manitoba legislature passed a law removing funding for French Catholic schools. Manitoba_sentence_116

The French Catholic minority asked the federal government for support; however, the Orange Order and other anti-Catholic forces mobilized nationwide to oppose them. Manitoba_sentence_117

The federal Conservatives proposed remedial legislation to override Manitoba, but they were blocked by the Liberals, led by Wilfrid Laurier, who opposed the remedial legislation because of his belief in provincial rights. Manitoba_sentence_118

Once elected Prime Minister in 1896, Laurier implemented a compromise stating Catholics in Manitoba could have their own religious instruction for 30 minutes at the end of the day if there were enough students to warrant it, implemented on a school-by-school basis. Manitoba_sentence_119

Contemporary era Manitoba_section_8

By 1911, Winnipeg was the third largest city in Canada, and remained so until overtaken by Vancouver in the 1920s. Manitoba_sentence_120

A boomtown, it grew quickly around the start of the 20th century, with outside investors and immigrants contributing to its success. Manitoba_sentence_121

The drop in growth in the second half of the decade was a result of the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, which reduced reliance on transcontinental railways for trade, as well as a decrease in immigration due to the outbreak of the First World War. Manitoba_sentence_122

Over 18,000 Manitoba residents enlisted in the first year of the war; by the end of the war, 14 Manitobans had received the Victoria Cross. Manitoba_sentence_123

During the First World War, Nellie McClung started the campaign for women's votes. Manitoba_sentence_124

On January 28, 1916, the vote for women was legalized. Manitoba_sentence_125

Manitoba was the first province to allow women to vote, obviously only in provincial elections. Manitoba_sentence_126

This was two years before Canada as a country granted women the right to vote. Manitoba_sentence_127

After the First World War ended, severe discontent among farmers (over wheat prices) and union members (over wage rates) resulted in an upsurge of radicalism, coupled with a polarization over the rise of Bolshevism in Russia. Manitoba_sentence_128

The most dramatic result was the Winnipeg general strike of 1919. Manitoba_sentence_129

It began on 15 May and collapsed on 25 June 1919; as the workers gradually returned to their jobs, the Central Strike Committee decided to end the movement. Manitoba_sentence_130

Government efforts to violently crush the strike, including a Royal Northwest Mounted Police charge into a crowd of protesters that resulted in multiple casualties and one death, had led to the arrest of the movement's leaders. Manitoba_sentence_131

In the aftermath, eight leaders went on trial, and most were convicted on charges of seditious conspiracy, illegal combinations, and seditious libel; four were aliens who were deported under the Canadian Immigration Act. Manitoba_sentence_132

The Great Depression (1929–c. Manitoba_sentence_133

1939) hit especially hard in Western Canada, including Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_134

The collapse of the world market combined with a steep drop in agricultural production due to drought led to economic diversification, moving away from a reliance on wheat production. Manitoba_sentence_135

The Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, forerunner to the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), was founded in 1932. Manitoba_sentence_136

Canada entered the Second World War in 1939. Manitoba_sentence_137

Winnipeg was one of the major commands for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan to train fighter pilots, and there were air training schools throughout Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_138

Several Manitoba-based regiments were deployed overseas, including Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Manitoba_sentence_139

In an effort to raise money for the war effort, the Victory Loan campaign organized "If Day" in 1942. Manitoba_sentence_140

The event featured a simulated Nazi invasion and occupation of Manitoba, and eventually raised over C$65 million. Manitoba_sentence_141

Winnipeg was inundated during the 1950 Red River Flood and had to be partially evacuated. Manitoba_sentence_142

In that year, the Red River reached its highest level since 1861 and flooded most of the Red River Valley. Manitoba_sentence_143

The damage caused by the flood led then-Premier Duff Roblin to advocate for the construction of the Red River Floodway; it was completed in 1968 after six years of excavation. Manitoba_sentence_144

Permanent dikes were erected in eight towns south of Winnipeg, and clay dikes and diversion dams were built in the Winnipeg area. Manitoba_sentence_145

In 1997, the "Flood of the Century" caused over C$400 million in damages in Manitoba, but the floodway prevented Winnipeg from flooding. Manitoba_sentence_146

In 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney attempted to pass the Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments to persuade Quebec to endorse the Canada Act 1982. Manitoba_sentence_147

Unanimous support in the legislature was needed to bypass public consultation. Manitoba_sentence_148

Manitoba politician Elijah Harper, a Cree, opposed because he did not believe First Nations had been adequately involved in the Accord's process, and thus the Accord failed. Manitoba_sentence_149

In 2013, Manitoba was the second province to make accessibility legislation law, protecting the rights of persons with disabilities. Manitoba_sentence_150

Demography Manitoba_section_9

Main article: Demographics of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_151

See also: List of communities in Manitoba by population Manitoba_sentence_152


Largest cities by populationManitoba_table_caption_2
CityManitoba_header_cell_2_0_0 2016Manitoba_header_cell_2_0_1 2011Manitoba_header_cell_2_0_2
WinnipegManitoba_cell_2_1_0 705,244Manitoba_cell_2_1_1 663,617Manitoba_cell_2_1_2
BrandonManitoba_cell_2_2_0 48,859Manitoba_cell_2_2_1 46,061Manitoba_cell_2_2_2
SteinbachManitoba_cell_2_3_0 15,829Manitoba_cell_2_3_1 13,524Manitoba_cell_2_3_2
ThompsonManitoba_cell_2_4_0 13,678Manitoba_cell_2_4_1 12,829Manitoba_cell_2_4_2
Portage la PrairieManitoba_cell_2_5_0 13,304Manitoba_cell_2_5_1 12,996Manitoba_cell_2_5_2
WinklerManitoba_cell_2_6_0 12,591Manitoba_cell_2_6_1 10,670Manitoba_cell_2_6_2
SelkirkManitoba_cell_2_7_0 10,278Manitoba_cell_2_7_1 9,834Manitoba_cell_2_7_2
MordenManitoba_cell_2_8_0 8,668Manitoba_cell_2_8_1 7,812Manitoba_cell_2_8_2
DauphinManitoba_cell_2_9_0 8,457Manitoba_cell_2_9_1 8,251Manitoba_cell_2_9_2
Table source:Manitoba_cell_2_10_0

At the 2016 census, Manitoba had a population of 1,278,365, more than half of which is in the Winnipeg Capital Region; Winnipeg is Canada's eighth-largest Census Metropolitan Area, with a population of 778,489 (2016 Census). Manitoba_sentence_153

Although initial colonization of the province revolved mostly around homesteading, the last century has seen a shift towards urbanization; Manitoba is the only Canadian province with over fifty-five percent of its population in a single city. Manitoba_sentence_154

According to the 2006 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Manitoba is English (22.9%), followed by German (19.1%), Scottish (18.5%), Ukrainian (14.7%), Irish (13.4%), Indigenous (10.6%), Polish (7.3%), Métis (6.4%), French (5.6%), Dutch (4.9%), Russian (4.0%), and Icelandic (2.4%). Manitoba_sentence_155

Almost one-fifth of respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian". Manitoba_sentence_156

Indigenous peoples (including Métis) are Manitoba's fastest-growing ethnic group, representing 13.6 percent of Manitoba's population as of 2001 (some reserves refused to allow census-takers to enumerate their populations or were otherwise incompletely counted). Manitoba_sentence_157

There is a significant Franco-Manitoban minority (148,370). Manitoba_sentence_158

Gimli, Manitoba is home to the largest Icelandic community outside of Iceland. Manitoba_sentence_159

Religion Manitoba_section_10

Most Manitobans belong to a Christian denomination: on the 2001 census, 758,760 Manitobans (68.7%) reported being Christian, followed by 13,040 (1.2%) Jewish, 5,745 (0.5%) Buddhist, 5,485 (0.5%) Sikh, 5,095 (0.5%) Muslim, 3,840 (0.3%) Hindu, 3,415 (0.3%) Indigenous spirituality and 995 (0.1%) pagan. Manitoba_sentence_160

201,825 Manitobans (18.3%) reported no religious affiliation. Manitoba_sentence_161

The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 292,970 (27%); the United Church of Canada with 176,820 (16%); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 85,890 (8%). Manitoba_sentence_162

Economy Manitoba_section_11

Main article: Economy of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_163

See also: List of companies of Canada Manitoba_sentence_164

Manitoba has a moderately strong economy based largely on natural resources. Manitoba_sentence_165

Its Gross Domestic Product was C$50.834 billion in 2008. Manitoba_sentence_166

The province's economy grew 2.4 percent in 2008, the third consecutive year of growth. Manitoba_sentence_167

The average individual income in Manitoba in 2006 was C$25,100 (compared to a national average of C$26,500), ranking fifth-highest among the provinces. Manitoba_sentence_168

As of October 2009, Manitoba's unemployment rate was 5.8 percent. Manitoba_sentence_169

Manitoba's economy relies heavily on agriculture, tourism, electricity, oil, mining, and forestry. Manitoba_sentence_170

Agriculture is vital and is found mostly in the southern half of the province, although grain farming occurs as far north as The Pas. Manitoba_sentence_171

Around 12 percent of Canadian farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_172

The most common type of farm found in rural areas is cattle farming (34.6%), followed by assorted grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%). Manitoba_sentence_173

Manitoba is the nation's largest producer of sunflower seed and dry beans, and one of the leading sources of potatoes. Manitoba_sentence_174

Portage la Prairie is a major potato processing centre, and is home to the McCain Foods and Simplot plants, which provide French fries for McDonald's, Wendy's, and other commercial restaurant chains. Manitoba_sentence_175

Richardson International, one of the largest oat mills in the world, also has a plant in the municipality. Manitoba_sentence_176

Manitoba's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including crown corporations and services like hospitals and universities. Manitoba_sentence_177

Major private-sector employers are The Great-West Life Assurance Company, Cargill Ltd., and James Richardson and Sons Ltd. Manitoba also has large manufacturing and tourism sectors. Manitoba_sentence_178

Churchill's Arctic wildlife is a major tourist attraction; the town is a world capital for polar bear and beluga whale watchers. Manitoba_sentence_179

Manitoba is the only province with an Arctic deep-water seaport, at Churchill. Manitoba_sentence_180

In January 2018, the Canadian Federation of Independent Business claimed Manitoba was the most improved province for tackling red tape. Manitoba_sentence_181

Economic history Manitoba_section_12

Manitoba's early economy depended on mobility and living off the land. Manitoba_sentence_182

Indigenous Nations (Cree, Ojibwa, Dene, Sioux and Assiniboine) followed herds of bison and congregated to trade among themselves at key meeting places throughout the province. Manitoba_sentence_183

After the arrival of the first European traders in the 17th century, the economy centred on the trade of beaver pelts and other furs. Manitoba_sentence_184

Diversification of the economy came when Lord Selkirk brought the first agricultural settlers in 1811, though the triumph of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) over its competitors ensured the primacy of the fur trade over widespread agricultural colonization. Manitoba_sentence_185

HBC control of Rupert's Land ended in 1868; when Manitoba became a province in 1870, all land became the property of the federal government, with homesteads granted to settlers for farming. Manitoba_sentence_186

Transcontinental railways were constructed to simplify trade. Manitoba_sentence_187

Manitoba's economy depended mainly on farming, which persisted until drought and the Great Depression led to further diversification. Manitoba_sentence_188

Military bases Manitoba_section_13

CFB Winnipeg is a Canadian Forces Base at the Winnipeg International Airport. Manitoba_sentence_189

The base is home to flight operations support divisions and several training schools, as well as the 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters. Manitoba_sentence_190

17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based at CFB Winnipeg; the Wing has three squadrons and six schools. Manitoba_sentence_191

It supports 113 units from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan/Alberta border, and from the 49th parallel north to the high Arctic. Manitoba_sentence_192

17 Wing acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter–bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region. Manitoba_sentence_193

The two 17 Wing squadrons based in the city are: the 402 ("City of Winnipeg" Squadron), which flies the Canadian designed and produced de Havilland Canada CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer in support of the 1 Canadian Forces Flight Training School's Air Combat Systems Officer and Airborne Electronic Sensor Operator training programs (which trains all Canadian Air Combat Systems Officer); and the 435 ("Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron), which flies the Lockheed C-130 Hercules tanker/transport in airlift search and rescue roles, and is the only Air Force squadron equipped and trained to conduct air-to-air refuelling of fighter aircraft. Manitoba_sentence_194

Canadian Forces Base Shilo (CFB Shilo) is an Operations and Training base of the Canadian Forces 35 kilometres (22 mi) east of Brandon. Manitoba_sentence_195

During the 1990s, Canadian Forces Base Shilo was designated as an Area Support Unit, acting as a local base of operations for Southwest Manitoba in times of military and civil emergency. Manitoba_sentence_196

CFB Shilo is the home of the 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, both battalions of the 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, and the Royal Canadian Artillery. Manitoba_sentence_197

The Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI), which was originally stationed in Winnipeg (first at Fort Osborne, then in Kapyong Barracks), has operated out of CFB Shilo since 2004. Manitoba_sentence_198

CFB Shilo hosts a training unit, 3rd Canadian Division Training Centre. Manitoba_sentence_199

It serves as a base for support units of 3rd Canadian Division, also including 3 CDSG Signals Squadron, Shared Services Unit (West), 11 CF Health Services Centre, 1 Dental Unit, 1 Military Police Regiment, and an Integrated Personnel Support Centre. Manitoba_sentence_200

The base houses 1,700 soldiers. Manitoba_sentence_201

Government and politics Manitoba_section_14

See also: Politics of Manitoba and Monarchy in Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_202

After the control of Rupert's Land was passed from Great Britain to the Government of Canada in 1869, Manitoba attained full-fledged rights and responsibilities of self-government as the first Canadian province carved out of the Northwest Territories. Manitoba_sentence_203

The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba was established on 14 July 1870. Manitoba_sentence_204

Political parties first emerged between 1878 and 1883, with a two-party system (Liberals and Conservatives). Manitoba_sentence_205

The United Farmers of Manitoba appeared in 1922, and later merged with the Liberals in 1932. Manitoba_sentence_206

Other parties, including the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), appeared during the Great Depression; in the 1950s, Manitoban politics became a three-party system, and the Liberals gradually declined in power. Manitoba_sentence_207

The CCF became the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), which came to power in 1969. Manitoba_sentence_208

Since then, the Progressive Conservatives and the NDP have been the dominant parties. Manitoba_sentence_209

Like all Canadian provinces, Manitoba is governed by a unicameral legislative assembly. Manitoba_sentence_210

The executive branch is formed by the governing party; the party leader is the premier of Manitoba, the head of the executive branch. Manitoba_sentence_211

The head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on advice of the Prime Minister. Manitoba_sentence_212

The head of state is primarily a ceremonial role, although the Lieutenant Governor has the official responsibility of ensuring Manitoba has a duly constituted government. Manitoba_sentence_213

The Legislative Assembly consists of the 57 Members elected to represent the people of Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_214

The premier of Manitoba is Brian Pallister of the PC Party. Manitoba_sentence_215

The PCs were elected with a majority government of 40 seats. Manitoba_sentence_216

The NDP holds 14 seats, and the Liberal Party have three seats but does not have official party status in the Manitoba Legislature. Manitoba_sentence_217

The last provincial general election was held on 19 April 2016. Manitoba_sentence_218

The province is represented in federal politics by 14 Members of Parliament and six Senators. Manitoba_sentence_219

Manitoba's judiciary consists of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Queen's Bench, and the Provincial Court. Manitoba_sentence_220

The Provincial Court is primarily for criminal law; 95 per cent of criminal cases in Manitoba are heard here. Manitoba_sentence_221

The Court of Queen's Bench is the highest trial court in the province. Manitoba_sentence_222

It has four jurisdictions: family law (child and family services cases), civil law, criminal law (for indictable offences), and appeals. Manitoba_sentence_223

The Court of Appeal hears appeals from both benches; its decisions can only be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada. Manitoba_sentence_224

Official languages Manitoba_section_15

Further information: Bilingualism in Canada and Manitoba Act Manitoba_sentence_225

Both English and French are official languages of the legislature and courts of Manitoba, according to §23 of the Manitoba Act of 1870 (part of the Constitution of Canada). Manitoba_sentence_226

In April 1890, the Manitoba legislature attempted to abolish the official status of French and ceased to publish bilingual legislation. Manitoba_sentence_227

However, in 1985 the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Reference re Manitoba Language Rights that §23 still applied, and that legislation published only in English was invalid (unilingual legislation was declared valid for a temporary period to allow time for translation). Manitoba_sentence_228

Although French is an official language for the purposes of the legislature, legislation, and the courts, the Manitoba Act does not require it to be an official language for the purpose of the executive branch (except when performing legislative or judicial functions). Manitoba_sentence_229

Hence, Manitoba's government is not completely bilingual. Manitoba_sentence_230

The Manitoba French Language Services Policy of 1999 is intended to provide a comparable level of provincial government services in both official languages. Manitoba_sentence_231

According to the 2006 Census, 82.8 percent of Manitoba's population spoke only English, 3.2 percent spoke only French, 15.1 percent spoke both, and 0.9 percent spoke neither. Manitoba_sentence_232

In 2010, the provincial government of Manitoba passed the Aboriginal Languages Recognition Act, which gives official recognition to seven indigenous languages: Cree, Dakota, Dene, Inuktitut, Michif, Ojibway and Oji-Cree. Manitoba_sentence_233

Transportation Manitoba_section_16

See also: List of bridges in Canada and List of Manitoba provincial highways Manitoba_sentence_234

Transportation and warehousing contribute approximately C$2.2 billion to Manitoba's GDP. Manitoba_sentence_235

Total employment in the industry is estimated at 34,500, or around 5 percent of Manitoba's population. Manitoba_sentence_236

Trucks haul 95 percent of land freight in Manitoba, and trucking companies account for 80 percent of Manitoba's merchandise trade to the United States. Manitoba_sentence_237

Five of Canada's twenty-five largest employers in for-hire trucking are headquartered in Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_238

C$1.18 billion of Manitoba's GDP comes directly or indirectly from trucking. Manitoba_sentence_239

Greyhound Canada and Grey Goose Bus Lines offer domestic bus service from the Winnipeg Bus Terminal. Manitoba_sentence_240

The terminal was relocated from downtown Winnipeg to the airport in 2009, and is a Greyhound hub. Manitoba_sentence_241

Municipalities also operate localized transit bus systems. Manitoba_sentence_242

Manitoba has two Class I railways: Canadian National Railway (CN) and Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Manitoba_sentence_243

Winnipeg is centrally located on the main lines of both carriers, and both maintain large inter-modal terminals in the city. Manitoba_sentence_244

CN and CPR operate a combined 2,439 kilometres (1,516 mi) of track in Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_245

Via Rail offers transcontinental and Northern Manitoba passenger service from Winnipeg's Union Station. Manitoba_sentence_246

Numerous small regional and short-line railways also run trains within Manitoba: the Hudson Bay Railway, the Southern Manitoba Railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, Greater Winnipeg Water District Railway, and Central Manitoba Railway. Manitoba_sentence_247

Together, these smaller lines operate approximately 1,775 kilometres (1,103 mi) of track in the province. Manitoba_sentence_248

Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, Manitoba's largest airport, is one of only a few 24-hour unrestricted airports in Canada and is part of the National Airports System. Manitoba_sentence_249

A new, larger terminal opened in October 2011. Manitoba_sentence_250

The airport handles approximately 195,000 tonnes (430,000,000 lb) of cargo annually, making it the third largest cargo airport in the country. Manitoba_sentence_251

Eleven regional passenger airlines and nine smaller and charter carriers operate out of the airport, as well as eleven air cargo carriers and seven freight forwarders. Manitoba_sentence_252

Winnipeg is a major sorting facility for both FedEx and Purolator, and receives daily trans-border service from UPS. Manitoba_sentence_253

Air Canada Cargo and Cargojet Airways use the airport as a major hub for national traffic. Manitoba_sentence_254

The Port of Churchill, owned by Arctic Gateway Group, is the only Arctic deep-water port in Canada. Manitoba_sentence_255

It is nautically closer to ports in Northern Europe and Russia than any other port in Canada. Manitoba_sentence_256

It has four deep-sea berths for the loading and unloading of grain, general cargo and tanker vessels. Manitoba_sentence_257

The port is served by the Hudson Bay Railway (also owned by Arctic Gateway Group). Manitoba_sentence_258

Grain represented 90 percent of the port's traffic in the 2004 shipping season. Manitoba_sentence_259

In that year, over 600,000 tonnes (1.3×10 lb) of agricultural products were shipped through the port. Manitoba_sentence_260

Education Manitoba_section_17

See also: Higher education in Manitoba and Manitoba Public Schools Act Manitoba_sentence_261

The first school in Manitoba was founded in 1818 by Roman Catholic missionaries in present-day Winnipeg; the first Protestant school was established in 1820. Manitoba_sentence_262

A provincial board of education was established in 1871; it was responsible for public schools and curriculum, and represented both Catholics and Protestants. Manitoba_sentence_263

The Manitoba Schools Question led to funding for French Catholic schools largely being withdrawn in favour of the English Protestant majority. Manitoba_sentence_264

Legislation making education compulsory for children between seven and fourteen was first enacted in 1916, and the leaving age was raised to sixteen in 1962. Manitoba_sentence_265

Public schools in Manitoba fall under the regulation of one of thirty-seven school divisions within the provincial education system (except for the Manitoba Band Operated Schools, which are administered by the federal government). Manitoba_sentence_266

Public schools follow a provincially mandated curriculum in either French or English. Manitoba_sentence_267

There are sixty-five funded independent schools in Manitoba, including three boarding schools. Manitoba_sentence_268

These schools must follow the Manitoban curriculum and meet other provincial requirements. Manitoba_sentence_269

There are forty-four non-funded independent schools, which are not required to meet those standards. Manitoba_sentence_270

There are five universities in Manitoba, regulated by the Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy. Manitoba_sentence_271

Four of these universities are in Winnipeg: the University of Manitoba, the largest and most comprehensive; the University of Winnipeg, a liberal arts school primarily focused on undergrad studies downtown; Université de Saint-Boniface, the province's only French-language university; and the Canadian Mennonite University, a religious-based institution. Manitoba_sentence_272

The Université de Saint-Boniface, established in 1818 and now affiliated with the University of Manitoba, is the oldest university in Western Canada. Manitoba_sentence_273

Brandon University, formed in 1899 and in Brandon, is the province's only university not in Winnipeg. Manitoba_sentence_274

Manitoba has thirty-eight public libraries; of these, twelve have French-language collections and eight have significant collections in other languages. Manitoba_sentence_275

Twenty-one of these are part of the Winnipeg Public Library system. Manitoba_sentence_276

The first lending library in Manitoba was founded in 1848. Manitoba_sentence_277

Culture Manitoba_section_18

Main article: Culture of Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_278

Arts Manitoba_section_19

The Minister of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Sport is responsible for promoting and, to some extent, financing Manitoban culture. Manitoba_sentence_279

Manitoba is the birthplace of the Red River Jig, a combination of Indigenous pow-wows and European reels popular among early settlers. Manitoba_sentence_280

Manitoba's traditional music has strong roots in Métis and First Nations culture, in particular the old-time fiddling of the Métis. Manitoba_sentence_281

Manitoba's cultural scene also incorporates classical European traditions. Manitoba_sentence_282

The Winnipeg-based Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB), is Canada's oldest ballet and North America's longest continuously operating ballet company; it was granted its royal title in 1953 under Queen Elizabeth II. Manitoba_sentence_283

The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra (WSO) performs classical music and new compositions at the Centennial Concert Hall. Manitoba_sentence_284

Manitoba Opera, founded in 1969, also performs out of the Centennial Concert Hall. Manitoba_sentence_285

Le Cercle Molière (founded 1925) is the oldest French-language theatre in Canada, and Royal Manitoba Theatre Centre (founded 1958) is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre. Manitoba_sentence_286

Manitoba Theatre for Young People was the first English-language theatre to win the Canadian Institute of the Arts for Young Audiences Award, and offers plays for children and teenagers as well as a theatre school. Manitoba_sentence_287

The Winnipeg Art Gallery (WAG), Manitoba's largest art gallery and the sixth largest in the country, hosts an art school for children; the WAG's permanent collection comprises over twenty thousand works, with a particular emphasis on Manitoban and Canadian art. Manitoba_sentence_288

The 1960s pop group The Guess Who was formed in Manitoba, and later became the first Canadian band to have a No. Manitoba_sentence_289

1 hit in the United States; Guess Who guitarist Randy Bachman later created Bachman–Turner Overdrive (BTO) with fellow Winnipeg-based musician Fred Turner. Manitoba_sentence_290

Fellow rocker Neil Young, grew up in Manitoba, and later played in Buffalo Springfield, and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young. Manitoba_sentence_291

Folk rock band Crash Test Dummies formed in the late 1980s in Winnipeg and were the 1992 Juno Awards Group of the Year. Manitoba_sentence_292

Several prominent Canadian films were produced in Manitoba, such as The Stone Angel, based on the Margaret Laurence book of the same title, The Saddest Music in the World, Foodland, For Angela, and My Winnipeg. Manitoba_sentence_293

Major films shot in Manitoba include The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford and Capote, both of which received Academy Award nominations. Manitoba_sentence_294

Falcon Beach, an internationally broadcast television drama, was filmed at Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_295

Manitoba has a strong literary tradition. Manitoba_sentence_296

Manitoban writer Bertram Brooker won the first-ever Governor General's Award for Fiction in 1936. Manitoba_sentence_297

Cartoonist Lynn Johnston, author of the comic strip For Better or For Worse, was a finalist for a 1994 Pulitzer Prize and inducted into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame. Manitoba_sentence_298

Margaret Laurence's The Stone Angel and A Jest of God were set in Manawaka, a fictional town representing Neepawa; the latter title won the Governor General's Award in 1966. Manitoba_sentence_299

Carol Shields won both the Governor General's Award and the Pulitzer Prize for The Stone Diaries. Manitoba_sentence_300

Gabrielle Roy, a Franco-Manitoban writer, won the Governor General's Award three times. Manitoba_sentence_301

A quote from her writings is featured on the Canadian $20 bill. Manitoba_sentence_302

Joan Thomas was nominated for the Governor General's Award twice and won in 2019 for Five Wives. Manitoba_sentence_303

The province has also been home to many of the key figures in Mennonite literature, including Governor General Award-winning Miriam Toews, Giller winner David Bergen, Armin Wiebe and many others. Manitoba_sentence_304

Festivals Manitoba_section_20

See also: :Category:Festivals in Manitoba and List of music festivals in Canada § Manitoba Manitoba_sentence_305

Festivals take place throughout the province, with the largest centred in Winnipeg. Manitoba_sentence_306

The inaugural Winnipeg Folk Festival was held in 1974 as a one-time celebration to mark Winnipeg's 100th anniversary. Manitoba_sentence_307

Today, the five-day festival is one of the largest folk festivals in North America with over 70 acts from around the world and an annual attendance of over 80,000. Manitoba_sentence_308

The Winnipeg Folk Festival's home – Birds Hill Provincial Park – is 34 kilometres outside of Winnipeg and for the five days of the festival, it becomes Manitoba's third largest "city." Manitoba_sentence_309

The Festival du Voyageur is an annual ten-day event held in Winnipeg's French Quarter, and is Western Canada's largest winter festival. Manitoba_sentence_310

It celebrates Canada's fur-trading past and French-Canadian heritage and culture. Manitoba_sentence_311

Folklorama, a multicultural festival run by the Folk Arts Council, receives around 400,000 pavilion visits each year, of which about thirty percent are from non-Winnipeg residents. Manitoba_sentence_312

The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual alternative theatre festival, the second-largest festival of its kind in North America (after the Edmonton International Fringe Festival). Manitoba_sentence_313

Museums Manitoba_section_21

Manitoban museums document different aspects of the province's heritage. Manitoba_sentence_314

The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in Manitoba and focuses on Manitoban history from prehistory to the 1920s. Manitoba_sentence_315

The full-size replica of the Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece. Manitoba_sentence_316

The Manitoba Children's Museum at The Forks presents exhibits for children. Manitoba_sentence_317

There are two museums dedicated to the native flora and fauna of Manitoba: the Living Prairie Museum, a tall grass prairie preserve featuring 160 species of grasses and wildflowers, and FortWhyte Alive, a park encompassing prairie, lake, forest and wetland habitats, home to a large herd of bison. Manitoba_sentence_318

The Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre houses the largest collection of marine reptile fossils in Canada. Manitoba_sentence_319

Other museums feature the history of aviation, marine transport, and railways in the area. Manitoba_sentence_320

The Canadian Museum for Human Rights is the first Canadian national museum outside of the National Capital Region. Manitoba_sentence_321

Media Manitoba_section_22

See also: Media in Winnipeg Manitoba_sentence_322

Winnipeg has two daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press, a broadsheet with the highest circulation numbers in Manitoba, as well as the Winnipeg Sun, a smaller tabloid-style paper. Manitoba_sentence_323

There are several ethnic weekly newspapers, including the weekly French-language La Liberté, and regional and national magazines based in the city. Manitoba_sentence_324

Brandon has two newspapers: the daily Brandon Sun and the weekly Wheat City Journal. Manitoba_sentence_325

Many small towns have local newspapers. Manitoba_sentence_326

There are five English-language television stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. Manitoba_sentence_327

The Global Television Network (owned by Canwest) is headquartered in the city. Manitoba_sentence_328

Winnipeg is home to twenty-one AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations. Manitoba_sentence_329

Brandon's five local radio stations are provided by Astral Media and Westman Communications Group. Manitoba_sentence_330

In addition to the Brandon and Winnipeg stations, radio service is provided in rural areas and smaller towns by Golden West Broadcasting, Corus Entertainment, and local broadcasters. Manitoba_sentence_331

CBC Radio broadcasts local and national programming throughout the province. Manitoba_sentence_332

Native Communications is devoted to indigenous programming and broadcasts to many of the isolated native communities as well as to larger cities. Manitoba_sentence_333

Sports Manitoba_section_23

Manitoba has five professional sports teams: the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (Canadian Football League), the Winnipeg Jets (National Hockey League), the Manitoba Moose (American Hockey League), the Winnipeg Goldeyes (American Association), and Valour FC (Canadian Premier League). Manitoba_sentence_334

The province was previously home to another team called the Winnipeg Jets, which played in the World Hockey Association and National Hockey League from 1972 until 1996, when financial troubles prompted a sale and move of the team, renamed the Phoenix Coyotes. Manitoba_sentence_335

A second incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets returned, after True North Sports & Entertainment bought the Atlanta Thrashers and moved the team to Winnipeg in time for the 2011 hockey season. Manitoba_sentence_336

Manitoba has two major junior-level hockey teams, the Western Hockey League's Brandon Wheat Kings and Winnipeg Ice, and one junior football team, the Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Junior Football League. Manitoba_sentence_337

The province is represented in university athletics by the University of Manitoba Bisons, the University of Winnipeg Wesmen, and the Brandon University Bobcats. Manitoba_sentence_338

All three teams compete in the Canada West Universities Athletic Association, a regional division of U Sports. Manitoba_sentence_339

Curling is an important winter sport in the province with Manitoba producing more men's national champions than any other province, while additionally in the top 3 women's national champions, as well as multiple world champions in the sport. Manitoba_sentence_340

The province also hosts the world's largest curling tournament in the MCA Bonspiel. Manitoba_sentence_341

The province is regular host to Grand Slam events which feature as the largest cash events in the sport such as the annual Manitoba Lotteries Women's Curling Classic as well as other rotating events. Manitoba_sentence_342

Though not as prominent as hockey and curling, long track speed skating also features as a notable and top winter sport in Manitoba. Manitoba_sentence_343

The province has produced some of the world's best female speed skaters including Susan Auch and the country's top Olympic medal earners Cindy Klassen and Clara Hughes. Manitoba_sentence_344

See also Manitoba_section_24


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