Maryland

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This article is about the State of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_0

For other uses, see Maryland (disambiguation). Maryland_sentence_1

Maryland_table_infobox_0

MarylandMaryland_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMaryland_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesMaryland_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodMaryland_header_cell_0_2_0 Province of MarylandMaryland_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionMaryland_header_cell_0_3_0 April 28, 1788 (7th)Maryland_cell_0_3_1
CapitalMaryland_header_cell_0_4_0 AnnapolisMaryland_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityMaryland_header_cell_0_5_0 BaltimoreMaryland_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroMaryland_header_cell_0_6_0 Baltimore-Washington Metro AreaMaryland_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentMaryland_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorMaryland_header_cell_0_8_0 Larry Hogan (R)Maryland_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorMaryland_header_cell_0_9_0 Boyd Rutherford (R)Maryland_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureMaryland_header_cell_0_10_0 General Assembly of MarylandMaryland_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseMaryland_header_cell_0_11_0 Senate of MarylandMaryland_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseMaryland_header_cell_0_12_0 House of Delegates of MarylandMaryland_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryMaryland_header_cell_0_13_0 Maryland Court of AppealsMaryland_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsMaryland_header_cell_0_14_0 Ben Cardin (D)
Chris Van Hollen (D)Maryland_cell_0_14_1
U.S. House delegationMaryland_header_cell_0_15_0 7 Democrats
1 Republican (list)Maryland_cell_0_15_1
AreaMaryland_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalMaryland_header_cell_0_17_0 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km)Maryland_cell_0_17_1
LandMaryland_header_cell_0_18_0 9,776 sq mi (25,314 km)Maryland_cell_0_18_1
WaterMaryland_header_cell_0_19_0 2,633 sq mi (6,819 km)  21%Maryland_cell_0_19_1
Area rankMaryland_header_cell_0_20_0 42ndMaryland_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsMaryland_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthMaryland_header_cell_0_22_0 119 mi (192 km)Maryland_cell_0_22_1
WidthMaryland_header_cell_0_23_0 196 mi (315 km)Maryland_cell_0_23_1
ElevationMaryland_header_cell_0_24_0 350 ft (110 m)Maryland_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Hoye-Crest)Maryland_header_cell_0_25_0 3,360 ft (1,024 m)Maryland_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Atlantic Ocean)Maryland_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)Maryland_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Maryland_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalMaryland_header_cell_0_28_0 6,045,680Maryland_cell_0_28_1
RankMaryland_header_cell_0_29_0 19thMaryland_cell_0_29_1
DensityMaryland_header_cell_0_30_0 619/sq mi (238/km)Maryland_cell_0_30_1
Density rankMaryland_header_cell_0_31_0 5thMaryland_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeMaryland_header_cell_0_32_0 $80,776 (2,017)Maryland_cell_0_32_1
Income rankMaryland_header_cell_0_33_0 2ndMaryland_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Maryland_header_cell_0_34_0 MarylanderMaryland_cell_0_34_1
LanguageMaryland_header_cell_0_35_0
Official languageMaryland_header_cell_0_36_0 None (English, de facto)Maryland_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneMaryland_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)Maryland_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Maryland_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Maryland_cell_0_38_1
USPS abbreviationMaryland_header_cell_0_39_0 MDMaryland_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeMaryland_header_cell_0_40_0 US-MDMaryland_cell_0_40_1
Traditional abbreviationMaryland_header_cell_0_41_0 Md.Maryland_cell_0_41_1
LatitudeMaryland_header_cell_0_42_0 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ NMaryland_cell_0_42_1
LongitudeMaryland_header_cell_0_43_0 75° 03′ W to 79° 29′ WMaryland_cell_0_43_1
WebsiteMaryland_header_cell_0_44_0 Maryland_cell_0_44_1

Maryland_table_infobox_1

Maryland state symbolsMaryland_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaMaryland_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdMaryland_header_cell_1_2_0 Baltimore orioleMaryland_cell_1_2_1
ButterflyMaryland_header_cell_1_3_0 Baltimore checkerspot butterflyMaryland_cell_1_3_1
CrustaceanMaryland_header_cell_1_4_0 Blue crabMaryland_cell_1_4_1
FishMaryland_header_cell_1_5_0 Rock fishMaryland_cell_1_5_1
FlowerMaryland_header_cell_1_6_0 Black-eyed SusanMaryland_cell_1_6_1
InsectMaryland_header_cell_1_7_0 Baltimore checkerspotMaryland_cell_1_7_1
MammalMaryland_header_cell_1_8_0 Calico cat
Chesapeake Bay Retriever 
Thoroughbred horseMaryland_cell_1_8_1
ReptileMaryland_header_cell_1_9_0 Diamondback terrapinMaryland_cell_1_9_1
TreeMaryland_header_cell_1_10_0 White oakMaryland_cell_1_10_1
Inanimate insigniaMaryland_header_cell_1_11_0
BeverageMaryland_header_cell_1_12_0 MilkMaryland_cell_1_12_1
DanceMaryland_header_cell_1_13_0 Square danceMaryland_cell_1_13_1
DinosaurMaryland_header_cell_1_14_0 Astrodon johnstoniMaryland_cell_1_14_1
FoodMaryland_header_cell_1_15_0 Blue crab
Smith Island CakeMaryland_cell_1_15_1
FossilMaryland_header_cell_1_16_0 Ecphora gardnerae gardneraeMaryland_cell_1_16_1
GemstoneMaryland_header_cell_1_17_0 Patuxent River stoneMaryland_cell_1_17_1
MineralMaryland_header_cell_1_18_0 AgateMaryland_cell_1_18_1
PoemMaryland_header_cell_1_19_0 "Maryland, My Maryland" by James Ryder Randall (1861, adopted 1939)Maryland_cell_1_19_1
SloganMaryland_header_cell_1_20_0 Maryland of OpportunityMaryland_cell_1_20_1
SportMaryland_header_cell_1_21_0 Jousting
LacrosseMaryland_cell_1_21_1
State route markerMaryland_header_cell_1_22_0
State quarterMaryland_header_cell_1_23_0

Maryland (US: /ˈmɛrələnd/ (listen) MERR-ə-lənd) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. Maryland_sentence_2

The state's largest city is Baltimore, and its capital is Annapolis. Maryland_sentence_3

Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, and the Chesapeake Bay State. Maryland_sentence_4

It is named after the English Queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary, who was the wife of King Charles I. Maryland_sentence_5

Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties, as well as the city of Baltimore, border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Maryland_sentence_6

Although one of the smallest states in the U.S., it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. Maryland_sentence_7

In a similar vein, Maryland's geography, culture, and history combine elements of the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and Southern regions of the country. Maryland_sentence_8

Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Maryland was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, mostly by the Algonquin, and to a lesser degree by the Iroquois and Sioux. Maryland_sentence_9

As one of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain Maryland was founded by George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England. Maryland_sentence_10

In 1632, Charles I of England granted Lord Baltimore a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary (Henrietta Maria of France). Maryland_sentence_11

Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who rejected Catholicism in their settlements, Lord Baltimore envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Maryland_sentence_12

Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Maryland_sentence_13

Nevertheless religious strife was common in the early years, and Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland_sentence_14

Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay. Maryland_sentence_15

Its economy was heavily plantation-based and centered mostly on the cultivation of tobacco. Maryland_sentence_16

Britain's need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, and African slaves. Maryland_sentence_17

In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania. Maryland_sentence_18

Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, and by 1776, its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Maryland_sentence_19

Many of its citizens subsequently played key political and military roles in the war. Maryland_sentence_20

In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. Maryland_sentence_21

Although then a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. Maryland_sentence_22

After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, and mass immigration from Europe. Maryland_sentence_23

Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown rapidly, to approximately six million residents, and it is among the most densely populated U.S. states. Maryland_sentence_24

As of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D.C. and a highly diversified economy spanning manufacturing, services, higher education, and biotechnology. Maryland_sentence_25

The state's central role in U.S. history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland_sentence_26

Geography Maryland_section_0

See also: List of islands of Maryland and List of rivers of Maryland Maryland_sentence_27

Maryland has an area of 12,406.68 square miles (32,133.2 km) and is comparable in overall area with Belgium [11,787 square miles (30,530 km)]. Maryland_sentence_28

It is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii [10,930.98 square miles (28,311.1 km)], the next smaller state. Maryland_sentence_29

The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is almost twice the size of Maryland [24,229.76 square miles (62,754.8 km)]. Maryland_sentence_30

Description Maryland_section_1

Geology Maryland_section_2

Earthquakes in Maryland are infrequent and small due to the state's distance from seismic/earthquake zones. Maryland_sentence_31

The M5.8 Virginia earthquake in 2011 was felt moderately throughout Maryland. Maryland_sentence_32

Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. Maryland_sentence_33

Maryland has no natural lakes, mostly due to the lack of glacial history in the area. Maryland_sentence_34

All lakes in the state today were constructed, mostly via dams. Maryland_sentence_35

Buckel's Bog is believed by geologists to have been a remnant of a former natural lake. Maryland_sentence_36

Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible. Maryland_sentence_37

Flora Maryland_section_3

As is typical of states on the East Coast, Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy. Maryland_sentence_38

A modest volume of annual precipitation helps to support many types of plants, including seagrass and various reeds at the smaller end of the spectrum to the gigantic Wye Oak, a huge example of white oak, the state tree, which can grow in excess of 70 feet (21 m) tall. Maryland_sentence_39

Middle Atlantic coastal forests, typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula. Maryland_sentence_40

Moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state. Maryland_sentence_41

The Appalachian Mountains of western Maryland are home to Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests. Maryland_sentence_42

These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia border. Maryland_sentence_43

Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species. Maryland_sentence_44

Included among these are the crape myrtle, Italian cypress, southern magnolia, live oak in the warmer parts of the state, and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state. Maryland_sentence_45

USDA plant hardiness zones in the state range from Zones 5 and 6 in the extreme western part of the state to Zone 7 in the central part, and Zone 8 around the southern part of the coast, the bay area, and parts of metropolitan Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_46

Invasive plant species, such as kudzu, tree of heaven, multiflora rose, and Japanese stiltgrass, stifle growth of endemic plant life. Maryland_sentence_47

Maryland's state flower, the black-eyed susan, grows in abundance in wild flower groups throughout the state. Maryland_sentence_48

Fauna Maryland_section_4

The state harbors a great number of white-tailed deer, especially in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem. Maryland_sentence_49

Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include black bears, bobcats, foxes, coyotes, raccoons, and otters. Maryland_sentence_50

There is a population of rare wild (feral) horses found on Assateague Island. Maryland_sentence_51

They are believed to be descended from horses who escaped from Spanish galleon shipwrecks. Maryland_sentence_52

Every year during the last week of July, they are captured and swim across a shallow bay for sale at Chincoteague, Virginia, a conservation technique which ensures the tiny island is not overrun by the horses. Maryland_sentence_53

The ponies and their sale were popularized by the children's book, Misty of Chincoteague. Maryland_sentence_54

The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area. Maryland_sentence_55

In 1878 the Chesapeake Bay Retriever was the first individual retriever breed recognized by the American Kennel Club. Maryland_sentence_56

and was later adopted by the University of Maryland, Baltimore County as their mascot. Maryland_sentence_57

Maryland's reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park, as well as the threatened Eastern box turtle. Maryland_sentence_58

The state is part of the territory of the Baltimore oriole, which is the official state bird and mascot of the MLB team the Baltimore Orioles. Maryland_sentence_59

Aside from the oriole, 435 other species of birds have been reported from Maryland. Maryland_sentence_60

The state insect is the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly, although it is not as common in Maryland as it is in the southern edge of its range. Maryland_sentence_61

Environment Maryland_section_5

Maryland joined with neighboring states during the end of the 20th century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay. Maryland_sentence_62

The bay's aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay. Maryland_sentence_63

In 2007, Forbes.com rated Maryland as the fifth "Greenest" state in the country behind three of the Pacific States and Vermont. Maryland_sentence_64

Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in 2005. Maryland_sentence_65

In April 2007 Maryland joined the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)—a regional initiative formed by all the Northeastern states, Washington, D.C., and three Canadian provinces to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Maryland_sentence_66

In March 2017, Maryland became the first state with proven gas reserves to ban fracking by passing a law against it. Maryland_sentence_67

Vermont has such a law, but no shale gas, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order. Maryland_sentence_68

Climate Maryland_section_6

Maryland has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to water, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds. Maryland_sentence_69

The eastern half of Maryland—which includes the cities of Ocean City, Salisbury, Annapolis, and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.C. and Baltimore—lies on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, with flat topography and sandy or muddy soil. Maryland_sentence_70

This region has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter; it falls under USDA Hardiness zone 8a. Maryland_sentence_71

The Piedmont region—which includes northern and western greater Baltimore, Westminster, Gaithersburg, Frederick, and Hagerstown—has average seasonal snowfall totals generally exceeding 20 inches (51 cm) and, as part of USDA Hardiness zones 7b and 7a, temperatures below 10 °F (−12 °C) are less rare. Maryland_sentence_72

From the Cumberland Valley on westward, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa). Maryland_sentence_73

In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland, Frostburg, and Oakland—display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in part to elevation. Maryland_sentence_74

They fall under USDA Hardiness zones 6b and below. Maryland_sentence_75

Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Maryland_sentence_76

Annual rainfall ranges from 35 to 45 inches (890 to 1,140 mm) with more in higher elevations. Maryland_sentence_77

Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3.5–4.5 inches (89–114 mm) per month of rain. Maryland_sentence_78

Average annual snowfall varies from 9 inches (23 cm) in the coastal areas to over 100 inches (250 cm) in the western mountains of the state. Maryland_sentence_79

Because of its location near the Atlantic Coast, Maryland is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones, although the Delmarva Peninsula and the outer banks of North Carolina provide a large buffer, such that strikes from major hurricanes (category 3 or above) occur infrequently. Maryland_sentence_80

More often, Maryland gets the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its energy. Maryland_sentence_81

Maryland averages around 30–40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually. Maryland_sentence_82

Maryland_table_general_2

Monthly average high and low temperatures for various Maryland cities and landmarks (covering breadth and width of the state)Maryland_table_caption_2
CityMaryland_header_cell_2_0_0 JanMaryland_header_cell_2_0_1 FebMaryland_header_cell_2_0_2 MarMaryland_header_cell_2_0_3 AprMaryland_header_cell_2_0_4 MayMaryland_header_cell_2_0_5 JunMaryland_header_cell_2_0_6 JulMaryland_header_cell_2_0_7 AugMaryland_header_cell_2_0_8 SepMaryland_header_cell_2_0_9 OctMaryland_header_cell_2_0_10 NovMaryland_header_cell_2_0_11 DecMaryland_header_cell_2_0_12
OaklandMaryland_header_cell_2_1_0 34 °F (1 °C)

16 °F (−9 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_1

38 °F (3 °C)

17 °F (−8 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_2

48 °F (9 °C)

25 °F (−4 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_3

59 °F (15 °C)

34 °F (1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_4

68 °F (20 °C)

45 °F (7 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_5

75 °F (24 °C)

53 °F (12 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_6

79 °F (26 °C)

58 °F (14 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_7

78 °F (26 °C)

56 °F (13 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_8

71 °F (22 °C)

49 °F (9 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_9

62 °F (17 °C)

37 °F (3 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_10

50 °F (10 °C)

28 °F (−2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_11

39 °F (4 °C)

21 °F (−6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_1_12

CumberlandMaryland_header_cell_2_2_0 41 °F (5 °C)

22 °F (−6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_1

46 °F (8 °C)

24 °F (−4 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_2

56 °F (13 °C)

32 °F (0 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_3

68 °F (20 °C)

41 °F (5 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_4

77 °F (25 °C)

51 °F (11 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_5

85 °F (29 °C)

60 °F (16 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_6

89 °F (32 °C)

65 °F (18 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_7

87 °F (31 °C)

63 °F (17 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_8

80 °F (27 °C)

55 °F (13 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_9

69 °F (21 °C)

43 °F (6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_10

57 °F (14 °C)

34 °F (1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_11

45 °F (7 °C)

26 °F (−3 °C)Maryland_cell_2_2_12

HagerstownMaryland_header_cell_2_3_0 39 °F (4 °C)

22 °F (−6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_1

42 °F (6 °C)

23 °F (−5 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_2

52 °F (11 °C)

30 °F (−1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_3

63 °F (17 °C)

39 °F (4 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_4

72 °F (22 °C)

50 °F (10 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_5

81 °F (27 °C)

59 °F (15 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_6

85 °F (29 °C)

64 °F (18 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_7

83 °F (28 °C)

62 °F (17 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_8

76 °F (24 °C)

54 °F (12 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_9

65 °F (18 °C)

43 °F (6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_10

54 °F (12 °C)

34 °F (1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_11

43 °F (6 °C)

26 °F (−3 °C)Maryland_cell_2_3_12

FrederickMaryland_header_cell_2_4_0 42 °F (6 °C)

26 °F (−3 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_1

47 °F (8 °C)

28 °F (−2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_2

56 °F (13 °C)

35 °F (2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_3

68 °F (20 °C)

45 °F (7 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_4

77 °F (25 °C)

54 °F (12 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_5

85 °F (29 °C)

63 °F (17 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_6

89 °F (32 °C)

68 °F (20 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_7

87 °F (31 °C)

66 °F (19 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_8

80 °F (27 °C)

59 °F (15 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_9

68 °F (20 °C)

47 °F (8 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_10

56 °F (13 °C)

38 °F (3 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_11

45 °F (7 °C)

30 °F (−1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_4_12

BaltimoreMaryland_header_cell_2_5_0 42 °F (6 °C)

29 °F (−2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_1

46 °F (8 °C)

31 °F (−1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_2

54 °F (12 °C)

39 °F (4 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_3

65 °F (18 °C)

48 °F (9 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_4

75 °F (24 °C)

57 °F (14 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_5

85 °F (29 °C)

67 °F (19 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_6

90 °F (32 °C)

72 °F (22 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_7

87 °F (31 °C)

71 °F (22 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_8

80 °F (27 °C)

64 °F (18 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_9

68 °F (20 °C)

52 °F (11 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_10

58 °F (14 °C)

43 °F (6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_11

46 °F (8 °C)

33 °F (1 °C)Maryland_cell_2_5_12

ElktonMaryland_header_cell_2_6_0 42 °F (6 °C)

24 °F (−4 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_1

46 °F (8 °C)

26 °F (−3 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_2

55 °F (13 °C)

32 °F (0 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_3

67 °F (19 °C)

42 °F (6 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_4

76 °F (24 °C)

51 °F (11 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_5

85 °F (29 °C)

61 °F (16 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_6

88 °F (31 °C)

66 °F (19 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_7

87 °F (31 °C)

65 °F (18 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_8

80 °F (27 °C)

57 °F (14 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_9

69 °F (21 °C)

45 °F (7 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_10

58 °F (14 °C)

36 °F (2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_11

46 °F (8 °C)

28 °F (−2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_6_12

Ocean CityMaryland_header_cell_2_7_0 45 °F (7 °C)

28 °F (−2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_7_1

46 °F (8 °C)

29 °F (−2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_7_2

53 °F (12 °C)

35 °F (2 °C)Maryland_cell_2_7_3

61 °F (16 °C)

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History Maryland_section_7

Main article: History of Maryland Maryland_sentence_83

17th century Maryland_section_8

Maryland's first colonial settlement Maryland_section_9

Main article: Province of Maryland Maryland_sentence_84

George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore (1579–1632), sought a charter from King Charles I for the territory between Massachusetts to the north and Virginia to the immediate south. Maryland_sentence_85

After the first Lord Baltimore died in April 1632, the charter was granted to his son, Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (1605–1675), on June 20, 1632. Maryland_sentence_86

Officially, the new "Maryland Colony" was named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I of England. Maryland_sentence_87

The 1st Lord Baltimore initially proposed the name "Crescentia", the land of growth or increase, but "the King proposed Terra Mariae [Mary Land], which was concluded on and Inserted in the bill." Maryland_sentence_88

The original capital of Maryland was St. Maryland_sentence_89 Mary's City, on the north shore of the Potomac River, and the county surrounding it, the first erected/created in the province, was first called Augusta Carolina, after the King, and later named St. Mary's County. Maryland_sentence_90

Lord Baltimore's first settlers arrived in the new colony in March 1634, with his younger brother the Honorable Leonard Calvert (1606–1647), as first provincial Governor of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_91

They made their first permanent settlement at St. Maryland_sentence_92 Mary's City in what is now St. Maryland_sentence_93 Mary's County. Maryland_sentence_94

They purchased the site from the paramount chief of the region, who was eager to establish trade. Maryland_sentence_95

St. Mary's became the first capital of Maryland, and remained so for 60 years until 1695. Maryland_sentence_96

More settlers soon followed. Maryland_sentence_97

Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the new colony profitable. Maryland_sentence_98

However, given the incidence of malaria, yellow fever and typhoid, life expectancy in Maryland was about 10 years less than in New England. Maryland_sentence_99

Persecution of Catholics Maryland_section_10

See also: Plundering Time Maryland_sentence_100

Maryland was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Roman Catholic minority. Maryland_sentence_101

Although Maryland was the most heavily Catholic of the English mainland colonies, the religion was still in the minority, consisting of less than 10% of the total population. Maryland_sentence_102

In 1642 a number of Puritans left Virginia for Maryland and founded Providence (now called Annapolis) on the western shore of the upper Chesapeake Bay. Maryland_sentence_103

A dispute with traders from Virginia over Kent Island in the Chesapeake led to armed conflict. Maryland_sentence_104

In 1644 William Claiborne, a Puritan, seized Kent Island while his associate, the pro-Parliament Puritan Richard Ingle, took over St. Mary's. Maryland_sentence_105

Both used religion as a tool to gain popular support. Maryland_sentence_106

The two years from 1644 to 1646 when Claiborne and his Puritan associates held sway were known as "The Plundering Time". Maryland_sentence_107

They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England. Maryland_sentence_108

In 1646 Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary's City, and restored order. Maryland_sentence_109

The House of Delegates passed the "Act concerning Religion" in 1649 granting religious liberty to all Trinitarian Christians. Maryland_sentence_110

In 1650 the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. Maryland_sentence_111

"Protestants swept the Catholics out of the legislature ... and religious strife returned." Maryland_sentence_112

The Puritans set up a new government prohibiting both Roman Catholicism and Anglicanism. Maryland_sentence_113

The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign, known as the "plundering time". Maryland_sentence_114

Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. Maryland_sentence_115

The Puritan rule lasted until 1658 when the Calvert family and Lord Baltimore regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act. Maryland_sentence_116

After England's "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, Maryland outlawed Catholicism. Maryland_sentence_117

In 1704, the Maryland General Assembly prohibited Catholics from operating schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children. Maryland_sentence_118

The celebration of the Catholic sacraments was also officially restricted. Maryland_sentence_119

This state of affairs lasted until after the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Maryland_sentence_120

Wealthy Catholic planters built chapels on their land to practice their religion in relative secrecy. Maryland_sentence_121

Into the 18th century, individual priests and lay leaders claimed Maryland farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed them in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations' owning property. Maryland_sentence_122

Border disputes (1681–1760) Maryland_section_11

Main articles: Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute and Cresap's War Maryland_sentence_123

The royal charter granted Maryland the land north of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel. Maryland_sentence_124

A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania. Maryland_sentence_125

The grant defined Pennsylvania's southern border as identical to Maryland's northern border, the 40th parallel. Maryland_sentence_126

But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia, the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony's capital city. Maryland_sentence_127

Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in 1681. Maryland_sentence_128

A compromise proposed by Charles II in 1682 was undermined by Penn's receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware. Maryland_sentence_129

Penn successfully argued that the Maryland charter entitled Lord Baltimore only to unsettled lands, and Dutch settlement in Delaware predated his charter. Maryland_sentence_130

The dispute remained unresolved for nearly a century, carried on by the descendants of William Penn and Lord Baltimore—the Calvert family, which controlled Maryland, and the Penn family, which controlled Pennsylvania. Maryland_sentence_131

The border dispute with Pennsylvania led to Cresap's War in the 1730s. Maryland_sentence_132

Hostilities erupted in 1730 and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in 1736 and by Pennsylvania in 1737. Maryland_sentence_133

The armed phase of the conflict ended in May 1738 with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire. Maryland_sentence_134

A provisional agreement had been established in 1732. Maryland_sentence_135

Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in 1760. Maryland_sentence_136

The agreement defined the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania as the line of latitude now known as the Mason–Dixon line. Maryland_sentence_137

Maryland's border with Delaware was based on a Transpeninsular Line and the Twelve-Mile Circle around New Castle. Maryland_sentence_138

18th century Maryland_section_12

Main articles: American Revolutionary War, Maryland in the American Revolution, Lee Resolution, United States Declaration of Independence, Philadelphia campaign, Articles of Confederation § Ratification, Treaty of Paris (1783), Mount Vernon Conference, Annapolis Convention (1786), Constitutional Convention (United States), Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Maryland_sentence_139

Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland as indentured servants, and had to serve a several years' term as laborers to pay for their passage. Maryland_sentence_140

In the early years, the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid, and white and black laborers commonly lived and worked together, and formed unions. Maryland_sentence_141

Mixed-race children born to white mothers were considered free by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia in 1662. Maryland_sentence_142

During the colonial era, families of free people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and African men. Maryland_sentence_143

Many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. Maryland_sentence_144

As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in England, planters in Maryland imported thousands more slaves and racial caste lines hardened. Maryland_sentence_145

The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco as the commodity crop. Maryland_sentence_146

Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Maryland_sentence_147

Near the end of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), on February 2, 1781, Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, first proposed in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778, which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state. Maryland_sentence_148

It also became the seventh state admitted to the Union after ratifying the new federal Constitution in 1788. Maryland_sentence_149

In December 1790, Maryland donated land selected by first President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of the new national capital of Washington, D.C. The land was provided along the north shore of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George's counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south shore of the Potomac in Virginia; however, the land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia was later returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession in 1846. Maryland_sentence_150

19th century Maryland_section_13

20th and 21st centuries Maryland_section_14

Birth data Maryland_section_15

As of 2011, 58.0 percent of Maryland's population younger than age 1 were minority background. Maryland_sentence_151

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Maryland_sentence_152

Maryland_table_general_3

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherMaryland_table_caption_3
RaceMaryland_header_cell_3_0_0 2013Maryland_header_cell_3_0_1 2014Maryland_header_cell_3_0_2 2015Maryland_header_cell_3_0_3 2016Maryland_header_cell_3_0_4 2017Maryland_header_cell_3_0_5 2018Maryland_header_cell_3_0_6
White:Maryland_cell_3_1_0 41,474 (57.6%)Maryland_cell_3_1_1 42,525 (57.5%)Maryland_cell_3_1_2 42,471 (57.7%)Maryland_cell_3_1_3 ...Maryland_cell_3_1_4 ...Maryland_cell_3_1_5 ...Maryland_cell_3_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteMaryland_cell_3_2_0 32,568 (45.2%)Maryland_cell_3_2_1 33,178 (44.9%)Maryland_cell_3_2_2 32,412 (44.0%)Maryland_cell_3_2_3 31,278 (42.8%)Maryland_cell_3_2_4 29,809 (41.6%)Maryland_cell_3_2_5 29,585 (41.6%)Maryland_cell_3_2_6
BlackMaryland_cell_3_3_0 24,764 (34.4%)Maryland_cell_3_3_1 25,339 (34.3%)Maryland_cell_3_3_2 25,017 (34.0%)Maryland_cell_3_3_3 22,829 (31.2%)Maryland_cell_3_3_4 22,327 (31.1%)Maryland_cell_3_3_5 21,893 (30.8%)Maryland_cell_3_3_6
AsianMaryland_cell_3_4_0 5,415 (7.5%)Maryland_cell_3_4_1 5,797 (7.8%)Maryland_cell_3_4_2 5,849 (7.9%)Maryland_cell_3_4_3 5,282 (7.2%)Maryland_cell_3_4_4 5,276 (7.3%)Maryland_cell_3_4_5 4,928 (6.9%)Maryland_cell_3_4_6
American IndianMaryland_cell_3_5_0 300 (0.4%)Maryland_cell_3_5_1 260 (0.3%)Maryland_cell_3_5_2 279 (0.4%)Maryland_cell_3_5_3 104 (0.1%)Maryland_cell_3_5_4 127 (0.2%)Maryland_cell_3_5_5 114 (0.2%)Maryland_cell_3_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Maryland_cell_3_6_0 10,515 (14.6%)Maryland_cell_3_6_1 10,974 (14.8%)Maryland_cell_3_6_2 11,750 (16.0%)Maryland_cell_3_6_3 11,872 (16.2%)Maryland_cell_3_6_4 12,223 (17.1%)Maryland_cell_3_6_5 12,470 (17.5%)Maryland_cell_3_6_6
Total MarylandMaryland_cell_3_7_0 71,953 (100%)Maryland_cell_3_7_1 73,921 (100%)Maryland_cell_3_7_2 73,616 (100%)Maryland_cell_3_7_3 73,136 (100%)Maryland_cell_3_7_4 71,641 (100%)Maryland_cell_3_7_5 71,080 (100%)Maryland_cell_3_7_6

Maryland_unordered_list_0

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Maryland_item_0_0

Language Maryland_section_16

Spanish (including Spanish Creole) is the second most spoken language in Maryland, after English. Maryland_sentence_153

The third and fourth most spoken languages are French (including Patois and Cajun) and Chinese. Maryland_sentence_154

Other commonly spoken languages include various African languages, Korean, German, Tagalog, Russian, Vietnamese, Italian, various Asian languages, Persian, Hindi and other Indic languages, Greek and Arabic. Maryland_sentence_155

Cities and metro areas Maryland_section_17

See also: Maryland statistical areas Maryland_sentence_156

Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area, both of which are part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. Maryland_sentence_157

The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D.C., as well as in and around Maryland's most populous city, Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_158

Historically, these and many other Maryland cities developed along the Fall Line, the line along which rivers, brooks, and streams are interrupted by rapids and/or waterfalls. Maryland_sentence_159

Maryland's capital city, Annapolis, is one exception to this pattern, since it lies along the banks of the Severn River, close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. Maryland_sentence_160

The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. Maryland_sentence_161

The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett, are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia and Appalachia more than they do the rest of the state. Maryland_sentence_162

Both eastern and western Maryland are, however, dotted with cities of regional importance, such as Ocean City, Princess Anne, and Salisbury on the Eastern Shore and Cumberland, Frostburg, and Hancock in Western Maryland. Maryland_sentence_163

Southern Maryland is still somewhat rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D.C. has encroached significantly since the 1960s; important local population centers include Lexington Park, Prince Frederick, and Waldorf. Maryland_sentence_164

Ancestry Maryland_section_18

Maryland_table_general_4

Maryland Racial Breakdown of PopulationMaryland_table_caption_4
Racial compositionMaryland_header_cell_4_0_0 1970Maryland_header_cell_4_0_1 1990Maryland_header_cell_4_0_2 2000Maryland_header_cell_4_0_3 2010Maryland_header_cell_4_0_4
WhiteMaryland_cell_4_1_0 81.5%Maryland_cell_4_1_1 71.0%Maryland_cell_4_1_2 64.0%Maryland_cell_4_1_3 60.8%Maryland_cell_4_1_4
BlackMaryland_cell_4_2_0 17.8%Maryland_cell_4_2_1 24.9%Maryland_cell_4_2_2 27.9%Maryland_cell_4_2_3 29.8%Maryland_cell_4_2_4
AsianMaryland_cell_4_3_0 0.5%Maryland_cell_4_3_1 2.9%Maryland_cell_4_3_2 4.0%Maryland_cell_4_3_3 5.5%Maryland_cell_4_3_4
NativeMaryland_cell_4_4_0 0.1%Maryland_cell_4_4_1 0.3%Maryland_cell_4_4_2 0.3%Maryland_cell_4_4_3 0.3%Maryland_cell_4_4_4
Other raceMaryland_cell_4_5_0 0.1%Maryland_cell_4_5_1 0.9%Maryland_cell_4_5_2 1.8%Maryland_cell_4_5_3 3.6%Maryland_cell_4_5_4
Two or more racesMaryland_cell_4_6_0 Maryland_cell_4_6_1 Maryland_cell_4_6_2 2.0%Maryland_cell_4_6_3 2.9%Maryland_cell_4_6_4
Non-Hispanic whitesMaryland_cell_4_7_0 80.4%Maryland_cell_4_7_1 69.6%Maryland_cell_4_7_2 62.1%Maryland_cell_4_7_3 54.7%Maryland_cell_4_7_4

In 1970 the Census Bureau reported Maryland's population as 17.8 percent African-American and 80.4 percent non-Hispanic White. Maryland_sentence_165

African Americans form a sizable portion of the state's population, nearly 30 percent in 2010. Maryland_sentence_166

Most are descendants of people transported to the area as slaves from West Africa, and many are of mixed race, including European and Native American ancestry. Maryland_sentence_167

Concentrations of African Americans live in Baltimore City, Prince George's County, a suburb of Washington, D.C., where many work; Charles County, western parts of Baltimore County, and the southern Eastern Shore. Maryland_sentence_168

New residents of African descent include 20th-century and later immigrants from Nigeria, particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes. Maryland_sentence_169

Maryland also hosts populations from other African and Caribbean nations. Maryland_sentence_170

Many immigrants from the Horn of Africa have settled in Maryland, with large communities existing in the suburbs of Washington, D.C. (particularly Montgomery County and Prince George's County) and the city of Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_171

The Greater Washington area has the largest population of Ethiopians outside of Africa. Maryland_sentence_172

The Ethiopian community of Greater DC was historically based in Washington, D.C.'s Adams Morgan and Shaw neighborhoods, but as the community has grown, many Ethiopians have settled in Silver Spring. Maryland_sentence_173

The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area is also home to large Eritrean and Somali communities. Maryland_sentence_174

The top reported ancestries by Maryland residents are: German (15%), Irish (11%), English (8%), American (7%), Italian (6%), and Polish (3%). Maryland_sentence_175

Irish American populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area, and the Northern and Eastern suburbs of Washington, D.C. in Maryland (descendants of those who moved out to the suburbs of Washington's once predominantly Irish neighborhoods), as well as Western Maryland, where Irish immigrant laborers helped to build the B & O Railroad. Maryland_sentence_176

Smaller but much older Irish populations can be found in Southern Maryland, with some roots dating as far back as the early Maryland colony. Maryland_sentence_177

This population, however, still remains culturally very active and yearly festivals are held. Maryland_sentence_178

A large percentage of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are descendants of British American ancestry. Maryland_sentence_179

The Eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics. Maryland_sentence_180

Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. Maryland_sentence_181

More recent European immigrants of the late 19th and early 20th century settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs. Maryland_sentence_182

Many of their ethnic Italian, Polish, Czech, Lithuanian, and Greek descendants still live in the area. Maryland_sentence_183

Large ethnic minorities include Eastern Europeans such as Croatians, Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians. Maryland_sentence_184

The shares of European immigrants born in Eastern Europe increased significantly between 1990 and 2010. Maryland_sentence_185

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe came to the United States—12 percent of whom currently reside in Maryland. Maryland_sentence_186

Hispanic immigrants of the later 20th century have settled in Aspen Hill, Hyattsville/Langley Park, Glenmont/Wheaton, Bladensburg, Riverdale Park, Gaithersburg, as well as Highlandtown and Greektown in East Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_187

Salvadorans are the largest Hispanic group in Maryland. Maryland_sentence_188

Other Hispanic groups with significant populations in the state include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans. Maryland_sentence_189

Though the Salvadoran population is more concentrated in the area around Washington, D.C., and the Puerto Rican population is more concentrated in the Baltimore area, all other major Hispanic groups in the state are evenly dispersed between these two areas. Maryland_sentence_190

Maryland has one of the most diverse Hispanic populations in the country, with significant populations from various Caribbean and Central American nations. Maryland_sentence_191

Asian Americans are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D.C. and in Howard County, with Korean American and Taiwanese American communities in Rockville, Gaithersburg, and Germantown and a Filipino American community in Fort Washington. Maryland_sentence_192

Numerous Indian Americans live across the state, especially in central Maryland. Maryland_sentence_193

Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the country. Maryland_sentence_194

In 2006 645,744 were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. Maryland_sentence_195

About four percent are undocumented immigrants. Maryland_sentence_196

Maryland also has a large Korean American population. Maryland_sentence_197

In fact, 1.7 percent are Korean, while as a whole, almost 6.0 percent are Asian. Maryland_sentence_198

According to The Williams Institute's analysis of the 2010 U.S. Census, 12,538 same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households. Maryland_sentence_199

As of 2019, non-Hispanic white Americans were 49.8% of Maryland's population (White Americans, including White Hispanics, were 57.3%), making Maryland a majority minority state. Maryland_sentence_200

50.2% of Maryland's population is non-white and/or Hispanic/Latino, the highest percentage of any state on the East Coast and the highest percentage after the majority minority states of Hawaii, New Mexico, Texas, California and Nevada. Maryland_sentence_201

By 2031, minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_202

Religion Maryland_section_19

Maryland has been historically prominent to American Catholic tradition because the English colony of Maryland was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics. Maryland_sentence_203

Baltimore was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U.S. (1789), and Emmitsburg was the home and burial place of the first American-born citizen to be canonized, St. Maryland_sentence_204 Elizabeth Ann Seton. Maryland_sentence_205

Georgetown University, the first Catholic University, was founded in 1789 in what was then part of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_206

The Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Baltimore was the first Roman Catholic cathedral built in the United States, and the Archbishop of Baltimore is, albeit without formal primacy, the United States' quasi-primate, and often a cardinal. Maryland_sentence_207

Among the immigrants of the 19th and 20th century from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics. Maryland_sentence_208

Despite its historic relevance to the Catholic Church in the United States, the percentage of Catholics in the state of Maryland is below the national average of 20%. Maryland_sentence_209

Demographically, both Protestants and those identifying no religion are more numerous than Catholics. Maryland_sentence_210

According to Pew Research Center, 69 percent of Maryland's population identifies themselves as Christian. Maryland_sentence_211

Nearly 52% of the adult population are Protestants. Maryland_sentence_212

Following Protestantism, Catholicism is the second largest religious affiliation, comprising 15% percent of the population. Maryland_sentence_213

Amish/Mennonite communities are found in St. Maryland_sentence_214 Mary's, Garrett, and Cecil counties. Maryland_sentence_215

Judaism is the largest non-Christian religion in Maryland with 241,000 adherents, or four percent of the total population. Maryland_sentence_216

Jews are numerous throughout Montgomery County and in Pikesville and Owings Mills northwest of Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_217

An estimated 81,500 Jewish Americans live in Montgomery County, constituting approximately 10% of the total population. Maryland_sentence_218

The Seventh-day Adventist Church's world headquarters and Ahmadiyya Muslims' national headquarters are located in Silver Spring, just outside the District of Columbia. Maryland_sentence_219

Economy Maryland_section_20

See also: Business in Maryland, List of federal installations in Maryland, List of shopping malls in Maryland, and Maryland locations by per capita income Maryland_sentence_220

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maryland's gross state product in 2016 was $382.4 billion. Maryland_sentence_221

However, Maryland has been using Genuine Progress Indicator, an indicator of well-being, to guide the state's development, rather than relying only on growth indicators like GDP. Maryland_sentence_222

According to the U.S. Maryland_sentence_223 Census Bureau, Maryland households are currently the wealthiest in the country, with a 2013 median household income of $72,483 which puts it ahead of New Jersey and Connecticut, which are second and third respectively. Maryland_sentence_224

Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively. Maryland_sentence_225

Maryland has the most millionaires per capita in 2013, with a ratio of 7.7 percent. Maryland_sentence_226

Also, the state's poverty rate of 7.8 percent is the lowest in the country. Maryland_sentence_227

per capita personal income in 2006 was $43,500, fifth in the nation. Maryland_sentence_228

As of February 2018, the state's unemployment rate was 4.2 percent. Maryland_sentence_229

Maryland's economy benefits from the state's close proximity to the federal government in Washington, D.C. with an emphasis on technical and administrative tasks for the defense/aerospace industry and bio-research laboratories, as well as staffing of satellite government headquarters in the suburban or exurban Baltimore/Washington area. Maryland_sentence_230

Ft. Meade serves as the headquarters of the Defense Information Systems Agency, United States Cyber Command, and the National Security Agency/Central Security Service. Maryland_sentence_231

In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state. Maryland_sentence_232

In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area. Maryland_sentence_233

Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percent of Maryland's labor force, attributable in part to nearby Maryland being a part of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government office employment is relatively high. Maryland_sentence_234

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percent of the total. Maryland_sentence_235

Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. Maryland_sentence_236

The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point, still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies, and mergers. Maryland_sentence_237

During World War II the Glenn Martin Company (now part of Lockheed Martin) airplane factory employed some 40,000 people. Maryland_sentence_238

Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state. Maryland_sentence_239

The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the mid-19th century, were once a predominant natural resource. Maryland_sentence_240

Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist. Maryland_sentence_241

Baltimore port Maryland_section_21

One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. Maryland_sentence_242

The port ranked 17th in the U.S. by tonnage in 2008. Maryland_sentence_243

Although the port handles a wide variety of products, the most typical imports are raw materials and bulk commodities, such as iron ore, petroleum, sugar, and fertilizers, often distributed to the relatively close manufacturing centers of the inland Midwest via good overland transportation. Maryland_sentence_244

The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one auto port in the U.S. Maryland_sentence_245

Baltimore City is among the top 15 largest ports in the nation, and was one of six major U.S. ports that were part of the February 2006 controversy over the Dubai Ports World deal. Maryland_sentence_246

The state as a whole is heavily industrialized, with a booming economy and influential technology centers. Maryland_sentence_247

Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area. Maryland_sentence_248

Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs. Maryland_sentence_249

The Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is a 14 miles (23 km) canal on the Eastern Shore that connects the waters of the Delaware River with those of the Chesapeake Bay, and in particular with the Port of Baltimore, carrying 40 percent of the port's ship traffic. Maryland_sentence_250

Agriculture and fishing Maryland_section_22

Maryland has a large food-production sector. Maryland_sentence_251

A large component of this is commercial fishing, centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast. Maryland_sentence_252

The largest catches by species are the blue crab, oysters, striped bass, and menhaden. Maryland_sentence_253

The Bay also has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges. Maryland_sentence_254

The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen. Maryland_sentence_255

Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization. Maryland_sentence_256

Agriculture is oriented to dairy farming (especially in foothill and piedmont areas) for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers, watermelons, sweet corn, tomatoes, muskmelons, squash, and peas (Source:USDA Crop Profiles). Maryland_sentence_257

The southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the 1990s. Maryland_sentence_258

There is also a large automated chicken-farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms. Maryland_sentence_259

Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state. Maryland_sentence_260

Biotechnology Maryland_section_23

Maryland is a major center for life sciences research and development. Maryland_sentence_261

With more than 400 biotechnology companies located there, Maryland is the fourth-largest nexus in this field in the United States. Maryland_sentence_262

Institutions and government agencies with an interest in research and development located in Maryland include the Johns Hopkins University, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, more than one campus of the University System of Maryland, Goddard Space Flight Center, the United States Census Bureau, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Celera Genomics company, the J. Maryland_sentence_263 Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), and AstraZeneca (formerly MedImmune). Maryland_sentence_264

Maryland is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions, which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.S. government military personnel. Maryland_sentence_265

Tourism Maryland_section_24

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland Maryland_sentence_266

Tourism is popular in Maryland, with tourists visiting the city of Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland, as well as many passing through on the way to Washington, D.C. Baltimore attractions include the Harborplace, the Baltimore Aquarium, Fort McHenry, as well as the Camden Yards baseball stadium. Maryland_sentence_267

Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach destination in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in 1952 connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland cities. Maryland_sentence_268

The state capital of Annapolis offers sites such as the state capitol building, the historic district, and the waterfront. Maryland_sentence_269

Maryland also has several sites of interest to military history, given Maryland's role in the American Civil War and in the War of 1812. Maryland_sentence_270

Other attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay, such as Saint Mary's, Maryland's first colonial settlement and original capital. Maryland_sentence_271

Healthcare Maryland_section_25

Main articles: List of hospitals in Maryland and Maryland hospital payment system Maryland_sentence_272

As of 2017, the top two health insurers including all types of insurance were CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield with 47% market share followed by UnitedHealth Group at 15%. Maryland_sentence_273

Maryland has experimented with healthcare payment reforms, notably beginning in the 1970s with an all-payer rate setting program regulated by the Health Services Cost Review Commission. Maryland_sentence_274

In 2014, it switched to a global budget revenue system, whereby hospitals receive a capitated payment to care for their population. Maryland_sentence_275

Transportation Maryland_section_26

The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies. Maryland_sentence_276

The independent Maryland Transportation Authority maintains and operates the state's eight toll facilities. Maryland_sentence_277

Roads Maryland_section_27

See also: List of Interstate Highways in Maryland, List of Maryland state highways, List of minor Maryland state highways, and List of former Maryland state highways Maryland_sentence_278

Maryland's Interstate highways include 110 miles (180 km) of Interstate 95 (I-95), which enters the northeast portion of the state, travels through Baltimore, and becomes part of the eastern section of the Capital Beltway to the Woodrow Wilson Bridge. Maryland_sentence_279

I-68 travels 81 miles (130 km), connecting the western portions of the state to I-70 at the small town of Hancock. Maryland_sentence_280

I-70 enters from Pennsylvania north of Hancock and continues east for 93 miles (150 km) to Baltimore, connecting Hagerstown and Frederick along the way. Maryland_sentence_281

I-83 has 34 miles (55 km) in Maryland and connects Baltimore to southern central Pennsylvania (Harrisburg and York, Pennsylvania). Maryland_sentence_282

Maryland also has an 11-mile (18 km) portion of I-81 that travels through the state near Hagerstown. Maryland_sentence_283

I-97, fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest (17.6 miles (28.3 km)) one- or two-digit interstate highway in the contiguous US, connects the Baltimore area to the Annapolis area. Maryland_sentence_284

There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Maryland_sentence_285

Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I-695, the McKeldin (Baltimore) Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; and a portion of I-495, the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.C. I-270, which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points. Maryland_sentence_286

I-895, also known as the Harbor Tunnel Thruway, provides an alternate route to I-95 across the Baltimore Harbor. Maryland_sentence_287

Both I-270 and the Capital Beltway were extremely congested; however, the Intercounty Connector (ICC; MD 200) has alleviated some of the congestion over time. Maryland_sentence_288

Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich, who was in office from 2003 until 2007, and of Governor Martin O'Malley, who succeeded him. Maryland_sentence_289

I-595, which is an unsigned highway concurrent with US 50/US 301, is the longest unsigned interstate in the country and connects Prince George's County and Washington, D.C. with Annapolis and the Eastern Shore via the Chesapeake Bay Bridge. Maryland_sentence_290

Maryland also has a state highway system that contains routes numbered from 2 through 999, however most of the higher-numbered routes are either unsigned or are relatively short. Maryland_sentence_291

Major state highways include Routes 2 (Governor Ritchie Highway/Solomons Island Road/Southern Maryland Blvd. Maryland_sentence_292

), 4 ([[Pennsylvania_Avenue_(Washington,_D.C. Maryland_sentence_293

)|Pennsylvania Avenue]]/Southern Maryland Blvd./Patuxent Beach Road/St. Maryland_sentence_294

Andrew's Church Road), 5 (Branch Avenue/Leonardtown Road/Point Lookout Road), 32, 45 (York Road), 97 (Georgia Avenue), 100 (Paul T. Pitcher Memorial Highway), 210 (Indian Head Highway), 235 (Three Notch Road), 295 (Baltimore-Washington Parkway), 355 (Wisconsin Avenue/Rockville Pike/Frederick Road), 404 (Queen Anne Highway/ Shore Highway), and 650 (New Hampshire Avenue). Maryland_sentence_295

Airports Maryland_section_28

See also: Aviation in Maryland and List of airports in Maryland Maryland_sentence_296

Maryland's largest airport is Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, more commonly referred to as BWI. Maryland_sentence_297

The airport is named for the Baltimore-born Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court justice. Maryland_sentence_298

The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. Maryland_sentence_299

The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C. are also served by the other two airports in the region, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International Airport, both in Northern Virginia. Maryland_sentence_300

The College Park Airport is the nation's oldest, founded in 1909, and is still used. Maryland_sentence_301

Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this location. Maryland_sentence_302

Rail Maryland_section_29

See also: List of Maryland railroads Maryland_sentence_303

Amtrak trains, including the high speed Acela Express serve Baltimore's Penn Station, BWI Airport, New Carrollton, and Aberdeen along the Washington, D.C. to Boston Northeast Corridor. Maryland_sentence_304

In addition, train service is provided to Rockville and Cumberland by Amtrak's Washington, D.C., to Chicago Capitol Limited. Maryland_sentence_305

The WMATA's Metrorail rapid transit and [[Metrobus_(Washington,_D.C. Maryland_sentence_306

)|Metrobus]] local bus systems (the 2nd and 6th busiest in the nation of their respective modes) provide service in Montgomery and Prince George's counties and connect them to Washington, D.C., with the express Metrobus Route B30 serving BWI Airport. Maryland_sentence_307

The Maryland Transit Administration (often abbreviated as "MTA Maryland"), a state agency part of the Maryland Department of Transportation also provides transit services within the state. Maryland_sentence_308

Headquartered in Baltimore, MTA's transit services are largely focused on central Maryland, as well as some portions of the Eastern Shore and Southern MD. Maryland_sentence_309

Baltimore's Light RailLink and Metro SubwayLink systems serve its densely populated inner-city and the surrounding suburbs. Maryland_sentence_310

The MTA also serves the city and its suburbs with its local bus service (the 9th largest system in the nation). Maryland_sentence_311

The MTA's Commuter Bus system provides express coach service on longer routes connecting Washington, D.C. and Baltimore to parts of Central and Southern MD as well as the Eastern Shore. Maryland_sentence_312

The commuter rail service, known as MARC, operates three lines which all terminate at Washington Union Station and provide service to Baltimore's Penn and Camden stations, Perryville, Frederick, and Martinsburg, WV. Maryland_sentence_313

In addition, many suburban counties operate their own local bus systems which connect to and complement the larger MTA and WMATA/Metro services. Maryland_sentence_314

Freight rail transport is handled principally by two Class I railroads, as well as several smaller regional and local carriers. Maryland_sentence_315

CSX Transportation has more extensive trackage throughout the state, with 560 miles (900 km), followed by Norfolk Southern Railway. Maryland_sentence_316

Major rail yards are located in Baltimore and Cumberland, with an intermodal terminal (rail, truck and marine) in Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_317

Law and government Maryland_section_30

Main article: Government of Maryland Maryland_sentence_318

See also: List of Governors of Maryland, Maryland Army National Guard, and Maryland Air National Guard Maryland_sentence_319

The government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. Maryland_sentence_320

The government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments, has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States. Maryland_sentence_321

Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. Maryland_sentence_322

The Maryland General Assembly is composed of the Maryland House of Delegates and the Maryland Senate. Maryland_sentence_323

Maryland's governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. Maryland_sentence_324

The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Maryland_sentence_325

Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties. Maryland_sentence_326

Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis, the state capital. Maryland_sentence_327

Elections for governor and most statewide offices, as well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years (even-numbered years not divisible by four). Maryland_sentence_328

The judicial branch of state government consists of one united District Court of Maryland that sits in every county and Baltimore City, as well as 24 Circuit Courts sitting in each County and Baltimore City, the latter being courts of general jurisdiction for all civil disputes over $30,000, all equitable jurisdiction and major criminal proceedings. Maryland_sentence_329

The intermediate appellate court is known as the Court of Special Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals. Maryland_sentence_330

The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique; Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes. Maryland_sentence_331

Taxation Maryland_section_31

Maryland imposes five income tax brackets, ranging from 2 to 6.25 percent of personal income. Maryland_sentence_332

The city of Baltimore and Maryland's 23 counties levy local "piggyback" income taxes at rates between 1.25 and 3.2 percent of Maryland taxable income. Maryland_sentence_333

Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. Maryland_sentence_334

The top income tax bracket of 9.45 percent is the fifth highest combined state and local income tax rates in the country, behind New York City's 11.35 percent, California's 10.3 percent, Rhode Island's 9.9 percent, and Vermont's 9.5 percent. Maryland_sentence_335

Maryland's state sales tax is six percent. Maryland_sentence_336

All real property in Maryland is subject to the property tax. Maryland_sentence_337

Generally, properties that are owned and used by religious, charitable, or educational organizations or property owned by the federal, state or local governments are exempt. Maryland_sentence_338

Property tax rates vary widely. Maryland_sentence_339

No restrictions or limitations on property taxes are imposed by the state, meaning cities and counties can set tax rates at the level they deem necessary to fund governmental services. Maryland_sentence_340

Elections Maryland_section_32

Main article: Elections in Maryland Maryland_sentence_341

Further information: Political party strength in Maryland Maryland_sentence_342

Since before the Civil War, Maryland's elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats, which account for 54.9% of all registered voters as of May 2017. Maryland_sentence_343

State elections are dominated by Baltimore and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.C. and Baltimore: Montgomery, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore counties. Maryland_sentence_344

As of July 2017, sixty-six percent of the state's population resides in these six jurisdictions, most of which contain large, traditionally Democratic voting bloc(s): African Americans in Baltimore City and Prince George's, federal employees in Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery, and postgraduates in Montgomery. Maryland_sentence_345

The remainder of the state, particularly Western Maryland and the Eastern Shore, is more supportive of Republicans. Maryland_sentence_346

One of Maryland's best known political figures is a Republican—former governor Spiro Agnew, who pled no contest to tax evasion and resigned in 1973. Maryland_sentence_347

In 1980, Maryland was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. Maryland_sentence_348

In 1992, Bill Clinton fared better in Maryland than any other state except his home state of Arkansas. Maryland_sentence_349

In 1996, Maryland was Clinton's sixth best; in 2000, Maryland ranked fourth for Gore; and in 2004, John Kerry showed his fifth-best performance in Maryland. Maryland_sentence_350

In 2008, Barack Obama won the state's 10 electoral votes with 61.9 percent of the vote to John McCain's 36.5 percent. Maryland_sentence_351

In 2002, former Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor and Democrat Martin O'Malley. Maryland_sentence_352

Ehrlich ran again for governor in 2010, losing again to O'Malley. Maryland_sentence_353

The 2006 election brought no change in the pattern of Democratic dominance. Maryland_sentence_354

After Democratic Senator Paul Sarbanes announced that he was retiring, Democratic Congressman Benjamin Cardin defeated Republican Lieutenant Governor Michael S. Steele, with 55 percent of the vote, against Steele's 44 percent. Maryland_sentence_355

While Republicans usually win more counties, by piling up large margins in the west and east, they are also usually swamped by the more densely populated and heavily Democratic Baltimore–Washington axis. Maryland_sentence_356

In 2008, for instance, McCain won 17 counties to Obama's six; Obama also carried Baltimore City. Maryland_sentence_357

While McCain won most of the western and eastern counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was almost completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore and Washington; every large county except Anne Arundel went for Obama. Maryland_sentence_358

From 2007 to 2011, U.S. Maryland_sentence_359

Congressman Steny Hoyer (MD-5), a Democrat, was elected as Majority Leader for the 110th Congress and 111th Congress of the House of Representatives, serving in that post again starting in 2019. Maryland_sentence_360

In addition, Hoyer served as House Minority Whip from 2003 to 2006 and 2012 to 2018. Maryland_sentence_361

His district covers parts of Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, in addition to all of Charles, Calvert and St. Maryland_sentence_362 Mary's counties in southern Maryland. Maryland_sentence_363

In 2010, Republicans won control of most counties. Maryland_sentence_364

The Democratic Party remained in control of eight county governments including Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_365

In 2014, Larry Hogan, a Republican, was elected Governor of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_366

Hogan is the second Republican to become the Governor of Maryland since Spiro Agnew, who resigned in 1969 to become vice president. Maryland_sentence_367

In 2018, Hogan was reelected to a second term of office. Maryland_sentence_368

LGBT rights and community Maryland_section_33

In February 2010, Attorney General Doug Gansler issued an opinion stating that Maryland law should honor same-sex marriages from out of state. Maryland_sentence_369

At the time, the state Supreme Court wrote a decision upholding marriage discrimination. Maryland_sentence_370

On March 1, 2012, Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley signed the freedom to marry bill into law after it passed in the state legislature. Maryland_sentence_371

Immediately after, opponents of same-sex marriage began collecting signatures to overturn the law. Maryland_sentence_372

The law was scheduled to face a referendum, as Question 6, in the November 2012 election. Maryland_sentence_373

In May 2012, Maryland's Court of Appeals ruled that the state will recognize marriages of same-sex couples who married out-of-state, no matter the outcome of the November election. Maryland_sentence_374

Voters voted 52% to 48% for Question 6 on November 6, 2012. Maryland_sentence_375

Same-sex couples began marrying in Maryland on January 1, 2013. Maryland_sentence_376

A large majority (57%) of Maryland voters said they would vote to uphold the freedom to marry at the ballot in November 2012, with 37% saying they would vote against marriage for all couples. Maryland_sentence_377

This is consistent with a January 2011 Gonzales Research & Marketing Strategies poll showing 51% support for marriage in the state. Maryland_sentence_378

Media Maryland_section_34

A well known newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. Maryland_sentence_379

The most populous areas are served by either Baltimore or Washington, D.C. broadcast stations. Maryland_sentence_380

The Eastern Shore is served primarily by broadcast media based around the Delmarva Peninsula; the northeastern section receives both Baltimore and Philadelphia stations. Maryland_sentence_381

Garrett County, which is mountainous, is served by stations from Pittsburgh, and requires cable or satellite for reception. Maryland_sentence_382

Maryland is served by state-wide PBS member station Maryland Public Television (MPT). Maryland_sentence_383

Education Maryland_section_35

Primary and secondary education Maryland_section_36

See also: List of school districts in Maryland, List of high schools in Maryland, and Arts and culture of Maryland Maryland_sentence_384

Education Week ranked Maryland #1 in its nationwide 2009–2013 Quality Counts reports. Maryland_sentence_385

The College Board's 9th Annual AP Report to the Nation also ranked Maryland first. Maryland_sentence_386

Primary and secondary education in Maryland is overseen by the Maryland State Department of Education, which is headquartered in Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_387

The highest educational official in the state is the State Superintendent of Schools, who is appointed by the State Board of Education to a four-year term of office. Maryland_sentence_388

The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day-to-day functions of public education. Maryland_sentence_389

Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction. Maryland_sentence_390

The budget for education was $5.5 billion in 2009, representing about 40 percent of the state's general fund. Maryland_sentence_391

Maryland has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Maryland_sentence_392

Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church, Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools. Maryland_sentence_393

In 2003, Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws. Maryland_sentence_394

In 2008, the state led the entire country in the percentage of students passing Advanced Placement examinations. Maryland_sentence_395

23.4 percent of students earned passing grades on the AP tests given in May 2008. Maryland_sentence_396

This marks the first year that Maryland earned this honor. Maryland_sentence_397

Three Maryland high schools (in Montgomery County) were ranked among the top 100 in the country by US News in 2009, based in large part on AP test scores. Maryland_sentence_398

Colleges and universities Maryland_section_37

See also: List of colleges and universities in Maryland Maryland_sentence_399

Maryland has several historic and renowned private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876 with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins. Maryland_sentence_400

The first public university in the state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore, which was founded in 1807 and contains the University of Maryland's only public academic health, human services, and one of two law centers (the other being the University of Baltimore School of Law). Maryland_sentence_401

Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the state's physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists. Maryland_sentence_402

The flagship university and largest undergraduate institution in Maryland is the University of Maryland, College Park which was founded as the Maryland Agricultural College in 1856 and became a public land grant college in 1864. Maryland_sentence_403

Towson University, founded in 1866, is the state's second largest university. Maryland_sentence_404

In 1974, Maryland, along with seven other states, mainly in the South, submitted plans to desegregate its state universities; Maryland's plans were approved by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Maryland_sentence_405

Baltimore is home to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and the Maryland Institute College of Art. Maryland_sentence_406

The majority of public universities in the state (Bowie State University, Coppin State University, Frostburg State University, Salisbury University and the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore) are affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_407

Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. Maryland_sentence_408 Mary's College of Maryland, as well as two federally funded institutions, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and the United States Naval Academy, are not affiliated with the University System of Maryland. Maryland_sentence_409

The University of Maryland Global Campus is the largest public university in Maryland and one of the largest distance-learning institutions in the world. Maryland_sentence_410

St. John's College in Annapolis and Washington College in Chestertown, both private institutions, are the oldest colleges in the state and among the oldest in the country. Maryland_sentence_411

Other private institutions include Mount St. Mary's University, McDaniel College (formerly known as Western Maryland College), Hood College, Stevenson University (formerly known as Villa Julie College), Loyola University Maryland, and Goucher College, among others. Maryland_sentence_412

Public libraries Maryland_section_38

Maryland's 24 public library systems deliver public education for everyone in the state of Maryland through a curriculum that comprises three pillars: Self-Directed Education (books and materials in all formats, e-resources), Research Assistance & Instruction (individualized research assistance, classes for students of all ages), and Instructive & Enlightening Experiences (e.g., Summer Reading Clubs, author events). Maryland_sentence_413

Maryland's library systems include, in part: Maryland_sentence_414

Maryland_unordered_list_1

Many of the library systems have established formalized partnerships with other educational institutions in their counties and regions. Maryland_sentence_415

Sports Maryland_section_39

See also: Sports in Maryland and List of people from Maryland § Athletes Maryland_sentence_416

With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Maryland_sentence_417

Two National Football League teams play in Maryland, the Baltimore Ravens in Baltimore and the Washington Football Team in Landover. Maryland_sentence_418

The Baltimore Colts represented the NFL in Baltimore from 1953 to 1983 before moving to Indianapolis. Maryland_sentence_419

The Baltimore Orioles are the state's Major League Baseball franchise. Maryland_sentence_420

The National Hockey League's Washington Capitals and the National Basketball Association's Washington Wizards formerly played in Maryland, until the construction of an arena in Washington, D.C. in 1997 (now known as Capital One Arena). Maryland_sentence_421

Maryland enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including Cal Ripken Jr. and Babe Ruth. Maryland_sentence_422

In 2012, The Baltimore Sun published a list of Maryland's top ten athletes in the state's history. Maryland_sentence_423

The list includes Babe Ruth, Cal Ripken Jr, Johnny Unitas, Brooks Robinson, Frank Robinson, Ray Lewis, Michael Phelps, Jimmie Foxx, Jim Parker, and Wes Unseld. Maryland_sentence_424

Other professional sports franchises in the state include five affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, the Baltimore Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, three low-level outdoor soccer teams, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks of Major League Lacrosse. Maryland_sentence_425

Maryland is also home to one of the three races in horse racing's annual Triple Crown, the Preakness Stakes, which is run every spring at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_426

The Congressional Country Club has hosted three golf tournaments for the U.S. Open and a PGA Championship. Maryland_sentence_427

The official state sport of Maryland, since 1962, is jousting; the official team sport since 2004 is lacrosse. Maryland_sentence_428

The National Lacrosse Hall of Fame is located on the Johns Hopkins University campus in Baltimore. Maryland_sentence_429

In 2008, intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise. Maryland_sentence_430

Maryland is the first state with an official state exercise. Maryland_sentence_431

See also Maryland_section_40

Maryland_unordered_list_2

External Links Maryland_section_41

Maryland_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maryland.