Parental leave

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"Maternity leave" and "Paternity leave" redirect here. Parental leave_sentence_0

For other uses, see Maternity Leave (Lost) and Paternity Leave (film). Parental leave_sentence_1

Parental leave, or family leave, is an employee benefit available in almost all countries. Parental leave_sentence_2

The term "parental leave" may include maternity, paternity, and adoption leave; or may be used distinctively from "maternity leave" and "paternity leave" to describe separate family leave available to either parent to care for small children. Parental leave_sentence_3

In some countries and jurisdictions, "family leave" also includes leave provided to care for ill family members. Parental leave_sentence_4

Often, the minimum benefits and eligibility requirements are stipulated by law. Parental leave_sentence_5

Unpaid parental or family leave is provided when an employer is required to hold an employee's job while that employee is taking leave. Parental leave_sentence_6

Paid parental or family leave provides paid time off work to care for or make arrangements for the welfare of a child or dependent family member. Parental leave_sentence_7

The three most common models of funding are government-mandated social insurance/social security (where employees, employers, or taxpayers in general contribute to a specific public fund), employer liability (where the employer must pay the employee for the length of leave), and mixed policies that combine both social security and employer liability. Parental leave_sentence_8

Parental leave has been available as a legal right and/or governmental program for many years, in one form or another. Parental leave_sentence_9

In 2014, the International Labour Organization reviewed parental leave policies in 185 countries and territories, and found that all countries except Papua New Guinea have laws mandating some form of parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_10

A different study showed that of 186 countries examined, 96% offered some pay to mothers during leave, but only 44% of those countries offered the same for fathers. Parental leave_sentence_11

The United States, Suriname, Papua New Guinea, and a few island countries in the Pacific Ocean are the only countries in the United Nations that do not require employers to provide paid time off for new parents. Parental leave_sentence_12

Private employers sometimes provide either or both unpaid and paid parental leave outside of or in addition to any legal mandate. Parental leave_sentence_13

Economic models Parental leave_section_0

Benefits of universal, paid parental leave Parental leave_section_1

Capabilities approach Parental leave_section_2

Jeremiah Carter and Martha Nussbaum have developed a political model known as the capabilities approach, where basic freedoms and opportunities are included in economic assessments of a country's well-being, in addition to GDP. Parental leave_sentence_14

Nussbaum proposed 11 central capabilities as the minimum requirement for a decent society. Parental leave_sentence_15

In Nussbaum's model, states should provide the resources and freedoms to ensure people have the opportunity to achieve a minimum threshold of each central capability. Parental leave_sentence_16

Universal, paid parental leave is an example resource states can provide so people have the option of starting a family while also working; for instance, under capacity 10 (control of one's environment), the state has a responsibility to ensure all people have "the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others." Parental leave_sentence_17

Income and workforce Parental leave_section_3

Paid parental leave incentivizes labor market attachment for women both before and after birth, affecting GDP and national productivity, as the workforce is larger. Parental leave_sentence_18

Parental leave increases income at the household level as well by supporting dual-earner families. Parental leave_sentence_19

Paid parental leave incentivizes childbirth, which affects the future workforce. Parental leave_sentence_20

It is thus argued that paid parental leave, in contrast to unpaid parental leave, is harmful to children's welfare because in countries with an aging workforce or countries with sub-replacement fertility, children are born not because the parents want the child and can meet the child's needs but because children are expected to support their parents. Parental leave_sentence_21

Some see children as responsible for supporting all those in older generations in the society (not just the child's specific parents); their earnings are expected not to be saved for the children's own old age, but to be spent on the earlier generations' demand for social security and pensions for which there was inadequate savings. Parental leave_sentence_22

Challenges to universal, paid leave Parental leave_section_4

Statistical discrimination Parental leave_section_5

The neoclassical model of labor markets predicts that, if the cost of hiring women of child-bearing years is anticipated to increase (either because the employer is mandated to pay for maternity leave or because she will be absent from work on public leave), then the "demand" for women in the labor market will decrease. Parental leave_sentence_23

While gender discrimination is illegal, without some kind of remedy the neoclassical model would predict "statistical discrimination" against hiring women of child-bearing years. Parental leave_sentence_24

To counteract this, some countries have introduced policies to increase rates of paternity leave to spread the cost impact more evenly across the labor market. Parental leave_sentence_25

Occupational sex segregation Parental leave_section_6

If women take long parental leaves, the neoclassical model would predict that their lifetime earnings and opportunities for promotion will be less than their male or childfree counterparts—the "motherhood penalty". Parental leave_sentence_26

Women may seek out employment sectors that are "family-friendly" (i.e., with generous parental leave policies), resulting in occupational sex segregation. Parental leave_sentence_27

Nielsen, Simonsen, and Verner examine what the different outcomes for women in Denmark are between the "family-friendly" and the "non-family-friendly" sector. Parental leave_sentence_28

In Denmark, the public sector is "family-friendly" because of its generous leave and employee benefits; workers decide which sector to work in based on their preferences and opportunities. Parental leave_sentence_29

The study found that, while in the "family-friendly" sector there was basically no wage loss related to taking parental leave, women did have consistent earnings loss in the "non-family-friendly" private sector for one year's leave. Parental leave_sentence_30

Cost Parental leave_section_7

Universal, paid parental leave can be privately funded (i.e., corporations are mandated to absorb the cost of paid parental time off as part of employee benefits) or publicly funded (i.e., transferred directly to workers on leave, like unemployment insurance). Parental leave_sentence_31

Concerns about private funding include the statistical discrimination described above as well as the costs to smaller businesses. Parental leave_sentence_32

Datta Gupta, Smith, & Verneer found in 2008 that, while publicly funded parental leave has benefits, it is very expensive to fund and question if it is the most cost-effective use of funds. Parental leave_sentence_33

Criticism of the 'father quota' Parental leave_section_8

Main article: Father's quota Parental leave_sentence_34

The father's quota is a policy implemented by some countries or companies that reserves a part of the parental leave or other types of family leave for the father. Parental leave_sentence_35

If the father does not take this reserved part of leave, the family loses that leave period—that is, it cannot be transferred to the mother. Parental leave_sentence_36

Given the high rates of women's participation in the formal labor force in many parts of the world, there is increasing interest among social scientists and policymakers in supporting a more equal division of labor between partners. Parental leave_sentence_37

Some critics question whether such policies are evidence-based and express concern that they are "a social experiment, the effects of which are unknown". Parental leave_sentence_38

However, other studies have shown that paternity leave improves bonds between fathers and children and also helps mitigate the wage gap women face after taking maternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_39

Other psychological perspectives summarise evidence and find that the role of a father in child development is very similar to that of a mother, counteracting the concern that greater paternal involvement in childcare could lead to unforeseen negative consequences. Parental leave_sentence_40

Criticism is often less concerned about the idea of paternity leave itself, but condemns the fact that father's quota policies do not allow that time to be allocated to the mother instead. Parental leave_sentence_41

Critics argue that the quota harms mothers, depriving them of much needed leave, trivializes biological realities, and is an example of discrimination against mothers. Parental leave_sentence_42

In the European Union, non-transferable parental leave remains a controversial issue. Parental leave_sentence_43

It was first introduced by the Parental Leave Directive 2010, which required at least one month of the minimum four months of parental leave be non-nontransferable; this non-transferable period was increased to two months by the Work–Life Balance Directive of 2019, which must be transposed by member states at the latest on 2 August 2022. Parental leave_sentence_44

Originally, the plan under the Work–Life Balance Directive was to increase the non-transferable period to four months, but due to inability to reach consensus among member states, a compromise was reached at two months. Parental leave_sentence_45

(note: this refers to the specific type of leave called parental leave, under EU law there are different types of leave, such as maternity leave, paternity leave, parental leave, and carer leave which are regulated differently). Parental leave_sentence_46

For more, see Paternity leave and its effects. Parental leave_sentence_47

Comparison between countries Parental leave_section_9

Comparison between countries in term of employee benefits to leave for parents are often attempted, but these are very difficult to make because of the complexity of types of leave available and because terms such as maternity leave, paternity leave, pre-natal leave, post-natal leave, parental leave, family leave and home-care leave, have different meanings in different jurisdictions. Parental leave_sentence_48

Such terms may often be used incorrectly. Parental leave_sentence_49

Comparing the length of maternity leave (which is common in international rankings) may say very little about the situation of a family in a specific country. Parental leave_sentence_50

A country for example may have a long maternity leave but a short (or non-existent) parental or family leave, or vice versa. Parental leave_sentence_51

In the European Union, each country has its own policies, which vary significantly, but all the EU members must abide by the minimum standards of the Pregnant Workers Directive and Parental Leave Directive. Parental leave_sentence_52

Sometimes there is a distortion in how maternity leave is reported and delimitated from other types of leave, especially in jurisdictions where there is no clear legal term of "maternity leave", and such term is used informally to denote either the minimum or the maximum period of parental leave reserved by quota to the mother. Parental leave_sentence_53

Some countries may be listed artificially as having more or less generous benefits. Parental leave_sentence_54

Sweden is sometimes listed in international statistics as having 480 days' "maternity leave", although these days include parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_55

As such, Sweden is often quoted as having an exceptionally long leave, although there are several countries with significantly longer leave, when maternity leave and other leaves are added, where a parent may take leave until a child is 3 years of age. Parental leave_sentence_56

International minimum standards Parental leave_section_10

The Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 requires at least 14 weeks of maternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_57

In the European Union, the Pregnant Workers Directive requires at least 14 weeks of maternity leave; while the Work–Life Balance Directive requires at least 10 days of paternity leave, as well as at least 4 months of parental leave, with 2 months being non-transferable. Parental leave_sentence_58

Effects Parental leave_section_11

Typically, the effects of parental leave are improvements in prenatal and postnatal care, including a decrease in infant mortality. Parental leave_sentence_59

The effects of parental leave on the labor market include an increase in employment, changes in wages, and fluctuations in the rate of employees returning to work. Parental leave_sentence_60

Leave legislation can also impact fertility rates. Parental leave_sentence_61

On the labor market Parental leave_section_12

A study in Germany found that wages decreased by 18 percent for every year an employee spends on parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_62

However, after the initial decrease in wages, the employee's salary rebounds faster than the salary of someone not offered parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_63

A study of California's leave policy, the first state in the U.S. to require employers to offer paid parental leave, showed that wages did increase. Parental leave_sentence_64

Parental leave can lead to greater job security. Parental leave_sentence_65

Studies differ in how this helps return to work after taking time off. Parental leave_sentence_66

Some studies show that if a parent is gone for more than a year after the birth of a child, it decreases the possibility that he or she will return. Parental leave_sentence_67

Other studies of shorter leave periods show that parents no longer need to quit their jobs in order to care for their children, so employment return increases. Parental leave_sentence_68

It does not appear that parental leave policies have had a significant effect on the gender wage gap, which has remained relatively steady since the late 1980s, despite increasing adoption of parental leave policies. Parental leave_sentence_69

Maternity leave and its effects Parental leave_section_13

In the U.S., while the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) allows for unpaid parental leave, parents often do not utilize this eligibility to its fullest extent as it is unaffordable. Parental leave_sentence_70

As a result, some studies show that the FMLA has had a limited impact on how much leave new parents take. Parental leave_sentence_71

Though specific amounts can vary, having a child (including the cost of high-quality childcare) costs families approximately $11,000 in the first year. Parental leave_sentence_72

These high costs contribute to new mothers in the United States returning to work quicker than new mothers in European countries; approximately one third of women in the United States return to work within three months of giving birth, compared to approximately five per cent in the U.K., Germany, and Sweden, and just over half of mothers in the United States with a child under the age of one work. Parental leave_sentence_73

There is some evidence that legislation for parental leave raises the likelihood of women returning to their previous jobs as opposed to finding a new job. Parental leave_sentence_74

This rise is thought to fall to between 10% and 17%. Parental leave_sentence_75

Simultaneously, there is a decrease in the percentage of women who find new jobs, which falls between 6% and 11%. Parental leave_sentence_76

Thus, such legislation appears to increase how many women return to work post-childbirth by around 3% or 4%. Parental leave_sentence_77

Additionally, it appears that parental leave policies do allow women to stay home longer before returning to work as the probability of returning to an old job falls in the second month after childbirth before dramatically rising in the third month. Parental leave_sentence_78

Although this legislation thus appears to have minimal effect on women choosing to take leave, it does appear to increase the time women take in leave. Parental leave_sentence_79

Maternity leave legislation could pose benefits or harm to employers. Parental leave_sentence_80

The main potential drawback of mandated leave is its potential to disrupt productive activities by raising rates of employee absenteeism. Parental leave_sentence_81

With mandated leave for a certain period of time and facing prolonged absence of the mothers in the workplace, firms will be faced with two options: hire a temp (which could involve training costs) or function with a missing employee. Parental leave_sentence_82

Alternatively, these policies could be positive for employers who previously did not offer leave because they were worried about attracting employees who were disproportionately likely to use maternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_83

Thus, there is potential for these policies to correct market failures. Parental leave_sentence_84

A drawback of rising leave at the societal level, however, is the resulting decrease in female labor supply. Parental leave_sentence_85

In countries with a high demand for labor, including many present-day countries with aging populations, a smaller labor supply is unfavorable. Parental leave_sentence_86

Something important to note for all the research cited above is that the results typically depend on how leave coverage is defined, and whether the policies are for unpaid or paid leave. Parental leave_sentence_87

Policies guaranteeing paid leave are considered by some to be dramatically more effective than unpaid-leave policies. Parental leave_sentence_88

For women individually, long breaks in employment, as would come from parental leave, negatively affects their careers. Parental leave_sentence_89

Longer gaps are associated with reduced lifetime earnings and lower pension disbursements as well as worsened career prospects and reduced earnings. Parental leave_sentence_90

Due to these drawbacks, some countries, notably Norway, have expanded family policy initiatives to increase the father's quota and expand childcare in an effort to work towards greater gender equality. Parental leave_sentence_91

According to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 weeks led mothers to spend more time at home without a reduction in family income. Parental leave_sentence_92

Paternity leave and its effects Parental leave_section_14

The term 'paternity leave' refers to the leave that is exclusively granted to the fathers to enable them in spending time with their new-born child. Parental leave_sentence_93

Although parental leave is increasingly granted to fathers, mothers continue to take the majority of guaranteed parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_94

When guaranteed leave is unpaid, research indicates that men's leave usage is unaffected. Parental leave_sentence_95

In Germany, where parental leave is guaranteed for both parents, the financial incentive, alone, was not enough to encourage fathers to take paternal leave. Parental leave_sentence_96

While uncommon on a world scale, some countries do reserve parts of the paid leave for the father, meaning it can't be transferred to the mother and lapses unless he uses it. Parental leave_sentence_97

Among the earliest countries to actively push for increased usage of paternity leave are the Nordic welfare states, starting with Sweden making parental leave gender neutral in 1974 and soon followed by Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland. Parental leave_sentence_98

These countries lack a unified concept of paternity leave, each imposing different conditions, ratios and timescales, but are regarded as among the most generous in the world. Parental leave_sentence_99

Partly in an initiative to combat the "motherhood penalty", Norway in 1993 initiated a policy change to incentivize paternal leave, the so-called "father's quota", and Sweden followed suit in 1995. Parental leave_sentence_100

This means a certain number of parental leave-days can only be used by the father, and are otherwise lost. Parental leave_sentence_101

In countries in which leave entitlements include a father's quota, there has been a pronounced impact, with the quota being credited for increasing paternal involvement and challenging gender roles within the family, promoting a more equal division of labor. Parental leave_sentence_102

To evaluate this change, Rønsen and Kitterød looked at the rate and timing of women's return to work after giving birth, and the effect on this of the new parental leave policy. Parental leave_sentence_103

In their 2015 study, Rønsen and Kitterød found women in Norway returned to work significantly faster after the policy change. Parental leave_sentence_104

However, public or subsidized daycare was greatly expanded at the same time, so Rønsen and Kitterød did not find that the "father's quota" was solely responsible for the timing of work entry. Parental leave_sentence_105

But it can be understood to have an effect on division of household labor by gender when both parents can take time to care for a new baby. Parental leave_sentence_106

Another impact from fathers taking more leave is that in Norway it has been shown to have the potential to either decrease or increase the time women take, depending on whether the mother's and father's childcare are seen as substitutes or complements. Parental leave_sentence_107

If substitute goods, mothers are able to return to work sooner as fathers take some of the childcare responsibility. Parental leave_sentence_108

Research has suggested a class element is at play: middle class fathers consider themselves a suitable alternative to the mother as primary caregiver, while working-class men may see themselves more as supporters of their partner during her leave. Parental leave_sentence_109

Consequently, middle class fathers may be more likely to use their allotment of leave right after the mother returns to work, while working class fathers may opt to take their leave during the mother's leave. Parental leave_sentence_110

In some cases, longer leave for fathers can motivate mothers to also stay home. Parental leave_sentence_111

Fathers tend to use less parental leave than mothers in the United States as well as in other countries where paid leave is available, and this difference may have factors other than the financial constraints which impact both parents. Parental leave_sentence_112

Bygren and Duvander, looking at the use of parental leave by fathers in Sweden, concluded that fathers' workplace characteristics (including the size of the workplace, whether there were more men or women in the workplace, and whether the workplace was part of the private or public sector) influenced the length of parental leave for fathers, as did the presence of other men who had taken parental leave at an earlier point in time. Parental leave_sentence_113

As of 2016 paternity leave accounts for 25% of paid parental leave in Sweden. Parental leave_sentence_114

Length of leave Parental leave_section_15

In 2013, Joseph, Pailhé, Recotillet, and Solaz published a natural experiment evaluating a 2004 policy change in France. Parental leave_sentence_115

They were interested in the economic effects of full-time, short paid parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_116

Before the reform, women had a mandatory two-month parental leave, and could take up to three years' unpaid parental leave with their job guaranteed, though most women only took the two months. Parental leave_sentence_117

The new policy, complément libre choix d'activité (CLCA), guarantees six months of paid parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_118

The authors found positive effects on employment: compared to women in otherwise similar circumstances before the reform, first-time mothers who took the paid leave after the reform were more likely to be employed after their leave, and less likely to stay out of the labor force. Parental leave_sentence_119

The authors point to similar results of full-time, short paid parental leave observed in Canada in 2008 by Baker and Milligan, and in Germany in 2009 by Kluve and Tamm. Parental leave_sentence_120

However, Joseph et al. Parental leave_sentence_121

also found that wages were lower (relative to women before the reform) for moderately and highly educated women after the leave, which could be because the women returned to work part-time or because of a "motherhood penalty", where employers discriminate against mothers, taking the six-month leave as a "signal" that the woman will not be as good of an employee because of her mothering responsibilities. Parental leave_sentence_122

Rasmussen analyzed a similar natural experiment in Denmark with a policy change in 1984 where parental leave increased from 14 to 20 weeks. Parental leave_sentence_123

Rasmussen found the increased length of parental leave had no negative effect on women's wages or employment and in the short run (i.e., 12 months) it had a positive effect on women's wages, compared to the shorter leave. Parental leave_sentence_124

There was no difference on children's long-term educational outcomes before and after the policy change. Parental leave_sentence_125

On health and development Parental leave_section_16

According to a 2020 study, parental leave leads to better health outcomes for children. Parental leave_sentence_126

A Harvard report cited research showing paid maternity leave "facilitates breastfeeding and reduces risk of infection" but is not associated with changes in immunization rate. Parental leave_sentence_127

This research also found that countries with parental leave had lower infant mortality rates. Parental leave_sentence_128

Returning to work within 12 weeks was also associated with fewer regular medical checkups. Parental leave_sentence_129

Data from 16 European countries during the period 1969–1994 revealed that the decrease of infant mortality rates varied based on length of leave. Parental leave_sentence_130

A 10-week leave was associated with a 1–2% decrease; a 20-week leave with 2–4%; and 30 weeks with 7–9%. Parental leave_sentence_131

The United States, which does not have a paid parental leave law, ranked 56th in the world in 2014 in terms of infant mortality rates, with 6.17 deaths per every 1,000 children born. Parental leave_sentence_132

The research did not find any infant health benefits in countries with unpaid parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_133

Paid leave, particularly when available prior to childbirth, had a significant effect on birth weight. Parental leave_sentence_134

The frequency of low birth rate decreases under these policies, which likely contributes to the decrease in infant mortality rates as low birth weight is strongly correlated with infant death. Parental leave_sentence_135

However, careful analysis reveals that increased birth weight is not the sole reason for the decreased mortality rate. Parental leave_sentence_136

According to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 weeks had little effect on children's schooling. Parental leave_sentence_137

However, when infants bond and have their needs met quickly by caregivers (mothers, fathers, etc.) they will become confident and be prepared to have healthy relationships throughout their life. Parental leave_sentence_138

Children whose mothers worked in the first 9 months were found to be less ready for school at the age of 3 years. Parental leave_sentence_139

The effects of mothers' employment appeared to be the most detrimental when employment started between the sixth and ninth month of life. Parental leave_sentence_140

The reasons for this were uncertain, but there is conjecture that there was something unusual for the group of mothers who returned to work in this time period as they represented only 5% of all families studied. Parental leave_sentence_141

Negative impacts in terms of school-readiness were most pronounced when the mother worked at least 30 hours per week. Parental leave_sentence_142

These findings were complicated by many factors, including race, poverty, and how sensitive the mother was considered. Parental leave_sentence_143

The effects were also greater in boys, which is explained by the fact that many analysts consider boys more vulnerable to stress in early life. Parental leave_sentence_144

The same Harvard report also linked paid parental leave and a child's psychological health. Parental leave_sentence_145

It found that parents with paid parental leave had closer bonds with their children. Parental leave_sentence_146

Based on research of heterosexual couples, better immersion of the father in the process of raising a child can lead to improved development outcomes for the child and a better relationship between the parents. Parental leave_sentence_147

In recent years, various OECD countries drew attention to the topic, especially to the time of the parental leave taken by fathers, and concluded that short-term paternal leaves still lead to positive outcomes for the child's development. Parental leave_sentence_148

Families do take into account relative income levels of each parent when planning for parental leave; the partner earning a lower wage may be more likely to take parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_149

There is also often workplace pressure on men not to take paternity leave, or to take less than the maximum time allowed. Parental leave_sentence_150

To counteract these pressures and encourage paternity leave, some countries have experimented with making paternity leave mandatory or otherwise incentivizing it. Parental leave_sentence_151

There are also observable improvements in the mental health of mothers when they are able to return to work later. Parental leave_sentence_152

While the probability of experiencing postpartum depression had no significant statistical change, longer leave (leave over 10 weeks) was associated with decreased severity of depression and decreased number of experienced symptoms. Parental leave_sentence_153

This reduction was, on average, between 5% and 10%. Parental leave_sentence_154

Studies looking for a connection between paid parental leave have shown conflicting results. Parental leave_sentence_155

Some research looked at women 25–34 years old, who are more likely to be affected by leave legislation. Parental leave_sentence_156

Fertility rates peaked for those between 25–29 and 30–34 across European countries. Parental leave_sentence_157

Conversely, however, research in Spain found that after the introduction of two weeks of paid paternity leave, fertility rates fell, suggesting that when fathers are more engaged in raising children, they may become more aware of the challenges; their priorities may shift to quality over quantity of children; and/or that mothers are better able to remain connected to the workforce. Parental leave_sentence_158

A study of a 2012 law in Sweden that allowed fathers to take up to 30 days of paid family leave in the first year after the birth of the child at the same time as the mother was on leave led to substantial improvements in the mental and physical health of mothers. Parental leave_sentence_159

On economy Parental leave_section_17

The economic consequences of parental leave policies are subject to controversy. Parental leave_sentence_160

According to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 weeks had net costs that amounted to 0.25% of GDP, negative redistribution properties and implied a considerable increase in taxes at a cost to economic efficiency. Parental leave_sentence_161

In the U.S., paid family leave tends to lead to a higher employee retention rate and higher incomes for families. Parental leave_sentence_162

Evidence from selected countries in Western Europe suggests that moderate levels of parental leave can encourage mothers to reenter the work force after having children, promoting national economic development. Parental leave_sentence_163

On gender equality Parental leave_section_18

Parental leave policies have an impact on gender equality as it relates to parenting and are therefore used by various countries as a tool to promote gender equality. Parental leave_sentence_164

Many countries have implemented paid parental leave policies for both parents, while a minority of countries, like the United States, only have unpaid maternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_165

A father's quota, which reserves a part of the leave period exclusively for the father, is sometimes assumed to promote gender equality, although the extent and effects are subject to debate. Parental leave_sentence_166

As more women have joined the formal labor force, the lack of men's participation in parenting has been called out as a key example of gender inequality. Parental leave_sentence_167

Various studies highlight the importance of egalitarian parental leave policies in achieving equal distribution of childcare between parents. Parental leave_sentence_168

Moreover, when discussing parental leave policies, the focus is often on comparing improvements in maternity leave policies to what was available in the past, rather than comparing the impact of diverse policies around the world that distribute parental leave differently between both parents. Parental leave_sentence_169

Statistics show a positive correlation between maternity leave policies and women's employment, but the causation relationship cannot be firmly established. Parental leave_sentence_170

While many believe that maternity leave policies encourage women's participation in the labor force, Anita Nyberg suggests that it is the other way around: that development of maternity leave policies was a response to women's participation in the labor force. Parental leave_sentence_171

Economist Christopher Ruhm argues that men's involvement in childcare at the same level as women is essential for eliminating differences in gender roles. Parental leave_sentence_172

Thus, an increase in the use of parental leave by women (and lack thereof by men) will have a negative impact on gender equality. Parental leave_sentence_173

Inversely, an increase in the use of leave by men will have a positive impact. Parental leave_sentence_174

Transferable leave policies appear to be fair and equal in theory, since they do not specifically allocate leave focused on childcare to women and even allow the family to choose. Parental leave_sentence_175

In practice, however, it leads to the majority of available parental leave being used by women. Parental leave_sentence_176

The Norwegian Association for Women's Rights, summarizing different studies, states that there is only limited evidence to support a relationship between the father's quota and gender equality; the few relevant studies point in different directions; the association's former president, psychologist and former Chairman of UNICEF Torild Skard, argues that psychological research does not support the assertion that mothers can be replaced by fathers in the first year. Parental leave_sentence_177

A Norwegian study from 2018 found that an extension of the father's quota had no effect on gender equality. Parental leave_sentence_178

Through examination of leave policies in twenty-one European countries by describing the existing policy schemes' duration, payment, and transferability, Carmen Castro-Garcia created the Parental Leave Equality Index (PLEI), which can predict the participation of each parent in raising their children based on their gender and the existing policy regarding parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_179

His model shows that a policy that provides equal, nontransferable, and well-paid leave for each parent (which no country has at the moment) will best encourage men's and women's equal participation in childcare. Parental leave_sentence_180

European Union Parental leave_section_19

Further information: Directive 92/85/EEC and Directive (EU) 2019/1158 Parental leave_sentence_181

The European Union recognizes the ability for countries to utilize varying parental leave policies to affect labor force participation, the labor market, maternal health, the work–life balance of parents, and the physical and emotional development of children. Parental leave_sentence_182

And by affecting the work–life balance of parents, it may reduce the barriers to participation of both parents in parenting. Parental leave_sentence_183

More specifically, paternity and parental leave policies are key to encouraging fathers' involvement in parenting the child. Parental leave_sentence_184

In 2014, the European Parliament concluded that, by promoting the uptake of parental leave and paternity leave by fathers, governments can aim to facilitate a more gender-equal distribution of care work, support mothers' return to the labor market, equalize the circumstances in which women and men enter the labor market, and improve the work–life balance of families. Parental leave_sentence_185

Findings by the European Parliament in 2015 found that 18 of the EU-28 countries offer paternity leave, and that the EU-average length is 12.5 days, ranging from one day in Italy to 64 working days in Slovenia. Parental leave_sentence_186

For 23 EU member states, on average only 10 percent of fathers take parental leave, ranging from 0.02 percent in Greece to 44 per cent in Sweden. Parental leave_sentence_187

The gender difference in the employment rate is representative of the gender employment gap; filling this gap is an important objective in promoting gender equality and is a part of the Europe 2020 target of an employment rate of 75 per cent for both men and women. Parental leave_sentence_188

The uptake of leave by fathers can reduce the motherhood penalty by enabling mothers to return to the labor market, as illustrated by studies that have shown that the involvement of fathers in childcare has a positive effect on mothers' full-time employment. Parental leave_sentence_189

Reduction of the gender pay gap (GPG) is also an important goal for the EU. Parental leave_sentence_190

In 2014 the GPG in the EU-28 was 16.1 percent, which means that for every euro men got paid in the EU, women got paid 83.9 cents. Parental leave_sentence_191

(The GPG exists equally after correction for occupation and education level.) Parental leave_sentence_192

An study done on the gender pension gap estimates the gap to be around 40 percent, which is more than twice the gender pay gap. Parental leave_sentence_193

Increased leave uptake by fathers can reduce the length of career interruptions for women, reduce part-time work by women and potentially reduce the GPG, all of which are leading causes of the gender pension gap. Parental leave_sentence_194

Nordic countries Parental leave_section_20

The advancement of gender equality has also been on the political agenda of Nordic countries for decades. Parental leave_sentence_195

Although all Nordic countries have extended the total leave period, their policies towards father's quota are different. Parental leave_sentence_196

In Iceland, each parent receives paid leaves, and an additional three months can be divided between them however they like. Parental leave_sentence_197

In Sweden, 90 days cannot be transferred from one parent to the other—i.e. Parental leave_sentence_198

each parent gets at least 90 days of parental leave, thus the quota applies equally to both parents and is not specifically fathers. Parental leave_sentence_199

In total, Sweden offers new parents 480 days of parental leave and these days can be used up until the child is 12 years old. Parental leave_sentence_200

The only Nordic country that does not provide fathers with a quota is Denmark, where women have the right to four weeks parent leave before giving birth and 14 weeks leave after giving birth. Parental leave_sentence_201

Thereafter, 32 weeks of parent leave are voluntarily divided between the man and the woman, making eight months leave entirely up to the family to decide. Parental leave_sentence_202

However, the dual earner/dual care model seems to be the direction of all the Nordic countries are moving in the construction of their parental leave systems. Parental leave_sentence_203

A study done in Norway found that when parental leave is granted for both parents, there is still gender inequality observed in the form of mothers being more likely to have part-time jobs compared to their partners. Parental leave_sentence_204

Since then, the government has provided child care support for parents who want them in order to encourage mothers to return to full-time jobs earlier, and it is effective to a certain extent. Parental leave_sentence_205

Germany Parental leave_section_21

In Germany, original laws tackling gender inequality with respect to parenting date back to 1986 in both Eastern and Western Germany, where one parent could take up to two years of leave after the birth of the child with a maximum allowance. Parental leave_sentence_206

According to a study done in 2006, 97% of the people who took the leave were mothers. Parental leave_sentence_207

In 2007, declining birth rates and demographic change led to a new law, the "Parenting Benefits and Parental Leave Law" (Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeit-Gesetz). Parental leave_sentence_208

This change in family policy had mainly two aims: to reduce parents' financial loss in the first year after childbirth, and to encourage fathers to actively participate in childcare by taking parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_209

With this shift in paradigm, a better work–life balance and less support for the male breadwinner model was targeted. Parental leave_sentence_210

This was part of a "sustainable family policy" promoted by German unification and European integration with the underlying objective to raise birth rates by providing financial incentive. Parental leave_sentence_211

The law's impact was mainly perceived positively with men reporting high motivation to take leave. Parental leave_sentence_212

So far this has not been reflected in official statistics, but Susanne Vogl concludes that if there is a general willingness of men to participate in parental leave the new Parenting Benefits regulations will help facilitate the actual decision to take a leave. Parental leave_sentence_213

United States Parental leave_section_22

Further information: Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 Parental leave_sentence_214

Even though, according to a survey conducted by WorldatWork and Mercer in 2017, 93% of Americans agree that mothers should receive paid parental leave and 85% agree that fathers should receive paid parental leave, as of October 2018 the United States does not have nationwide laws that guarantee paid parental leave to its workforce; however, certain states have passed laws providing paid workers with such rights. Parental leave_sentence_215

As of July 2019, eight states (California, New Jersey, Rhode Island, New York, Washington, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Oregon) and the District of Columbia have enacted laws that grant parental leave as part of state paid family and medical leave insurance laws, with 4 being effective currently. Parental leave_sentence_216

In states without such laws, a proportion of companies do provide paid parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_217

According to Eileen Appelbaum, the lack of parental leave policies results in many low-income families struggling to support themselves financially if both parents are off work. Parental leave_sentence_218

As a result, many mothers leave work to take care of their children while the father remains at work to financially support the family. Parental leave_sentence_219

Australia Parental leave_section_23

The Australian government provides paid parental leave for both parents, but more for the mother compared to the father. Parental leave_sentence_220

Michael Bittman stated that the reason they provide parental leave is unique in that they view children as "public goods" and, therefore, the state is responsible to provide and support the child. Parental leave_sentence_221

But like most places around the world, studies done in Australia show that the inequality still persists within the family, and that women spend more time doing unpaid work (like parenting) compared to men. Parental leave_sentence_222

China Parental leave_section_24

According to a study done by Nan Jia, during the Maoist era, women's full participation in the labor force played a key role in the Chinese government's efforts to advance women's position in society. Parental leave_sentence_223

To facilitate women's labor force participation, the Chinese government initiated a series of measures to mitigate the work–family conflict that women face during pregnancy and childbirth. Parental leave_sentence_224

These measures included an entitlement to 56 days of paid maternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_225

In the post-reform era, a series of new regulations have been introduced to protect women's employment and reproductive rights in the new market economy. Parental leave_sentence_226

The Labor Law adopted in 1995 ensured that women and men have equal employment rights and that employers will not lay off women employees or lower their wages for reasons of marriage, pregnancy, maternity leave, or breastfeeding. Parental leave_sentence_227

The Labor Contract Law enacted in 2008 introduced the provision that prohibits employers from unilaterally terminating labor contracts with women employees who are pregnant, give birth, and care for a baby postpartum. Parental leave_sentence_228

Thus, under the Labor Law and Labor Contract Law, women employees are entitled to job-protected maternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_229

The post-reform era saw further improvements in maternity benefits. Parental leave_sentence_230

The length of paid maternity leave was extended from fifty-six days prior to reform, to ninety days in 1988, and to 98 days in 2012. Parental leave_sentence_231

Most recently in 2016, paid maternity leave was extended to a minimum of 128 days after the long-standing one-child policy was replaced with a policy that encourages each couple to have two children. Parental leave_sentence_232

This latest extension of paid leave aims to increase fertility rates and slow the population aging process. Parental leave_sentence_233

None of the policies directly aim to tackle gender roles and gender inequality, but rather to solve immediate problems the country is facing at the time. Parental leave_sentence_234

On relationships Parental leave_section_25

A 2020 study in the Economic Journal found that reforms in Iceland that incentivized fathers to take parental leave reduced the likelihood of parents separating. Parental leave_sentence_235

The strongest impact was on relationships where the mother was more educated than or equally educated as the father. Parental leave_sentence_236

Private parental leave Parental leave_section_26

Some businesses adopt policies that are favorable to workers and public opinion. Parental leave_sentence_237

In their study of maternity leave policies in the United States, Kelly and Dobbin found that public policy surrounding pregnancy as a temporary disability (for instance, California's Family Temporary Disability Insurance program) gave rise to business practices that included maternity leave as a benefit. Parental leave_sentence_238

Companies are starting to offer paid parental leave as a benefit to some American workers, seeing a profitable aspect of doing so, including: reduced turnover costs, increased productivity from workers, and increased rates of retention among women after childbirth. Parental leave_sentence_239

Some see the increase in paid parental leave as indicative of companies reaching out to women, as more women are working and returning to work after having children, and by doing so these companies generate positive publicity as employers with family-friendly workplaces. Parental leave_sentence_240

Working Mother magazine publishes a list of the 100 Best Companies for working mothers each year, a list which is noted not only by the readership of the magazine, but also by corporate America and increasingly by researchers and policy institutes as well. Parental leave_sentence_241

The Institute for Women's Policy Research issued a report in 2009 encouraging Congress to give federal workers four weeks of paid parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_242

The report cited statistics from the Working Mother 100 Best Company list, using private sector corporations as examples of substantial increase in the retention of new mothers after instituting a longer maternity leave policy. Parental leave_sentence_243

The report also noted that it would take newer workers four years to accrue enough paid leave (sick leave and annual leave) to equal the 12 weeks of unpaid parental leave provided under the FMLA, and that private sector companies that offer paid parental leave have a significant advantage over the federal government in the recruitment and retention of younger workers who may wish to have children. Parental leave_sentence_244

As of February 2018, multinational companies such as Deloitte, TIAA and Cisco were providing parental leave regardless of the parent's gender. Parental leave_sentence_245

By country Parental leave_section_27

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women introduces "maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances". Parental leave_sentence_246

The Maternity Protection Convention C 183 adopted in 2000 by International Labour Organization requires 14 weeks of maternity leave as minimum condition. Parental leave_sentence_247

National laws vary widely according to the politics of each jurisdiction. Parental leave_sentence_248

As of 2012, only two countries do not mandate paid time off for new parents: Papua New Guinea and the United States. Parental leave_sentence_249

Unless otherwise specified, the information in the tables below is gathered from the most recent International Labour Organization reports. Parental leave_sentence_250

Maternity leave refers to the legal protection given to the mother immediately after she gives birth (but may also include a period before the birth), paternity leave to legal protection given to the father immediately after the mother gives birth, and parental leave to protected time for childcare (usually for either parent) either after the maternity/paternity leave or immediately after birth (for example when the parent is not eligible for maternity/paternity leave, and/or where the time is calculated until the child is a specific age—therefore excluding maternity/paternity leave—usually such jurisdictions protect the job until the child reaches a specific age.) Parental leave_sentence_251

Others allow the parental leave to be transferred into part-time work time. Parental leave_sentence_252

Parental leave is generally available to either parent, except where specified. Parental leave_sentence_253

Leave marked "Unpaid" indicates the job is protected for the duration of the leave. Parental leave_sentence_254

Different countries have different rules regarding eligibility for leave and how long a parent has to have worked at their place of employment prior to giving birth before they are eligible for paid leave. Parental leave_sentence_255

In the European Union, the policies vary significantly by country—with regard to length, to payment, and to how parental leave relates to prior maternity leave—but the EU members must abide by the minimum standards of the Pregnant Workers Directive and Parental Leave Directive. Parental leave_sentence_256

Africa Parental leave_section_28

Parental leave_table_general_0

CountryParental leave_header_cell_0_0_0 Maternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_0_0_1 Paternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_0_0_3 Parental leaveParental leave_header_cell_0_0_5 Source of paymentParental leave_header_cell_0_0_7
Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_0_1_0 PayParental leave_header_cell_0_1_1 Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_0_1_2 PayParental leave_header_cell_0_1_3 Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_0_1_4 PayParental leave_header_cell_0_1_5
AlgeriaParental leave_cell_0_2_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_2_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_2_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_2_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_2_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_2_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_2_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_2_7
AngolaParental leave_cell_0_3_0 13Parental leave_cell_0_3_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_3_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_3_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_3_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_3_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_3_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_3_7
BeninParental leave_cell_0_4_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_4_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_4_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_4_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_4_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_4_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_4_6 Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_4_7
BotswanaParental leave_cell_0_5_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_5_1 50%Parental leave_cell_0_5_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_5_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_5_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_5_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_5_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_5_7
Burkina FasoParental leave_cell_0_6_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_6_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_6_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_6_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_6_4 52Parental leave_cell_0_6_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_0_6_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_6_7
BurundiParental leave_cell_0_7_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_7_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_7_2 2+Parental leave_cell_0_7_3 50%Parental leave_cell_0_7_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_7_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_7_6 Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_7_7
CameroonParental leave_cell_0_8_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_8_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_8_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_8_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_8_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_8_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_8_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_8_7
Cape VerdeParental leave_cell_0_9_0 9Parental leave_cell_0_9_1 90%Parental leave_cell_0_9_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_9_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_9_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_9_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_9_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_9_7
Central African RepublicParental leave_cell_0_10_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_10_1 50%Parental leave_cell_0_10_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_10_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_10_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_10_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_10_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_10_7
ChadParental leave_cell_0_11_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_11_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_11_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_11_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_11_4 52Parental leave_cell_0_11_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_0_11_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_11_7
ComorosParental leave_cell_0_12_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_12_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_12_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_12_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_12_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_12_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_12_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_12_7
CongoParental leave_cell_0_13_0 15Parental leave_cell_0_13_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_13_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_13_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_13_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_13_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_13_6 Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_13_7
Côte d'IvoireParental leave_cell_0_14_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_14_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_14_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_14_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_14_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_14_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_14_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_14_7
Democratic Republic of the CongoParental leave_cell_0_15_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_15_1 67%Parental leave_cell_0_15_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_15_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_15_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_15_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_15_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_15_7
DjiboutiParental leave_cell_0_16_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_16_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_16_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_16_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_16_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_16_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_16_6 Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_16_7
EgyptParental leave_cell_0_17_0 13Parental leave_cell_0_17_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_17_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_17_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_17_4 104 (only mothers)Parental leave_cell_0_17_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_0_17_6 Mixed (75% social security; 25% employer liability)Parental leave_cell_0_17_7
Equatorial GuineaParental leave_cell_0_18_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_18_1 75%Parental leave_cell_0_18_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_18_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_18_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_18_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_18_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_18_7
EritreaParental leave_cell_0_19_0 9Parental leave_cell_0_19_1 Parental leave_cell_0_19_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_19_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_19_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_19_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_19_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_19_7
EthiopiaParental leave_cell_0_20_0 13Parental leave_cell_0_20_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_20_2 1Parental leave_cell_0_20_3 UnpaidParental leave_cell_0_20_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_20_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_20_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_20_7
GabonParental leave_cell_0_21_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_21_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_21_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_21_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_21_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_21_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_21_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_21_7
GambiaParental leave_cell_0_22_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_22_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_22_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_22_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_22_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_22_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_22_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_22_7
GhanaParental leave_cell_0_23_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_23_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_23_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_23_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_23_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_23_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_23_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_23_7
GuineaParental leave_cell_0_24_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_24_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_24_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_24_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_24_4 38 (only mothers)Parental leave_cell_0_24_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_0_24_6 Mixed (50% social insurance; 50% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_24_7
Guinea-BissauParental leave_cell_0_25_0 9Parental leave_cell_0_25_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_25_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_25_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_25_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_25_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_25_6 Mixed (social security flat rate, employer pays the difference to equal wage)Parental leave_cell_0_25_7
KenyaParental leave_cell_0_26_0 13Parental leave_cell_0_26_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_26_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_26_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_26_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_26_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_26_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_26_7
LesothoParental leave_cell_0_27_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_27_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_27_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_27_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_27_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_27_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_27_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_27_7
LibyaParental leave_cell_0_28_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_28_1 50% (100% for self-employed women)Parental leave_cell_0_28_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_28_3 Parental leave_cell_0_28_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_28_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_28_6 Employer (social security for self-employed)Parental leave_cell_0_28_7
MadagascarParental leave_cell_0_29_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_29_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_29_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_29_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_29_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_29_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_29_6 Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_29_7
MalawiParental leave_cell_0_30_0 8Parental leave_cell_0_30_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_30_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_30_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_30_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_30_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_30_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_30_7
MaliParental leave_cell_0_31_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_31_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_31_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_31_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_31_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_31_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_31_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_31_7
MauritaniaParental leave_cell_0_32_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_32_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_32_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_32_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_32_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_32_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_32_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_32_7
MauritiusParental leave_cell_0_33_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_33_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_33_2 1Parental leave_cell_0_33_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_33_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_33_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_33_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_33_7
MoroccoParental leave_cell_0_34_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_34_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_34_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_34_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_34_4 52 (only mothers)Parental leave_cell_0_34_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_0_34_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_34_7
MozambiqueParental leave_cell_0_35_0 9Parental leave_cell_0_35_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_35_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_35_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_35_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_35_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_35_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_35_7
NamibiaParental leave_cell_0_36_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_36_1 100%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_0_36_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_36_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_36_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_36_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_36_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_36_7
NigerParental leave_cell_0_37_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_37_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_37_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_37_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_37_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_37_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_37_6 Mixed (50% social insurance; 50% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_37_7
NigeriaParental leave_cell_0_38_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_38_1 50%Parental leave_cell_0_38_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_38_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_38_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_38_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_38_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_38_7
RwandaParental leave_cell_0_39_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_39_1 100% for 6 weeks; 20% remainderParental leave_cell_0_39_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_39_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_39_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_39_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_39_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_39_7
São Tomé and PríncipeParental leave_cell_0_40_0 9Parental leave_cell_0_40_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_40_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_40_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_40_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_40_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_40_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_40_7
SenegalParental leave_cell_0_41_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_41_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_41_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_41_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_41_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_41_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_41_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_41_7
SeychellesParental leave_cell_0_42_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_42_1 Flat rate for 12 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_0_42_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_42_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_42_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_42_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_42_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_42_7
Sierra LeoneParental leave_cell_0_43_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_43_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_43_2 Parental leave_cell_0_43_3 Parental leave_cell_0_43_4 Parental leave_cell_0_43_5 Parental leave_cell_0_43_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_43_7
SomaliaParental leave_cell_0_44_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_44_1 50%Parental leave_cell_0_44_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_44_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_44_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_44_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_44_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_44_7
South AfricaParental leave_cell_0_45_0 17Parental leave_cell_0_45_1 60%Parental leave_cell_0_45_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_45_3 66%Parental leave_cell_0_45_4 10 or 2Parental leave_cell_0_45_5 66%Parental leave_cell_0_45_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_45_7
SudanParental leave_cell_0_46_0 8Parental leave_cell_0_46_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_46_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_46_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_46_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_46_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_46_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_46_7
EswatiniParental leave_cell_0_47_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_47_1 100% for 2 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_0_47_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_47_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_47_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_47_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_47_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_47_7
TanzaniaParental leave_cell_0_48_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_48_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_48_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_48_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_48_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_48_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_48_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_0_48_7
TogoParental leave_cell_0_49_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_49_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_49_2 2Parental leave_cell_0_49_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_49_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_49_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_49_6 Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)Parental leave_cell_0_49_7
TunisiaParental leave_cell_0_50_0 4Parental leave_cell_0_50_1 66.70%Parental leave_cell_0_50_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_50_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_50_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_50_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_50_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_0_50_7
UgandaParental leave_cell_0_51_0 10Parental leave_cell_0_51_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_51_2 <1Parental leave_cell_0_51_3 100%Parental leave_cell_0_51_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_51_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_51_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_51_7
ZambiaParental leave_cell_0_52_0 12Parental leave_cell_0_52_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_52_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_52_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_52_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_52_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_52_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_52_7
ZimbabweParental leave_cell_0_53_0 14Parental leave_cell_0_53_1 100%Parental leave_cell_0_53_2 0Parental leave_cell_0_53_3 N/AParental leave_cell_0_53_4 0Parental leave_cell_0_53_5 N/AParental leave_cell_0_53_6 Employer liabilityParental leave_cell_0_53_7

Americas Parental leave_section_29

Asia Parental leave_section_30

Parental leave_table_general_1

CountryParental leave_header_cell_1_0_0 Paid maternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_1_0_1 Paid paternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_1_0_2 Unpaid maternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_1_0_3 Unpaid paternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_1_0_4 RestrictionsParental leave_header_cell_1_0_5
AfghanistanParental leave_cell_1_1_0 90 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_1_1 Parental leave_cell_1_1_2 Parental leave_cell_1_1_3 Parental leave_cell_1_1_4 Parental leave_cell_1_1_5
AzerbaijanParental leave_cell_1_2_0 126 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_2_1 Parental leave_cell_1_2_2 Parental leave_cell_1_2_3 Parental leave_cell_1_2_4 Parental leave_cell_1_2_5
BahrainParental leave_cell_1_3_0 60 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_3_1 Parental leave_cell_1_3_2 Parental leave_cell_1_3_3 Parental leave_cell_1_3_4 Parental leave_cell_1_3_5
BangladeshParental leave_cell_1_4_0 16 weeks (8 weeks before delivery and 8 weeks after delivery) 100%Parental leave_cell_1_4_1 Parental leave_cell_1_4_2 In case of third-plus-time mother, who has two or more babies alive already.Parental leave_cell_1_4_3 Parental leave_cell_1_4_4 Parental leave_cell_1_4_5
CambodiaParental leave_cell_1_5_0 90 days 50%Parental leave_cell_1_5_1 10 days' special leave for family eventsParental leave_cell_1_5_2 Parental leave_cell_1_5_3 Parental leave_cell_1_5_4 Parental leave_cell_1_5_5
ChinaParental leave_cell_1_6_0 128 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_6_1 Parental leave_cell_1_6_2 Parental leave_cell_1_6_3 Parental leave_cell_1_6_4 Parental leave_cell_1_6_5
Hong KongParental leave_cell_1_7_0 14 weeks (100% for 10 weeks, up to HK$80,000 for the rest)Parental leave_cell_1_7_1 5 days 80%, public servant 100%Parental leave_cell_1_7_2 Parental leave_cell_1_7_3 Parental leave_cell_1_7_4 Parental leave_cell_1_7_5
IndiaParental leave_cell_1_8_0 26 weeks 100%.Parental leave_cell_1_8_1 Up to 15 days' (3 working weeks) male leave 100%(only for Government Employees). For private sector, it is as per company policiesParental leave_cell_1_8_2 Parental leave_cell_1_8_3 Parental leave_cell_1_8_4 Does not apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Prohibits employers from allowing women to work within six weeks after giving birth. A female employee is eligible only if she worked for the employer at least 80 days during the 12-month period preceding the date of expected delivery. In the case of a stillbirth or miscarriage, six weeks of paid leave is required instead. From the third child onwards, only 12 weeks of paid maternity leave is permitted.Parental leave_cell_1_8_5
IndonesiaParental leave_cell_1_9_0 3 months 100%Parental leave_cell_1_9_1 Two days' paid when wife gives birthParental leave_cell_1_9_2 Parental leave_cell_1_9_3 Parental leave_cell_1_9_4 Parental leave_cell_1_9_5
IranParental leave_cell_1_10_0 6 months 100%Parental leave_cell_1_10_1 2 weeks compulsory 100%Parental leave_cell_1_10_2 Parental leave_cell_1_10_3 Parental leave_cell_1_10_4 Parental leave_cell_1_10_5
IraqParental leave_cell_1_11_0 62 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_11_1 Parental leave_cell_1_11_2 Parental leave_cell_1_11_3 Parental leave_cell_1_11_4 Parental leave_cell_1_11_5
IsraelParental leave_cell_1_12_0 14 weeks 100%, with an additional 12 weeks unpaid. The weeks from 6th to 14th can be taken by the father.Parental leave_cell_1_12_1 Can take the paid leave instead of the mother starting from the 6th week (up to 14 weeks)Parental leave_cell_1_12_2 1 yearParental leave_cell_1_12_3 Parental leave_cell_1_12_4 Parental leave_cell_1_12_5
JapanParental leave_cell_1_13_0 14 weeks 60%Parental leave_cell_1_13_1 Parental leave_cell_1_13_2 1 yearParental leave_cell_1_13_3 1 yearParental leave_cell_1_13_4 When parents take turns, the total period may be extended 2 months (but no longer than 1 year for each parent). Also high risk of refusal of leave request and/or demotion for taking leave.Parental leave_cell_1_13_5
JordanParental leave_cell_1_14_0 10 weeks 100%Parental leave_cell_1_14_1 Parental leave_cell_1_14_2 Parental leave_cell_1_14_3 Parental leave_cell_1_14_4 Parental leave_cell_1_14_5
Korea, Republic ofParental leave_cell_1_15_0 90 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_15_1 1 year (40% of Original Salary, At least $400 at most $1,000 per a month paid by Employment Insurance) until the child is 6 years oldParental leave_cell_1_15_2 Parental leave_cell_1_15_3 Parents who have a child under 6 years old can get 1 year's parental leave. The only condition that the employee(s) must satisfy is to have worked for at least 1 year in the company at the time the child is born.Parental leave_cell_1_15_4 Parental leave_cell_1_15_5
Korea, Democratic People's Republic ofParental leave_cell_1_16_0 11 weeksParental leave_cell_1_16_1 Parental leave_cell_1_16_2 Parental leave_cell_1_16_3 Parental leave_cell_1_16_4 Parental leave_cell_1_16_5
KuwaitParental leave_cell_1_17_0 70 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_17_1 Parental leave_cell_1_17_2 Parental leave_cell_1_17_3 Parental leave_cell_1_17_4 Parental leave_cell_1_17_5
Lao People's Democratic RepublicParental leave_cell_1_18_0 3 months 70%Parental leave_cell_1_18_1 Parental leave_cell_1_18_2 Parental leave_cell_1_18_3 Parental leave_cell_1_18_4 Parental leave_cell_1_18_5
LebanonParental leave_cell_1_19_0 10 weeks 100%Parental leave_cell_1_19_1 1 day 100%Parental leave_cell_1_19_2 Parental leave_cell_1_19_3 Parental leave_cell_1_19_4 Parental leave_cell_1_19_5
MalaysiaParental leave_cell_1_20_0 60 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_20_1 Parental leave_cell_1_20_2 Parental leave_cell_1_20_3 Parental leave_cell_1_20_4 Parental leave_cell_1_20_5
MongoliaParental leave_cell_1_21_0 120 days 70%Parental leave_cell_1_21_1 Parental leave_cell_1_21_2 Parental leave_cell_1_21_3 Parental leave_cell_1_21_4 Parental leave_cell_1_21_5
MyanmarParental leave_cell_1_22_0 12 weeks 66.7%Parental leave_cell_1_22_1 Six days of "casual leave" that can be used by fathers to assist their spouses at the time of confinementParental leave_cell_1_22_2 Parental leave_cell_1_22_3 Parental leave_cell_1_22_4 Parental leave_cell_1_22_5
NepalParental leave_cell_1_23_0 52 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_23_1 Parental leave_cell_1_23_2 Parental leave_cell_1_23_3 Parental leave_cell_1_23_4 Parental leave_cell_1_23_5
OmanParental leave_cell_1_24_0 14 weeks, 100%; 50 days prior to and 50 days after birth (per Omani Labor Law, Royal Decree No. 35/2003, 26 April 2003).Parental leave_cell_1_24_1 Parental leave_cell_1_24_2 Parental leave_cell_1_24_3 Parental leave_cell_1_24_4 Parental leave_cell_1_24_5
PakistanParental leave_cell_1_25_0 45 days prior to confinement and 45 days after the confinement under rule 13 of the Revised Leave Rules, 1980. But it is 60 days for Armed Forces Nursing Service (AFNS)100%Parental leave_cell_1_25_1 Parental leave_cell_1_25_2 Parental leave_cell_1_25_3 Parental leave_cell_1_25_4 Parental leave_cell_1_25_5
PhilippinesParental leave_cell_1_26_0 105 days 100%, applicable also to miscarriages. 7 days' 100% parental leave per year for solo parents until the child is 18, or indefinitely if the child has a disability.Parental leave_cell_1_26_1 14 days' paid paternity leave for married workers. Seven days' 100% parental leave per year for solo parents until the child is 18, or indefinitely if the child has a disability.Parental leave_cell_1_26_2 Parental leave_cell_1_26_3 Parental leave_cell_1_26_4 Maternity and paternity leave benefits are up to the 4th pregnancy only.Parental leave_cell_1_26_5
QatarParental leave_cell_1_27_0 50 days 100% for civil servantsParental leave_cell_1_27_1 Parental leave_cell_1_27_2 Parental leave_cell_1_27_3 Parental leave_cell_1_27_4 Parental leave_cell_1_27_5
Saudi ArabiaParental leave_cell_1_28_0 10 weeks 50% or 100%Parental leave_cell_1_28_1 THREE daysParental leave_cell_1_28_2 Parental leave_cell_1_28_3 Parental leave_cell_1_28_4 Parental leave_cell_1_28_5
SingaporeParental leave_cell_1_29_0 16 weeks 100% (Singaporean citizen) or 12 weeks 67% (non-Singaporean citizen)Parental leave_cell_1_29_1 2 weeks of 100% government-paid paternity leave for fathers. Up to 4 weeks of 100% government-paid shared parental leave to allow fathers to share up to 4 weeks of the working mother's maternity leave entitlement. (for those covered under Employment Act. Managers earning more than SGD$4,500 a month are covered by terms of employment contract)Parental leave_cell_1_29_2 Parental leave_cell_1_29_3 Parental leave_cell_1_29_4 16 weeks of maternity leave is restricted to women whose children are Singapore citizens and has served her employer for at least 90 days before the child's birth.Parental leave_cell_1_29_5
Sri LankaParental leave_cell_1_30_0 12 weeks 100% (84 working days), 84 days 50%Parental leave_cell_1_30_1 3 days 100% (only for state sector employees). For private sector, it is as per company policies.Parental leave_cell_1_30_2 84 daysParental leave_cell_1_30_3 Parental leave_cell_1_30_4 Parental leave_cell_1_30_5
Syrian Arab RepublicParental leave_cell_1_31_0 50 days 70%Parental leave_cell_1_31_1 Parental leave_cell_1_31_2 Parental leave_cell_1_31_3 Parental leave_cell_1_31_4 Parental leave_cell_1_31_5
TaiwanParental leave_cell_1_32_0 8 weeks 100% for more than six months of employment or 50% for less six months of employmentParental leave_cell_1_32_1 5 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_32_2 Parental leave_cell_1_32_3 Parental leave_cell_1_32_4 Parental leave_cell_1_32_5
ThailandParental leave_cell_1_33_0 90 days 100% for 45 days paid by employer, then 45 days paid at 50% of wages (to a maximum of 7,500 baht per month) by the Thailand Social Security FundParental leave_cell_1_33_1 Parental leave_cell_1_33_2 Parental leave_cell_1_33_3 Parental leave_cell_1_33_4 Parental leave_cell_1_33_5
United Arab EmiratesParental leave_cell_1_34_0 45 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_34_1 Parental leave_cell_1_34_2 55 days (total 100 days' maternity leave)Parental leave_cell_1_34_3 Parental leave_cell_1_34_4 Maternity leave at 100% pay is subject to the employee having served continuously for not less than one year. The maternity leave shall be granted with half-pay if the woman has not completed one year.Parental leave_cell_1_34_5
VietnamParental leave_cell_1_35_0 4–6 months 100%Parental leave_cell_1_35_1 Parental leave_cell_1_35_2 Parental leave_cell_1_35_3 Parental leave_cell_1_35_4 Parental leave_cell_1_35_5
YemenParental leave_cell_1_36_0 60 days 100%Parental leave_cell_1_36_1 Parental leave_cell_1_36_2 Parental leave_cell_1_36_3 Parental leave_cell_1_36_4 Parental leave_cell_1_36_5

Europe and Central Asia Parental leave_section_31

Parental leave_table_general_2

CountryParental leave_header_cell_2_0_0 Maternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_2_0_1 Paternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_2_0_3 Parental leaveParental leave_header_cell_2_0_5 Source of paymentParental leave_header_cell_2_0_7
Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_2_1_0 PayParental leave_header_cell_2_1_1 Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_2_1_2 PayParental leave_header_cell_2_1_3 Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_2_1_4 PayParental leave_header_cell_2_1_5
AlbaniaParental leave_cell_2_2_0 52Parental leave_cell_2_2_1 80% for 21 weeks; 50% remainderParental leave_cell_2_2_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_2_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_2_4 2Parental leave_cell_2_2_5 100%Parental leave_cell_2_2_6 Mixed (Social security for maternity leave; employer liability for parental leave)Parental leave_cell_2_2_7
AndorraParental leave_cell_2_3_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_3_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_3_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_3_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_3_4 0Parental leave_cell_2_3_5 N/AParental leave_cell_2_3_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_3_7
ArmeniaParental leave_cell_2_4_0 20Parental leave_cell_2_4_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_4_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_4_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_4_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_4_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_4_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_4_7
AustriaParental leave_cell_2_5_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_5_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_5_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_5_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_5_4 104Parental leave_cell_2_5_5 Flat rateParental leave_cell_2_5_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_5_7
AzerbaijanParental leave_cell_2_6_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_6_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_6_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_6_3 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_6_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_6_5 Flat rateParental leave_cell_2_6_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_6_7
BelarusParental leave_cell_2_7_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_7_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_7_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_7_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_7_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_7_5 80% of minimum wageParental leave_cell_2_7_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_7_7
BelgiumParental leave_cell_2_8_0 15Parental leave_cell_2_8_1 82% for 4 weeks; 75% for remainder, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_8_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_8_3 100% for 3 days; 82% remainderParental leave_cell_2_8_4 there are 17 weeks of leave for each parent, with different options of using it: in one go, in several parts, by reducing work hours, by taking one half day or one full day off per week.Parental leave_cell_2_8_5 Flat rateParental leave_cell_2_8_6 Mixed (3 days' paternity leave employer liability; Social security)Parental leave_cell_2_8_7
Bosnia and HerzegovinaParental leave_cell_2_9_0 52Parental leave_cell_2_9_1 50–100%Parental leave_cell_2_9_2 1+Parental leave_cell_2_9_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_9_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_9_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_9_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_2_9_7
BulgariaParental leave_cell_2_10_0 58Parental leave_cell_2_10_1 90%Parental leave_cell_2_10_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_10_3 90%Parental leave_cell_2_10_4 104Parental leave_cell_2_10_5 Flat-rate for 52 weeks; unpaid reminderParental leave_cell_2_10_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_10_7
CroatiaParental leave_cell_2_11_0 58Parental leave_cell_2_11_1 100% for 26 weeks; flat-rate remainderParental leave_cell_2_11_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_11_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_11_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_11_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_11_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_2_11_7
CyprusParental leave_cell_2_12_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_12_1 75%Parental leave_cell_2_12_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_12_3 75%Parental leave_cell_2_12_4 18 eachParental leave_cell_2_12_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_12_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_12_7
Czech RepublicParental leave_cell_2_13_0 28Parental leave_cell_2_13_1 70%Parental leave_cell_2_13_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_13_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_13_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_13_5 Flat rateParental leave_cell_2_13_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_13_7
DenmarkParental leave_cell_2_14_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_14_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_14_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_14_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_14_4 32Parental leave_cell_2_14_5 100%Parental leave_cell_2_14_6 Mixed (social security & employer)Parental leave_cell_2_14_7
EstoniaParental leave_cell_2_15_0 62Parental leave_cell_2_15_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_15_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_15_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_15_4 36Parental leave_cell_2_15_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_15_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_15_7
FinlandParental leave_cell_2_16_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_16_1 70%Parental leave_cell_2_16_2 11Parental leave_cell_2_16_3 70%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_16_4 26Parental leave_cell_2_16_5 70%Parental leave_cell_2_16_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_16_7
FranceParental leave_cell_2_17_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_17_1 70%Parental leave_cell_2_17_2 2+Parental leave_cell_2_17_3 100%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_17_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_17_5 Flat rateParental leave_cell_2_17_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_17_7
GeorgiaParental leave_cell_2_18_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_18_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_18_2 Parental leave_cell_2_18_3 Parental leave_cell_2_18_4 50Parental leave_cell_2_18_5 Parental leave_cell_2_18_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_18_7
GermanyParental leave_cell_2_19_0 14Parental leave_cell_2_19_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_19_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_19_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_19_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_19_5 67%, with a maximum, for 52 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_19_6 Mixed (social security & employer liability)Parental leave_cell_2_19_7
GreeceParental leave_cell_2_20_0 17Parental leave_cell_2_20_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_20_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_20_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_20_4 17 eachParental leave_cell_2_20_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_20_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_2_20_7
HungaryParental leave_cell_2_21_0 24Parental leave_cell_2_21_1 70%Parental leave_cell_2_21_2 1Parental leave_cell_2_21_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_21_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_21_5 70% (up to a ceiling) for 104 weeks; flat rate remainderParental leave_cell_2_21_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_21_7
IcelandParental leave_cell_2_22_0 13Parental leave_cell_2_22_1 80%Parental leave_cell_2_22_2 12Parental leave_cell_2_22_3 80%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_22_4 26 eachParental leave_cell_2_22_5 80%, with a maximum, for first 13 weeks each; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_22_6 Parental leave_cell_2_22_7
IrelandParental leave_cell_2_23_0 42Parental leave_cell_2_23_1 80%, with a maximum, for 26 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_23_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_23_3 Flat rate (minimum €230 per week)Parental leave_cell_2_23_4 22 eachParental leave_cell_2_23_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_23_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_23_7
ItalyParental leave_cell_2_24_0 22Parental leave_cell_2_24_1 80%Parental leave_cell_2_24_2 <1Parental leave_cell_2_24_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_24_4 26 eachParental leave_cell_2_24_5 30%Parental leave_cell_2_24_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_24_7
KazakhstanParental leave_cell_2_25_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_25_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_25_2 1Parental leave_cell_2_25_3 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_25_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_25_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_25_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_25_7
KyrgyzstanParental leave_cell_2_26_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_26_1 7 × minimum wageParental leave_cell_2_26_2 Parental leave_cell_2_26_3 Parental leave_cell_2_26_4 Parental leave_cell_2_26_5 Parental leave_cell_2_26_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_26_7
LatviaParental leave_cell_2_27_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_27_1 80%Parental leave_cell_2_27_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_27_3 80%Parental leave_cell_2_27_4 78 eachParental leave_cell_2_27_5 70%Parental leave_cell_2_27_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_27_7
LiechtensteinParental leave_cell_2_28_0 20Parental leave_cell_2_28_1 80%Parental leave_cell_2_28_2 Parental leave_cell_2_28_3 Parental leave_cell_2_28_4 Parental leave_cell_2_28_5 Parental leave_cell_2_28_6 Parental leave_cell_2_28_7
LithuaniaParental leave_cell_2_29_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_29_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_29_2 4Parental leave_cell_2_29_3 100%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_29_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_29_5 100% for 52 weeks or 70% for 104 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_29_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_29_7
LuxembourgParental leave_cell_2_30_0 20Parental leave_cell_2_30_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_30_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_30_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_30_4 Both parents are entitled to equal parental leave. The "first parental leave" must be taken (by either the mother or the father) immediately after the end of maternity leave. The "second parental leave" may be taken by the other parent at any time up until the child's 6th birthday.

Parental leave can be taken in a variety of formats:


The latter three options require the employer's approval. The first option is an absolute right and cannot be refused by the employer. Self-employed people are also fully entitled to parental leave.Parental leave_cell_2_30_5

100%, with a maximum (gross monthly salary of €3,330.98)Parental leave_cell_2_30_6 Mixed (maternity leave: social security; paternity leave: 80/20 social security/employer; parental leave: depends on formula chosen – employer pays for time worked, social security pays for time on leave)Parental leave_cell_2_30_7
North MacedoniaParental leave_cell_2_31_0 39Parental leave_cell_2_31_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_31_2 Parental leave_cell_2_31_3 Parental leave_cell_2_31_4 Parental leave_cell_2_31_5 Parental leave_cell_2_31_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_31_7
MaltaParental leave_cell_2_32_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_32_1 100% for 14 weeksParental leave_cell_2_32_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_32_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_32_4 17 eachParental leave_cell_2_32_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_32_6 Mixed (social security & employer liability)Parental leave_cell_2_32_7
MoldovaParental leave_cell_2_33_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_33_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_33_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_33_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_33_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_33_5 PartiallyParental leave_cell_2_33_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_33_7
MonacoParental leave_cell_2_34_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_34_1 90%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_34_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_34_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_34_4 0Parental leave_cell_2_34_5 N/AParental leave_cell_2_34_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_34_7
MontenegroParental leave_cell_2_35_0 52Parental leave_cell_2_35_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_35_2 Parental leave_cell_2_35_3 Parental leave_cell_2_35_4 Parental leave_cell_2_35_5 Parental leave_cell_2_35_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_35_7
NetherlandsParental leave_cell_2_36_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_36_1 100%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_36_2 6Parental leave_cell_2_36_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_36_4 26 each (with part-time work)Parental leave_cell_2_36_5 Unpaid but eligible for tax-breaksParental leave_cell_2_36_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_2_36_7
NorwayParental leave_cell_2_37_0 13 (there is no separate legal term of maternity leave, this is the quota of the parental leave reserved for mothers)Parental leave_cell_2_37_1 100% of earnings up to a ceiling of six times the basic national insurance benefit paymentParental leave_cell_2_37_2 Two weeks of 'father's days' (plus additional quota of parental leave)Parental leave_cell_2_37_3 100% or 80%Parental leave_cell_2_37_4 paid leave: 36 or 46 (with a quota of 10 for mothers; 10 for fathers; 26 to be divided) unpaid leave: 52 weeks each parent.Parental leave_cell_2_37_5 Partly paid. Parental money may either be taken for 49 weeks at 100 per cent of earnings or for 59 weeks at 80 per cent of earnings, up to a ceiling of six times the basic national insurance benefit paymentParental leave_cell_2_37_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_37_7
PolandParental leave_cell_2_38_0 26Parental leave_cell_2_38_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_38_2 2Parental leave_cell_2_38_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_38_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_38_5 60% for 26 weeks; flat rate for 104; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_38_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_38_7
PortugalParental leave_cell_2_39_0 17 (or 21)Parental leave_cell_2_39_1 100% for 17 weeks or 80% for 21Parental leave_cell_2_39_2 3Parental leave_cell_2_39_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_39_4 there are two types of leave: paid and unpaid leave: Paid leave: 13 each; "sharing bonus" of 4 weeks if initial leave shared Unpaid leave: After the paid leave, and only if this leave has been taken, one of the parents may take up to two years of childcare leave (licença para assistência a filho– formerly known as Special Parental leave) on a full-time basis, extended to three years when there is a third or subsequent child.Parental leave_cell_2_39_5 partly 25%, partly unpaidParental leave_cell_2_39_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_39_7
RomaniaParental leave_cell_2_40_0 18 (9 weeks before the anticipated date of birth, and 9 weeks after the anticipated date of birth)Parental leave_cell_2_40_1 85%Parental leave_cell_2_40_2 5 days (15 days if an infant care course is taken). Can be taken at any point within the first eight weeks after the birth of the baby.Parental leave_cell_2_40_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_40_4 One parent is entitled to:

104 weeks (so until the child reaches the age of two; if taken by the mother, it includes the maternal leave after the birth); or 156 weeks if the child has a disability (so until the child reaches the age of three). Other parent is entitled to only 4 weeks (can be taken at any point during the first 2–3 years of the child's upbringing).Parental leave_cell_2_40_5

85% with a maximum (8500 lei per month)Parental leave_cell_2_40_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_40_7
RussiaParental leave_cell_2_41_0 20Parental leave_cell_2_41_1 100%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_41_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_41_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_41_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_41_5 40%, with a maximum, for 78 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_41_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_41_7
SerbiaParental leave_cell_2_42_0 20Parental leave_cell_2_42_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_42_2 1+Parental leave_cell_2_42_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_42_4 52 (only mothers)Parental leave_cell_2_42_5 100% for 26 weeks; 60% for 12 weeks; 30% for 12 weeksParental leave_cell_2_42_6 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)Parental leave_cell_2_42_7
SlovakiaParental leave_cell_2_43_0 34Parental leave_cell_2_43_1 65%Parental leave_cell_2_43_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_43_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_43_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_43_5 Flat rateParental leave_cell_2_43_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_43_7
SloveniaParental leave_cell_2_44_0 15Parental leave_cell_2_44_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_44_2 12Parental leave_cell_2_44_3 100%, with a maximum, for 2 weeks; flat rate remainderParental leave_cell_2_44_4 37Parental leave_cell_2_44_5 90%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_44_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_44_7
SpainParental leave_cell_2_45_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_45_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_45_2 16Parental leave_cell_2_45_3 100%Parental leave_cell_2_45_4 156 (including maternity/paternity leave, after which it starts)Parental leave_cell_2_45_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_45_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_45_7
SwedenParental leave_cell_2_46_0 12Parental leave_cell_2_46_1 80%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_46_2 12Parental leave_cell_2_46_3 80%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_46_4 56Parental leave_cell_2_46_5 80% (up to a ceiling) for 56 weeks; flat rate for remainderParental leave_cell_2_46_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_46_7
SwitzerlandParental leave_cell_2_47_0 14Parental leave_cell_2_47_1 80%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_47_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_47_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_47_4 0Parental leave_cell_2_47_5 N/AParental leave_cell_2_47_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_47_7
TajikistanParental leave_cell_2_48_0 20Parental leave_cell_2_48_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_48_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_48_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_48_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_48_5 Flat rate for 78 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_48_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_48_7
TurkeyParental leave_cell_2_49_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_49_1 66.70%Parental leave_cell_2_49_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_49_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_49_4 26 (only mothers)Parental leave_cell_2_49_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_49_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_49_7
TurkmenistanParental leave_cell_2_50_0 16Parental leave_cell_2_50_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_50_2 Parental leave_cell_2_50_3 Parental leave_cell_2_50_4 Parental leave_cell_2_50_5 Parental leave_cell_2_50_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_50_7
UkraineParental leave_cell_2_51_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_51_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_51_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_51_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_51_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_51_5 Flat rate for 78 weeks; childcare allowance remainderParental leave_cell_2_51_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_51_7
United KingdomParental leave_cell_2_52_0 52 (2 weeks mandatory for the mother, up to 50 of the remainder can be transferred to the father as shared parental leave)Parental leave_cell_2_52_1 90% for 6 weeks; 90%, with a maximum, for 32 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_52_2 2 (plus up to 50 weeks transferred from the mother as shared parental leave)Parental leave_cell_2_52_3 90%, with a maximumParental leave_cell_2_52_4 13 eachParental leave_cell_2_52_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_2_52_6 Mixed (employers reimbursed)Parental leave_cell_2_52_7
UzbekistanParental leave_cell_2_53_0 18Parental leave_cell_2_53_1 100%Parental leave_cell_2_53_2 0Parental leave_cell_2_53_3 N/AParental leave_cell_2_53_4 156Parental leave_cell_2_53_5 20% of minimum wage for 104 weeks; unpaid remainderParental leave_cell_2_53_6 Social securityParental leave_cell_2_53_7

Oceania Parental leave_section_32

Parental leave_table_general_3

CountryParental leave_header_cell_3_0_0 Maternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_3_0_1 Paternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_3_0_3 Parental leaveParental leave_header_cell_3_0_5 Source of paymentParental leave_header_cell_3_0_7
Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_3_1_0 PayParental leave_header_cell_3_1_1 Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_3_1_2 PayParental leave_header_cell_3_1_3 Length (weeks)Parental leave_header_cell_3_1_4 PayParental leave_header_cell_3_1_5
AustraliaParental leave_cell_3_2_0 18 weeksParental leave_cell_3_2_1 National Minimum Wage (currently AUD$719.35 per week as at September 2018) subject to primary caregiver income is paid from the Australian Government in addition to paid parental leave from an employerParental leave_cell_3_2_2 5 weeksParental leave_cell_3_2_3 National Minimum Wage (2 weeks); unpaid (3 weeks)Parental leave_cell_3_2_4 Up to 52 weeks' shared between the parentsParental leave_cell_3_2_5 UnpaidParental leave_cell_3_2_6 MixedParental leave_cell_3_2_7
FijiParental leave_cell_3_3_0 84 daysParental leave_cell_3_3_1 flat rateParental leave_cell_3_3_2 0Parental leave_cell_3_3_3 N/AParental leave_cell_3_3_4 0Parental leave_cell_3_3_5 N/AParental leave_cell_3_3_6 Parental leave_cell_3_3_7
New ZealandParental leave_cell_3_4_0 26 weeksParental leave_cell_3_4_1 maximum $585.80Parental leave_cell_3_4_2 2 weeksParental leave_cell_3_4_3 unpaidParental leave_cell_3_4_4 up to 52 weeks shared between the parentsParental leave_cell_3_4_5 partly paidParental leave_cell_3_4_6 Parental leave_cell_3_4_7
Papua New GuineaParental leave_cell_3_5_0 12 weeksParental leave_cell_3_5_1 unpaidParental leave_cell_3_5_2 0Parental leave_cell_3_5_3 N/AParental leave_cell_3_5_4 0Parental leave_cell_3_5_5 N/AParental leave_cell_3_5_6 N/AParental leave_cell_3_5_7
Solomon IslandsParental leave_cell_3_6_0 12 weeksParental leave_cell_3_6_1 25%Parental leave_cell_3_6_2 0Parental leave_cell_3_6_3 N/AParental leave_cell_3_6_4 0Parental leave_cell_3_6_5 N/AParental leave_cell_3_6_6 Parental leave_cell_3_6_7

Parental leave policies in the United Nations Parental leave_section_33

As international organizations are not subject to the legislation of any country, they have their own internal legislation on parental leave. Parental leave_sentence_257

Parental leave_table_general_4

OrganizationParental leave_header_cell_4_0_0 Paid maternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_4_0_1 Paid paternity leaveParental leave_header_cell_4_0_2 Unpaid parental leaveParental leave_header_cell_4_0_3 RestrictionsParental leave_header_cell_4_0_4
United NationsParental leave_cell_4_1_0 16 weeks 100% (however, no fewer than 10 weeks must be after delivery, even if the pre-delivery leave was longer due to a late birth)Parental leave_cell_4_1_1 4 weeks 100% (or 8 weeks for staff members serving at locations where they are not allowed to live with their family)Parental leave_cell_4_1_2 Special leave without pay for a period of up to two years may be granted as parental leave under staff rule 105.2 (a) (iii) b to a staff member who is the mother or the father of a newly born or adopted child, provided the staff member has a permanent appointment, or has completed three years of continuous service on a fixed-term appointment and is expected by the Secretary-General to continue in service for at least six months beyond the date of return from the proposed parental leave.Parental leave_cell_4_1_3 The fact that a staff member is or will be on parental leave cannot be a factor in deciding contract renewal. To ensure that this is enforced, if a contract ends while the staff member is on parental leave, the contract must be extended to cover the duration of such leave.Parental leave_cell_4_1_4

Parental leave policies by countries Parental leave_section_34

Luxembourg Parental leave_section_35

Luxembourg's parental law covers a breadth of different situations like childbirth to adoption and several others, depending on the age and situation. Parental leave_sentence_258

If there is a childbirth, the mother regardless of whether she works for an organization, is an apprentice or has her own business gets a pre-natal maternity leave of 8 weeks before the expected date and 12 weeks' post-natal leave. Parental leave_sentence_259

The father, meanwhile, gets 10 days' leave and 4 days in case he is a civil servant and is required to take it within the first 2 months of the child's birth. Parental leave_sentence_260

If there is an adoption, one of the two spouses can take up to 12 weeks' leave if the adopted child is under the age of 12 years. Parental leave_sentence_261

Luxembourg provides a fix compensation rate during parental leave, which is €1,778, while most of the other European countries get compensation as a percentage of the salary. Parental leave_sentence_262

Luxembourg doesn't have a policy for maternity allowance in place or in addition to the maternity leave pay. Parental leave_sentence_263

Maternity allowance means the money paid during pregnancy or just after child birth. Parental leave_sentence_264

According 2013 OECD data, public expenditure on maternal and paternal leaves on per child born was the most in Luxembourg out of almost all the European counties at the 35,000 at prices and PPPs of 2013 in USD. Parental leave_sentence_265

On 1 December 2016, "family leave reform bill 7060" was passed in the Luxembourg parliament. Parental leave_sentence_266

According to this new reform, now fathers and mothers can take leave together. Parental leave_sentence_267

The first leave has to be taken right after maternity leave and the second can be taken before the child turns 6 years old. Parental leave_sentence_268

This new reform provides much more flexibility. Parental leave_sentence_269

The parent has four different options: either they can take 4 to 6 months' full leave, 8 to 12 months' part-time leave, take one day off per week for 20 months or can take 4 individual months within 20 months. Parental leave_sentence_270

The official Luxembourg government portal suggests that according to the data collected more than 85% of the parents are extremely happy with this new reform and 79% people think that this new system is better than the older system. Parental leave_sentence_271

France Parental leave_section_36

Parental leave in France () refers to the system of leave that is guaranteed to both fathers and mothers in cases of either childbirth or adoption. Parental leave_sentence_272

The maternity leave, the number of weeks a biological mother is allowed to leave work is 16 weeks in France—6 weeks before birth and 10 weeks post-birth. Parental leave_sentence_273

Maternity leave is mandatory and complete renouncement of the leave is forbidden. Parental leave_sentence_274

The paid parental and home care leave that is available to French mothers is 26 weeks which raises the total leave weeks for women to 42 weeks. Parental leave_sentence_275

For fathers, paid paternity leave period is 11 days for one child and 18 days for two or more children. Parental leave_sentence_276

Twenty-six weeks of leave are available to French fathers to take paid parental and home care leave. Parental leave_sentence_277

This brings the effective leave period for French fathers to 28 weeks, one of the highest in Europe. Parental leave_sentence_278

However, it is important to note that in the 26-week period the payment rate is 13.7% of original wages which brings the effective number of full-rate paid weeks to 3.6 weeks only. Parental leave_sentence_279

In 2017, a group of men started an online petition to increase the length of paid paternity leave from the current 11 consecutive days to 4 weeks. Parental leave_sentence_280

A survey shows that more than 57% of respondents indicated that the length of paternity leave was sufficient. Parental leave_sentence_281

However, 63% of respondents between the ages of 18–24 and 60% of respondents between the ages of 25–34 indicated that they wanted to increase the length of paternity leave. Parental leave_sentence_282

Just 4% of the parental leave taken up by French parents is taken by men. Parental leave_sentence_283

In the case of adoption, new parents are entitled to 10 weeks of leave which begins 10 days prior to the expected adoption day. Parental leave_sentence_284

If the total number of dependent children in a family will be at least three after the adoption, then the parents receive 18 weeks of leave. Parental leave_sentence_285

If a family is adopting multiple children, the parents are entitled up to 22 weeks of leave. Parental leave_sentence_286

The leave can be shared between two parents or taken up by one. Parental leave_sentence_287

However, the laws incentivize parents to share the leave since if both parents take some of leave, the total amount of leave can be extended. Parental leave_sentence_288

See also Parental leave_section_37

Parental leave_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parental leave.