It was formalized by Abu Mansur Al Maturidi and brought the beliefs already present among the majority of Sunnis under one school of systematic theology (kalam) and emphasised rationality and rationalism.
Māturīdism has been the predominant theological orientation among the Sunni Muslims of Persia prior to its conversion to Shiaism in the 16th century, Hanafis, and the Ahl al-Ray (people of reason) and enjoyed a preeminent status in the Ottoman Empire and Mughal India.
There have also been Arab Maturidi scholars.
The Maturidi view holds that:
- All attributes of God are eternal and not separated from God.
- Ethics have an objective existence and humans are capable of recognizing it through reason.
- Although humans are intellectually capable of realizing God, they need revelations and guidance of Prophets, because human desire can divert the intellect and because certain knowledge of God has been specially given to these Prophets (e.g. the Quran was revealed to Muhammad, who was given this special knowledge from God and only through Muhammad did this knowledge become accessible to others).
- Humans are free in determining their actions within scope of God-given possibilities. Accordingly, God has created all possibilities, but humans are free to choose.
- The Quran is the uncreated word of God, however when it takes form (in sound or letters) it is created.
- The Six articles of faith.
- Religious authorities need reasonable arguments to prove their claims.
- Support of science and falsafa.
- The Maturidis state that iman (faith) does not increase nor decrease depending on one's deeds; it is rather taqwa (piety) which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris say that faith itself increases or decreases according to one's actions.
Maturidism holds that humans are creatures endowed with reason which differentiates them from animals.
Further, the relationship between people and God differs from that of nature and God; humans are endowed with free-will, but due to God's sovereignty, God creates the acts the humans choose, so humans can perform them.
Ethics can be understood just by reason and do not need prophetic guidance.
Maturidi also consider hadiths to be unreliable when they are at odds with reason.
Further, Maturidism opposes anthropomorphism and similitude, but simultaneously does not deny the divine attributes.
- List of Ash'aris and Maturidis
- Islamic schools and branches
- 2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny
- 2020 International Maturidi Conference
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maturidi.