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For other uses, see Mayor (disambiguation). Mayor_sentence_0

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. Mayor_sentence_1

Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Mayor_sentence_2

Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Mayor_sentence_3

Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board. Mayor_sentence_4

History Mayor_section_0

British Isles Mayor_section_1

See also: Mayors in England and Mayors in Wales Mayor_sentence_5

In modern England and Wales, the position of mayor descends from the feudal lord's bailiff or reeve (see borough). Mayor_sentence_6

The chief magistrate of London bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a century after the Norman Conquest. Mayor_sentence_7

This official was elected by popular choice, a privilege secured from King John. Mayor_sentence_8

By the beginning of the 12th century, the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor as the designation of the chief officer of London, followed around 1190 by that of Winchester. Mayor_sentence_9

Other boroughs adopted the title later. Mayor_sentence_10

In the 19th century, in the United Kingdom, the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, Section 15, regulated the election of mayors. Mayor_sentence_11

The mayor was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the council of the borough from among the aldermen or councillors or persons qualified to be such. Mayor_sentence_12

His term of office was one year, but he was eligible for re-election. Mayor_sentence_13

He might appoint a deputy to act during illness or absence, and such deputy must be either an alderman or councillor. Mayor_sentence_14

A mayor who was absent from the borough for more than two months became disqualified and had to vacate his office. Mayor_sentence_15

A mayor was ex officio a justice of the peace for the borough during his year of office and the following year. Mayor_sentence_16

He received such remuneration as the council thought reasonable. Mayor_sentence_17

These provisions have now been repealed. Mayor_sentence_18

In medieval Wales, the Laws of Hywel Dda codified the mayor (Latin: maior; Welsh: maer) as a position at the royal courts charged with administering the serfs of the king's lands. Mayor_sentence_19

To maintain its dependence on and loyalty to the Crown, the position was forbidden to the leaders of the clan groups. Mayor_sentence_20

A separate mayor, known as the "cow dung mayor" (maer biswail), was charged with overseeing the royal cattle. Mayor_sentence_21

There were similar offices at the Scottish and Irish courts. Mayor_sentence_22

The office of mayor in most modern English and Welsh boroughs and towns did not in the 20th century entail any important administrative duties, and was generally regarded as an honour conferred for local distinction, long service on the council, or for past services. Mayor_sentence_23

The mayor was expected to devote much of his (or her) time to civic, ceremonial, and representational functions, and to preside over meetings for the advancement of the public welfare. Mayor_sentence_24

His or her administrative duties were to act as returning officer at parliamentary elections, and as chairman of the meetings of the council. Mayor_sentence_25

However, since reforms introduced in 2000, fourteen English local authorities have directly elected mayors who combine the "civic" mayor role with that of leader of the council and have significantly greater powers than either. Mayor_sentence_26

The mayor of a town council is officially known as "town mayor" (although in popular parlance, the word "town" is often dropped). Mayor_sentence_27

Women mayors are also known as "mayor"; the wife of a mayor is sometimes known as the "mayoress". Mayor_sentence_28

Mayors are not appointed to district councils that do not have borough status. Mayor_sentence_29

Their place is taken by the chairman of council, who undertakes exactly the same functions and is, like a mayor, the civic head of the district concerned. Mayor_sentence_30

In Scotland the post holders are known as convenors, provosts, or lord provosts depending on the local authority. Mayor_sentence_31

Continental Europe Mayor_section_2

Main articles: Mayor of the Palace and podestà Mayor_sentence_32

The original Frankish mayors or majordomos were – like the Welsh meiri – lords commanding the king's lands around the Merovingian courts in Austrasia, Burgundy, and Neustria. Mayor_sentence_33

The mayorship of Paris eventually became hereditary in the Pippinids, who later established the Carolingian dynasty. Mayor_sentence_34

In modern France, since the Revolution, a mayor (maire) and a number of mayoral adjuncts (adjoints au maire) are selected by the municipal council from among their number. Mayor_sentence_35

Most of the administrative work is left in their hands, with the full council meeting comparatively infrequently. Mayor_sentence_36

The model was copied throughout Europe in Britain's mayors, Italy's sindacos, most of the German states' burgomasters, and Portugal's presidents of the municipal chambers. Mayor_sentence_37

In Medieval Italy, the city-states who did not consider themselves independent principalities or dukedoms – particularly those of the Imperial Ghibelline faction – were led by podestàs. Mayor_sentence_38

The Greek equivalent of a mayor is the demarch (Greek: δήμαρχος, lit. Mayor_sentence_39

'archon of the deme'). Mayor_sentence_40

Scandinavia Mayor_section_3

In Denmark all municipalities are led by a political official called borgmester, "mayor". Mayor_sentence_41

The mayor of Copenhagen is however called overborgmester "lord mayor". Mayor_sentence_42

In that city other mayors, borgmestre (plural), are subordinate to him with different undertakings, like ministers to a prime minister. Mayor_sentence_43

In other municipalities in Denmark there is only a single mayor. Mayor_sentence_44

In Norway and Sweden the mayoral title borgermester/borgmästare has now been abolished. Mayor_sentence_45

Norway abolished it in 1937 as a title of the non-political top manager of (city) municipalities and replaced it with the title rådmann ("alderman" or "magistrate"), which is still in use when referring to the top managers of the municipalities of Norway. Mayor_sentence_46

The top elected official of the municipalities of Norway, on the other hand, has the title ordfører, which actually means "word-bearer", i.e. "chairman" or "president", an equivalent to the Swedish word . Mayor_sentence_47

In Sweden borgmästare was a title of the senior judge of the courts of the cities, courts which were called rådhusrätt, literally "town hall court", somewhat of an equivalent to an English magistrates' court. Mayor_sentence_48

These courts were abolished in 1971. Mayor_sentence_49

Until 1965 these mayor judges on historical grounds also performed administrative functions in the "board of magistrates", in Swedish known collegially as magistrat. Mayor_sentence_50

Until 1965 there were also municipal mayors (kommunalborgmästare), who had these non-political administrative roles in smaller cities without a magistrates' court or magistrat. Mayor_sentence_51

This office was an invention of the 20th century as the smaller cities in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century subsequently lost their own courts and magistrates. Mayor_sentence_52

In the 16th century in Sweden, king Gustav Vasa considerably centralised government and appointed the mayors directly. Mayor_sentence_53

In 1693 king Charles XI accepted a compromise after repeated petitions from the Estate of the Burgesses over decades against the royal mayor appointments. Mayor_sentence_54

The compromise was that the burgesses in a city could normally nominate a mayor under the supervision of the local governor. Mayor_sentence_55

The nominee was then to be presented to and appointed by the king, but the king could appoint mayors directly in exceptional cases. Mayor_sentence_56

This was codified in the Instrument of Government of 1720 and on 8 July the same year Riksrådet ("the Council of the Realm") decided, after a petition from the said Estate, that only the city could present nominees, not the king or anyone else. Mayor_sentence_57

Thus the supervision of the local governor and directly appointed mayors by the king ceased after 1720 (the so-called Age of Liberty). Mayor_sentence_58

On 16 October 1723, it was decided after a petition that the city should present three nominees, of whom the king (or the Council of the Realm) appointed one. Mayor_sentence_59

This was kept as a rule from then on in all later regulations and was also kept as a tradition in the 1809 Instrument of Government () until 1965. Mayor_sentence_60

In Finland, there are two mayors, in Tampere and Pirkkala. Mayor_sentence_61

Usually in Finland the highest executive official is not democratically elected, but is appointed to a public office by the city council, and is called simply kaupunginjohtaja "city manager" or kunnanjohtaja "municipal manager", depending on whether the municipality defines itself as a city. Mayor_sentence_62

The term pormestari "mayor", from Swedish borgmästare confusingly on historical grounds has referred to the highest official in the registry office and in the city courts (abolished in 1993) as in Sweden, not the city manager. Mayor_sentence_63

In addition, pormestari is also an honorary title, which may be given for distinguished service in the post of the city manager. Mayor_sentence_64

The city manager of Helsinki is called ylipormestari, which translates to "Chief Mayor", for historical reasons. Mayor_sentence_65

Furthermore, the term "city manager" may be seen translated as "mayor". Mayor_sentence_66

Mayors by country Mayor_section_4

Australia Mayor_section_5

On Australian councils, the mayor is generally the member of the council who acts as ceremonial figurehead at official functions, as well as carrying the authority of council between meetings. Mayor_sentence_67

Mayoral decisions made between meetings are subject to council and may be confirmed or repealed if necessary. Mayor_sentence_68

Mayors in Australia may be elected either directly through a ballot for the position of mayor at a local-government election, or alternatively may be elected from within the council at a meeting. Mayor_sentence_69

The civic regalia and insignia of local government have basically remained unaltered for centuries. Mayor_sentence_70

For ceremonial occasions a mayor may wear robes, a mayoral chain and a mace. Mayor_sentence_71

Mayors have the title of 'His/Her Worship' whilst holding the position. Mayor_sentence_72

In councils where councillors are elected representing political parties, the mayor is normally the leader of the party receiving the most seats on council. Mayor_sentence_73

In Queensland, the lord mayor and mayors are elected by popular vote at the general council election. Mayor_sentence_74

Brazil Mayor_section_6

Every municipality in Brazil elects a mayor (Portuguese: prefeito/prefeita), for a four-year term, acting as an executive officer with the city council (Portuguese: Câmara Municipal) functioning with legislative powers. Mayor_sentence_75

The mayor can be re-elected and manage the city for two consecutive terms. Mayor_sentence_76

The Brazilian system works similarly to the mayor-council government in the United states Mayor_sentence_77

Canada Mayor_section_7

The chief executives of boroughs (arrondissements) in Quebec are termed mayors (maires/mairesses in French). Mayor_sentence_78

A borough mayor simultaneously serves as head of the borough council and as a regular councillor on the main city council. Mayor_sentence_79

As is the practice in most Commonwealth countries, in Canada a mayor is addressed as His/Her Worship while holding office. Mayor_sentence_80

In some small townships in Ontario, the title reeve was historically used instead of mayor. Mayor_sentence_81

In some other municipalities, "mayor" and "reeve" were two separate offices, with the mayor retaining leadership powers while the reeve was equivalent to what other municipalities called an "at-large councillor". Mayor_sentence_82

While most municipalities in the province now designate their elected municipal government heads as mayors, in certain areas of the province, the elected head of the municipality continues to be referred to as reeve, and the second-in-command is referred to as the deputy reeve. Mayor_sentence_83

For example, this continues to be the case in the municipalities of Algonquin Highlands, Dysart et al, Highlands East, and Minden Hills, all located within Haliburton County, as well as Beckwith Township, Lanark Highlands, Drummond/North Elmsley Township, Tay Valley Township, and Montague Township, all located within Lanark County. Mayor_sentence_84

Many municipalities, counties, and other rural municipalities in Alberta continue to use the title reeve to denote the office of mayor or chief elected official in accordance with the Municipal Government Act. Mayor_sentence_85

In rural municipalities (RM) in the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the elected head of the RM is still referred to as a "reeve". Mayor_sentence_86

The scheduling of municipal elections in Canada varies by jurisdiction, as each province and territory has its own laws regarding municipal governance. Mayor_sentence_87

See also municipal elections in Canada. Mayor_sentence_88

Dominican Republic Mayor_section_8

The mayor of a municipality in the Dominican Republic is called indistinctly alcalde or síndico. Mayor_sentence_89

The latter name is preferred as to avoid confusing the title with the similarly sounding alcaide (lit. Mayor_sentence_90

prison warden). Mayor_sentence_91

Such person is the governor of the municipality whose township elected him (or her) by direct vote for a term of four years. Mayor_sentence_92

The mayor's office daily duties are restricted to the local governance, and as such, it is responsible for the coordination of waste collection, upkeep of public spaces (parks, undeveloped urban parcels, streets, city ornate, traffic light control, sewage and most public utilities). Mayor_sentence_93

In practice, most of it duties are centered in light street repairing (new or big road projects, like overpasses, bridges, pedestrian crossings, etc. are handled by the Public Works Ministry (Ministerio de Obras Públicas in Spanish) office), under the direct control of the Central Government. Mayor_sentence_94

Subcontracting garbage collection and management, overseeing the use of public spaces and arbitrating neighborhood land use disputes which is managed by the National Property office (Oficina de Bienes Nacionales in Spanish) is also controlled by the mayor's office. Mayor_sentence_95

Water, electrical supply and public transportation coordination are handled by several Central Government's offices, and as such, are not under control of the mayor. Mayor_sentence_96

France Mayor_section_9

Further information: Mayor (France) Mayor_sentence_97

Mayors (maires) in France are elected every six years in local elections. Mayor_sentence_98

Germany Mayor_section_10

In Germany local government is regulated by state statutes. Mayor_sentence_99

Nowadays only the mayors of the three city-states (Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen) are still elected by the respective city-state parliaments. Mayor_sentence_100

In all the other states the mayors are now elected directly by the EU citizens living in that area. Mayor_sentence_101

The post of mayor may be said to be a professional one, the mayor being the head of the local government, and requiring, in order to be eligible, a training in administration. Mayor_sentence_102

In big cities (details are regulated by state statutes) the official title is Oberbürgermeister (lord mayor). Mayor_sentence_103

In these cities a "simple" mayor is just a deputy responsible for a distinct task (e.g., welfare or construction works). Mayor_sentence_104

Big cities are usually kreisfrei ("free of district"). Mayor_sentence_105

That means that the city council also has the powers and duties of a rural district council. Mayor_sentence_106

The leader of a rural district council is called Landrat ("land counsellor"). Mayor_sentence_107

In that case the chief mayor has also the duties and powers of a Landrat. Mayor_sentence_108

The term Oberbürgermeister is not used in the three city-states, where the mayors are simultaneously head of state governments, but Regierender Bürgermeister (Governing Mayor of Berlin), Erster Bürgermeister (First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg) and Präsident des Senats und Bürgermeister (President of the Senate and Mayor of Bremen) are used. Mayor_sentence_109

Greece Mayor_section_11

Mayors (δήμαρχοι, dēmarchoi, sing. Mayor_sentence_110

δήμαρχος, dēmarchos) in Greece were previously elected every four years in local elections and are the head of various municipal governments in which the state is divided. Mayor_sentence_111

Starting from 2014, mayors are elected for a five-year term. Mayor_sentence_112

Local administration elections for the new, consolidated municipalities and peripheries will henceforth be held together with the elections for the European Parliament. Mayor_sentence_113

Local administration in Greece recently underwent extensive reform in two phases: the first phase, implemented in 1997 and commonly called the "Kapodistrias Plan", consolidated the country's numerous municipalities and communities down to approximately 1000. Mayor_sentence_114

The second phase, initially called "Kapodistrias II" but eventually called the "Kallikratis Plan", was implemented in 2010, further consolidated municipalities down to 370, and merged the country's 54 prefectures were disbanded in favour of the larger 13 regions. Mayor_sentence_115

The Kallikratian municipalities were designed according to several guidelines; for example each island (except Crete) was incorporated into a single municipality, while the majority of small towns were consolidated so as to have an average municipal population of 25,000. Mayor_sentence_116

India Mayor_section_12

In India, the mayor is leader of the council and has a number of roles, both legislative and functional. Mayor_sentence_117

In most Indian states mayors are elected indirectly among the council members themselves except in nine states Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh,Telangana and Uttarakhand ; where mayors are elected directly by the public. Mayor_sentence_118

Indonesia Mayor_section_13

In Indonesia, mayor (Indonesian: wali kota, formerly called walikotamadya and walikota) is a regional head of a city or town. Mayor_sentence_119

A mayor has the same level as a regent (Indonesian: bupati), head of a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten). Mayor_sentence_120

Basically, a mayor has duties and authority to lead the implementation of the policies established by the region along with the city council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Kota, DPRD Kota; formerly called Tier 2-DPRD (DPRD tingkat II)). Mayor_sentence_121

A mayor is elected in a pair with a vice mayor through direct elections and is a political office, except in Jakarta. Mayor_sentence_122

There, mayoralty is a civil-service career position with limited authority and is designated by the Governor of Jakarta. Mayor_sentence_123

Their region are called administration cities (Indonesian: kota administrasi). Mayor_sentence_124

Before 1999, there were administrative cities (Indonesian: kota administratif, ) which were headed by administrative mayors. Mayor_sentence_125

Iran Mayor_section_14

In Iran, the mayor is the executive manager of a city and elected by the Islamic City Council. Mayor_sentence_126

The mayor is elected for a four-year term. Mayor_sentence_127

Ireland Mayor_section_15

In the Republic of Ireland, the head of a borough corporation was called "mayor" from the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 until boroughs were abolished by the Local Government Reform Act 2014. Mayor_sentence_128

The Local Government Act 2001 allowed county councils to style their chairperson as "mayor" and some do so. Mayor_sentence_129

City council chairs are "mayor" (or "lord mayor" in the cases of Dublin and of Cork). Mayor_sentence_130

Since 2000 there have been proposals for a directly elected mayor of the Dublin Metropolitan Area. Mayor_sentence_131

Italy Mayor_section_16

In Italy the mayor is called sindaco, or informally primo cittadino ("first citizen"). Mayor_sentence_132

Every municipality (Italian: Comune) has its mayor who represents the local government. Mayor_sentence_133

The mayor is elected every five years by the inhabitants of the municipality, but he cannot be re-elected after two terms. Mayor_sentence_134

Japan Mayor_section_17

Japan's Local-Autonomy Law of 1947 defines the structure of Japanese local governments, which were strengthened after World War II. Mayor_sentence_135

It gives strong executive power to the mayor in the local politics like strong mayors in large cities in the United States of America. Mayor_sentence_136

The titles that are translated as "mayor" by the governments are those of the heads of cities shichō (市長), towns chōchō (町長), villages sonchō (村長), and Tokyo's special wards kuchō (区長) (The head of the Tokyo prefecture is the Governor (知事, Chiji)). Mayor_sentence_137

A mayor is elected every four years by direct popular votes held separately from the assembly. Mayor_sentence_138

A mayor can be recalled by a popular initiative but the prefectural and the national governments cannot remove a mayor from office. Mayor_sentence_139

Towards the assembly the mayor prepares budgets, proposes local acts and has vetoes on local acts just approved by the assembly which can be overridden by two-thirds assembly support. Mayor_sentence_140

A mayor can dissolve the assembly if the assembly passes a motion of no confidence or if the mayor thinks the assembly has no confidence in fact. Mayor_sentence_141

Kazakhstan Mayor_section_18

In Kazakhstan, the mayor is called Akim who is the head of an akimat, a municipal, district, or provincial government (mayorat), and serves as the Presidential representative. Mayor_sentence_142

Akims of provinces and cities are appointed to the post by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Mayor_sentence_143

Meanwhile, the akims of other administrative and territorial units are appointed or selected to the post in an order defined by the President. Mayor_sentence_144

He may also dismiss akims from their posts. Mayor_sentence_145

Powers of akims ends with the introduction into the post of new-elected president of the republic. Mayor_sentence_146

Thus, the akim continues to fulfill the duties before appointment of corresponding akim by the President of Kazakhstan. Mayor_sentence_147

Malaysia Mayor_section_19

See also: Mayor of Kuala Lumpur and Mayor of Penang Island Mayor_sentence_148

The mayor functions as the head of the local government of the cities in Malaysia. Mayor_sentence_149

To date, there are 14 officially-recognised cities in the country. Mayor_sentence_150

In cities which lie within the jurisdiction of any one of the 13 Malaysian states, the mayor is appointed by the state government. Mayor_sentence_151

Kuala Lumpur, the country's capital, is a notable exception, as it forms part of the Federal Territories which come under the purview of the Malaysian federal government, via the Ministry of Federal Territories. Mayor_sentence_152

Thus, the mayor of Kuala Lumpur is selected by, and subordinate to, the Minister of Federal Territories. Mayor_sentence_153

Following the 2018 general election, which saw the country undergoing its first ever regime change, there have been calls to revive local government elections, which had been the practice in certain cities such as Kuala Lumpur, George Town, Ipoh and Melaka until their abolishment in 1965. Mayor_sentence_154

The reinstatement of local government elections would lead to the mayoral position being elected, instead of being appointed as per the current system. Mayor_sentence_155

Malta Mayor_section_20

In Malta, the mayor (In Maltese: Sindku) is the leader of the majority party in the Local Council. Mayor_sentence_156

The members of the Local Councils are directly elected and collectively serve as a basic form of local government. Mayor_sentence_157

Moldova Mayor_section_21

The Mayor of the municipality in Moldova is elected for four years. Mayor_sentence_158

In Chişinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation. Mayor_sentence_159

Netherlands Mayor_section_22

Main article: Burgemeester Mayor_sentence_160

In the Netherlands, the mayor (in Dutch: burgemeester) is the leader of the municipal executives ('College van Burgemeester en Wethouders'). Mayor_sentence_161

In the Netherlands, burgermeesters are de facto appointed by the national cabinet, de jure by the monarch. Mayor_sentence_162

They preside both the municipal executive and the legislative ('gemeenteraad'). Mayor_sentence_163

The title is sometimes translated as burgomaster, to emphasize the appointed, rather than elected, nature of the office. Mayor_sentence_164

The appointment procedure was brought for discussion in the early 2000s (decade), as some of the political parties represented in parliament regarded the procedure as undemocratic. Mayor_sentence_165

Generally, mayors in the Netherlands are selected from the established political parties. Mayor_sentence_166

Alternatives proposed were direct election of the mayor by the people or appointment by the city council (gemeenteraad). Mayor_sentence_167

A constitutional change to allow for this failed to pass the Senate in March 2005, but succeeded in 2018. Mayor_sentence_168

Nepal Mayor_section_23

Main article: List of Mayors of Nepal Mayor_sentence_169

Mayors in Nepal are elected every Five years in the Local elections. Mayor_sentence_170

They are very powerful in Municipal Government . Mayor_sentence_171

New Zealand Mayor_section_24

Main article: Mayors in New Zealand Mayor_sentence_172

Mayors in New Zealand are elected every three years in the local body elections. Mayor_sentence_173

Pakistan Mayor_section_25

In Pakistan, a city is headed by the District Nazim (the word means "Administrator" in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor) and assisted by Naib Nazim who is also speaker of District Council. Mayor_sentence_174

District Nazim is elected by the nazims of union councils, union councillors and by tehsil nazims, who themselves are elected directly by the votes of the local public. Mayor_sentence_175

Council elections are held every four years. Mayor_sentence_176

Philippines Mayor_section_26

In the Philippines, mayors (Tagalog: Punong Bayan / Punong Lungsod) are the head of a municipality or a city, with the vice mayor as the second-highest position in the city. Mayor_sentence_177

They are elected every three years during the midterm and national elections, and they can serve until three terms of office. Mayor_sentence_178

As of – September 2012, there are 1,635 mayors in the Philippines. Mayor_sentence_179

Poland Mayor_section_27

Mayors in Poland are directly elected by inhabitants of their respective municipality. Mayor_sentence_180

A mayor is the sole chief of the executive branch of the municipality and he/she cannot serve in the municipal council (city council) or in the parliament. Mayor_sentence_181

Mayors may appoint a deputy mayor if needed. Mayor_sentence_182

In Poland mayor is called a burmistrz or, in towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants or other municipalities that traditionally use the title, prezydent ("president", for example, "President of Warsaw" instead of "Mayor of Warsaw"). Mayor_sentence_183

The equivalent title in a rural community ("gmina") is "wójt". Mayor_sentence_184

A mayor is elected for a five-year term concurrently with the five-year term of the municipal council, and his/her service is terminated at the end of the municipal council's term. Mayor_sentence_185

Mayors cannot be dismissed by the municipal council, but they can be removed from the office by the citizens of their municipality in a referendum. Mayor_sentence_186

Mayors can also be dismissed by the Prime Minister in case of persistent transgression of the law. Mayor_sentence_187

Citizens having a criminal record cannot run for mayor, but only if sentenced for intentional criminal offence prosecuted ex officio. Mayor_sentence_188

Mayors manage the municipal estate, issues minor regulations, and incurs liabilities within limits set by the municipal council. Mayor_sentence_189

Mayors present a budget to the municipal council, that may be then amended by the council. Mayor_sentence_190

After the municipal council passes the budget in a form of resolution, the mayor is responsible for its realization. Mayor_sentence_191

Mayors are the head of the town hall and the register office (he/she may appoint deputies for these specific tasks). Mayor_sentence_192

Mayors legally act as employers for all of the officials of the town hall. Mayor_sentence_193

Mayors in Poland have wide administrative authority: the only official that he/she cannot appoint or dismiss is a city treasurer, who is appointed by a city council. Mayor_sentence_194

Although mayors in Poland do not have veto power over city council resolutions, their position is relatively strong and should be classified as a mayor-council government. Mayor_sentence_195

Portugal Mayor_section_28

In Portugal and many other Portuguese-speaking countries the mayor of a municipality is called the Presidente da Câmara Municipal (President of the Municipal Chamber). Mayor_sentence_196

Romania Mayor_section_29

In Romania the mayor of a commune, town or city is called primar. Mayor_sentence_197

He or she is elected for a period of four years. Mayor_sentence_198

In carrying out his responsibilities he is assisted by an elected local council (consiliu local). Mayor_sentence_199

Bucharest has a general mayor (primar general) and six sector mayors (primar de sector), one for each sector. Mayor_sentence_200

The responsibilities of the mayor and of the local council are defined by Law 215/2001 of the Romanian Parliament. Mayor_sentence_201

Russia Mayor_section_30

In Russia, the Мэр, from fr Maire (en transcription = Mer – not to be confused with the NATO OF-3 rank Майор – en: Major), is one of possible titles of the head of the administration of a city or municipality. Mayor_sentence_202

This title is equivalent to that of the head of a Russian rural district. Mayor_sentence_203

Exceptionally, the mer of Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and Sevastopol are equivalent to governors in Russia, since these three federal cities are Russian federal subjects. Mayor_sentence_204

Except for those just-named three large cities, the governance system of a Russian municipality (city, county, district or town) is subordinate to the representative council of the federation in which it is located. Mayor_sentence_205

The mer, is either directly elected in municipal elections (citywide referendum) or is elected by the members of the municipality's representative council. Mayor_sentence_206

Election by council members is now more widespread because it better integrates with the Russian federal three-level vertical governance structure: Mayor_sentence_207


  1. National government:Mayor_item_0_0
    1. President (executive)Mayor_item_0_1
    2. Federal AssemblyMayor_item_0_2
  2. Federation governments:Mayor_item_0_3
    1. Heads of federation (commonly governors)Mayor_item_0_4
    2. Regional representative councilsMayor_item_0_5
  3. Local governments:Mayor_item_0_6
    1. Heads of administration (who have the official title of mer, whether or not local law defines it as such)Mayor_item_0_7
    2. Local representative councilsMayor_item_0_8

The typical term of office of a mer in Russia is four years. Mayor_sentence_208

The mer's office administers all municipal services, public property, police and fire protection, and most public agencies, and enforces all local and state laws within a city or town. Mayor_sentence_209

According to Medialogy, the mer of Novosibirsk, Anatoly Lokot', is mentioned in the media more than any other Russian mayor. Mayor_sentence_210

The mer of Kazan, Il'sur Metshin, is the most popular in Russia, scoring 76 out of 100, according to the Russian People's Rating of Mers. Mayor_sentence_211

The status of the post in Sevastopol is not legally recognized outside of the Russian Federation. Mayor_sentence_212

Serbia Mayor_section_31

In Serbia, the mayor is the head of the city or a town. Mayor_sentence_213

He or she acts on behalf of the city, and performs an executive function. Mayor_sentence_214

The position of the mayor of Belgrade is important as the capital city is the most important hub of economics, culture and science in Serbia. Mayor_sentence_215

Furthermore, the post of the mayor of Belgrade is the third most important position in the government after the Prime Minister and President. Mayor_sentence_216

Spain and Hispanic America Mayor_section_32

Alcalde is the most common Spanish term for the mayor of a town or city. Mayor_sentence_217

It is derived from the Arabic: al-qaḍi (قاضي‎), i.e., "the (Sharia) judge," who often had administrative, as well as judicial, functions. Mayor_sentence_218

Although the Castilian alcalde and the Andalusian qaḍi had slightly different attributes (the qaḍi oversaw an entire province, the alcalde only a municipality; the former was appointed by the ruler of the state but the latter was elected by the municipal council), the adoption of this term reflects how much Muslim society in the Iberian Peninsula influenced the Christian one in the early phases of the Reconquista. Mayor_sentence_219

As Spanish Christians took over an increasing part of the Peninsula, they adapted the Muslim systems and terminology for their own use. Mayor_sentence_220

Today, it refers to the executive head of a municipal or local government, who usually does not have judicial functions. Mayor_sentence_221

The word intendente is used in Argentina and Paraguay for the office that is analogous to a mayor. Mayor_sentence_222

In municipios and larger cities in Mexico, the chief executive is known as both alcalde or as presidente municipal ("municipal president"), with the latter being more widely used. Mayor_sentence_223

Sweden Mayor_section_33

The Swedish title borgmästare (burgomaster) was abolished in the court reform of 1971 when also the towns of Sweden were officially abolished. Mayor_sentence_224

Since the middle of the 20th century, the municipal commissioner – the highest-ranking politician in each municipality – is informally titled "mayor" in English. Mayor_sentence_225

Switzerland Mayor_section_34

The function and title for mayor vary from one canton to another. Mayor_sentence_226

Generally, the mayor presides an executive council of several members governing a municipality. Mayor_sentence_227

The title is: Mayor_sentence_228


  • In Italian: Sindaco (Ticino), Podestà (Grigioni)Mayor_item_1_9
  • In French: Maire (Geneva, Jura, Bern), Syndic (Vaud, Fribourg), Président du Conseil municipal (Valais), Président du Conseil communal (Neuchâtel)Mayor_item_1_10
  • In German: e.g. Stadtpräsident, Stadtammann, Gemeindepräsident, GemeindeammannMayor_item_1_11

Taiwan Mayor_section_35

In the Republic of China in Taiwan the mayor is the head of city's government and its city's council, which is in charge of legislative affairs. Mayor_sentence_229

The mayor and city council are elected separately by the city's residents. Mayor_sentence_230

Turkey Mayor_section_36

Mayors (Turkish:Belediye Başkanı) in Turkey are elected by the municipal council. Mayor_sentence_231

As a rule, there are municipalities in all province centers and district centers as well as towns (Turkish: belde) which are actually villages with a population in excess of 2000. Mayor_sentence_232

However beginning by 1983, a new level of municipality is introduced in Turkish administrative system. Mayor_sentence_233

In big cities Metropolitan municipalities (Turkish: Büyükşehir belediyesi) are established. Mayor_sentence_234

(See Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey) In a Metropolitan municipality there may be several district municipalities (hence mayors). Mayor_sentence_235

Ukraine Mayor_section_37

In Ukraine the title "Head of the city" (Misky holova, unofficially foreign adaptation Mer also is present) was introduced in 1999. Mayor_sentence_236

Since then, the post is elected by all residents of the city. Mayor_sentence_237

Before that date the post was elected by members of the city's council only and was known as Head of the city's council which ex oficio also serves as the head of the executive committee. Mayor_sentence_238

For the cities that carry special status such as Kyiv and Sevastopol, the Head of the city was a matter of long debate and the post is regulated by special laws. Mayor_sentence_239

Since 2015 a post of Starosta ("Elder") is being implemented at lower level of administrative-territorial pyramid. Mayor_sentence_240

Candidates to the post are also being elected by members of the territorial community (hromada). Mayor_sentence_241

The post is historical and existed on the territory of Ukraine during times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Mayor_sentence_242

United States Mayor_section_38

Main article: Mayoralty in the United States Mayor_sentence_243

The mayor is the municipal head of government, the maximum civil authority at the municipal level, in most United States municipalities (such as cities, townships, etc.). Mayor_sentence_244

In the United States, there are several distinct types of mayors, depending on whether the system of local government is council-manager government or mayor-council government. Mayor_sentence_245

Under the council-manager government system, the mayor is a first among equals on the city council, which acts as a legislative body while executive functions are performed by the appointed manager. Mayor_sentence_246

The mayor may chair the city council, but lacks any special legislative powers. Mayor_sentence_247

The mayor and city council serve part-time, with day-to-day administration in the hands of a professional city manager. Mayor_sentence_248

The system is most common among medium-sized cities from around 25,000 to several hundred thousand, usually rural and suburban municipalities. Mayor_sentence_249

Under the mayor-council system, the mayoralty and city council are separate offices. Mayor_sentence_250

This system may be of two types, either a strong mayor system or a weak mayor system. Mayor_sentence_251

Under the strong mayor system, the mayor acts as an elected executive with the city council exercising legislative powers. Mayor_sentence_252

They may select a chief administrative officer to oversee the different departments. Mayor_sentence_253

This is the system used in most of the United States' large cities, primarily because mayors serve full-time and have a wide range of services that they oversee. Mayor_sentence_254

In a weak mayor or ceremonial mayor system, the mayor has appointing power for department heads but is subject to checks by the city council, sharing both executive and legislative duties with the council. Mayor_sentence_255

This is common for smaller cities, especially in New England. Mayor_sentence_256

Charlotte, North Carolina and Minneapolis, Minnesota are two notable large cities with a ceremonial mayor. Mayor_sentence_257

Many American mayors are styled "His Honor" or "Her Honor" while in office. Mayor_sentence_258

Multi-tier local government Mayor_section_39

In several countries, where there is not local autonomy, mayors are often appointed by some branch of the national or regional government. Mayor_sentence_259

In some cities, subdivisions such as boroughs may have their own mayors; this is the case, for example, with the arrondissements of Paris, Montreal, and Mexico City. Mayor_sentence_260

In Belgium Brussels is administratively one of the federation's three regions, and is subdivided, without the other regions' provincial level, into 19 rather small municipalities, with one, City of Brussels, being the Kingdom's capital, which each have an elected—formally appointed—Burgomaster (i.e., Mayor, responsible to his / her elected council); while Antwerp, the other major metropolitan area, has one large city (where the boroughs, former municipalities merged into it, elect a lower level, albeit with very limited competence) and several smaller surrounding municipalities, each under a normal Burgomaster as in Brussels. Mayor_sentence_261

In the People's Republic of China, the Mayor (市長) may be the administrative head of any municipality, provincial, prefecture-level, or county-level. Mayor_sentence_262

The Mayor is usually the most recognized official in cities, although the position is the second-highest-ranking official in charge after the local Communist Party Secretary. Mayor_sentence_263

In principle, the Mayor (who also serves as the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of the city) is responsible for managing the city administration while the Communist Party Secretary is responsible for general policy and managing the party bureaucracy, but in practice the roles blur, frequently causing conflict. Mayor_sentence_264

Acting mayor Mayor_section_40

Acting mayor is a temporary office created by the charter of some municipal governments. Mayor_sentence_265

In many cities and towns, the charter or some similar fundamental document provides that in the event of the death, illness, resignation, or removal from office of the incumbent mayor, another official will lead the municipality for a temporary period, which, depending on the jurisdiction, may be for a stated period of days or months until a special election can be held, or until the original end of the term to which the vacating mayor was elected. Mayor_sentence_266

Some cities may also provide for a deputy mayor to be temporarily designated as "acting mayor" in the event that the incumbent mayor is temporarily unavailable, such as for health reasons or out-of-town travel, but still continues to hold the position and is expected to return to the duties of the office. Mayor_sentence_267

In this latter capacity, the acting mayor's role is to ensure that city government business can continue in the regular mayor's absence, and the acting mayor is not deemed to have actually held the office of mayor. Mayor_sentence_268

In some jurisdictions, however, when a mayor resigns or dies in office, the mayor's successor is not considered to be an acting mayor but rather fully mayor in his or her own right. Mayor_sentence_269

The position of acting mayor is usually of considerably more importance in a mayor-council form of municipal government, where the mayor performs functions of day-to-day leadership, than it is in a council-manager form of government, where the city manager provides day-to-day leadership and the position of mayor is either a largely or entirely ceremonial one. Mayor_sentence_270

See also Mayor_section_41


Concepts: Mayor_sentence_271


Local government: Mayor_sentence_272




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