From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see Medina (disambiguation). Medina_sentence_0



المدينة The Prophet's City

مدينة النبي 

The Prophetic City

المدينة النبوية 
The Kind 
The Kindest of Kind 
طيبة الطيبةMedina_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMedina_header_cell_0_1_0 Saudi ArabiaMedina_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceMedina_header_cell_0_2_0 Medina ProvinceMedina_cell_0_2_1
First settledMedina_header_cell_0_3_0 9th century BCMedina_cell_0_3_1
HijrahMedina_header_cell_0_4_0 622 AD (1 AH)Medina_cell_0_4_1
Saudi conquest of MadinahMedina_header_cell_0_5_0 5 December 1925Medina_cell_0_5_1
Named forMedina_header_cell_0_6_0 MuhammadMedina_cell_0_6_1
DistrictsMedina_header_cell_0_7_0 Medina_cell_0_7_1
TypeMedina_header_cell_0_9_0 MunicipalityMedina_cell_0_9_1
BodyMedina_header_cell_0_10_0 Madinah Regional MunicipalityMedina_cell_0_10_1
MayorMedina_header_cell_0_11_0 Khalid TaherMedina_cell_0_11_1
Provincial GovernorMedina_header_cell_0_12_0 Prince Faisal bin SalmanMedina_cell_0_12_1
CityMedina_header_cell_0_14_0 589 km (227 sq mi)Medina_cell_0_14_1
UrbanMedina_header_cell_0_15_0 293 km (117 sq mi)Medina_cell_0_15_1
RuralMedina_header_cell_0_16_0 296 km (114 sq mi)Medina_cell_0_16_1
ElevationMedina_header_cell_0_17_0 620 m (2,030 ft)Medina_cell_0_17_1
Highest elevation (Mount Uhud)Medina_header_cell_0_18_0 1,077 m (3,533 ft)Medina_cell_0_18_1
Population (2010)Medina_header_cell_0_19_0
CityMedina_header_cell_0_20_0 1,183,205Medina_cell_0_20_1
RankMedina_header_cell_0_21_0 4thMedina_cell_0_21_1
DensityMedina_header_cell_0_22_0 2,009/km (5,212/sq mi)Medina_cell_0_22_1
UrbanMedina_header_cell_0_23_0 785,204Medina_cell_0_23_1
Urban densityMedina_header_cell_0_24_0 2,680/km (6,949/sq mi)Medina_cell_0_24_1
RuralMedina_header_cell_0_25_0 398,001Medina_cell_0_25_1
Demonym(s)Medina_header_cell_0_26_0 Madani
Time zoneMedina_header_cell_0_27_0 UTC+3 (Arabia Standard Time)Medina_cell_0_27_1
WebsiteMedina_header_cell_0_28_0 Medina_cell_0_28_1

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (Arabic: المدينة المنورة‎, romanized: al-Madinat al-Munawwarah, lit. Medina_sentence_1

'The Enlightened City'), commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah, is one of the three holiest cities in Islam and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia. Medina_sentence_2

The 2020 estimated population of the city is 1,488,782, making it the fourth-most populous city in the country. Medina_sentence_3

Located at the core of the Medina Province in the western reaches of the country, the city is distributed over 589 square kilometers (227 square miles), 293 km (117 sq. Medina_sentence_4

mi.) Medina_sentence_5

of which constitutes the city's urban area, while the rest is occupied by the Hejaz mountain range, empty valleys, agricultural spaces, older dormant volcanoes and the Nafud desert. Medina_sentence_6

The city is considered to be the second-holiest of three cities in Islamic tradition, the other two being Mecca and Jerusalem. Medina_sentence_7

The Masjid al-Nabawi ('Prophet's Mosque') built by Muhammad in 622 CE, is of exceptional importance in Islam and is the site of burial of the last Islamic prophet. Medina_sentence_8

Muslims visit his rawdhah in what is known as Ziyarat at least once in their lifetime, although this is not obligatory. Medina_sentence_9

The original name of the city before the advent of Islam was Yathrib and it is referred to by the same name in the Qur'an in Chapter 33, al-Ahzab (The Confederates). Medina_sentence_10

It was renamed Madīnat an-Nabī (City of the Prophet or The Prophet's City) after Muhammad's death and later al-Madinah al-Munawwarah (The Enlightened City), before being simplified and shortened to its modern name, Madinah (The City), written in English as Medina. Medina_sentence_11

Saudi Arabian road signage uses Madinah and al-Madinah al-Munawwarah interchangeably. Medina_sentence_12

The city is known to have existed for over 1500 years before Muhammad's migration from Mecca, otherwise known as the Hijrah. Medina_sentence_13

Medina was the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim caliphate under Muhammad's leadership, serving as its base of operations and as the cradle of Islam, where Muhammad's Ummah (Community), composed of the citizens of Medina, known as the Ansar and those who immigrated with Muhammad, known as the Muhajirun, collectively known as the Sahaba, gained huge influence. Medina_sentence_14

Medina is home to three prominent mosques, namely al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Masjid Quba'a, and Masjid al-Qiblatayn, with the masjid at Quba'a being the oldest in Islam. Medina_sentence_15

A larger portion of the Qur'an was revealed in Medina in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs. Medina_sentence_16

Much like most of the Hejaz, Medina has seen numerous exchanges of power within its comparatively short existence. Medina_sentence_17

The region is known to have been controlled by Arabian Jewish tribes (up to the 5th century CE), the 'Aws and Khazraj (up to Muhammad's arrival), Muhammad and the Rashidun (622–660 CE), Umayyads (660–749 CE), Abbasids (749–1254 CE), the Mamluks of Egypt (1254–1517 CE), the Ottomans (1517–1805 CE), the First Saudi State (1805–1811 CE), Muhammad Ali Pasha (1811–1840 CE), the Ottomans for a second time (1840–1918), the Hashemite Sharifate of Mecca (1918–1925 CE) and finally is in the hands of the modern-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1925–present CE). Medina_sentence_18

In addition to visiting for Ziyarah, tourists come to visit the other prominent mosques and landmarks in the city that hold religious significance such as Mount Uhud, Al-Baqi' cemetery and the Seven Mosques among others. Medina_sentence_19

Recently, after the Saudi conquest, the Saudis carried out a demolition of several tombs and domes in and around the region fearing these might become sites of association of others in worship beside Allah (shirk). Medina_sentence_20

History Medina_section_0

Medina is home to several distinguished sites and landmarks, most of which are mosques and hold historic significance. Medina_sentence_21

These include the three aforementioned mosques, Masjid al-Fath (also known as Masjid al-Khandaq), the Seven Mosques, the Baqi' Cemetery where the graves of many famous Islamic figures are presumed to be located; directly to the southeast of the Prophet's Mosque, the Uhud mountain, site of the eponymous Battle of Uhud and the King Fahd Glorious Qur'an Printing Complex where most modern Qur'anic Mus'hafs are printed. Medina_sentence_22

Etymology Medina_section_1

Yathrib Medina_section_2

Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib (pronounced [ˈjaθrɪb; يَثْرِب). Medina_sentence_23

The word Yathrib has been recorded in Āyah (verse) 13 of Surah (chapter) 33 of the Qur'an. Medina_sentence_24

and is thus known to have been the name of the city up to the Battle of the Trench. Medina_sentence_25

Muhammad later forbade calling the city by this name. Medina_sentence_26

Taybah and Tabah Medina_section_3

Sometime after the battle, the Prophet Muhammad renamed the city Taybah (the Kind or the Good) ([ˈtˤajba; طَيْبَة) and Tabah (Arabic: طَابَة‎) which is of similar meaning. Medina_sentence_27

This name is also used to refer to the city in the popular folk song, "Ya Taybah!" Medina_sentence_28

(O Taybah!). Medina_sentence_29

The two names are combined in another name the city is known by, Taybat at-Tabah (the Kindest of the Kind). Medina_sentence_30

Madinah Medina_section_4

The city has also been called Madinah in some ahadith. Medina_sentence_31

The names al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah (ٱلْمَدِيْنَة ٱلنَّبَوِيَّة) and Madīnat un-Nabī (both meaning "City of the Prophet" or "The Prophet's City") and al-Madīnat ul-Munawwarah ("The Enlightened City") are all derivatives of this word. Medina_sentence_32

This is also the most commonly accepted modern name of the city, used in official documents and road signage, along with Madinah. Medina_sentence_33

Early history and Jewish control Medina_section_5

Medina is known to have been inhabited at least 1500 years before the Hijra, or approximately the 9th century BC. Medina_sentence_34

By the fourth century CE, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, and there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city around the time of Muhammad: the Banu Qaynuqa, the Banu Qurayza, and Banu Nadir. Medina_sentence_35

Ibn Khordadbeh later reported that during the Persian Empire's domination in Hejaz, the Banu Qurayza served as tax collectors for the Persian Shah. Medina_sentence_36

The situation changed after the arrival of two new Arab tribes, the 'Aws or Banu 'Aws and the Khazraj, also known as the Banu Khazraj. Medina_sentence_37

At first, these tribes were allied with the Jewish tribes who ruled the region, but later revolted and became independent. Medina_sentence_38

Under the 'Aws and Khazraj Medina_section_6

Toward the end of the 5th century, the Jewish rulers lost control of the city to the two Arab tribes. Medina_sentence_39

The Jewish Encyclopedia states that "by calling in outside assistance and treacherously massacring at a banquet the principal Jews", Banu Aus and Banu Khazraj finally gained the upper hand at Medina. Medina_sentence_40

Most modern historians accept the claim of the Muslim sources that after the revolt, the Jewish tribes became clients of the 'Aws and the Khazraj. Medina_sentence_41

However, according to Scottish scholar, William Montgomery Watt, the clientship of the Jewish tribes is not borne out by the historical accounts of the period prior to 627, and he maintained that the Jewish populace retained a measure of political independence. Medina_sentence_42

Early Muslim chronicler Ibn Ishaq tells of an ancient conflict between the last Yemenite king of the Himyarite Kingdom and the residents of Yathrib. Medina_sentence_43

When the king was passing by the oasis, the residents killed his son, and the Yemenite ruler threatened to exterminate the people and cut down the palms. Medina_sentence_44

According to Ibn Ishaq, he was stopped from doing so by two rabbis from the Banu Qurayza tribe, who implored the king to spare the oasis because it was the place "to which a prophet of the Quraysh would migrate in time to come, and it would be his home and resting-place." Medina_sentence_45

The Yemenite king thus did not destroy the town and converted to Judaism. Medina_sentence_46

He took the rabbis with him, and in Mecca, they reportedly recognised the Ka'bah as a temple built by Abraham and advised the king "to do what the people of Mecca did: to circumambulate the temple, to venerate and honour it, to shave his head and to behave with all humility until he had left its precincts." Medina_sentence_47

On approaching Yemen, tells Ibn Ishaq, the rabbis demonstrated to the local people a miracle by coming out of a fire unscathed and the Yemenites accepted Judaism. Medina_sentence_48

Eventually the Banu 'Aws and the Banu Khazraj became hostile to each other and by the time of Muhammad's Hijrah (emigration) to Medina in 622 CE, they had been fighting for 120 years and were sworn enemies The Banu Nadir and the Banu Qurayza were allied with the 'Aws, while the Banu Qaynuqa sided with the Khazraj. Medina_sentence_49

They fought a total of four wars. Medina_sentence_50

Their last and bloodiest known battle was the Battle of Bu'ath, fought a few years prior to the arrival of Muhammad. Medina_sentence_51

The outcome of the battle was inconclusive, and the feud continued. Medina_sentence_52

'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, one Khazraj chief, had refused to take part in the battle, which earned him a reputation for equity and peacefulness. Medina_sentence_53

He was the most respected inhabitant of the city prior to Muhammad's arrival. Medina_sentence_54

To solve the ongoing feud, concerned residents of Yathrib met secretly with Muhammad in 'Aqaba, a place outside Mecca, inviting him and his small group of believers to come to the city, where Muhammad could serve a mediator between the factions and his community could practice its faith freely. Medina_sentence_55

Under Muhammad and the Rashidun Medina_section_7

Main articles: Hijrah and Constitution of Medina Medina_sentence_56

In 622 CE (1 AH), Muhammad and an estimated 70 Meccan Muhajirun left Mecca over a period of a few months for sanctuary in Yathrib, an event that transformed the religious and political landscape of the city completely; the longstanding enmity between the Aus and Khazraj tribes was dampened as many of the two Arab tribes and some local Jews embraced the new religion of Islam. Medina_sentence_57

Muhammad, linked to the Khazraj through his great-grandmother, was agreed on as the leader of the city. Medina_sentence_58

The natives of Yathrib who had converted to Islam of any background—pagan Arab or Jewish—were called the Ansar ("the Patrons" or "the Helpers"), while the Muslims would pay the Zakat tax. Medina_sentence_59

According to Ibn Ishaq, all parties in the area agreed to the Constitution of Medina, which committed all parties to mutual cooperation under the leadership of Muhammad. Medina_sentence_60

The nature of this document as recorded by Ibn Ishaq and transmitted by Ibn Hisham is the subject of dispute among modern Western historians, many of whom maintain that this "treaty" is possibly a collage of different agreements, oral rather than written, of different dates, and that it is not clear exactly when they were made. Medina_sentence_61

Other scholars, however, both Western and Muslim, argue that the text of the agreement—whether a single document originally or several—is possibly one of the oldest Islamic texts we possess. Medina_sentence_62

In Yemenite Jewish sources, another treaty was drafted between Muhammad and his Jewish subjects, known as Kitāb Dimmat al-Nabi, written in the 17th year of the Hijra (638 CE), and which gave express liberty to Jews living in Arabia to observe the Sabbath and to grow-out their side-locks. Medina_sentence_63

In return, they were to pay the jizya annually for protection by their patrons. Medina_sentence_64

Battle of Uhud Medina_section_8

Main article: Battle of Uhud Medina_sentence_65

In the year 625 CE (3 AH), Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a senior chieftain of Mecca who later converted to Islam, led a Meccan force against Medina. Medina_sentence_66

Muhammad marched out to meet the Qurayshi army with an estimated 1,000 troops, but just as the army approached the battlefield, 300 men under 'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy withdrew, dealing a severe blow to the Muslim army's morale. Medina_sentence_67

Muhammad continued marching with his now 700-strong force and ordered a group of 50 archers to climb a small hill, now called Jabal ar-Rummaah (The Archers' Hill) to keep an eye on the Meccan's cavalry and to provide protection to the rear of the Muslim's army. Medina_sentence_68

As the battle heated up, the Meccans were forced to retreat. Medina_sentence_69

The frontline was pushed further and further away from the archers and foreseeing the battle to have be a victory for the Muslims, the archers decided to leave their posts to pursue the retreating Meccans. Medina_sentence_70

A small party, however, stayed behind; pleading the rest to not disobey their Muhammad's orders. Medina_sentence_71

Seeing that the archers were starting to descend from the hill, Khalid ibn al-Walid commanded his unit to ambush the hill and his cavalry unit pursued the descending archers were systematically slain by being caught in the plain ahead of the hill and the frontline, watched upon by their desperate comrades who stayed behind up in the hill who were shooting arrows to thwart the raiders, but with little to no effect. Medina_sentence_72

However, the Meccans did not capitalise on their advantage by invading Medina and returned to Mecca. Medina_sentence_73

The Madanis (people of Medina) suffered heavy losses, and Muhammad was injured. Medina_sentence_74

Battle of the Trench Medina_section_9

Main article: Battle of the Trench Medina_sentence_75

In 627 CE (5 AH), Abu Sufyan led another force toward Medina. Medina_sentence_76

Knowing of his intentions, Muhammad asked for proposals for defending the northern flank of the city, as the east and west were protected by volcanic rocks and the south was covered with palm trees. Medina_sentence_77

Salman al-Farsi, a Persian Sahabi who was familiar with Sasanian war tactics recommended digging a trench to protect the city and the Prophet accepted it. Medina_sentence_78

The subsequent siege came to be became known as the Battle of the Trench and the Battle of the Confederates. Medina_sentence_79

After a month-long siege and various skirmishes, the Meccans withdrew again due to the harsh winter. Medina_sentence_80

During the siege, Abu Sufyan contacted the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza and formed an agreement with them, to attack the Muslim defenders and effectively encircle the defenders. Medina_sentence_81

It was however discovered by the Muslims and thwarted. Medina_sentence_82

This was in breach of the Constitution of Medina and after the Meccan withdrawal, Muhammad immediately marched against the Qurayza and laid siege to their strongholds. Medina_sentence_83

The Jewish forces eventually surrendered. Medina_sentence_84

Some members of the Aws negotiated on behalf of their old allies and Muhammad agreed to appoint one of their chiefs who had converted to Islam, Sa'd ibn Mu'adh, as judge. Medina_sentence_85

Sa'ad judged by Jewish law that all male members of the tribe should be killed and the women and children enslaved as was the law stated in the Old Testament for treason in the Book of Deutoronomy. Medina_sentence_86

This action was conceived of as a defensive measure to ensure that the Muslim community could be confident of its continued survival in Medina. Medina_sentence_87

The French historian Robert Mantran proposes that from this point of view it was successful—from this point on, the Muslims were no longer primarily concerned with survival but with expansion and conquest. Medina_sentence_88

In the ten years following the hijra, Medina formed the base from which Muhammad and the Muslim army attacked and were attacked, and it was from here that he marched on Mecca, entering it without battle in 630 CE or 8 AH. Medina_sentence_89

Despite Muhammad's tribal connection to Mecca, the growing importance of Mecca in Islam, the significance of the Ka'bah as the center of the Islamic world, as the direction of prayer (Qibla), and in the Islamic pilgrimage (Hajj), Muhammad returned to Medina, which remained for some years the most important city of Islam and the base of operations of the early Rashidun Caliphate. Medina_sentence_90

The city is presumed to have been renamed Madinat al-Nabi ("City of the Prophet" in Arabic) in honour of Muhammad's prophethood and the city being the site of his burial. Medina_sentence_91

Alternatively, Lucien Gubbay suggests the name Medina could also have been a derivative from the Aramaic word Medinta, which the Jewish inhabitants could have used for the city. Medina_sentence_92

Under the first three caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman, Medina was the capital of a rapidly increasing Muslim Empire. Medina_sentence_93

During the reign of 'Uthman ibn al-Affan, the third caliph, a party of Arabs from Egypt, disgruntled at some of his political decisions, attacked Medina in 656 CE and assassinated him in his own home. Medina_sentence_94

Ali, the fourth caliph, changed the capital of the caliphate from Medina to Kufa in Iraq for being in a more strategic location. Medina_sentence_95

Since then, Medina's importance dwindled, becoming more a place of religious importance than of political power. Medina_sentence_96

Medina witnessed little to no economic growth during and after Ali's reign. Medina_sentence_97

Under subsequent Islamic regimes Medina_section_10

Umayyad Caliphate Medina_section_11

After al-Hasan, the son of 'Ali, ceded power to Mu'awiyah I, son of Abu Sufyan, Mu'awiyah marched into Kufa, Ali's capital, and received the allegiance of the local 'Iraqis. Medina_sentence_98

This is considered to be the beginning of the Umayyad caliphate. Medina_sentence_99

Mu'awiyah's governors took special care of Medina and dug the 'Ayn az-Zarqa'a ("Blue Spring") spring along with a project that included the creation of underground ducts for the purposes of irrigation. Medina_sentence_100

Dams were built in some of the wadis and the subsequent agricultural boom led to the strengthening of the economy. Medina_sentence_101

Following a period of unrest during the Second Fitna in 679 CE (60 AH), Husayn ibn 'Ali was martyred at Karbala and Yazid assumed unchecked control for the next three years. Medina_sentence_102

In 682 CE (63 AH), Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr declared himself Caliph of Mecca and the people of Medina swore allegiance to him. Medina_sentence_103

This led to an eight-year-long period of economic distress for the city. Medina_sentence_104

In 692 CE (73 AH), the Umayyads regained power and Medina experienced its second period of huge economic growth. Medina_sentence_105

Trade improved and more people moved into the city. Medina_sentence_106

The banks of Wadi al-'Aqiq were now lush with greenery. Medina_sentence_107

This period of peace and prosperity coincided with the rule of 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz, who many consider to be the fifth of the Rashidun. Medina_sentence_108

Abbasid Caliphate Medina_section_12

Abdulbasit A. Badr, in his book, Madinah, The Enlightened City: History and Landmarks, divides this period into three distinct phases: Medina_sentence_109

Badr describes the period between 749 and 974 CE (132–363 AH) as a push-and-pull between peace and political turmoil, while Medina continued to pay allegiance to the Abbasids. Medina_sentence_110

From 974 to 1151 CE (363–546 AH), Medina was in a liaison with the Fatimids, even though the political stand between the two remained turbulent and did not exceed the normal allegiance. Medina_sentence_111

From 1151 CE (546 AH) onwards, Medina paid allegiance to the Zengids, and the Emir Nuruddin Zangi took care of the roads used by pilgrims and funded the fixing of the water sources and streets. Medina_sentence_112

When he visited Medina in 1162 CE (557 AH), he ordered the construction of a new wall that encompassed the new urban areas outside the old city wall. Medina_sentence_113

Zangi was succeeded by Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, who supported Qasim ibn Muhanna, the Governor of Medina, and greatly funded the growth of the city while slashing taxes paid by the pilgrims. Medina_sentence_114

He also funded the Bedouins who lived on the routes used by pilgrims to protect them on their journeys. Medina_sentence_115

The later Abbasids also continued to fund the expenses of the city. Medina_sentence_116

While Medina was formally allied with the Abbasids during this period, they maintained closer relations with the Zengids and Ayyubids. Medina_sentence_117

The historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet (9.1 to 12.2 m) high, dating from this period, and was flanked with towers. Medina_sentence_118

Of its four gates, the Bab al-Salam ("The Gate of Peace"), was remarked for its beauty. Medina_sentence_119

Beyond the walls of the city, the west and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards, gardens and plantations. Medina_sentence_120

Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo Medina_section_13

After a brutal long conflict with the Abbasids, the Mamluk Sultanate of Cairo took over the Egyptian governorate and effectively gained control of Medina. Medina_sentence_121

In 1256 CE (Rajab 654 AH), Medina was threatened by lava from the Harrat Rahat volcanic region but was narrowly saved from being burnt after the lava turned northward. Medina_sentence_122

During Mamluk reign, the Masjid an-Nabawi caught fire twice. Medina_sentence_123

Once in 1256 CE (654 AH), when the storage caught fire, burning the entire mosque, and the other time in 1481 CE (886 AH), when the masjid was struck by lightning. Medina_sentence_124

This period also coincided with an increase in scholarly activity in Medina, with scholars such as Ibn Farhun, Al-Hafiz Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi, Al Sakhawi and others settling in the city. Medina_sentence_125

The striking iconic Green Dome also found its beginnings as a cupola built under Mamluk Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun as-Salihi in 1297 CE (678 AH). Medina_sentence_126

Ottoman rule Medina_section_14

First Ottoman period Medina_section_15

In 1517 CE (923 AH), the first Ottoman period began with Selim I's conquest of Mamluk Egypt. Medina_sentence_127

This added Medina to their territory and they continued the tradition of showering Medina with money and aid. Medina_sentence_128

In 1532 CE (939 AH), Suleiman the Magnificent built a secure fortress around the city and constructed a strong castle armed by an Ottoman battalion to protect the city. Medina_sentence_129

This is also the period in which many of the Prophet's Mosque's modern features were built even though it wasn't painted green yet. Medina_sentence_130

These suburbs also had walls and gates. Medina_sentence_131

The Ottoman sultans took a keen interest in the Prophet's Mosque and redesigned it over and over to suit their preferences. Medina_sentence_132

First Saudi insurgency Medina_section_16

As the Ottomans' hold over their domains broke loose, the Madanis pledged alliance to Saud bin Abdulaziz, founder of the First Saudi state in 1805 CE (1220 AH), who quickly took over the city. Medina_sentence_133

In 1811 CE (1226 AH), Muhammad Ali Pasha, Ottoman commander and Wali of Egypt, commanded two armies under each of his two sons to seize Medina, the first one, under the elder Towson Pasha, failed to take Medina. Medina_sentence_134

But the second one, a larger army under the command of Ibrahim Pasha, succeeded after battling a fierce resistance movement. Medina_sentence_135

Muhammad Ali Pasha's era Medina_section_17

After defeating his Saudi foes, Muhammad Ali Pasha took over governance of Medina and although he did not formally declare independence, his governance took on more of a semi-autonomous style. Medina_sentence_136

Muhammad's sons, Towson and Ibrahim, alternated in the governance of the city. Medina_sentence_137

Ibrahim renovated the city's walls and the Prophet's Mosque. Medina_sentence_138

He established a grand provision distribution center (taqiyya) to distribute food and alms to the needy and Medina lived a period of security and peace, In 1840 CE (1256 AH), Muhammad moved his troops out of the city and officially handed the city to the central Ottoman command. Medina_sentence_139

Second Ottoman period Medina_section_18

Four years in 1844 CE (1260 AH), after Muhammad Ali Pasha's departure, Davud Pasha was given the position of governor of Egypt under the Ottoman sultan. Medina_sentence_140

Davud was responsible for renovating the Prophet's mosque on Sultan Abdulmejid I's orders. Medina_sentence_141

When Abdul Hamid II assumed power, he made Medina stand out of the desert with a number of modern marvels, including a radio communication station, an power plant for the Prophet's Mosque and its immediate vicinity, a telegraph line between Medina and Istanbul, and the Hejaz railway which ran from Damascus to Medina with a planned extension to Mecca. Medina_sentence_142

Within one decade, the population of the city multiplied by leaps and bounds and reached 80,000. Medina_sentence_143

Around this time, Medina started falling prey to a new threat, the Hashemite Sharifate of Mecca in the south. Medina_sentence_144

Medina witnessed the longest siege in its history during and after World War I. Medina_sentence_145

Modern history Medina_section_19

Sharifate of Mecca and Saudi conquest Medina_section_20

The Sharif of Mecca, Husayn ibn Ali, first attacked Medina on 6 June 1916 CE or 4 Sha'aban 1334 AH, in the middle of World War I. Medina_sentence_146

Four days later, Husayn held Medina in a bitter 3-year siege, during which the people faced food shortages, widespread disease and mass emigration. Medina_sentence_147

Fakhri Pasha, governor of Medina, tenaciously held on during the Siege of Medina from 10 June 1916 and refused to surrender and held on another 72 days after the Armistice of Moudros, until he was arrested by his own men and the city was taken over by the Sharifate on 10 January 1919. Medina_sentence_148

Husayn largely won the war due to his alliance with the British. Medina_sentence_149

In anticipation of the plunder and destruction to follow, Fakhri Pasha secretly dispatched the Sacred Relics of Muhammad to the Ottoman capital, Istanbul. Medina_sentence_150

As of 1920, the British described Medina as "much more self-supporting than Mecca." Medina_sentence_151

After the Great War, the Sharif of Mecca, Sayyid Hussein bin Ali was proclaimed King of an independent Hejaz. Medina_sentence_152

Soon after, the people of Medina secretly entered an agreement with Ibn Saud in 1924, and his son, Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz conquered Medina as part of the Saudi conquest of Hejaz on 5 December 1925 (19 Jumada I 1344 AH) which gave way to the whole of the Hejaz being incorporated into the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medina_sentence_153

Under the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Medina_section_21

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia focused more on the expansion of the city and the demolition of former sites that violated Islamic principles and Islamic law such as the tombs at al-Baqi. Medina_sentence_154

Nowadays, the city mostly only holds religious significance and as such, just like Mecca, has given rise to a number of hotels surrounding the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, which unlike the Masjid Al-Ḥarām, is equipped with an underground parking. Medina_sentence_155

The old city's walls have been destroyed and replaced with the three ring roads that encircle Medina today, named in order of length, King Faisal Road, King Abdullah Road and King Khalid Road. Medina_sentence_156

Medina's ring roads generally see less traffic overall compared to the four ring roads of Mecca. Medina_sentence_157

An international airport, named the Prince Mohammed Bin Abdulaziz International Airport, now serves the city and is located on Highway 340, known locally as the Old Qassim Road. Medina_sentence_158

The city now sits at the crossroads of two major Saudi Arabian highways, Highway 60, known as the Qassim–Medina Highway, and Highway 15 which connects the city to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk in the north and onward, known as the Al Hijrah Highway or Al Hijrah Road, after Muhammad's journey. Medina_sentence_159

The old Ottoman railway system was shutdown after their departure from the region and the old railway station has now been converted into a museum. Medina_sentence_160

The city has recently seen another connection and mode of transport between it and Mecca, the Haramain high-speed railway line connects the two cities via King Abdullah Economic City near Rabigh, King Abdulaziz International Airport and the city of Jeddah in under 3 hours. Medina_sentence_161

Though the city's sacred core of the old city is off limits to non-Muslims, the Haram area of Medina itself is much smaller than that of Mecca and Medina has recently seen an increase in the number of Muslim and Non-Muslim expatriate workers of other nationalities, most commonly South Asian peoples and people from other countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council. Medina_sentence_162

Almost all of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era. Medina_sentence_163

The rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Medina_sentence_164

Destruction of heritage Medina_section_22

Main article: Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites in Saudi Arabia Medina_sentence_165

Saudi Arabia is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to shirk (idolatry). Medina_sentence_166

As a consequence, under Saudi rule, Medina has suffered from considerable destruction of its physical heritage including the loss of many buildings over a thousand years old. Medina_sentence_167

Critics have described this as "Saudi vandalism" and claim that 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost in Medina and Mecca over the last 50 years. Medina_sentence_168

The most famous example of this is the demolition of al-Baqi. Medina_sentence_169

Geography Medina_section_23

Medina is located in the Hejaz region which is a 200 km (124 mi) wide strip between the Nafud desert and the Red Sea. Medina_sentence_170

Located approximately 720 km (447 mi) northwest of Riyadh which is at the center of the Saudi desert, the city is 250 km (155 mi) away from the west coast of Saudi Arabia and at an elevation of approximately 620 metres (2,030 feet) above sea level. Medina_sentence_171

It lies at 39º36' longitude east and 24º28' latitude north. Medina_sentence_172

It covers an area of about 589 square kilometres (227 square miles). Medina_sentence_173

The city has been divided into twelve (12) districts, 7 of which have been categorised as urban districts, while the other 5 have been categorised as suburban. Medina_sentence_174

Elevation Medina_section_24

Like most cities in the Hejaz region, Medina is situated at a very high elevation. Medina_sentence_175

Almost three times as high as Mecca, the city is situated at 620 metres (2,030 feet) above sea level. Medina_sentence_176

Mount Uhud is the highest peak in Medina and is 1,077 meters (3,533 feet) tall. Medina_sentence_177

Topography Medina_section_25

Medina is a desert oasis surrounded by the Hejaz Mountains and volcanic hills. Medina_sentence_178

The soil surrounding Medina consists of mostly basalt, while the hills, especially noticeable to the south of the city, are volcanic ash which dates to the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era. Medina_sentence_179

It is surrounded by a number of famous mountains, most notably Jabal Al-Hujjaj (The Pilgrims' Mountain) to the west, Sal'aa Mountain to the north-west, Jabal al-'Ir or Caravan Mountain to the south and Mount Uhud to the north. Medina_sentence_180

The city is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the tripoint of the three valleys (wadis) of Wadi al 'Aql, Wadi al 'Aqiq, and Wadi al Himdh, for this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry deserted mountainous region. Medina_sentence_181

Climate Medina_section_26

Under the Köppen climate classification, Medina falls in a hot desert climate region (BWh). Medina_sentence_182

Summers are extremely hot with daytime temperatures averaging about 43 °C (109 °F) with nights about 29 °C (84 °F). Medina_sentence_183

Temperatures above 45 °C (113 °F) are not unusual between June and September. Medina_sentence_184

Winters are milder, with temperatures from 12 °C (54 °F) at night to 25 °C (77 °F) in the day. Medina_sentence_185

There is very little rainfall, which falls almost entirely between November and May. Medina_sentence_186

In summer, the wind is north-western, while in the spring and winters, is south-western. Medina_sentence_187

Significance in Islam Medina_section_27

Main article: Muhammad in Medina Medina_sentence_188

Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of two mosques, Masjid Quba'a and al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Medina_sentence_189

Both of these mosques were built by Muhammad himself. Medina_sentence_190

Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina_sentence_191

Medina is mentioned several times in the Quran, two examples are Surah At-Tawbah. Medina_sentence_192

verse 101 and Al-Hashr. Medina_sentence_193

verse 8. Medina_sentence_194

Medinan suras are typically longer than their Meccan counterparts and they are also larger in number. Medina_sentence_195

Muhammad al-Bukhari recorded in Sahih Bukhari that Anas ibn Malik said the Prophet said: Medina_sentence_196

The Prophet's Mosque (al-Masjid an-Nabawi) Medina_section_28

Main article: The Prophet's Mosque Medina_sentence_197

According to Islamic tradition, a prayer in The Prophet's Mosque equates to 1,000 prayers in any other mosque except the Masjid al-Haram where one prayer equates to 100,000 prayers in any other mosque. Medina_sentence_198

The mosque was initially just an open space for prayer with a raised and covered minbar (pulpit) built within seven months and was located beside the Prophet's rawdhah (residence, although the word literally means garden) to its side along with the houses of his wives. Medina_sentence_199

The mosque was expanded several times throughout history, with many of its internal features developed overtime to suit contemporary standards. Medina_sentence_200

The modern Prophet's Mosque is famed for the Green Dome situated directly above the Prophet's rawdhah, which currently serves as the burial site for Muhammad, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq and Umar ibn al-Khattab and is used in road signage along with its signature minaret as an icon for Medina itself. Medina_sentence_201

The entire piazza of the mosque is shaded from the sun by 250 membrane umbrellas. Medina_sentence_202

Quba'a Mosque Medina_section_29

Main article: Quba'a Mosque Medina_sentence_203

It is Sunnah to perform prayer at the Quba'a Mosque. Medina_sentence_204

According to a hadith, Sahl ibn Hunayf reported that Muhammad said, Medina_sentence_205

and in another narration, Medina_sentence_206

It has been recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim that Muhammad used to go to Quba'a every Saturday to offer two rak'ahs of Sunnah prayer. Medina_sentence_207

The mosque at Quba'a was built by Muhammad himself upon his arrival to the old city of Medina. Medina_sentence_208

Quba'a and the mosque has been referred in the Qur'an indirectly in Surah At-Tawbah, verse 108. Medina_sentence_209

Other sites Medina_section_30

Masjid al-Qiblatayn Medina_section_31

Main article: Masjid al-Qiblatayn Medina_sentence_210

Masjid al-Qiblatayn is another mosque historically important to Muslims. Medina_sentence_211

Muslims believe that Muhammad was commanded to change his direction of prayer (qibla) from praying toward Jerusalem to praying toward the Ka'bah at Mecca, as he was commanded in Surah Al-Baqarah, verses 143 and 144. Medina_sentence_212

The mosque is currently being expanded to be able to hold more than 4,000 worshippers. Medina_sentence_213

Masjid al-Fath and the Seven Mosques Medina_section_32

Main article: The Seven Mosques Medina_sentence_214

Three of these historic six mosques were combined recently into the larger Masjid al-Fath with an open courtyard. Medina_sentence_215

Sunni sources claim that there is no hadith or any other evidence to prove that Muhammad may have said something about the virtue of these mosques. Medina_sentence_216

Al-Baqi' Cemetery Medina_section_33

Main article: Al-Baqi' Cemetery Medina_sentence_217

See also: Demolition of al-Baqi' Medina_sentence_218

Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad, caliphs and scholars are known to have been buried. Medina_sentence_219

In Islamic eschatology Medina_section_34

Main article: Islamic eschatology Medina_sentence_220

End of civilization Medina_section_35

Concerning the end of civilization in Medina, Abu Hurairah is recorded to have said that Muhammad said: Medina_sentence_221

Sufyan ibn Abu Zuhair said Muhammad said: Medina_sentence_222

Protection from plague and ad-Dajjal (the False Messiah) Medina_section_36

Main article: Al-Masih ad-Dajjal Medina_sentence_223

With regards to Medina's protection from plague and ad-Dajjal, the following ahadith were recorded: Medina_sentence_224

by Abu Bakra: Medina_sentence_225

by Abu Hurairah: Medina_sentence_226

Demographics Medina_section_37

As of 2018, the recorded population was 2,188,138, with a growth rate of 2.32%. Medina_sentence_227

Being a destination of Muslims from around the world, Medina witnesses illegal immigration after performing Hajj or Umrah, despite the strict rules the government has enforced. Medina_sentence_228

However, the Central Hajj Commissioner Prince Khalid bin Faisal stated that the numbers of illegal staying visitors dropped by 29% in 2018. Medina_sentence_229

Religion Medina_section_38

As with most cities in Saudi Arabia, Islam is the religion followed by the majority of the population of Medina. Medina_sentence_230

Sunnis of different schools (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali) constitute the majority, while there is a significant Shia minority in and around Medina, such as the Nakhawila. Medina_sentence_231

Outside the haram, there are significant numbers of Non-Muslim migrant workers and expats. Medina_sentence_232

Culture Medina_section_39

Similar to that of Mecca, Medina exhibits a cross-cultural environment, a city where people of many nationalities and cultures live together and interact with each other on a daily basis. Medina_sentence_233

This only helps the King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran. Medina_sentence_234

Established in 1985, the biggest publisher of Quran in the world, it employs around 1100 people and publishes 361 different publications in many languages. Medina_sentence_235

It is reported that more than 400,000 people from around the world visit the complex every year. Medina_sentence_236

Every visitor is gifted a free copy of the Qur'an at the end of a tour of the facility. Medina_sentence_237

Museums and arts Medina_section_40

The Al Madinah Museum has several exhibits concerning the cultural and historical heritage of the city featuring different archaeological collections, visual galleries and rare images of the old city. Medina_sentence_238

It is also includes the Hejaz Railway Museum. Medina_sentence_239

The Dar Al Madinah Museum opened in 2011 and it uncovers the history of Medina specializing in the architectural and urban heritage of the city. Medina_sentence_240

There is no archaeology or architecture from the time of Mohammed, except what remains of a few stone defensive towers The Holy Qur'an Exhibition houses rare manuscripts of the Quran, along with other exhibitions that encircle the Masjid an-Nabawi. Medina_sentence_241

The Madinah Arts Center, founded in 2018 and operated by the MMDA's Cultural Wing, focuses on modern and contemporary arts. Medina_sentence_242

The center aims to enhance arts and enrich the artistic and cultural movement of society, empowering artists of all groups and ages. Medina_sentence_243

As of February 2020, before the implementation of social distancing measures and curfews, it held more than 13 group and solo art galleries, along with weekly workshops and discussions. Medina_sentence_244

The center is located in King Fahd Park, close to Quba Mosque on an area of 8,200 square meters (88,264 square feet) Medina_sentence_245

In 2018, the MMDA launched Madinah Forum of Arabic Calligraphy, an annual forum to celebrate Arabic calligraphy and renowned Arabic calligraphers. Medina_sentence_246

The event includes discussions about Arabic Calligraphy, and a gallery to show the work of 50 Arabic calligraphers from 10 countries. Medina_sentence_247

The Dar al-Qalam Center for Arabic Calligraphy is located to the northwest of the Masjid an-Nabawi, just across the Hejaz Railway Museum. Medina_sentence_248

In April 2020, it was announced that the center was renamed the Prince Mohammed bin Salman Center for Arabic Calligraphy, and upgraded to an international hub for Arabic Calligraphers, in conjunction with the "Year of Arabic Calligraphy" event organized by the Ministry of Culture during the years 2020 and 2021. Medina_sentence_249

Other projects launched by the MMDA Cultural Wing include the Madinah Forum of Live Sculpture held at Quba Square, with 16 sculptors from 11 countries. Medina_sentence_250

The forum aimed to celebrate sculpture as it is an ancient art, and to attract young artists to this form of art. Medina_sentence_251

Sports Medina_section_41

Saudi Arabia is renowned for its passion of football around the world. Medina_sentence_252

Medina hosts two football clubs, Al Ansar FC, and Ohod FC, with their shared home venue at Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Stadium. Medina_sentence_253

Economy Medina_section_42

Historically, Medina's economy was dependent on the sale of dates and other agricultural activities. Medina_sentence_254

As of 1920, 139 varieties of dates were being grown in the area, along with other vegetables. Medina_sentence_255

Religious tourism plays a major part in Medina's economy, being the second holiest city in Islam, and holding many historical Islamic locations, it attracts more than 7 million annual visitors who come to perform Hajj during the Hajj season, and Umrah throughout the year. Medina_sentence_256

Medina has two industrial areas, the larger one was established in 2003 with a total area of 10,000,000 m, and managed by the Saudi Authority for Industrial Cities and Technology Zones (MODON). Medina_sentence_257

It is located 50 km from Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz International Airport, and 200 km from Yanbu Commercial Port, and has 236 factories, which produce petroleum products, building materials, food products, and many other products. Medina_sentence_258

The Knowledge Economic City (KEC) is a Saudi Arabian joint stock company founded in 2010. Medina_sentence_259

It focuses on real estate development and knowledge-based industries. Medina_sentence_260

The project is under development and is expected to highly increase the number of jobs in Medina by its completion. Medina_sentence_261

Human resources Medina_section_43

Education and scholarly activity Medina_section_44

Primary and secondary education Medina_section_45

The Ministry of Education is the governing body of education in the al-Madinah Province and it operates 724 and 773 public schools for boys and girls respectively throughout the province. Medina_sentence_262

Taibah High School is one of the most notable schools in Saudi Arabia. Medina_sentence_263

Established in 1942, it was the second-largest school in the country at that time. Medina_sentence_264

Saudi ministers and government officials have graduated from this high school. Medina_sentence_265

Higher education and research Medina_section_46

Taibah University is a public university providing higher education for the residents of the province, it has 28 colleges, of which 16 are in Medina. Medina_sentence_266

It offers 89 academic programs and has a strength of 69210 students as of 2020. Medina_sentence_267

The Islamic University, established in 1961, is the oldest higher education institution in the region, with around 22000 students enrolled. Medina_sentence_268

It offers majors in Sharia, Qur'an, Usul ad-Din, Hadith, and the Arabic language. Medina_sentence_269

The university offers Bachelor of Arts degrees and also Master's and Doctorate degrees. Medina_sentence_270

The admission is open to Muslims based on scholarships programs that provide accommodation and living expenses. Medina_sentence_271

In 2012, the university expanded its programs by establishing the College of Science, which offers Engineering and Computer science majors. Medina_sentence_272

Al Madinah College of Technology, which is governed by TVTC, offers a variety of degree programs including Electrical engineering, Mechanical engineering, Computer Sciences and Electronic Sciences. Medina_sentence_273

Private universities at Medina include University of Prince Muqrin, the Arab Open University, and Al Rayyan Colleges. Medina_sentence_274

Transport Medina_section_47

Air Medina_section_48

Main article: Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz International Airport Medina_sentence_275

Medina is served by the Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz International Airport located off Highway 340. Medina_sentence_276

It handles domestic flights, while it has scheduled international services to regional destinations in the Middle East. Medina_sentence_277

It is the fourth-busiest airport in Saudi Arabia, handling 8,144,790 passengers in 2018. Medina_sentence_278

The airport project was announced as the world's best by Engineering News-Record's 3rd Annual Global Best Projects Competition held on 10 September 2015. Medina_sentence_279

The airport also received the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certificate in the MENA region. Medina_sentence_280

The airport receives higher numbers of passengers during the Hajj. Medina_sentence_281

Roads Medina_section_49

In 2015, the MMDA announced Darb as-Sunnah (Sunnah Path) Project, which aims to develop and transform the 3 km (2 mi) Quba'a Road connecting the Quba'a Mosque to the al-Masjid an-Nabawi to an avenue, paving the whole road for pedestrians and providing service facilities to the visitors. Medina_sentence_282

The project also aims to revive the Sunnah where Muhammed used to walk from his house (al-Masjid an-Nabawi) to Quba'a every Saturday afternoon. Medina_sentence_283

The city of Medina lies at the junction of two of the most important Saudi highways, Highway 60 and Highway 15. Medina_sentence_284

Highway 15 connects Medina to Mecca in the south and onward and Tabuk and Jordan in the north. Medina_sentence_285

Highway 60 connects the city with Yanbu, a port city on the Red Sea in the west and Al Qassim in the east. Medina_sentence_286

The city is served by three ring roads: King Faisal Road, a 5 km ring road that surrounds Al-Masjid an-Nabawi and the downtown area, King Abdullah Road, a 27 km road that surrounds most of urban Medina and King Khalid Road is the biggest ring road that surrounds the whole city and some rural areas with 60 km of roads. Medina_sentence_287

Bus and rapid transit Medina_section_50

The bus transport system in Medina was established in 2012 by the MMDA and is operated by SAPTCO. Medina_sentence_288

The newly established bus system includes 10 lines connecting different regions of the city to Masjid an-Nabawi and the downtown area, and serves around 20,000 passengers on a daily basis. Medina_sentence_289

In 2017, the MMDA launched the Madinah Sightseeing Bus service. Medina_sentence_290

Open top buses take passengers on sightseeing trips throughout the day with two lines and 11 destinations, including Masjid an-Nabawi, Quba'a Mosque and Masjid al-Qiblatayn and offers audio tour guidance with 8 different languages. Medina_sentence_291

By the end of 2019, the MMDA announced its plan to expand the bus network with 15 BRT lines. Medina_sentence_292

The project was set to be done in 2023. Medina_sentence_293

In 2015, the MMDA announced a three-line metro project in extension to the public transportation master plan in Medina. Medina_sentence_294

Rail Medina_section_51

Main article: Haramain high-speed railway Medina_sentence_295

The historic Ottoman railways were shutdown and the railway stations, including the one in Medina, were converted into museums by the Saudi government. Medina_sentence_296

The Haramain High Speed Railway (HHR) came into operation in 2018, linking Medina and Mecca, and passes through three stations: Jeddah, King Abdul Aziz International Airport, and King Abdullah Economic City. Medina_sentence_297

It runs along 444 kilometres (276 miles) with a speed of 300 km/h, and has an annual capacity of 60 million passengers. Medina_sentence_298

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: