Melbourne

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This article is about the Australian city. Melbourne_sentence_0

For the city centre or central business district (CBD), see Melbourne City Centre. Melbourne_sentence_1

For the local government area within which the Melbourne City Centre is situated, see City of Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_2

For other uses, see Melbourne (disambiguation). Melbourne_sentence_3

Melbourne (/ˈmɛlbərn/ (listen) MEL-bərn, locally [ˈmɛɫbən; Woiwurrung: Naarm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Melbourne_sentence_4

Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,993 km (3,858 sq mi), comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, and is also a common name for its city centre. Melbourne_sentence_5

The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the Hinterland towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. Melbourne_sentence_6

It has a population of 5 million (19% of the population of Australia), and its inhabitants are commonly referred to as "Melburnians". Melbourne_sentence_7

Home to Indigenous Australians for over 40,000 years, the Melbourne area served as a popular meeting place for local Kulin nation clans. Melbourne_sentence_8

A short-lived penal settlement was established at Port Phillip, then part of the British colony of New South Wales, in 1803, but it was not until 1835, with the arrival of free settlers from Van Diemen’s Land (modern-day Tasmania), that Melbourne was founded. Melbourne_sentence_9

It was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837, and named after the then British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_10

In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. Melbourne_sentence_11

During the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises. Melbourne_sentence_12

After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Melbourne_sentence_13

Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Melbourne_sentence_14

Melbourne is home to many of Australia's best-known landmarks, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. Melbourne_sentence_15

Noted for its cultural heritage, the city gave rise to Australian rules football, Australian impressionism and Australian cinema, and has more recently been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre. Melbourne_sentence_16

It hosts major annual international events, such as the Australian Grand Prix and the Australian Open, and also hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Melbourne_sentence_17

Melbourne consistently ranked as the world's most liveable city for much of the 2010s. Melbourne_sentence_18

Melbourne Airport, also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the second busiest airport in Australia, and the city's port is the nation's busiest seaport. Melbourne_sentence_19

Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station. Melbourne_sentence_20

It also has Australia's most extensive freeway network and the largest urban tram network in the world. Melbourne_sentence_21

History Melbourne_section_0

Further information: History of Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_22

See also: Timeline of Melbourne history and History of Victoria Melbourne_sentence_23

Early history and foundation Melbourne_section_1

Further information: Foundation of Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_24

Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for at least 40,000 years. Melbourne_sentence_25

When European settlers arrived in the 19th century, at least 20,000 Kulin people from three distinct language groups — the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong — resided in the area. Melbourne_sentence_26

It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water. Melbourne_sentence_27

The first British settlement in Victoria, then part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. Melbourne_sentence_28

The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land (present-day Tasmania) and founded the city of Hobart. Melbourne_sentence_29

It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. Melbourne_sentence_30

In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, and later claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres (2,400 km) with eight Wurundjeri elders. Melbourne_sentence_31

Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. Melbourne_sentence_32

In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Melbourne_sentence_33

Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement, initially known by the native name of Dootigala. Melbourne_sentence_34

Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales (who at the time governed all of eastern mainland Australia), with compensation paid to members of the association. Melbourne_sentence_35

In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837. Melbourne_sentence_36

Known briefly as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne on 10 April 1837 by Governor Richard Bourke after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. Melbourne_sentence_37

That year, the settlement's general post office officially opened with that name. Melbourne_sentence_38

Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of their land by European settlers. Melbourne_sentence_39

By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_40

The British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. Melbourne_sentence_41

By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Melbourne_sentence_42

Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. Melbourne_sentence_43

On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital. Melbourne_sentence_44

Victorian gold rush Melbourne_section_2

Further information: Victorian gold rush Melbourne_sentence_45

The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a gold rush, and Melbourne, the colony's major port, experienced rapid growth. Melbourne_sentence_46

Within months, the city's population had nearly doubled from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Melbourne_sentence_47

Exponential growth ensued, and by 1865 Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city. Melbourne_sentence_48

An influx of intercolonial and international migrants, particularly from Europe and China, saw the establishment of slums, including Chinatown and a temporary "tent city" on the southern banks of the Yarra. Melbourne_sentence_49

In the aftermath of the 1854 Eureka Rebellion, mass public-support for the plight of the miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture, manufacturing and other local industries. Melbourne_sentence_50

At least twenty nationalities took part in the rebellion, giving some indication of immigration flows at the time. Melbourne_sentence_51

With the wealth brought in from the gold rush and the subsequent need for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon began. Melbourne_sentence_52

The 1850s and 1860s saw the commencement of Parliament House, the Treasury Building, the Old Melbourne Gaol, Victoria Barracks, the State Library, University of Melbourne, General Post Office, Customs House, the Melbourne Town Hall, St Patrick's cathedral, though many remained uncompleted for decades, with some still not finished as of 2018. Melbourne_sentence_53

The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern, cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the central city, was largely established in the 1850s and 1860s. Melbourne_sentence_54

These areas rapidly filled with the ubiquitous terrace houses, as well as with detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads developed as shopping streets. Melbourne_sentence_55

Melbourne quickly became a major finance centre, home to several banks, the Royal Mint, and (in 1861) Australia's first stock exchange. Melbourne_sentence_56

In 1855, the Melbourne Cricket Club secured possession of its now famous ground, the MCG. Melbourne_sentence_57

Members of the Melbourne Football Club codified Australian football in 1859, and in 1861, the first Melbourne Cup race was held. Melbourne_sentence_58

Melbourne acquired its first public monument, the Burke and Wills statue, in 1864. Melbourne_sentence_59

With the gold rush largely over by 1860, Melbourne continued to grow on the back of continuing gold-mining, as the major port for exporting the agricultural products of Victoria (especially wool) and with a developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs. Melbourne_sentence_60

An extensive radial railway network spread into the countryside from the late 1850s. Melbourne_sentence_61

Construction started on further major public buildings in the 1860s and 1870s, such as the Supreme Court, Government House, and the Queen Victoria Market. Melbourne_sentence_62

The central city filled up with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Melbourne_sentence_63

Large banks and hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within the blocks. Melbourne_sentence_64

The Aboriginal population continued to decline, with an estimated 80% total decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases (particularly smallpox), frontier violence and dispossession of their lands. Melbourne_sentence_65

Land boom and bust Melbourne_section_3

The 1880s saw extraordinary growth: consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in land prices led to an enormous amount of construction. Melbourne_sentence_66

During this "land boom", Melbourne reputedly became the richest city in the world, and the second-largest (after London) in the British Empire. Melbourne_sentence_67

The decade began with the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, held in the large purpose-built Exhibition Building. Melbourne_sentence_68

A telephone exchange was established that year, and the foundations of St Paul's were laid. Melbourne_sentence_69

In 1881, electric light was installed in the Eastern Market, and a generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was in operation by 1882. Melbourne_sentence_70

The Melbourne cable tramway system opened in 1885 and became one of the world's most extensive systems by 1890. Melbourne_sentence_71

In 1885, visiting English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and has come to refer to the opulence and energy of the 1880s, during which time large commercial buildings, grand hotels, banks, coffee palaces, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city. Melbourne_sentence_72

The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings such as the 12-story APA Building, among the world's tallest commercial buildings upon completion in 1889. Melbourne_sentence_73

This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network. Melbourne_sentence_74

Melbourne's land-boom peaked in 1888, the year it hosted the Centennial Exhibition. Melbourne_sentence_75

A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in the early 1890s with a severe economic depression, sending the local finance- and property-industries into a period of chaos. Melbourne_sentence_76

Sixteen small "land banks" and building societies collapsed, and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. Melbourne_sentence_77

The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Australian economic depression of the 1890s and in the Australian banking crisis of 1893. Melbourne_sentence_78

The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with virtually no new construction until the late 1890s. Melbourne_sentence_79

De facto capital of Australia Melbourne_section_4

Further information: Federation of Australia Melbourne_sentence_80

At the time of Australia's federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne became the seat of government of the federation. Melbourne_sentence_81

The first federal parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House where it was located until 1927, when it was moved to Canberra. Melbourne_sentence_82

The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House in Melbourne until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century. Melbourne_sentence_83

Post-war period Melbourne_section_5

In the immediate years after World War II, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to Australia, primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Melbourne_sentence_84

While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air cafe cultures, the city centre was seen by many as stale—the dreary domain of office workers—something expressed by John Brack in his famous painting Collins St., 5 pm (1955). Melbourne_sentence_85

Up until the 21st century, Melbourne was considered Australia's "industrial heartland". Melbourne_sentence_86

Height limits in the CBD were lifted in 1958, after the construction of ICI House, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Melbourne_sentence_87

Suburban expansion then intensified, served by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre. Melbourne_sentence_88

The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city. Melbourne_sentence_89

New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of facadism. Melbourne_sentence_90

Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided. Melbourne_sentence_91

To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers. Melbourne_sentence_92

In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner city population. Melbourne_sentence_93

The Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_94

Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment. Melbourne_sentence_95

Australia's financial and mining booms during 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Melbourne_sentence_96

Nauru's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House. Melbourne_sentence_97

Melbourne remained Australia's main business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney. Melbourne_sentence_98

Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 and 1992, following the collapse of several local financial institutions. Melbourne_sentence_99

In 1992, the newly elected Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism. Melbourne_sentence_100

During this period the Australian Grand Prix moved to Melbourne from Adelaide. Melbourne_sentence_101

Major projects included the construction of a new facility for the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Casino and the CityLink tollway. Melbourne_sentence_102

Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure. Melbourne_sentence_103

Contemporary Melbourne Melbourne_section_6

Since the mid-1990s, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. Melbourne_sentence_104

There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Melbourne_sentence_105

Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf. Melbourne_sentence_106

Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city from 2001 to 2004. Melbourne_sentence_107

From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary. Melbourne_sentence_108

Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its Melbourne @ Five Million strategy. Melbourne_sentence_109

In 2009, Melbourne was less affected by the late-2000s financial crisis in comparison to other Australian cities. Melbourne_sentence_110

At this time, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian city—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined, and Melbourne's property market remained highly priced, resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases. Melbourne_sentence_111

In 2020, Melbourne was classified as an Alpha city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Melbourne_sentence_112

Geography Melbourne_section_7

Main article: Geography of Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_113

Urban structure Melbourne_section_8

See also: Melbourne city centre, List of heritage listed buildings in Melbourne, Lanes and arcades of Melbourne, Parks and gardens of Melbourne, and List of tallest buildings in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_114

Melbourne's urban area is approximately 2,453 km, slightly larger than that of London and Mexico City, while its metropolitan area is 9,993 km (3,858 sq mi)–larger than Jakarta (at 7,063 km), but smaller than New York City (at 11,875 km). Melbourne_sentence_115

The Hoddle Grid, a grid of streets measuring approximately 1 by ⁄2 mile (1.61 by 0.80 km), forms the nucleus of Melbourne's central business district (CBD). Melbourne_sentence_116

The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. Melbourne_sentence_117

More recent office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank and Docklands have made these areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. Melbourne_sentence_118

A byproduct of the CBD's layout is its network of lanes and arcades, such as Block Arcade and Royal Arcade. Melbourne_sentence_119

Melbourne's CBD has unrestricted height limits, unlike other Australian cities. Melbourne_sentence_120

As a result, it has become Australia's most densely populated area with approximately 19,500 residents per square kilometre, and is home to more skyscrapers than any other Australian city, the tallest being Australia 108, situated in Southbank. Melbourne_sentence_121

Melbourne's newest planned skyscraper, Southbank By Beulah (also known as "Green Spine"), has recently been approved for construction and will be the tallest structure in Australia by 2025. Melbourne_sentence_122

The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the Royal Exhibition Building, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House. Melbourne_sentence_123

Although the area is described as the centre, it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Glen Iris. Melbourne_sentence_124

Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. Melbourne_sentence_125

This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Melbourne_sentence_126

Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl, whilst its inner city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. Melbourne_sentence_127

The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms. Melbourne_sentence_128

Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state. Melbourne_sentence_129

There is an abundance of parks and gardens in Melbourne, many close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. Melbourne_sentence_130

Melbourne's parks are often considered the best public parks in all of Australia's major cities. Melbourne_sentence_131

There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington, Boroondara and Port Phillip, south east of the central business district. Melbourne_sentence_132

Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean National Park in the southeast, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. Melbourne_sentence_133

There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_134

The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areas 31 of which are located within the metropolitan area. Melbourne_sentence_135

Housing Melbourne_section_9

Main article: Housing in Victoria, Australia Melbourne_sentence_136

Melbourne has minimal public housing and high demand for rental housing, which is becoming unaffordable for some. Melbourne_sentence_137

Public housing is usually provided by the Housing Commission of Victoria, and operates within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by which federal and state governments provide housing funding. Melbourne_sentence_138

Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. Melbourne_sentence_139

This housing boom has increased house prices and rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing. Melbourne_sentence_140

Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with numerous developers offering house and land packages. Melbourne_sentence_141

However, after the release of Melbourne 2030 in 2002, planning policies have encouraged medium-density and high-density development in existing areas with greater access to public transport and other services, Melbourne's middle and outer-ring suburbs have seen significant brownfields redevelopment. Melbourne_sentence_142

Architecture Melbourne_section_10

Further information: Architecture of Melbourne and List of tallest buildings in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_143

On the back of the 1850s gold rush and 1880s land boom, Melbourne became renowned as one of the world's great Victorian-era cities, a reputation that persists due to its diverse range of Victorian architecture. Melbourne_sentence_144

High concentrations of well-preserved Victorian-era buildings can be found in the inner suburbs, such as Carlton, East Melbourne and South Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_145

Outstanding examples of Melbourne's built Victorian heritage include the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building (1880), the General Post Office (1867), Hotel Windsor (1884) and the Block Arcade (1891). Melbourne_sentence_146

Very little remains of Melbourne's pre-gold rush architecture; St James Old Cathedral (1839) and St Francis' Church (1845) are among the few examples left in the CBD. Melbourne_sentence_147

Many of the CBD's Victorian boom-time landmarks were also demolished in the decades after World War II, including the Federal Coffee Palace (1888) and the APA Building (1889), one of the tallest early skyscrapers upon completion. Melbourne_sentence_148

Heritage listings and heritage overlays have since been introduced in an effort to prevent further losses of the city's historic fabric. Melbourne_sentence_149

The city also features the Shrine of Remembrance, which was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. Melbourne_sentence_150

Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural style, but rather an eclectic mix of large McMansion-style houses (particularly in areas of urban sprawl), apartment buildings, condominiums, and townhouses which generally characterise the medium-density inner-city neighbourhoods. Melbourne_sentence_151

Freestanding dwellings with relatively large gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_152

Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic Italianate, Tudor revival and Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in inner-city neighbourhoods such as Carlton, Fitzroy and further into suburban enclaves like Toorak. Melbourne_sentence_153

Culture Melbourne_section_11

Main article: Culture of Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_154

Often referred to as Australia's cultural capital, Melbourne is recognised globally as a centre of sport, music, theatre, comedy, art, literature, film and television. Melbourne_sentence_155

For much of the 2010s, it held the top position in The Economist Intelligence Unit's list of the world's most liveable cities, partly due to its cultural attributes. Melbourne_sentence_156

The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events and festivals of all types, including the Melbourne International Arts Festival, Melbourne International Comedy Festival, Melbourne Fringe Festival and Moomba, Australia's largest free community festival. Melbourne_sentence_157

The State Library of Victoria, founded in 1854, is one of the world's oldest free public libraries and, as of 2018, the fourth most-visited library globally. Melbourne_sentence_158

Between the gold rush and the crash of 1890, Melbourne was Australia's literary capital, famously referred to by Henry Kendall as "that wild bleak Bohemia south of the Murray". Melbourne_sentence_159

At this time, Melbourne-based writers and poets Marcus Clarke, Adam Lindsay Gordon and Rolf Boldrewood produced classic visions of colonial life. Melbourne_sentence_160

Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab (1886), the fastest-selling crime novel of the era, is set in Melbourne, as is Australia's best-selling book of poetry, C. Melbourne_sentence_161 J. Dennis' The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke (1915). Melbourne_sentence_162

Contemporary Melbourne authors who have written award-winning books set in the city include Peter Carey, Helen Garner and Christos Tsiolkas. Melbourne_sentence_163

Melbourne has Australia's widest range of bookstores, as well as the nation's largest publishing sector. Melbourne_sentence_164

The city is also home to the Melbourne Writers Festival and hosts the Victorian Premier's Literary Awards. Melbourne_sentence_165

In 2008, it became the second city to be named a UNESCO City of Literature. Melbourne_sentence_166

Ray Lawler's play Summer of the Seventeenth Doll is set in Carlton and debuted in 1955, the same year that Edna Everage, Barry Humphries' Moonee Ponds housewife character, first appeared on stage, both sparking international interest in Australian theatre. Melbourne_sentence_167

Melbourne's East End Theatre District is known for its Victorian era theatres, such as the Athenaeum, Her Majesty's and the Princess, as well as the Forum and the Regent. Melbourne_sentence_168

Other heritage-listed theatres include the art deco landmarks The Capitol and St Kilda's Palais Theatre, Australia's largest seated theatre with a capacity of 3,000 people. Melbourne_sentence_169

The Arts Precinct in Southbank is home to Arts Centre Melbourne (which includes the State Theatre and Hamer Hall), as well as the Melbourne Recital Centre and Southbank Theatre, home of the Melbourne Theatre Company, Australia's oldest professional theatre company. Melbourne_sentence_170

The Australian Ballet, Opera Australia and Melbourne Symphony Orchestra are also based in the precinct. Melbourne_sentence_171

Melbourne has been called "the live music capital of the world"; one study found it has more music venues per capita than any other world city sampled, with 17.5 million patron visits to 553 venues in 2016. Melbourne_sentence_172

The Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Kings Domain hosted the largest crowd ever for a music concert in Australia when an estimated 200,000 attendees saw Melbourne band The Seekers in 1967. Melbourne_sentence_173

Airing between 1974 and 1987, Melbourne's Countdown helped launch the careers of Crowded House, Men at Work and Kylie Minogue, among other local acts. Melbourne_sentence_174

Several distinct post-punk scenes flourished in Melbourne during the late 1970s, including the Fitzroy-based Little Band scene and the St Kilda scene centered at the Crystal Ballroom, which gave rise to Dead Can Dance and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, respectively. Melbourne_sentence_175

More recent independent acts from Melbourne to achieve global recognition include The Avalanches, Gotye and King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard. Melbourne_sentence_176

Melbourne is also regarded as a centre of EDM, and lends its name to the Melbourne Bounce genre and the Melbourne Shuffle dance style, both of which emerged from the city's underground rave scene. Melbourne_sentence_177

Established in 1861, the National Gallery of Victoria is Australia's oldest and largest art museum. Melbourne_sentence_178

Several art movements originated in Melbourne, most famously the Heidelberg School of impressonists, named after a suburb where they camped to paint en plein air in the 1880s. Melbourne_sentence_179

They were followed by the Australian tonalists, some of whom founded Montsalvat, Australia's oldest art colony. Melbourne_sentence_180

During World War II, the Angry Penguins, a group of avant-garde artists, convened at a Bulleen dairy farm, now the Heide Museum of Modern Art. Melbourne_sentence_181

The city is also home the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. Melbourne_sentence_182

In the 2000s, Melbourne street art became globally renowned and a major tourist drawcard, with "laneway galleries" such as Hosier Lane attracting more Instagram hashtags than some of the city's traditional attractions, such as the Melbourne Zoo. Melbourne_sentence_183

A quarter century after bushranger Ned Kelly's execution at Old Melbourne Gaol, the Melbourne-produced The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film, premiered at the above-named Athenaeum, spurring Australia's first cinematic boom. Melbourne_sentence_184

Melbourne remained a world leader in filmmaking until the mid-1910s, when several factors, including a ban on bushranger films, contributed to a decades-long decline of the industry. Melbourne_sentence_185

A notable film shot and set in Melbourne during this lull was On the Beach (1959). Melbourne_sentence_186

Melbourne filmmakers led the Australian Film Revival with ocker comedies such as Stork (1971) and Alvin Purple (1973). Melbourne_sentence_187

Other films shot and set in Melbourne include Mad Max (1979), Romper Stomper (1992), Chopper (2000) and Animal Kingdom (2010). Melbourne_sentence_188

The Melbourne International Film Festival began in 1952 and is one of the world's oldest film festivals. Melbourne_sentence_189

The AACTA Awards, Australia's top screen awards, were inaugurated by the festival in 1958. Melbourne_sentence_190

Melbourne is also home to Docklands Studios Melbourne (the city's largest film and television studio complex), the Australian Centre for the Moving Image and the headquarters of Village Roadshow Pictures, Australia's largest film production company. Melbourne_sentence_191

Sports Melbourne_section_12

Further information: Sport in Victoria Melbourne_sentence_192

Melbourne has long been regarded as Australia's sporting capital due to the role it has played in the development of Australian sport, the range and quality of its sporting events and venues, and its high rates of spectatorship and participation. Melbourne_sentence_193

The city is also home to 27 professional sports teams competing at the national level, the most of any Australian city. Melbourne_sentence_194

Melbourne's sporting reputation was recognised in 2016 when, after being ranked as the world's top sports city three times biennially, the Ultimate Sports City Awards in Switzerland named it 'Sports City of the Decade'. Melbourne_sentence_195

The city has hosted a number of major international sporting events, most notably the 1956 Summer Olympic Games, the first Olympic Games held outside Europe and the United States. Melbourne_sentence_196

Melbourne also hosted the 2006 Commonwealth Games, and is home to several major annual international events, including the Australian Open, the first of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments. Melbourne_sentence_197

First held in 1861 and declared a public holiday for all Melburnians in 1873, the Melbourne Cup is the world's richest handicap horse race, and is known as "the race that stops a nation". Melbourne_sentence_198

The Formula One Australian Grand Prix has been held at the Albert Park Circuit since 1996. Melbourne_sentence_199

Cricket was one of the first sports to become organised in Melbourne with the Melbourne Cricket Club forming within three years of settlement. Melbourne_sentence_200

The club manages one of the world's largest stadiums, the 100,000 capacity Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). Melbourne_sentence_201

Established in 1853, the MCG is notable for hosting the first Test match and the first One Day International, played between Australia and England in 1877 and 1971, respectively. Melbourne_sentence_202

It is also the home of the National Sports Museum, and serves as the home ground of the Victoria cricket team. Melbourne_sentence_203

At Twenty20 level, the Melbourne Stars and Melbourne Renegades compete in the Big Bash League. Melbourne_sentence_204

Australian rules football, Australia's most popular spectator sport, traces its origins to matches played in parklands next to the MCG in 1858. Melbourne_sentence_205

Its first laws were codified the following year by the Melbourne Football Club, also a founding member, in 1896, of the Australian Football League (AFL), the sport's elite professional competition. Melbourne_sentence_206

Headquartered at Docklands Stadium, the AFL fields a further eight Melbourne-based clubs: Carlton, Collingwood, Essendon, Hawthorn, North Melbourne, Richmond, St Kilda, and the Western Bulldogs. Melbourne_sentence_207

The city hosts up to five AFL matches per round during the home and away season, attracting an average of 40,000 spectators per game. Melbourne_sentence_208

The AFL Grand Final, traditionally held at the MCG, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. Melbourne_sentence_209

In soccer, Melbourne is represented in the A-League by Melbourne Victory and Melbourne City FC. Melbourne_sentence_210

The rugby league team Melbourne Storm plays in the National Rugby League, and in rugby union, the Melbourne Rebels and Melbourne Rising compete in the Super Rugby and National Rugby Championship competitions, respectively. Melbourne_sentence_211

North American sports have also gained popularity in Melbourne: basketball sides South East Melbourne Phoenix and Melbourne United play in the NBL; Melbourne Ice and Melbourne Mustangs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League; and Melbourne Aces plays in the Australian Baseball League. Melbourne_sentence_212

Rowing also forms part of Melbourne's sporting identity, with a number of clubs located on the Yarra River, out of which many Australian Olympians trained. Melbourne_sentence_213

Economy Melbourne_section_13

See also: :Category:Companies based in Melbourne and Tourism in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_214

Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics, transportation and tourism. Melbourne_sentence_215

Melbourne houses the headquarters of many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue), and five of the largest seven in the country (based on market capitalisation) (ANZ, BHP Billiton (the world's largest mining company), the National Australia Bank, CSL and Telstra, as well as such representative bodies and think tanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Melbourne_sentence_216

Melbourne's suburbs also have the head offices of Coles Group (owner of Coles Supermarkets) and Wesfarmers companies Bunnings, Target, K-Mart and Officeworks. Melbourne_sentence_217

The city is home to Australia's second busiest seaport, after Port Botany in Sydney. Melbourne_sentence_218

Melbourne Airport provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport. Melbourne_sentence_219

Melbourne is also an important financial centre. Melbourne_sentence_220

In the 2018 Global Financial Centres Index, Melbourne was ranked as having the 15th most competitive financial centre in the world. Melbourne_sentence_221

Two of the big four banks, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_222

The city has carved out a niche as Australia's leading centre for superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of industry super-funds including the AU$109 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. Melbourne_sentence_223

The city was rated 41st within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2008), second only to Sydney (12th) in Australia. Melbourne_sentence_224

Melbourne is Australia's second-largest industrial centre. Melbourne_sentence_225

It is the Australian base for a number of significant manufacturers including Boeing, truck-makers Kenworth and Iveco, Cadbury as well as Bombardier Transportation and Jayco, among many others. Melbourne_sentence_226

It is also home to a wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing. Melbourne_sentence_227

The south-eastern suburb of Scoresby is home to Nintendo's Australian headquarters. Melbourne_sentence_228

The city also has a research and development hub for Ford Australia, as well as a global design studio and technical centre for General Motors and Toyota respectively. Melbourne_sentence_229

CSL, one of the world's top five biotech companies, and Sigma Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_230

The two are the largest listed Australian pharmaceutical companies. Melbourne_sentence_231

Melbourne has an important ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of AU$19.8 billion and export revenues of AU615 million. Melbourne_sentence_232

In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with about 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004. Melbourne_sentence_233

Melbourne has been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Melbourne_sentence_234

Construction began in February 2006 of an AU$1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra River with the Southbank precinct and multibillion-dollar Docklands redevelopment. Melbourne_sentence_235

The Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world to live in according to its worldwide cost of living index in 2013. Melbourne_sentence_236

The Economist Intelligence Unit also has ranked Melbourne as the most liveable city in the world for seven consecutive years (2011-2017). Melbourne_sentence_237

Tourism Melbourne_section_14

Main article: Tourism in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_238

Melbourne is the second most visited city in Australia and the seventy-third most visited city in the world. Melbourne_sentence_239

In 2018, 10.8 million domestic overnight tourists and 2.9 million international overnight tourists visited Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_240

The most visited attractions are: Federation Square, Queen Victoria Market, Crown Casino, Southbank, Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne Aquarium, Docklands, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne Museum, Melbourne Observation Deck, Arts Centre Melbourne, and the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Melbourne_sentence_241

Luna Park, a theme park modelled on New York's Coney Island and Seattle's Luna Park, is also a popular destination for visitors. Melbourne_sentence_242

In its annual survey of readers, the Condé Nast Traveler magazine found that both Melbourne and Auckland were considered the world's friendliest cities in 2014. Melbourne_sentence_243

The magazine highlighted the connection the city inhabitants have to public art and the many parks across the city. Melbourne_sentence_244

Its high liveability rankings make it one of the safest world cities for travellers. Melbourne_sentence_245

Furthermore, the city's prevalent cafe culture, alfresco dining and diverse food culture make it a popular spot for gastronomical tourism. Melbourne_sentence_246

Demographics Melbourne_section_15

Main article: Demographics of Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_247

In 2018, the population of the Melbourne metropolitan area was 4,963,349. Melbourne_sentence_248

Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the population of the Melbourne statistical division has grown by about 70,000 people a year since 2005. Melbourne_sentence_249

Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living. Melbourne_sentence_250

In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Melbourne_sentence_251

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, Melbourne was on track to overtake Sydney in population by 2028. Melbourne_sentence_252

The ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. Melbourne_sentence_253

After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs, aided in part by Victorian Government planning, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030, which have aimed to curtail urban sprawl. Melbourne_sentence_254

As of 2018, the CBD is the most densely populated area in Australia with more than 19,000 residents per square kilometre, and the inner city suburbs of Carlton, South Yarra, Fitzroy and Collingwood make up Victoria's top five. Melbourne_sentence_255

Ancestry and immigration Melbourne_section_16

Melbourne_table_infobox_0

Country of Birth (2016)Melbourne_header_cell_0_0_0
BirthplaceMelbourne_header_cell_0_1_0 PopulationMelbourne_header_cell_0_1_1
AustraliaMelbourne_cell_0_2_0 2,684,072Melbourne_cell_0_2_1
IndiaMelbourne_cell_0_3_0 161,078Melbourne_cell_0_3_1
Mainland ChinaMelbourne_cell_0_4_0 155,998Melbourne_cell_0_4_1
EnglandMelbourne_cell_0_5_0 133,300Melbourne_cell_0_5_1
VietnamMelbourne_cell_0_6_0 79,054Melbourne_cell_0_6_1
New ZealandMelbourne_cell_0_7_0 78,906Melbourne_cell_0_7_1
ItalyMelbourne_cell_0_8_0 63,332Melbourne_cell_0_8_1
Sri LankaMelbourne_cell_0_9_0 54,030Melbourne_cell_0_9_1
MalaysiaMelbourne_cell_0_10_0 47,642Melbourne_cell_0_10_1
GreeceMelbourne_cell_0_11_0 45,618Melbourne_cell_0_11_1
PhilippinesMelbourne_cell_0_12_0 45,157Melbourne_cell_0_12_1
South AfricaMelbourne_cell_0_13_0 24,168Melbourne_cell_0_13_1
Hong KongMelbourne_cell_0_14_0 20,840Melbourne_cell_0_14_1

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: Melbourne_sentence_256

0.5% of the population, or 24,062 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016. Melbourne_sentence_257

Melbourne has the 10th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. Melbourne_sentence_258

In Greater Melbourne at the 2016 census, 63.3% of residents were born in Australia. Melbourne_sentence_259

The other most common countries of birth were India (3.6%), Mainland China (3.5%), England (3%), Vietnam (1.8%) and New Zealand (1.8%). Melbourne_sentence_260

Language Melbourne_section_17

As of the 2016 census, 62% of Melburnians speak only English at home. Melbourne_sentence_261

Mandarin (4.1%), Greek (2.4%), Italian (2.3%), Vietnamese (2.3%), and Cantonese (1.7%) were the most common foreign languages spoken at home by residents of Melbourne as of 2016. Melbourne_sentence_262

Religion Melbourne_section_18

Melbourne has a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held of which is Christianity. Melbourne_sentence_263

This is signified by the city's two large cathedrals—St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), and St Paul's (Anglican). Melbourne_sentence_264

Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city. Melbourne_sentence_265

In recent years, Greater Melbourne's irreligious community has grown to be one of the largest in Australia. Melbourne_sentence_266

According to the 2016 Census, the largest responses on religious belief in Melbourne were no religion (31.9%), Catholic (23.4%), none stated (9.1%), Anglican (7.6%), Eastern Orthodox (4.3%), Islam (4.2%), Buddhism (3.8%), Hinduism (2.9%), Uniting Church (2.3%), Presbyterian and Reformed (1.6%), Baptist (1.3%), Sikhism (1.2%) and Judaism (0.9%). Melbourne_sentence_267

Over 180,000 Muslims live in Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_268

Muslim religious life in Melbourne is centred on more than 25 mosques and a large number of prayer rooms at university campuses, workplaces and other venues. Melbourne_sentence_269

As of 2000, Melbourne had the largest population of Polish Jews in Australia. Melbourne_sentence_270

The city was also home to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city, indeed the highest per capita outside Israel itself. Melbourne_sentence_271

Reflecting this vibrant community, Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial day schools, along with a local Jewish newspaper. Melbourne_sentence_272

Education Melbourne_section_19

Main article: Education in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_273

Some of Australia's most prominent and well known schools are based in Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_274

Of the top twenty high schools in Australia according to the , five are in Melbourne. Melbourne_sentence_275

There has also been a rapid increase in the number of International students studying in the city. Melbourne_sentence_276

Furthermore, Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Melbourne_sentence_277

Eight public universities operate in Melbourne: the University of Melbourne, Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology, Deakin University, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), La Trobe University, Australian Catholic University (ACU) and Victoria University (VU). Melbourne_sentence_278

Melbourne universities have campuses all over Australia and some internationally. Melbourne_sentence_279

Swinburne University and Monash University have campuses in Malaysia, while Monash has a research centre based in Prato, Italy. Melbourne_sentence_280

The University of Melbourne, the second oldest university in Australia, was ranked first among Australian universities in the 2016 THES international rankings. Melbourne_sentence_281

In 2018 Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne the 32nd best university in the world which is higher than the rankings in 2016 and 2017, Monash University was ranked 80th best. Melbourne_sentence_282

Both are members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of leading Australian tertiary institutions offering comprehensive and leading education. Melbourne_sentence_283

As of 2017 RMIT University is ranked 17th in the world in art & design, and 28th in architecture. Melbourne_sentence_284

The Swinburne University of Technology, based in the inner-city Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn, was as of 2014 ranked 76th–100th in the world for physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Melbourne_sentence_285

Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. Melbourne_sentence_286

In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available for them. Melbourne_sentence_287

Education in Melbourne is overseen by the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD), whose role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'. Melbourne_sentence_288

Media Melbourne_section_20

Main article: Media in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_289

Governance Melbourne_section_21

The governance of Melbourne is split between the government of Victoria and the 27 cities and four shires that make up the metropolitan area. Melbourne_sentence_290

There is no ceremonial or political head of Melbourne, but the Lord Mayor of the City of Melbourne often fulfils such a role as a first among equals, particularly when interstate or overseas. Melbourne_sentence_291

The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set out in the Local Government Act 1989 such as urban planning and waste management. Melbourne_sentence_292

Most other government services are provided or regulated by the Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street. Melbourne_sentence_293

These include services associated with local government in other countries and include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects. Melbourne_sentence_294

The state government retains the right to override certain local government decisions, including urban planning, and Melburnian issues often feature prominently in state election. Melbourne_sentence_295

Infrastructure Melbourne_section_22

In 2012, Mercer Consulting ranked Melbourne's infrastructure 17th in the world, behind only one other Australian city, Sydney, which ranked 10th in the world. Melbourne_sentence_296

Health Melbourne_section_23

The Government of Victoria's Department of Health and Human Services oversees about 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region, and 13 health services organisations. Melbourne_sentence_297

There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Melbourne_sentence_298 Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre. Melbourne_sentence_299

Other institutions include the Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron. Melbourne_sentence_300

Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities. Melbourne_sentence_301

Melbourne also is the home of the Royal Children's Hospital and the Monash Children's Hospital. Melbourne_sentence_302

Among Australian capital cities, Melbourne ties with Canberra in first place for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and ranks second behind Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years). Melbourne_sentence_303

Transport Melbourne_section_24

Main article: Transport in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_304

Further information: Railways in Melbourne, Trams in Melbourne, and Buses in Melbourne Melbourne_sentence_305

Like many Australian cities, Melbourne has a high dependency on the automobile for transport, particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought, with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using 22,320 km (13,870 mi) of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world. Melbourne_sentence_306

The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting in large-scale suburban expansion and a tendency towards the development of urban sprawl–like all Australian cities, inhabitants would live in the suburbs and commute to the city for work. Melbourne_sentence_307

By the mid 1950s there was just under 200 passenger vehicles per 1000 people, and by 2013 there was 600 passenger vehicles per 1000 people. Melbourne_sentence_308

Today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including buses and taxis. Melbourne_sentence_309

Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney. Melbourne_sentence_310

Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. Melbourne_sentence_311

Flinders Street station was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s. Melbourne_sentence_312

From the 1940s, public transport usage in Melbourne declined due to a rapid expansion of the road and freeway network, with the largest declines in tram and bus usage. Melbourne_sentence_313

This decline quickened in the early 1990s due to large public transport service cuts. Melbourne_sentence_314

The operations of Melbourne's public transport system was privatised in 1999 through a franchising model, with operational responsibilities for the train, tram and bus networks licensed to private companies. Melbourne_sentence_315

After 1996 there was a rapid increase in public transport patronage due to growth in employment in central Melbourne, with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips. Melbourne_sentence_316

A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006. Melbourne_sentence_317

Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%. Melbourne_sentence_318

The Melbourne rail network dates back to the 1850s gold rush era, and today consists of 218 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a mostly-underground subway system around the CBD. Melbourne_sentence_319

Flinders Street station, Australia's busiest rail hub, serves the entire network, and remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. Melbourne_sentence_320

The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross station, in Docklands. Melbourne_sentence_321

The Overland to Adelaide departs twice a week, while the XPT to Sydney departs twice daily. Melbourne_sentence_322

In the 2017–2018 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 240.9 million passenger trips, the highest ridership in its history. Melbourne_sentence_323

Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards, are also used for freight. Melbourne_sentence_324

Melbourne's tram network dates from the 1880s land boom and, as of 2019, consists of 250 km (155.3 mi) of double track, 475 trams, 25 routes, and 1,763 tram stops, making it the largest in the world. Melbourne_sentence_325

In 2017–2018, 206.3 million passenger trips were made by tram. Melbourne_sentence_326

Around 75 per cent of Melbourne's tram network shares road space with other vehicles, while the rest of the network is separated or are light rail routes. Melbourne_sentence_327

Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Melbourne_sentence_328

Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding areas during the evening. Melbourne_sentence_329

Melbourne is currently building 50 new E Class trams with some already in service in 2014. Melbourne_sentence_330

The E Class trams are about 30 metres long and are superior to the C2 class tram of similar length. Melbourne_sentence_331

Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs and fill the gaps in the network between rail and tram services. Melbourne_sentence_332

127.6 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne's buses in 2013–2014, an increase of 10.2 percent on the previous year. Melbourne_sentence_333

Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. Melbourne_sentence_334

The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. Melbourne_sentence_335

The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12-month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere. Melbourne_sentence_336

Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania docking there. Melbourne_sentence_337

Ferries and water taxis run from berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay. Melbourne_sentence_338

Melbourne has four airports. Melbourne_sentence_339

Melbourne Airport, at Tullamarine, is the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest in Australia. Melbourne_sentence_340

The airport is home base for passenger airline Jetstar Airways and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority; and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia. Melbourne_sentence_341

Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. Melbourne_sentence_342

It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Melbourne_sentence_343

Buses and taxis are the only forms of public transport to and from the city's main airports. Melbourne_sentence_344

Air Ambulance facilities are available for domestic and international transportation of patients. Melbourne_sentence_345

Melbourne also has a significant general aviation airport, Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east that also handles a small number of passenger flights. Melbourne_sentence_346

Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights. Melbourne_sentence_347

The city also has a bicycle sharing system that was established in 2010 and uses a network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle facilities. Melbourne_sentence_348

Utilities Melbourne_section_25

Main article: Energy in Victoria (Australia) Melbourne_sentence_349

Lists Melbourne_section_26

Melbourne_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne.