Memphis, Tennessee

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For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_0

"The M" redirects here. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_1

For the Latin character, see M. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_2

For other uses, see M (disambiguation). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_3

Memphis, Tennessee_table_infobox_0

Memphis, TennesseeMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_1_1
StateMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_2_0 TennesseeMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_2_1
CountyMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_3_0 ShelbyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_3_1
FoundedMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_4_0 May 22, 1819Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_5_0 December 19, 1826Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_5_1
Named forMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_6_0 Memphis, EgyptMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_7_0
MayorMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_8_0 Jim Strickland (D)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_8_1
AreaMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_9_0
CityMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_10_0 304.62 sq mi (788.97 km)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_10_1
LandMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_11_0 296.98 sq mi (769.18 km)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_11_1
WaterMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_12_0 7.64 sq mi (19.79 km)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_12_1
ElevationMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_13_0 337 ft (103 m)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_13_1
Population (2010)Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_14_0
CityMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_15_0 646,889Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_15_1
Estimate (2019)Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_16_0 651,073Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_16_1
RankMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_17_0 US: 25thMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_17_1
DensityMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_18_0 2,192.29/sq mi (846.45/km)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_18_1
UrbanMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_19_0 1,060,061 (US: 41st)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_19_1
MetroMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_20_0 1,348,260 (US: 42nd)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_20_1
DemonymMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_21_0 MemphianMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_21_1
Time zoneMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_22_0 UTC−6 (CST)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_22_1
Summer (DST)Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_23_0 UTC−5 (CDT)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_23_1
ZIP CodesMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_24_0 ZIP CodesMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_24_1
Area codeMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_25_0 901Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_25_1
FIPS codeMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_26_0 47-48000Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_26_1
InterstatesMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_27_0 Interstate_22 Interstate_40_in_Tennessee Interstate_55_in_Tennessee Interstate_69_in_TennesseeMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_27_1
Interstate SpursMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_28_0 Interstate_240_(Tennessee) Interstate_269 Interstate_555Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_28_1
U.S. RoutesMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_29_0 U.S._Route_51_in_Tennessee U.S._Route_61_in_Tennessee U.S._Route_64_in_Tennessee U.S._Route_70_in_Tennessee U.S._Route_72_in_Tennessee U.S._Route_78_in_Tennessee U.S._Route_79_in_TennesseeMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_29_1
Major State RoutesMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_30_0 Tennessee_State_Route_385Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_30_1
WaterwaysMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_31_0 Mississippi River, Wolf RiverMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_31_1
Public transitMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_32_0 MATAMemphis, Tennessee_cell_0_32_1
WebsiteMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_0_33_0 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_0_33_1

Memphis is a city along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, Tennessee, United States. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_4

Its 2019 estimated population was 651,073, making it Tennessee's second-most populous city behind Nashville, the nation's 28th-largest, and the largest city situated along the Mississippi River. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_5

Greater Memphis is the 42nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_6

The city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas, Mississippi, and the Missouri Bootheel. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_7

Memphis is the seat of Shelby County, Tennessee's most populous county. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_8

One of the more historic and culturally significant cities of the southern United States, Memphis has a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_9

The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_10

The high Chickasaw Bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi was then contested by the Spanish, French, and the English as Memphis took shape. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_11

Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, and future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_12

Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, and the American slave trade. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_13

After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced even faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_14

Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 assassination. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_15

The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_16

Since the civil rights era, Memphis has become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_17

Its largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_18

In addition to being a global air cargo leader, the International Port of Memphis also hosts the fifth-busiest inland water port in the U.S., with access to the Mississippi River allowing shipments to arrive from around the world for conversion to train and trucking transport throughout the United States, making Memphis a multi-modal hub for trading goods for imports and exports despite its inland location. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_19

Memphis is a regional center for commerce, education, media, art, and entertainment. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_20

It has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound in the early 20th century. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_21

The city's music has continued to be shaped by a multicultural mix of influences: the blues, country, rock and roll, soul, and hip-hop. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_22

Memphis-style barbecue has achieved international prominence, and the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_23

History Memphis, Tennessee_section_0

Main articles: History of Memphis, Tennessee and Timeline of Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_24

Early history Memphis, Tennessee_section_1

Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_25

The area was settled in the first millennium A.D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_26

They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_27

The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants, later inhabited the site. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_28

French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw in that area in the 16th century. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_29

J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians (2007), notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales (present-day Vicksburg) and Fort Confederación (present day Epes, Alabama): "Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_30

Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, which was a favorite of the Chickasaws." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_31

In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, sent his lieutenant governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff; Fort San Fernando De Las Barrancas was the result. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_32

Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws" when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post". Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_33

Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_34

The Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its lumber and iron to their locations in Arkansas. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_35

In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, in what was then called the Southwest United States. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_36

The area was still largely occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_37

Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_38

By this time, the Spanish had departed. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_39

The fort's ruins went unnoticed 20 years later when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_40

19th century Memphis, Tennessee_section_2

The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 (incorporated December 19, 1826), by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_41

They named it after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_42

Memphis developed as a trade and transportation center in the 19th century because of its flood-free location high above the Mississippi River. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_43

Located in the low-lying delta region along the river, its outlying areas were developed as cotton plantations, and the city became a major cotton market and brokerage center. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_44

The cotton economy of the antebellum South depended on the forced labor of large numbers of African-American slaves, and Memphis also developed as a major slave market for the domestic slave trade. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_45

Through the early 19th century, one million slaves were transported from the Upper South, in a huge forced migration to newly developed plantation areas in the Deep South. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_46

Many were transported by steamboats along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_47

In 1857, the Memphis and Charleston Railroad was completed, connecting Memphis to the Atlantic coast of South Carolina; it was the only east–west railroad constructed across the southern states before the Civil War. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_48

This gave planters and cotton brokers access to the coast for shipping cotton to England, a major market. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_49

The city's demographics changed dramatically in the 1850s and 1860s under waves of immigration and domestic migration. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_50

Due to increased immigration since the 1840s and the Great Famine, ethnic Irish made up 9.9% of the population in 1850, but 23.2% in 1860, when the total population was 22,623. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_51

They encountered considerable discrimination in the city but by 1860, the Irish constituted most of the police force. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_52

They also gained many elected and patronage positions in the Democratic Party city government, and an Irishman was elected mayor before the Civil War. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_53

At that time, representatives were elected to the city council from 30 wards. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_54

The elite were worried about corruption in this system and that so many saloonkeepers were active in the wards. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_55

German immigrants also made this city a destination after the 1848 revolutions; both the Irish and German immigrants were mostly Catholic, adding another element to demographic change in this formerly Protestant city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_56

Tennessee seceded from the Union in June 1861, and Memphis briefly became a Confederate stronghold. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_57

Union ironclad gunboats captured it in the naval Battle of Memphis on June 6, 1862, and the city and state were occupied by the Union Army for the duration of the war. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_58

Union Army commanders allowed the city to maintain its civil government during most of this period but excluded Confederate veterans from office, which shifted political dynamics in the city as the war went on. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_59

As Memphis was used as a Union supply base, associated with nearby Fort Pickering, it continued to prosper economically throughout the war. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_60

Meanwhile, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest harassed Union forces in the area. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_61

The war years contributed to additional dramatic changes in city population. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_62

The Union Army's presence attracted many fugitive slaves who had escaped from surrounding rural plantations. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_63

So many sought protection behind Union lines that the Army set up contraband camps to accommodate them. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_64

Memphis's black population increased from 3,000 in 1860, when the total population was 22,623, to nearly 20,000 in 1865, with most settling south of the city limits. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_65

The white population was also increasing, but not to the same degree. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_66

After race riots against the blacks in 1866, thousands left the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_67

The total population in 1870 was 40,220; the number of blacks declined to 15,000 that year, 37.4% of the total. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_68

Postwar years, Reconstruction and Democratic control Memphis, Tennessee_section_3

The rapid demographic changes added to the stress of war and occupation and uncertainty about who was in charge, increasing tensions between the Irish policemen and black Union soldiers after the war. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_69

In three days of rioting in early May 1866, the Memphis Riots erupted, in which white mobs made up of policemen, firemen, and other mostly ethnic Irish Americans attacked and killed 46 blacks, wounding 75 and injuring 100; raped several women; and destroyed nearly 100 houses while severely damaging churches and schools in South Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_70

Much of the black settlement was left in ruins. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_71

Two whites were killed in the riot. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_72

Many blacks permanently fled Memphis afterward, especially as the Freedmen's Bureau continued to have difficulty in protecting them. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_73

Their population fell to about 15,000 by 1870, 37.4% of the total population of 40,226. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_74

Historian Barrington Walker suggests that the Irish rioted against blacks because of their relatively recent arrival as immigrants and the uncertain nature of their own claim to "whiteness"; they were trying to separate themselves from blacks in the underclass. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_75

The main fighting participants were ethnic Irish, decommissioned black Union soldiers, and newly emancipated African American freedmen. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_76

Walker suggests that most of the mob were not in direct economic conflict with the blacks, as by then the Irish had attained better jobs, but were establishing dominance over the freedmen. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_77

In Memphis, unlike disturbances in some other cities, ex-Confederate veterans were generally not part of the attacks against blacks. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_78

The outrages of the riots in Memphis and a similar one in New Orleans in September (the latter did include Confederate veterans) resulted in Congress's passing the Reconstruction Act and the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_79

Yellow Jack Memphis, Tennessee_section_4

In the 1870s, a series of yellow fever epidemics devastated Memphis, with the disease carried by river passengers along the waterways. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_80

During the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1878, more than 5,000 people were listed in the official register of deaths between July 26 and November 27. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_81

The vast majority died of yellow fever, making the epidemic in the city of 40,000 one of the most traumatic and severe in urban U.S. history. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_82

Within four days of the Memphis Board of Health's declaration of a yellow fever outbreak, 20,000 residents fled the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_83

The ensuing panic left the poverty-stricken, the working classes, and the African-American community at most risk from the epidemic. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_84

Those who remained relied on volunteers from religious and physician organizations to tend to the sick. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_85

By the end of the year, more than 5,000 were confirmed dead in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_86

The New Orleans health board listed "not less than 4,600" dead. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_87

The Mississippi Valley recorded 120,000 cases of yellow fever, with 20,000 deaths. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_88

The $15 million in losses caused by the epidemic bankrupted Memphis, and as a result its charter was revoked by the state legislature. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_89

By 1870, Memphis's population of 40,000 was almost double that of Nashville and Atlanta, and it was the second-largest city in the South after New Orleans. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_90

Its population continued to grow after 1870, even when the Panic of 1873 hit the US hard, particularly in the South. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_91

The Panic of 1873 resulted in expanding Memphis's underclasses amid the poverty and hardship it wrought, giving further credence to Memphis as a rough, shiftless city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_92

Leading up to the outbreak in 1878, it had suffered two yellow fever epidemics, cholera, and malaria, giving it a reputation as sickly and filthy. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_93

It was unheard of for a city with a population as large as Memphis's not to have any waterworks; the city still relied for supplies entirely on collecting water from the river and rain cisterns, and had no way to remove sewage. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_94

The combination of a swelling population, especially of lower and working classes, and abysmal health and sanitary conditions made Memphis ripe for a serious epidemic. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_95

Kate Bionda, an owner of an Italian "snack house", died of the fever on August 13. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_96

Hers was officially reported by the Board of Health, on August 14, as the first case of yellow fever in the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_97

A massive panic ensued. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_98

The same trains and steamboats that brought thousands into Memphis now in five days carried away over 25,000 Memphians, more than half of the population. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_99

On August 23, the Board of Health finally declared a yellow fever epidemic in Memphis, and the city collapsed, hemorrhaging its population. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_100

In July of that year, the city had a population of 47,000; by September, 19,000 remained and 17,000 of them had yellow fever. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_101

The only people left in the city were the lower classes, such as German and Irish immigrant workers and African Americans. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_102

None had the means to flee the city, as did the middle and upper class whites of Memphis, and thus they were subjected to a city of death. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_103

Immediately following the Board of Health's declaration, a Citizen's Relief Committee was formed by Charles G. Fisher. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_104

It organized the city into refugee camps. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_105

The committee's main priority was to separate the poor from the city and isolate them in refugee camps. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_106

The Howard Association, formed specifically for yellow fever epidemics in New Orleans and Memphis, organized nurses and doctors in Memphis and throughout the country. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_107

They stayed at the Peabody Hotel, the only hotel to keep its doors open during the epidemic. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_108

From there they were assigned to their respective districts. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_109

Physicians of the epidemic reported seeing as many as 100 to 150 patients daily. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_110

The sisters of St. Mary's Hospital played an important role during the epidemic in caring for the lower classes. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_111

Already supporting a girls' school and church orphanage, the sisters of St. Mary's also sought to provide care for the Canfield Asylum, a home for black children. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_112

Each day, they alternated caring for the orphans at St. Mary's, delivering children to the Canfield Asylum, and taking soup and medicine on house calls to patients. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_113

Between September 9 and October 4, Sister Constance and three other nuns fell victim to the epidemic and died. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_114

They later became known as the Martyrs of Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_115

At long last, on October 28, a killing frost struck. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_116

The city sent out word to Memphians scattered all over the country to come home. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_117

Though yellow fever cases were recorded in the pages of Elmwood Cemetery's burial record as late as February 29, 1874, the epidemic seemed quieted. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_118

The Board of Health declared the epidemic, which caused over 20,000 deaths and financial losses of nearly $200 million, at an end. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_119

On November 27, a general citizen's meeting was called at the Greenlaw Opera House to offer thanks to those who had stayed behind to serve, of whom many died. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_120

Over the next year property tax revenues collapsed, and the city could not make payments on its municipal debts. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_121

As a result, Memphis temporarily lost its city charter and was reclassified by the state legislature as a Taxing District from 1878 to 1893. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_122

But a new era of sanitation was developed in the city, a new municipal government in 1879 helped form the first regional health organization, and during the 1880s Memphis led the nation in sanitary reform and improvements. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_123

Perhaps the most significant effect of the yellow fever on Memphis was in demographic changes. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_124

Nearly all of Memphis's upper and middle classes vanished, depriving the city of its general leadership and class structure that dictated everyday life, similar to other large Southern cities such as New Orleans, Charleston, and Atlanta. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_125

In Memphis, the poorer whites and blacks fundamentally made up the city and played the greatest role in rebuilding it. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_126

The epidemic had resulted in Memphis being a less cosmopolitan place, with an economy that served the cotton trade and a population drawn increasingly from poor white and black Southerners. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_127

Late 19th century Memphis, Tennessee_section_5

The 1890 election was strongly contested, resulting in opponents of the D. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_128 P. Hadden faction working to deprive them of votes by disenfranchising blacks. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_129

The state had enacted several laws, including the requirement of poll taxes, that served to disenfranchise many blacks. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_130

Although political party factions in the future sometimes paid poll taxes to enable blacks to vote, African Americans lost their last positions on the city council in this election and were forced out of the police force. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_131

(They did not recover the ability to exercise the franchise until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.) Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_132

Historian L. B. Wrenn suggests the heightened political hostility of the Democratic contest and related social tensions contributed to a white mob lynching three black grocers in Memphis in 1892. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_133

Journalist Ida B. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_134 Wells of Memphis investigated the lynchings, as one of the men killed was a friend of hers. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_135

She demonstrated that these and other lynchings were more often due to economic and social competition than any criminal offenses by black men. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_136

Her findings were considered so controversial and aroused so much anger that she was forced to move away from the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_137

But she continued to investigate and publish the abuses of lynching. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_138

Businessmen were eager to increase city population after the losses of 1878–79, and supported annexation of new areas to the city; this was passed in 1890 before the census. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_139

The annexation measure was finally approved by the state legislature through a compromise achieved with real estate magnates, and the area annexed was slightly smaller than first proposed. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_140

In 1893 the city was rechartered with home rule, which restored its ability to enact taxes. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_141

The state legislature established a cap rate. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_142

Although commission government was retained and enlarged to five commissioners, Democratic politicians regained control from the business elite. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_143

The commission form of government was believed effective in getting things done, but because all positions were elected at-large, requiring them to gain majority votes, this practice reduced representation by candidates representing significant minority political interests. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_144

20th century Memphis, Tennessee_section_6

In terms of its economy, Memphis developed as the world's largest spot cotton market and the world's largest hardwood lumber market, both commodity products of the Mississippi Delta. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_145

Into the 1950s, it was the world's largest mule market. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_146

Attracting workers from rural areas as well as new immigrants, from 1900 to 1950 the city increased nearly fourfold in population, from 102,350 to 396,000 residents. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_147

From the 1910s to the 1950s, Memphis was a place of machine politics under the direction of E. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_148 H. "Boss" Crump. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_149

He gained a state law in 1911 to establish a small commission to manage the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_150

The city retained a form of commission government until 1967 and patronage flourished under Crump. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_151

Per the publisher's summary of L.B. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_152

Wrenn's study of the period, "This centralization of political power in a small commission aided the efficient transaction of municipal business, but the public policies that resulted from it tended to benefit upper-class Memphians while neglecting the less affluent residents and neighborhoods." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_153

The city installed a revolutionary sewer system and upgraded sanitation and drainage to prevent another epidemic. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_154

Pure water from an artesian well was discovered in the 1880s, securing the city's water supply. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_155

The commissioners developed an extensive network of parks and public works as part of the national City Beautiful movement, but did not encourage heavy industry, which might have provided substantial employment for the working-class population. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_156

The lack of representation in city government resulted in the poor and minorities being underrepresented. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_157

The majority controlled the election of all the at-large positions. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_158

Memphis did not become a home rule city until 1963, although the state legislature had amended the constitution in 1953 to provide home rule for cities and counties. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_159

Before that, the city had to get state bills approved in order to change its charter and for other policies and programs. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_160

Since 1963, it can change the charter by popular approval of the electorate. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_161

During the 1960s, the city was at the center of the Civil Rights Movement, as its large African-American population had been affected by state segregation practices and disenfranchisement in the early 20th century. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_162

African-American residents drew from the civil rights movement to improve their lives. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_163

In 1968, the Memphis sanitation strike began for living wages and better working conditions; the workers were overwhelmingly African American. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_164

They marched to gain public awareness and support for their plight: the danger of their work, and the struggles to support families with their low pay. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_165

Their drive for better pay had been met with resistance by the city government. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_166

Rev. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_167

Martin Luther King Jr. of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, known for his leadership in the non-violent movement, came to lend his support to the workers' cause. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_168

King stayed at the Lorraine Motel in the city, and was assassinated by a sniper on April 4, 1968, the day after giving his prophetic I've Been to the Mountaintop speech at the Mason Temple. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_169

Grief-stricken and enraged after learning of King's murder, many African Americans in the city rioted, looting and destroying businesses and other facilities, some by arson. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_170

The governor ordered Tennessee National Guardsmen into the city within hours, where small, roving bands of rioters continued to be active. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_171

Fearing the violence, more of the middle-class began to leave the city for the suburbs. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_172

In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Memphis's population as 60.8% white and 38.9% black. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_173

Suburbanization was attracting wealthier residents to newer housing outside the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_174

After the riots and court-ordered busing in 1973 to achieve desegregation of public schools, "about 40,000 of the system's 71,000 white students abandon[ed] the system in four years." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_175

The city now has a majority-black population; the larger metropolitan area is narrowly majority white. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_176

Memphis is well known for its cultural contributions to the identity of the American South. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_177

Many renowned musicians grew up in and around Memphis and moved to Chicago and other areas from the Mississippi Delta, carrying their music with them to influence other cities and listeners over radio airwaves. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_178

These included musicians such as Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Muddy Waters, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Robert Johnson, W. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_179 C. Handy, B.B. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_180 King, Howlin' Wolf, Isaac Hayes, Booker T. Jones, Eric Gales, Al Green, Alex Chilton, Justin Timberlake, Three 6 Mafia, the Sylvers, Jay Reatard, Zach Myers, Aretha Franklin, and many others. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_181

Geography Memphis, Tennessee_section_7

Main article: Geography of Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_182

See also: List of neighborhoods in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_183

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 324.0 square miles (839.2 km), of which 315.1 square miles (816.0 km) is land and 9.0 square miles (23.2 km), or 2.76%, is water. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_184

Cityscape Memphis, Tennessee_section_8

Downtown Memphis rises from a bluff along the Mississippi River. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_185

The city and metro area spread out through suburbanization, and encompass southwest Tennessee, northern Mississippi and eastern Arkansas. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_186

Several large parks were founded in the city in the early 20th century, notably Overton Park in Midtown and the 4,500-acre (18 km) Shelby Farms. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_187

The city is a national transportation hub and Mississippi River crossing for Interstate 40, (east-west), Interstate 55 (north-south), barge traffic, Memphis International Airport (FedEx's "SuperHub" facility) and numerous freight railroads that serve the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_188

Riverfront Memphis, Tennessee_section_9

The Memphis Riverfront stretches along the Mississippi River from the Meeman-Shelby Forest State Park in the north, to the T. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_189 O. Fuller State Park in the south. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_190

The River Walk is a park system that connects downtown Memphis from Mississippi River Greenbelt Park in the north, to Tom Lee Park in the south. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_191

De-annexation Memphis, Tennessee_section_10

In recent years the city has decided to de-annex some of its territory. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_192

Its is currently going through a 3 phase process to de-annex 5 areas within the city limits which will return to being part of unincorporated Shelby County. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_193

The first phase of de-annexation occurred on January 1, 2020 when the Eads area and River Bottoms areas of the city returned to county jurisdiction. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_194

As a result, Shelby County Sheriff are responsible for patrolling these former parts of the city of Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_195

It is estimated that this first phase of the de-annexation process will reduce the size of city by 5%, with a reduction in the city population by 0.03%. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_196

The following 2 phases will have a much more significant impact. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_197

Aquifer Memphis, Tennessee_section_11

Shelby County is located over four natural aquifers, one of which is recognized as the "Memphis Sand Aquifer" or simply as the "Memphis Aquifer". Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_198

Located 350 to 1,100 feet (110 to 340 m) underground, this artesian water source is considered soft and estimated by Memphis Light, Gas and Water to contain more than 100 trillion US gallons (380 km) of water. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_199

Climate Memphis, Tennessee_section_12

Memphis has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa, Trewartha Cf), with four distinct seasons, and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 8a in downtown, cooling to 7b for much of the surrounding region. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_200

Winter weather comes alternately from the upper Great Plains and the Gulf of Mexico, which can lead to drastic swings in temperature. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_201

Summer weather may come from Texas (very hot and humid) or the Gulf (hot and very humid). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_202

July has a daily average temperature of 82.7 °F (28.2 °C), with high levels of humidity due to moisture encroaching from the Gulf of Mexico. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_203

Afternoon and evening thunderstorms are frequent during summer, but usually brief, lasting no longer than an hour. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_204

Early autumn is pleasantly drier and mild, but can be hot until late October. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_205

Late autumn is rainy and cooler; precipitation peaks again in November and December. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_206

Winters are mild to chilly, with a January daily average temperature of 41.2 °F (5.1 °C). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_207

Snow occurs sporadically in winter, with an average seasonal snowfall of 3.9 inches (9.9 cm). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_208

Ice storms and freezing rain pose greater danger, as they can often pull tree limbs down on power lines and make driving hazardous. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_209

Severe thunderstorms can occur at any time of the year though mainly during the spring months. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_210

Large hail, strong winds, flooding and frequent lightning can accompany these storms. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_211

Some storms spawn tornadoes. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_212

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Memphis was −13 °F (−25 °C) on December 24, 1963, and the highest temperature ever was 108 °F (42 °C) on July 13, 1980. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_213

Over the course of a year, there is an average of 4.4 days of highs below freezing, 6.9 nights of lows below 20 °F (−7 °C), 43 nights of lows below freezing, 64 days of highs above 90 °F (32 °C)+, and 2.1 days of highs above 100 °F (38 °C)+. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_214

Annual precipitation is high (53.68 inches (1,360 mm)) and is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year, though the period August through October tends to be drier. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_215

Average monthly rainfall is especially high in March through May, November and December. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_216

Demographics Memphis, Tennessee_section_13

Memphis, Tennessee_table_general_1

Racial compositionMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_1_0_0 2010Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_1_0_1 1990Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_1_0_2 1970Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_1_0_3 1950Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_1_0_4
WhiteMemphis, Tennessee_cell_1_1_0 29.4%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_1_1 44.0%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_1_2 60.8%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_1_3 62.8%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_1_4
—Non-HispanicMemphis, Tennessee_cell_1_2_0 27.5%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_2_1 43.7%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_2_2 60.5%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_2_3 n/aMemphis, Tennessee_cell_1_2_4
Black or African AmericanMemphis, Tennessee_cell_1_3_0 63.3%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_3_1 54.8%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_3_2 38.9%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_3_3 37.2%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_4_0 6.5%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_4_1 0.7%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_4_2 0.4%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_4_3 n/aMemphis, Tennessee_cell_1_4_4
AsianMemphis, Tennessee_cell_1_5_0 1.6%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_5_1 0.8%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_5_2 0.2%Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_5_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_1_5_4

For historical population data, see: History of Memphis, Tennessee. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_217

According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the racial composition of the city of Memphis was: Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_218

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 652,078 people and 245,836 households in the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_219

The population density was 2,327.4 people per sq mi (898.6/km). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_220

There were 271,552 housing units at an average density of 972.2 per sq mi (375.4/km). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_221

The racial makeup of the city was 63.33% African American, 29.39% White, 1.46% Asian American, 1.57% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.45% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_222

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.49% of the population. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_223

The median income for a household in the city was $32,285, and the median income for a family was $37,767. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_224

Males had a median income of $31,236 versus $25,183 for females. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_225

The per capita income for the city was $17,838. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_226

About 17.2% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18, and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_227

In 2011, the U.S. Census Bureau ranked the Memphis area as the poorest large metro area in the country. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_228

Dr. Jeff Wallace of the University of Memphis noted that the problem was related to decades of segregation in government and schools. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_229

He said that it was a low-cost job market, but other places in the world could offer cheaper labor, and the workforce was undereducated for today's challenges. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_230

The Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 42nd largest in the United States, has a 2010 population of 1,316,100 and includes the Tennessee counties of Shelby, Tipton and Fayette; as well as the northern Mississippi counties of DeSoto, Marshall, Tate, and Tunica; and Crittenden County, Arkansas, all part of the Mississippi Delta. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_231

The total metropolitan area has a higher proportion of whites and a higher per capita income than the population in the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_232

The 2010 census shows that the Memphis metro area is close to a majority-minority population: Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_233

In a reverse trend of the Great Migration, numerous African Americans and other minorities have moved into DeSoto County, and blacks have followed suburban trends, moving into the suburbs of Shelby County. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_234

Religion Memphis, Tennessee_section_14

An 1870 map of Memphis shows religious buildings of the Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, and other Christian denominations, and a Jewish congregation. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_235

In 2009, places of worship exist for Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_236

The international headquarters of the Church of God in Christ, the largest Pentecostal denomination in the United States, is located in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_237

Its Mason Temple was named after the denomination's founder, Charles Harrison Mason. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_238

This auditorium is where Rev. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_239

Martin Luther King Jr. gave his noted "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech in April 1968, the night before he was assassinated at his motel. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_240

The National Civil Rights Museum, located in Memphis at the Lorraine Motel and other buildings, has an annual ceremony at Mason's Temple of Deliverance where it honors persons with Freedom Awards. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_241

Bellevue Baptist Church is a Southern Baptist megachurch in Memphis that was founded in 1903. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_242

Its current membership is around 30,000. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_243

For many years, it was led by Adrian Rogers, a three-term president of the Southern Baptist Convention. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_244

Other notable and/or large churches in Memphis include Second Presbyterian Church (EPC), Highpoint Church (SBC), Hope Presbyterian Church (EPC), Evergreen Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), Colonial Park United Methodist Church, Christ United Methodist Church, Idlewild Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), GraceLife Pentecostal Church (UPCI), First Baptist Broad, Temple of Deliverance, Calvary Episcopal Church, the Church of the River (First Unitarian Church of Memphis), and Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_245

Memphis is home to two cathedrals. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_246

The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Memphis, and St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_247 Mary's Episcopal Cathedral is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of West Tennessee. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_248

Memphis is home to Temple Israel, a Reform synagogue that has approximately 7,000 members, making it one of the largest Reform synagogues in the country. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_249

Baron Hirsch Synagogue is the largest Orthodox shul in the United States. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_250

Jewish residents were part of the city before the Civil War, but more Jewish immigrants came from Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_251

Memphis is home to an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 Muslims of various cultures and ethnicities. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_252

A number of seminaries are located in Memphis and the metropolitan area. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_253

Memphis is home to Memphis Theological Seminary and Harding School of Theology. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_254

Suburban Cordova is home to Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_255

Crime Memphis, Tennessee_section_15

Main article: Crime in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_256

In the 21st century, Memphis has struggled to reduce crime. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_257

In 2001, it ranked as the second-most dangerous city, and in 2002 as most dangerous by the Morgan Quitno rankings. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_258

In 2004, violent crime in Memphis reached a decade record low. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_259

However, that trend changed and in 2005, Memphis was ranked the fourth-most dangerous city with a population of 500,000 or higher in the U.S. Crime increased again in the first half of 2006. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_260

By 2014, Memphis crime had substantially decreased, bringing the city's ranking up to eleventh in violent crime. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_261

Nationally, cities follow similar trends, and crime numbers tend to be cyclical. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_262

Nationally, other moderate-sized cities were also suffering large rises in crime, although crime in the largest cities continued to decrease or increased much less. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_263

In the first half of 2006, robbery of businesses increased 52.5%, robbery of individuals increased 28.5%, and homicides increased 18% over the same period of 2005. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_264

The Memphis Police Department responded with the initiation of Operation Blue C.R.U.S.H. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_265

(Crime Reduction Using Statistical History), which targets crime hotspots and repeat offenders. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_266

Memphis ended 2005 with 154 murders, and 2006 ended with 160; in 2007 there were 164 murders, 2008 had 138, and 2009 had 132. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_267

Violent crimes dropped from 12,939 in 2008 to 12,047. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_268

Robbery dropped from 4,788 in 2008 to 4,137 in 2009. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_269

Aggravated assault dropped 53,870 in 2008 to 47,158 in 2009 (FBI's UCR). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_270

In 2006 and 2007, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked second-most dangerous in the nation among cities with a population over 500,000. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_271

In 2006, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked number one in violent crimes for major cities around the U.S., according to the FBI's annual crime rankings, whereas it had ranked second in 2005. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_272

Since 2006, serious crime has dropped in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_273

Between 2006 and 2008, the crime rate fell by 16%, while the first half of 2009 saw a reduction in serious crime of more than 10% from the previous year. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_274

The Memphis Police Department's use of the FBI National Incident-Based Reporting System, which is a more detailed method of reporting crimes than what is used in many other major cities, has been cited as a reason for Memphis's frequent appearance on lists of most dangerous U.S. cities. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_275

With regard to homicide statistics released by the city in more recent years, they show another dramatic rise in murders committed in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_276

There were 140 homicides in the city in 2014 and 161 the following year. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_277

Then, in 2016, police officials recorded 228 murders, a total that marked a 63% increase in homicides since 2014. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_278

According to Michael Rallings, the director of the Memphis Police Department, investigations determined that one third of the murder victims in 2016 had been involved in gang activity. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_279

Economy Memphis, Tennessee_section_16

Main article: Economy of Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_280

The city's central geographic location has been strategic to its business development. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_281

Located on the Mississippi River and intersected by five major freight railroads and two Interstate Highways, I-40 and I-55, Memphis is ideally located for commerce in the transportation and shipping industry. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_282

Its access by water was key to its initial development, with steamboats plying the Mississippi river. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_283

Railroad construction strengthened its connection to other markets to the east and west. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_284

Since the second half of the 20th century, highways and interstates have played major roles as transportation corridors. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_285

A third interstate, I-69, is under construction, and a fourth, I-22, has recently been designated from the former High Priority Corridor X. River barges are unloaded onto trucks and trains. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_286

The city is home to Memphis International Airport, the world's second busiest cargo airport (following Hong Kong). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_287

Memphis serves as a primary hub for FedEx Express shipping. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_288

As of 2014, Memphis was the home of three Fortune 500 companies: FedEx (no. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_289

63), International Paper (no. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_290

107), and AutoZone (no. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_291

306). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_292

Other major corporations based in Memphis include Allenberg Cotton, American Residential Services (also known as ARS/Rescue Rooter); Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz; Cargill Cotton, City Gear, First Horizon National Corporation, Fred's, GTx, Lenny's Sub Shop, Mid-America Apartments, Perkins Restaurant and Bakery, ServiceMaster, True Temper Sports, Varsity Brands, and Verso Paper. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_293

Corporations with major operations based in Memphis include Gibson guitars (based in Nashville), and Smith & Nephew. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_294

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis also has a branch in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_295

The entertainment and film industries have discovered Memphis in recent years. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_296

Several major motion pictures, most of which were recruited and assisted by the Memphis & Shelby County Film and Television Commission, have been filmed in Memphis, including Making the Grade (1984), Elvis and Me (1988), Great Balls of Fire! Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_297

(1988), Heart of Dixie (1989), Mystery Train (1989), The Silence of the Lambs (1991), Trespass (1991), The Gun in Betty Lou's Handbag (1992), The Firm (1993), The Delta (1996), The People Vs. Larry Flynt (1996), The Rainmaker (1997), Cast Away (2000), 21 Grams (2002), A Painted House (2002), Hustle & Flow (2005), Forty Shades of Blue (2005), Walk the Line (2005), Black Snake Moan (2007), Nothing But the Truth (2008), Soul Men (2008), and The Grace Card (2011). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_298

The Blind Side (2009) was set in Memphis but filmed in Atlanta. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_299

The 1992 television movie Memphis, starring Memphis native Cybill Shepherd, who also served as executive producer and writer, was also filmed in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_300

Arts and culture Memphis, Tennessee_section_17

Main article: Culture of Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_301

Cultural events Memphis, Tennessee_section_18

One of the largest celebrations of the city is Memphis in May. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_302

The month-long series of events promotes Memphis's heritage and outreach of its people far beyond the city's borders. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_303

The four main events are the Beale Street Music Festival, International Week, The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, and the Great River Run. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_304

The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest is the largest pork barbecue-cooking contest in the world. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_305

In April, downtown Memphis celebrates "Africa in April Cultural Awareness Festival", or simply Africa in April. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_306

The festival was designed to celebrate the arts, history, culture, and diversity of the African diaspora. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_307

Africa in April is a three-day festival with vendors' markets, fashion showcases, blues showcases, and an international diversity parade. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_308

During late May-early June, Memphis is home to the Memphis Italian Festival at Marquette Park. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_309

The 2019 festival will be its 30th and has hosted musical acts, local artisans, and Italian cooking competitions. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_310

It also presents chef demonstrations, the Coors Light Competitive Bocce Tournament, the Galtelli Cup Recreational Bocce Tournament, a volleyball tournament, and pizza tossing demonstrations. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_311

This festival was started by Holy Rosary School and Parish and began inside the School parking lot in 1989. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_312

The Memphis Italian Festival is run almost completely by former and current Holy Rosary School and Church members and begins with a 5K run each year. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_313

Carnival Memphis, formerly known as the Memphis Cotton Carnival, is an annual series of parties and festivities in June that salutes various aspects of Memphis and its industries. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_314

An annual King and Queen of Carnival are secretly selected to reign over Carnival activities. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_315

From 1935 to 1982, the African-American community staged the Cotton Makers Jubilee; it has merged with Carnival Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_316

A market and arts festival, the Cooper-Young Festival, is held annually in September in the Cooper-Young district of Midtown Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_317

The event draws artists from all over North America and includes local music, art sales, contests, and displays. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_318

Memphis sponsors several film festivals: the Indie Memphis Film Festival, Outflix, and the Memphis International Film and Music Festival. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_319

The Indie Memphis Film Festival is in its 14th year and was held April 27–28, 2013. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_320

Recognized by MovieMaker Magazine as one of 25 "Coolest Film Festivals" (2009) and one of 25 "Festivals Worth the Entry Fee" (2011), Indie Memphis offers Memphis year-round independent film programming, including the Global Lens international film series, IM Student Shorts student films, and an outdoor concert film series at the historic Levitt Shell. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_321

The Outflix Film Festival, also in its 15th year, was held September 7–13, 2013. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_322

Outflix features a full week of LGBT cinema, including short films, features, and documentaries. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_323

The Memphis International Film and Music Festival is held in April; it is in its 11th year and takes place at Malco's Ridgeway Four. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_324

Mid-South Pride is Tennessee's second-largest LGBT pride event. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_325

On the weekend before Thanksgiving, the Memphis International Jazz Festival is held in the South Main Historic Arts District in Downtown Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_326

This festival promotes the important role Memphis has played in shaping Jazz nationally and internationally. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_327

Acts such as George Coleman, Herman Green, Kirk Whalum and Marvin Stamm all come out of the rich musical heritage in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_328

Formerly titled the W. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_329 C. Handy Awards, the International Blues Awards are presented by the Blues Foundation (headquartered in Memphis) for Blues music achievement. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_330

Weeklong playing competitions are held, as well as an awards banquet including a night of performance and celebration. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_331

Music Memphis, Tennessee_section_19

Memphis is the home of founders and pioneers of various American music genres, including Memphis soul, Memphis blues, gospel, rock n' roll, Memphis rap, Buck, crunk, and "sharecropper" country music (in contrast to the "rhinestone" country sound of Nashville). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_332

Many musicians, including Aretha Franklin, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Booker T. & the M.G. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_333 's, Otis Redding, Isaac Hayes, Shawn Lane, Al Green, Rance Allen, Percy Sledge, Solomon Burke, William Bell, Sam & Dave and B.B. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_334 King, got their start in Memphis in the 1950s and 1960s. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_335

Beale Street is a national historical landmark, and shows the impact Memphis has had on American blues, particularly after World War II as electric guitars took precedence. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_336

Sam Phillips' Sun Studio, the most seminal recording studio in American popular music, still stands, and is open for tours. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_337

Elvis, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins and Roy Orbison all made their first recordings there, and were "discovered" by Phillips. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_338

Many great blues artists recorded there, such as W. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_339 C. Handy, Father of the Blues. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_340

Stax Records created a classic 1960s soul music sound, much grittier and horn-based than Motown. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_341

Booker T. and the M.G.s were the label's backing band for most of the classic hits that came out of Stax, by Sam and Dave, Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, and many more. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_342

The sound still lives on in the Blues Brothers movie, in which many of the musicians starred as themselves. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_343

Memphis is noted for its influence on the power pop musical genre in the 1970s. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_344

Notable bands and musicians include Big Star, Chris Bell, Alex Chilton, Tommy Hoehn, The Scruffs, and Prix. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_345

Several notable singers are from the Memphis area, including Justin Timberlake, K. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_346 Michelle, Kirk Whalum, Three 6 Mafia, Ruth Welting, Kid Memphis and Kallen Esperian. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_347

The Metropolitan Opera of New York had its first tour in Memphis in 1906; in the 1990s it decided to tour only larger cities. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_348

Metropolitan Opera performances are now broadcast in HD at local movie theaters across the country. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_349

Visual art Memphis, Tennessee_section_20

In addition to the Brooks Museum and Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis plays host to two burgeoning visual art areas, one city-sanctioned, and the other organically formed. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_350

The South Main Arts District is an arts neighborhood in south downtown. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_351

Over the past 20 years, the area has morphed from a derelict brothel and juke joint neighborhood to a gentrified, well-lit area sponsoring "Trolley Night", when arts patrons stroll down the street to see fire spinners, DJs playing in front of clubs, specialty shops and galleries. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_352

Another developing arts district in Memphis is Broad Avenue. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_353

This east–west avenue is undergoing neighborhood revitalization from the influx of craft and visual artists taking up residence and studios in the area. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_354

An art professor from Rhodes College holds small openings on the first floor of his home for local students and professional artists. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_355

Odessa, another art space on Broad Avenue, hosts student art shows and local electronic music. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_356

Other gallery spaces spring up for semi-annual artwalks. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_357

Memphis also has non-commercial visual arts organizations and spaces, including local painter Pinkney Herbert's Marshall Arts gallery, on Marshall Avenue near Sun Studios, another arts neighborhood characterized by affordable rent. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_358

Literature Memphis, Tennessee_section_21

Well-known writers from Memphis include Shelby Foote, the noted Civil War historian. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_359

Novelist John Grisham grew up in nearby DeSoto County, Mississippi, and sets many of his books in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_360

Many works of fiction and literature are set in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_361

These include The Reivers by William Faulkner (1962), September, September by Shelby Foote (1977); Peter Taylor's The Old Forest and Other Stories (1985), and his Pulitzer Prize-winning A Summons to Memphis (1986); The Firm (1991) and The Client (1993), both by John Grisham; Memphis Afternoons: a Memoir by James Conaway (1993), Plague of Dreamers by Steve Stern (1997); Cassina Gambrel Was Missing by William Watkins (1999); The Guardian by Beecher Smith (1999), "We are Billion-Year-Old Carbon" by Corey Mesler (2005), The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris, and The Architect by James Williamson (2007). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_362

Tourism Memphis, Tennessee_section_22

Main article: Tourism in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_363

Points of interest Memphis, Tennessee_section_23

Memphis, Tennessee_unordered_list_0

  • Beale Street - a significant location in the city's history, as well as in the history of the blues. Street performers play live music, and bars and clubs feature live entertainment.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_0
  • Graceland - The private residence of Elvis PresleyMemphis, Tennessee_item_0_1
  • Memphis Zoo - features exhibits of mammals, birds, fish, and amphibians.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_2
  • Peabody Hotel - known for the "Peabody Ducks" on the hotel rooftop.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_3
  • Sun Studio - a recording studio opened in 1950; it now also contains a museum.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_4
  • Orpheum Theatre - features Broadway shows, Ballet Memphis and Opera Memphis.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_5
  • The New Daisy Theatre - concert venue located on Beale Street.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_6
  • Mud Island Amphitheatre - concert venue.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_7
  • Memphis Pyramid - location of the largest Bass Pro Shops in the world, an observation deck, restaurants, bowling alley, aquarium, and hotel.Memphis, Tennessee_item_0_8

Other Memphis attractions include the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, FedExForum, and Mississippi riverboat day cruises. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_364

Museums and art collections Memphis, Tennessee_section_24

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_365

Memphis, Tennessee_unordered_list_1

Cemeteries Memphis, Tennessee_section_25

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_366

The Memphis National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in northeastern Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_367

Historic Elmwood Cemetery is one of the oldest rural garden cemeteries in the South, and contains the Carlisle S. Page Arboretum. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_368

Memorial Park Cemetery is noted for its sculptures by Mexican artist Dionicio Rodriguez. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_369

Elvis Presley was originally buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, the resting place of his backing band's bassist, Bill Black. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_370

After an attempted grave robbing, his body was moved and reinterred at the grounds of Graceland. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_371

Sports Memphis, Tennessee_section_26

Main article: Sports in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_372

Parks and recreation Memphis, Tennessee_section_27

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons Major Memphis parks include W.C. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_373

Handy Park, Tom Lee Park, Audubon Park, Overton Park including the Old Forest Arboretum, the Lichterman Nature Center (a nature learning center), the Memphis Botanic Garden, and Jesse H Turner Park. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_374

Shelby Farms park, located at the eastern edge of the city, is one of the largest urban parks in the United States. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_375

Law and government Memphis, Tennessee_section_28

Main article: Government of Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_376

Beginning in 1963, Memphis adopted a mayor-council form of government, with 13 City Council members, six elected at-large from throughout the city and seven elected from geographic districts. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_377

Following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, civil rights activists challenged the at-large is electoral system in court because it made it more difficult for the minority to elect candidates of their choice; at-large voting favored candidates who could command a majority across the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_378

In 1995, the city adopted a new plan. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_379

The 13 Council positions are elected from nine geographic districts: seven are single-member districts and two elect three members each. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_380

Jim Strickland is the city's current mayor, elected on October 8, 2015. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_381

He is a former Memphis city councilman. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_382

The previous mayor of the city of Memphis was A C Wharton. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_383

Since the late 20th century, regional discussions have recurred on the concept of consolidating unincorporated Shelby County and Memphis into a metropolitan government, as Nashville-Davidson County did in 1963. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_384

Consolidation was a referendum item on the 2010 ballots in both the city of Memphis and Shelby County, under the state law for dual-voting on such measures. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_385

The referendum was controversial in both jurisdictions. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_386

Black leaders, including then-Shelby County Commissioner Joe Ford and national civil rights leader Al Sharpton, opposed the consolidation. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_387

According to the plaintiffs' expert, Marcus Pohlmann, these leaders "tried to turn that referendum into a civil rights issue, suggesting that for blacks to vote for consolidation was to give up hard-won civil rights victories of the past". Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_388

In October 2010 before the vote, eight Shelby County citizens had filed a lawsuit in federal court against the state and the Shelby County Elections Commission against the dual-voting requirement. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_389

Plaintiffs argued that total votes for the referendum should have been counted together, rather than as separate elections. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_390

City voters narrowly supported the measure for consolidation with 50.8% in favor; county voters overwhelmingly voted against the measure with 85% against. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_391

The state argued that with the election decided, the lawsuit should be dismissed, but the federal court disagreed. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_392

By late 2013, in pre-trial actions, both sides were trying to disqualify the other's experts, in discussions of whether regional voting revealed racial polarization, and whether voting on the referendum demonstrated racial bloc voting. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_393

"The experts for both sides have clashed on whether racial bloc voting is inevitable in local elections and whether that would require some kind of court remedy." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_394

The defendants' expert, Todd Donovan, did not think that polarized voting as revealed for political candidates meant that "African-American voters and white voters have polarized interests when it comes to referendum choices on government administration, taxation, service provision and other policy questions." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_395

He noted, "In the absence of distinct political interests that create polarized blocs of referendum voters defined by race, there is no cohesive racial minority voting interest that can be diluted by a referendum." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_396

In 2014, the federal district court dismissed the lawsuit, on the grounds that the referendum would have failed when both jurisdictions' votes were counted together. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_397

(In total voting, 64% of voters opposed the consolidation.) Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_398

In the last week of December 2014, the U.S. Sixth District Court of Appeals upheld that decision, ruling that, ""In this election, the referendum for consolidation did not pass and would not have passed even if there had been no dual-majority vote requirement (with the vote counts combined)." Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_399

Before the referendum, the decision was made by the city and county to exclude public school management and operations from the proposed consolidation. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_400

As noted below, in 2011 the Memphis city council voted to dissolve its city school board and consolidate with the Shelby County School System, without the collaboration or agreement of Shelby County. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_401

The city had authority for this action under Tennessee state laws that differentiate between city and county powers. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_402

Education Memphis, Tennessee_section_29

Main article: Education in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_403

The city is served by Shelby County Schools. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_404

On March 8, 2011, residents voted to dissolve the charter for Memphis City Schools, effectively merging it with the Shelby County School District. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_405

After issues with state law and court challenges, the merger took effect the start of the 2013–14 school year. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_406

In Shelby County, six incorporated cities voted to establish separate school systems in 2013. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_407

The Shelby County School System operates more than 200 elementary, middle, and high schools. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_408

The Memphis area is also home to many private, college-prep schools: Briarcrest Christian School (co-ed), Christian Brothers High School (boys), Evangelical Christian School (co-ed), First Assembly Christian School (co-ed), St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_409 Mary's Episcopal School (girls), Hutchison School (girls), Lausanne Collegiate School (co-ed), Memphis University School (boys), Saint Benedict at Auburndale (co-ed), St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_410 Agnes Academy (girls), Immaculate Conception Cathedral School (girls), and Elliston Baptist Academy (co-ed). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_411

Also included in this list is Memphis Harding Academy, a co-ed school affiliated with the Churches of Christ. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_412

Colleges and universities located in the city include the University of Memphis, including University of Memphis Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law, Rhodes College, Christian Brothers University, Memphis College of Art, LeMoyne–Owen College, Baptist College of Health Sciences, Memphis Theological Seminary, Harding School of Theology, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide (Memphis Campus), Reformed Theological Seminary (satellite campus), William R. Moore College of Technology, Southern College of Optometry, Southwest Tennessee Community College, Tennessee Technology Center at Memphis, Visible Music College, Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_413

Memphis also has campuses of several for-profit post-secondary institutions, including Concorde Career College, ITT Technical Institute, Remington College, Vatterott College, and University of Phoenix. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_414

The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry was founded in 1878, making it the oldest dental college in the South, and the third oldest public college of dentistry in the United States. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_415

The Christian Brothers High School Band is the oldest high school band in America, founded in 1872. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_416

Examples of Colleges and Universities in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_417

Memphis, Tennessee_unordered_list_2

Media Memphis, Tennessee_section_30

See also: List of newspapers in Tennessee, List of radio stations in Tennessee, and List of television stations in Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_418

Newspapers Memphis, Tennessee_section_31

Memphis, Tennessee_table_general_2

TitleMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_2_0_0 LocaleMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_2_0_1 Year est.Memphis, Tennessee_header_cell_2_0_2 FrequencyMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_2_0_3 Publisher/parent companyMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_2_0_4 NotesMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_2_0_5
Commercial Appeal, TheMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_1_0 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_1_1 1840Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_1_2 DailyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_1_3 Gannett CompanyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_1_4 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_1_5
Memphis Daily NewsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_2_0 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_2_1 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_2_2 Weekly or bi-weeklyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_2_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_2_4 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_2_5
Memphis FlyerMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_3_0 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_3_1 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_3_2 Weekly or bi-weeklyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_3_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_3_4 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_3_5
Memphis Tri-State DefenderMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_4_0 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_4_1 1951Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_4_2 Weekly or bi-weeklyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_2_4_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_4_4 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_2_4_5

Television Memphis, Tennessee_section_32

Nielsen Media Research currently defines Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan area as the 51st largest American media market. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_419

Major broadcast television affiliate stations in the Memphis area include, but are not limited to: Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_420

Memphis, Tennessee_table_general_3

ChannelMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_0 Call signMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_1 NetworkMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_2 OwnerMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_3 SubchannelsMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_3_0_4
3Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_1_0 WREGMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_1_1 CBSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_1_2 NexstarMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_1_3 Newschannel 3 Anytime on 3.2, Antenna TV on 3.3Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_1_4
5Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_2_0 WMCMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_2_1 NBCMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_2_2 Gray TelevisionMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_2_3 Bounce TV on 5.2, Circle on 5.3, Grit on 5.4Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_2_4
10Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_3_0 WKNOMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_3_1 PBSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_3_2 Mid South Public Communications FoundationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_3_3 WKNO-2 on 10.2, PBS Kids on 10.3Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_3_4
13Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_4_0 WHBQMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_4_1 FoxMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_4_2 Cox Media GroupMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_4_3 Heroes & Icons on 13.2, Court TV Mystery on 13.3Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_4_4
23Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_5_0 WTWVMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_5_1 Independent ReligiousMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_5_2 Christian Worldview Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_5_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_5_4
24Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_6_0 WATNMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_6_1 ABCMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_6_2 Tegna Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_6_3 Laff on 24.2, Cozi TV on 24.3Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_6_4
30Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_7_0 WLMTMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_7_1 The CWMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_7_2 Tegna Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_7_3 MeTV on 30.2, Start TV on 30.3Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_7_4
34Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_8_0 WWTWMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_8_1 IndependentMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_8_2 Flinn BroadcastingMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_8_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_8_4
40Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_9_0 WBUYMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_9_1 TBNMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_9_2 Trinity Broadcasting NetworkMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_9_3 Hillsong Channel on 40.2, Smile on 40.3, Enlace on 40.4, Positiv on 40.5Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_9_4
50Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_10_0 WPXXMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_10_1 IONMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_10_2 ION Media NetworksMemphis, Tennessee_cell_3_10_3 Qubo on 50.2, Ion Plus on 50.3, Infomercials on 50.4, QVC on 50.5, HSN on 50.6Memphis, Tennessee_cell_3_10_4

Radio Memphis, Tennessee_section_33

Terrestrial broadcast radio stations in the Memphis area include, but are not limited to: Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_421

FM stations Memphis, Tennessee_section_34

Memphis, Tennessee_table_general_4

Call signMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_0 FrequencyMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_1 City of LicenseMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_2 OwnerMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_3 SloganMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_4 FormatMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_4_0_5
WQOXMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_1_0 088.5 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_1_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_1_2 Shelby County Schools (Grades K-12)Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_1_3 88.5 the Voice of SCSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_1_4 Urban Adult ContemporaryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_1_5
WYPLMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_2_0 089.3 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_2_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_2_2 Memphis Public Library & Information CenterMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_2_3 Memphis Public Library Reading RadioMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_2_4 Radio Reading ServiceMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_2_5
WEVLMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_3_0 089.9 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_3_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_3_2 Southern Communication Volunteers, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_3_3 Volunteer, Member Supported RadioMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_3_4 VarietyMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_3_5
WKNOMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_4_0 091.1 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_4_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_4_2 Mid-South Public Communications FoundationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_4_3 WKNO NPR For the Mid SouthMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_4_4 Public RadioMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_4_5
WYXRMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_5_0 091.7 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_5_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_5_2 Crosstown Radio Partnership, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_5_3 Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_5_4 SilentMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_5_5
WMFSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_6_0 092.9 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_6_1 BartlettMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_6_2 EntercomMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_6_3 ESPN RadioMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_6_4 SportsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_6_5
WLFPMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_7_0 094.1 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_7_1 GermantownMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_7_2 EntercomMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_7_3 The WolfMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_7_4 CountryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_7_5
WHALMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_8_0 095.7 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_8_1 Hornlake, MSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_8_2 iHeartMedia, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_8_3 HallelujahMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_8_4 Urban GospelMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_8_5
WHRKMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_9_0 097.1 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_9_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_9_2 iHeartMedia, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_9_3 K97.1Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_9_4 Hip HopMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_9_5
WXMXMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_10_0 098.1 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_10_1 MillingtonMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_10_2 Cumulus MediaMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_10_3 The MaxMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_10_4 RockMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_10_5
WKIMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_11_0 098.9 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_11_1 MunfordMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_11_2 Cumulus MediaMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_11_3 The BridgeMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_11_4 Adult ContemporaryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_11_5
WMCMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_12_0 099.7 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_12_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_12_2 EntercomMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_12_3 FM 100Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_12_4 Hot Adult ContemporaryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_12_5
KJMSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_13_0 0101.1 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_13_1 Olive Branch, MSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_13_2 iHeartMedia, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_13_3 V101Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_13_4 Urban Adult ContemporaryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_13_5
KWNWMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_14_0 0 101.9 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_14_1 Crawfordsville, ARMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_14_2 iHeartMedia, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_14_3 Kiss-FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_14_4 Top-40Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_14_5
WEGRMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_15_0 0 102.7 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_15_1 ArlingtonMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_15_2 iHeartMedia, Inc.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_15_3 Rock 102.7Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_15_4 Classic RockMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_15_5
WRBOMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_16_0 0 103.5 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_16_1 Como, MSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_16_2 Cumulus MediaMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_16_3 103.5 WBROMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_16_4 Urban Adult ContemporaryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_16_5
WRVRMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_17_0 0104.5 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_17_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_17_2 EntercomMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_17_3 The RiverMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_17_4 Adult ContemporaryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_17_5
WGKXMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_18_0 0105.9 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_18_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_18_2 Cumulus MediaMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_18_3 KIX 106Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_18_4 CountryMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_18_5
KXHTMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_19_0 0107.1 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_19_1 Marion, ARMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_19_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_19_3 HotMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_19_4 Hip HopMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_19_5
WHBQMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_20_0 0107.5 FMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_20_1 GermantownMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_20_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_4_20_3 Q107.5Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_20_4 Top-40Memphis, Tennessee_cell_4_20_5

AM stations Memphis, Tennessee_section_35

Memphis, Tennessee_table_general_5

Call signMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_5_0_0 FrequencyMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_5_0_1 City of LicenseMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_5_0_2 OwnerMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_5_0_3 FormatMemphis, Tennessee_header_cell_5_0_4
WHBQMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_1_0 00560 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_1_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_1_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_1_3 SportsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_1_4
WRECMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_2_0 0600 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_2_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_2_2 iHeartMediaMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_2_3 News/TalkMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_2_4
WCRVMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_3_0 0640 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_3_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_3_2 Bott Radio NetworkMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_3_3 Christian radioMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_3_4
WMFSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_4_0 0680 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_4_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_4_2 EntercomMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_4_3 SportsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_4_4
KQPNMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_5_0 0730 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_5_1 West Memphis, ARMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_5_2 F.W. Robbert BroadcastingMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_5_3 SportsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_5_4
WMCMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_6_0 0790 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_6_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_6_2 EntercomMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_6_3 SportsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_6_4
WUMYMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_7_0 0830 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_7_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_7_2 GMF-Christian Media I, LLC.Memphis, Tennessee_cell_5_7_3 Spanish ChristianMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_7_4
KWAMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_8_0 0990 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_8_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_8_2 Starnes Media GroupMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_8_3 TalkMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_8_4
WGSFMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_9_0 01030 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_9_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_9_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_9_3 Regional MexicanMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_9_4
WDIAMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_10_0 01070 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_10_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_10_2 iHeartMediaMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_10_3 Urban OldiesMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_10_4
WGUEMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_11_0 01180 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_11_1 Turrell, ARMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_11_2 Butron Media CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_11_3 Regional MexicanMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_11_4
WMPSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_12_0 01210 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_12_1 BartlettMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_12_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_12_3 Adult StandardsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_12_4
WMSOMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_13_0 01240 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_13_1 Southaven, MSMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_13_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_13_3 Urban OldiesMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_13_4
WLOKMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_14_0 01340 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_14_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_14_2 WLOK Radio IncMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_14_3 Urban GospelMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_14_4
WLRMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_15_0 01380 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_15_1 MillingtonMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_15_2 F.W. Robbert BroadcastingMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_15_3 BluesMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_15_4
WOWWMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_16_0 01430 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_16_1 GermantownMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_16_2 Flinn Broadcasting CorporationMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_16_3 Classic HitsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_16_4
WBBPMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_17_0 01480 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_17_1 MemphisMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_17_2 Bountiful BlessingsMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_17_3 Urban GospelMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_17_4
WMQMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_18_0 01600 AMMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_18_1 LakelandMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_18_2 F. W. Robbert BroadcastingMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_18_3 ChristianMemphis, Tennessee_cell_5_18_4

Cultural references Memphis, Tennessee_section_36

Transportation Memphis, Tennessee_section_37

Main article: Transportation in Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_422

Highways Memphis, Tennessee_section_38

Interstate 40, Interstate 55, Interstate 22, Interstate 240, Interstate 269, and State Route 385 are the main expressways in the Memphis area. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_423

Interstates 40 and 55 cross the Mississippi River at Memphis from the state of Arkansas. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_424

Interstate 69 is a proposed interstate that, upon completion, would connect Memphis to Canada and Mexico. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_425

I-40 is a coast-to-coast freeway that connects Memphis to Nashville and on to North Carolina to the east, and Little Rock, Arkansas, Oklahoma City, and the Greater Los Angeles Area to the west. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_426

I-55 connects Memphis to St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_427 Louis and Chicago to the north, and Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans to the south. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_428

I-240 is the inner beltway which serves areas including Downtown, Midtown, South Memphis, Memphis International Airport, East Memphis, and North Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_429

I-269 is the larger, outer interstate loop immediately serving the suburbs of Millington, Eads, Arlington, Collierville, and Hernando, Mississippi. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_430

It was completed in 2018. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_431

Interstate 22 connects Memphis with Birmingham, Alabama, via northern Mississippi (including Tupelo) and northwestern Alabama. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_432

While technically not entering the city of Memphis proper, I-22 ends at I-269 in Byhalia, Mississippi, connecting it to the rest of the Memphis interstate system. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_433

Interstate 69 is proposed to follow I-55 and I-240 through the city of Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_434

Once completed, I-69 will link Memphis with Port Huron, Michigan via Indianapolis, Indiana, and Brownsville, Texas via Shreveport, Louisiana and Houston, Texas. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_435

A new spur, Interstate 555, also serves the Memphis metro area connecting it to Jonesboro, Arkansas. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_436

Other important federal highways though Memphis include the east–west U.S. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_437 Route 70, U.S. Route 64, and U.S. Route 72; and the north–south U.S. Route 51 and U.S. Route 61. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_438

The former is the historic highway north to Chicago via Cairo, Illinois, while the latter roughly parallels the Mississippi River for most of its course and crosses the Mississippi Delta region to the south, with the Delta also legendary for Blues music. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_439

Railroads Memphis, Tennessee_section_39

A large volume of railroad freight moves through Memphis, because of its two heavy-duty Mississippi River railroad crossings, which carry several major east–west railroad freight lines, and also because of the major north–south railroad lines through Memphis which connect with such major cities as Chicago, St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_440 Louis, Indianapolis, Louisville, New Orleans, Dallas, Houston, Mobile, and Birmingham. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_441

By the early 20th century, Memphis had two major passenger railroad stations, which made the city a regional hub for trains coming from the north, east, south and west. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_442

After passenger railroad service declined heavily through the middle of the 20th century, the Memphis Union Station was demolished in 1969. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_443

The Memphis Central Station was eventually renovated, and it still serves the city. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_444

The only inter-city passenger railroad service to Memphis is the daily City of New Orleans train, operated by Amtrak, which has one train northbound and one train southbound each day between Chicago and New Orleans. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_445

Airports Memphis, Tennessee_section_40

Memphis International Airport is the global "SuperHub" of FedEx Express, and has the second largest cargo operations by volume of any airport worldwide, surpassed only by Hong Kong International Airport. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_446

Memphis International ranks as the 41st busiest passenger airport in the US and served as a hub for Northwest Airlines (later Delta Air Lines) until September 3, 2013. and had 4.39 million boarding passengers (enplanements) in 2011, an 11.9% decrease over the previous year. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_447

Delta has reduced its flights at Memphis by approximately 65% since its 2008 merger with Northwest Airlines and operates an average of 30 daily flights as of December 2013, with two international destinations (Cancún - seasonally; Toronto year-round). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_448

Delta Air Lines announced the closing of its Memphis pilot and crew base in 2012. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_449

Other airlines providing passenger service are: Southwest Airlines; American Airlines; United Airlines; Allegiant; Frontier; Air Canada; and Southern Vacations Express. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_450

There are also general aviation airports in the Memphis Metropolitan Area, including the Millington Regional Jetport, located at the former Naval Air Station in Millington, Tennessee. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_451

River port Memphis, Tennessee_section_41

Main article: Port of Memphis Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_452

Memphis has the second-busiest cargo port on the Mississippi River, which is also the fourth-busiest inland port in the United States. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_453

The International Port of Memphis covers both the Tennessee and Arkansas sides of the Mississippi River from river mile 725 (km 1167) to mile 740 (km 1191). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_454

A focal point of the river port is the industrial park on President's Island, just south of Downtown Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_455

Bridges Memphis, Tennessee_section_42

Four railroad and highway bridges cross the Mississippi River at Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_456

In order of their opening years, these are the Frisco Bridge (1892, single-track rail), the Harahan Bridge (1916, a road-rail bridge until 1949, currently carries double-track rail), the Memphis-Arkansas Memorial Bridge (Highway, 1949; later incorporated into Interstate 55), and the Hernando de Soto Bridge (Interstate 40, 1973). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_457

A bicycle/pedestrian walkway opened along the Harahan Bridge in late 2016, utilizing the former westbound roadway. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_458

Utilities Memphis, Tennessee_section_43

Memphis's primary utility provider is the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_459

This is the largest three-service municipal utility in the United States, providing electricity, natural gas, and pure water service to all residents of Shelby County. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_460

Prior to that, Memphis was served by two primary electric companies, which were merged into the Memphis Power Company. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_461

The City of Memphis bought the private company in 1939 to form MLGW, which was an early customer of electricity from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_462

In 1954 the Dixon-Yates contract was proposed to make more power available to the city from the TVA, but the contract was cancelled; it had been an issue for the Democrats in the 1954 Congressional elections. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_463

MLGW still buys most of its power from TVA, and the company pumps its own fresh water from the Memphis Aquifer, using more than 180 water wells. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_464

Health care Memphis, Tennessee_section_44

The Memphis and Shelby County region supports numerous hospitals, including the Methodist and Baptist Memorial health systems, two of the largest private hospitals in the country. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_465

Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare, the largest healthcare provider in the Memphis region and the fourth largest employer as of 2018, operates seven hospitals and several rural clinics. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_466

Methodist Healthcare operates, among others, the Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, which offers primary level 1 pediatric trauma care, as well as a nationally recognized pediatric brain tumor program. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_467

Baptist Memorial Healthcare operates fifteen hospitals (three in Memphis), including Baptist Memorial Hospital, and with a merger in 2018 became the largest healthcare system in the mid-South. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_468

According to Health Care Market Guide's annual studies, Mid-Southerners have named Baptist Memorial their "preferred hospital choice for quality". Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_469

The St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_470 Jude Children's Research Hospital, leading pediatric treatment and research facility focused on children's catastrophic diseases, resides in Memphis. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_471

The institution was conceived and built by entertainer Danny Thomas in 1962 as a tribute to St. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_472 Jude Thaddeus, patron saint of impossible, hopeless, and difficult causes. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_473

Memphis is also home to Regional One Healthcare, which is locally referred to as "The Med". Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_474

In recent years, the hospital has experienced severe funding difficulties that nearly led to a reduction or elimination of emergency room services. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_475

In July 2010, The Med received approximately $40.6 million in federal and local funding to keep the Elvis Presley Trauma Center operational. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_476

Memphis is home to Delta Medical Center of Memphis, which is the only employee-owned medical facility in North America. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_477

Individual health insurance marketplace insurers are limited, with Bright Health and Cigna offering coverage in the area. Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_478

Notable people Memphis, Tennessee_section_45

Main article: List of people from Memphis, Tennessee Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_479

Twin towns – sister cities Memphis, Tennessee_section_46

Memphis has three sister cities, as per Sister Cities International: Memphis, Tennessee_sentence_480

Memphis, Tennessee_unordered_list_3

  • Kanifing (Gambia)Memphis, Tennessee_item_3_31
  • Kaolack (Senegal)Memphis, Tennessee_item_3_32
  • Shoham (Israel)Memphis, Tennessee_item_3_33

See also Memphis, Tennessee_section_47

Memphis, Tennessee_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page:, Tennessee.