Mergenthaler Linotype Company

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The Mergenthaler Linotype Company is a corporation founded in the United States in 1886 to market the Linotype machine (/ˈlaɪnəˌtaɪp, -noʊ-/), a system to cast metal type in lines (linecaster) invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_0

It became the world's leading manufacturer of book and newspaper typesetting equipment; outside North America, its only serious challenger for book production was the Anglo-American Monotype Corporation. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_1

It also offered phototypesetting and digital products before being taken over by Monotype Imaging in 2006. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_2

Since March 2013, its legal name has been changed to Monotype GmbH. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_3

Founding Mergenthaler Linotype Company_section_0

Main article: Linotype machine Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_4

The invention of a machine to replace the labor-intensive task of setting type by hand had been tackled by many inventors during the 19th century. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_5

The most time consumed was not in creating the text, but in returning the characters to their proper position for future use. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_6

Mergenthaler solved this problem by placing a type mold for a letter on the side of a specially keyed matrix (with multiple matrix/molds available for any given letter). Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_7

The linotype operator would type in a line of text. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_8

The machine would drop each matrix with its mold into place, assembling the matrices into a line of text that was needed. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_9

Hot lead alloy was then forced into the molds of matrices, creating the fresh line of type. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_10

The linotype operator would then go on to type in the next line. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_11

Multiple lines would be stacked into blocks, sometimes paragraphs, to be set in place in the proper column of the page layout. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_12

Meanwhile, back inside the linotype machine, the matrices used for a line would progress through the machine, where the special keying system on one end of the matrix, unique for each character, would allow the matrix to drop back only into the correct storage slot, ready for the next use. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_13

Another benefit of this overall process was that each edition of the paper was created from a fresh casting of metal, thus avoiding problems of type wear. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_14

Another problem Mergenthaler solved was in justifying the type, or ensuring that in a column of print, there were flush margins on the left and right. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_15

Hand compositors had previously done this by using spaces of different widths in a line, to ensure that the lines all ended at the same point. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_16

Mergenthaler adapted the "space band" (patented by J. W. Schuckers), a device consisting of two wedges of metal connected loosely. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_17

When a line of type was being justified, all the space band wedges would be pushed up in two passes to spread the line out to the full measure being cast. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_18

The space bands were stored for reuse in a different location from the matrices. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_19

History Mergenthaler Linotype Company_section_1

The invention of the first working Linotype was a long, arduous and intricate process that involved many players and the creation of a long succession of companies. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_20

In 1877, the National Printing Company was organized under the laws of the District of Columbia and Lewis Clephane, the brother of James O. Clephane, was elected president. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_21

After the first successful trial of the Linotype in October, 1885, the Merganthaler Printing Company was established to raise fresh capital from the shareholders of the National Printing Company.. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_22

Finally, The Merganthaler Linotype Company was formed in New York in 1895. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_23

Philip Tell Dodge served as its first president until 1928 when his son Norman Dodge replaced him. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_24

In 1889 The Linotype Company, a British offshoot of the firm, was formed by Joseph Lawrence, publisher of The Railway Magazine. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_25

In 1899, a new factory in Broadheath, Altrincham was opened. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_26

In 1903, the British company merged with Machinery Trust to form Linotype & Machinery Ltd. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_27

Mergenthaler Linotype dominated the printing industry through the twentieth century. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_28

The machines were so well designed, major parts remained virtually unchanged for nearly 100 years. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_29

A particularly notable success was Linotype's Legibility Group of typefaces, used by most of the world's (Latin-alphabet) newspapers for much of the twentieth century. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_30

The ruggedness of the Linotype system, which cast lines as solid bars of type, aided this dominance. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_31

Linotype Company was merged with Merganthaler acquisition K. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_32 S. Paul to form Linotype-Paul Ltd which developed a range of Linotron phototypesetters using K. S. Paul's cathode ray tube technology. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_33

The company, as so many in the printing industry, endured a complex post-war history, during which printing technology went through two revolutions — first moving to phototypesetting, then to digital. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_34

During the 1950s, the Davidson Corporation, which manufactured a series of small offset presses, was a subsidiary of Linotype. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_35

This was later sold to American Type Founders and operated under the name ATF-Davidson. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_36

Through a series of mergers and reorganizations, the business of Mergenthaler Linotype Company ultimately vested in Linotype-Hell AG, a German company. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_37

In April 1997, Linotype-Hell AG was acquired by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_38

The following month certain divisions of Linotype-Hell AG were spun off into new companies, one of which was Linotype Library GmbH with headquarters at Bad Homburg vor der Höhe. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_39

This new company was responsible solely for the acquisition, creation and distribution of digital fonts and related software. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_40

This spin-off effectively divorced the company's font software business from the older typesetting business which was retained by Heidelberg. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_41

In 2005, Linotype Library GmbH shortened its name to Linotype GmbH, and in 2007, Linotype GmbH was acquired by Monotype Imaging Holdings, Inc., the parent of Monotype Imaging, Inc. and others. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_42

Typefaces Mergenthaler Linotype Company_section_2

The typefaces in the Linotype type library are the artwork of some of the most famous typeface designers of the 20th century. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_43

The library contains such famous trademarked typefaces as Palatino and Optima by Hermann Zapf; Frutiger, Avenir and Univers by Adrian Frutiger; and Helvetica by Max Miedinger and Eduard Hoffman. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_44

Linotype GmbH frequently brings out new designs from both established and new type designers. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_45

Linotype has also introduced FontExplorer X for Mac OS X. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_46

It is a well-reviewed font manager that allows users to browse and purchase new fonts within the program — a business model similar to that used by iTunes and the iTunes Store. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_47

The simplified Arabic typeface Yakout, named for the 13th-century Islamic calligrapher Yaqut al-Musta'simi, was released by Linotype in 1956, and remains one of the most common Arabic typefaces for books and newspapers. Mergenthaler Linotype Company_sentence_48

See also Mergenthaler Linotype Company_section_3

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Linotype Company.