Metropolitan area

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This article is about densely populated regions. Metropolitan area_sentence_0

For the core of such regions, see Metropolis. Metropolitan area_sentence_1

For other uses, see Metropolitan (disambiguation). Metropolitan area_sentence_2

"Metro area" redirects here. Metropolitan area_sentence_3

For the dance music duo, see Metro Area. Metropolitan area_sentence_4

A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. Metropolitan area_sentence_5

A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts. Metropolitan area_sentence_6

As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan area_sentence_7

Metropolitan areas include satellite cities, towns and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core, typically measured by commuting patterns. Metropolitan area_sentence_8

Most metropolitan areas are anchored by one core city such as Paris metropolitan area (Paris), Mumbai Metropolitan Region and New York metropolitan area (New York City). Metropolitan area_sentence_9

In some cases metropolitan areas have multiple centers of close to equal importance, such as Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area (Dallas and Fort Worth), Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area (Islamabad and Rawalpindi), the Rhine-Ruhr in Germany and the Randstad in the Netherlands. Metropolitan area_sentence_10

In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan area_sentence_11

Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. Metropolitan area_sentence_12

For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and respectively regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006. Metropolitan area_sentence_13

In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. Metropolitan area_sentence_14

General definition Metropolitan area_section_0

A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration (the contiguous, built-up area) with zones not necessarily urban in character, but closely bound to the center by employment or other commerce. Metropolitan area_sentence_15

These outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. Metropolitan area_sentence_16

For example, Islip, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. Metropolitan area_sentence_17

In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Metropolitan area_sentence_18

Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, and in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement; comparative statistics for metropolitan area should take this into account. Metropolitan area_sentence_19

The term "Metropolitan" can also refer to a county-level municipal government structure, with some shared services between a central city and its suburbs, which may or may not include the entirety of a metropolitan area. Metropolitan area_sentence_20

Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. Metropolitan area_sentence_21

There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since then, and more are expected. Metropolitan area_sentence_22

Because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more often "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but also surrounding suburban, exurban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence. Metropolitan area_sentence_23

A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. Metropolitan area_sentence_24

In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. Metropolitan area_sentence_25

See also the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas. Metropolitan area_sentence_26

Australia Metropolitan area_section_1

The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs) as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. Metropolitan area_sentence_27

GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. Metropolitan area_sentence_28

Brazil Metropolitan area_section_2

In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions". Metropolitan area_sentence_29

Each State defines its own legislation for the creation, definition and organization of a metropolitan region. Metropolitan area_sentence_30

The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports. Metropolitan area_sentence_31

Their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. Metropolitan area_sentence_32

They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Metropolitan area_sentence_33

Canada Metropolitan area_section_3

Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area (CMA) as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. Metropolitan area_sentence_34

To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. Metropolitan area_sentence_35

To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. Metropolitan area_sentence_36

China Metropolitan area_section_4

In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" (城市群, lit. Metropolitan area_sentence_37

city cluster) and "metropolitan area" (都市圈) until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas (关于培育发展现代化都市圈的指导意见) on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by (a) supercity(-ies) or megacity(-ies), or a large metropolis playing a leading part, and within the basic range of 1-hour commute area." Metropolitan area_sentence_38

European Union Metropolitan area_section_5

The European Union's statistical agency, Eurostat, has created a concept named "larger urban zone" (LUZ). Metropolitan area_sentence_39

The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, and the goal was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". Metropolitan area_sentence_40

France Metropolitan area_section_6

See also: Urban area (France) Metropolitan area_sentence_41

France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine (official translation: "urban area"). Metropolitan area_sentence_42

This statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine (metropolitan area) to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. Metropolitan area_sentence_43

Germany Metropolitan area_section_7

See also: Metropolitan regions in Germany Metropolitan area_sentence_44

In German definition, metropolitan areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany. Metropolitan area_sentence_45

They comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political, commercial and cultural centres of the country. Metropolitan area_sentence_46

For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and respectively regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006. Metropolitan area_sentence_47

India Metropolitan area_section_8

Further information: List of metropolitan areas in India Metropolitan area_sentence_48

Further information: List of million-plus urban agglomerations in India Metropolitan area_sentence_49

In India, a metropolitan city is defined as one with a population more than 2 million. Metropolitan area_sentence_50

Italy Metropolitan area_section_9

In 2001, Italy transformed 14 provinces of some of the country's largest cities into Metropolitan Cities. Metropolitan area_sentence_51

Therefore the territory of the Metropolitan City corresponds to that of a normal Italian province. Metropolitan area_sentence_52

Japan Metropolitan area_section_10

In Japan, a metropolitan area (都市圏) is a division set separately from administrative areas in order to define wide urban areas used in the Census conducted by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Metropolitan area_sentence_53

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. Metropolitan area_sentence_54

Metropolitan area_unordered_list_0

  • Central City (中心市)Metropolitan area_item_0_0
    • Those of the greater metropolitan areas are the 23 special wards in the metropolis of Tokyo and other designated cities.Metropolitan area_item_0_1
    • Those of the metropolitan areas are cities with a population of more than half of a million, which are not included in the greater metropolitan areas.Metropolitan area_item_0_2

If the central cities are next to each other, the areas are integrated into one large area. Metropolitan area_sentence_55

Metropolitan area_unordered_list_1

  • Surrounding Municipality (周辺市町村, lit. 'surrounding cities, towns and villages')Metropolitan area_item_1_3
    • Those are municipalities with ratios of the number of people commuting to the central city over 15 years old being 1.5% or more of the permanent population of and close to the central cities.Metropolitan area_item_1_4

If a municipality is surrounded by the surrounding municipalities, it will be a surrounding municipality. Metropolitan area_sentence_56

South Africa Metropolitan area_section_11

The Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in South Africa. Metropolitan area_sentence_57

Its population was over 9.6 million as of the 2011 South Africa Census, in contrast to its urban area, which consisted of approximately 7.9 million inhabitants as of 2011. Metropolitan area_sentence_58

Conversely, metropolitan municipalities in South Africa are defined as commonly governed areas of a metropolitan area. Metropolitan area_sentence_59

The largest such metropolitan municipal government entity in South Africa is the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, which presided over nearly 5 million people as of 2016. Metropolitan area_sentence_60

However, the Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area houses roughly ten times the population of its core municipal city of Johannesburg, which contained 957,441 people as of the 2011 census. Metropolitan area_sentence_61

Sweden Metropolitan area_section_12

Main article: List of metropolitan areas in Sweden Metropolitan area_sentence_62

Sweden defines a metropolitan area as a group of municipalities, based on statistics of commuting between central municipalities and surrounding municipalities and taking into account existing planning cooperation in the country's three geographic regions. Metropolitan area_sentence_63

They were defined around 1965. Metropolitan area_sentence_64

In 2005, a number of further municipalities were added to the defined areas. Metropolitan area_sentence_65

Turkey Metropolitan area_section_13

The word metropolitan describes a major city in Turkey like Istanbul, a city that is dominant to others both financially and socially. Metropolitan area_sentence_66

There are 30 officially defined "state metropolitan areas" in Turkey, for governing purposes. Metropolitan area_sentence_67

United Kingdom Metropolitan area_section_14

See also: List of metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom Metropolitan area_sentence_68

The United Kingdom government's Office for National Statistics defines "travel to work areas" as areas where "at least 75% of an area's resident workforce work in the area and at least 75% of the people who work in the area also live in the area". Metropolitan area_sentence_69

United States Metropolitan area_section_15

Main article: List of U.S. metropolitan areas Metropolitan area_sentence_70

See also: List of U.S. metropolitan areas by GDP Metropolitan area_sentence_71

As of February 28, 2013, the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defined 1,098 statistical areas for the metropolitan areas of the United States and Puerto Rico. Metropolitan area_sentence_72

These 1,098 statistical areas comprise 929 Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) and 169 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs). Metropolitan area_sentence_73

The 929 Core-Based Statistical Areas are divided into 388 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs – 381 for the U.S. and seven for Puerto Rico) and 541 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs – 536 for the U.S. and five for Puerto Rico). Metropolitan area_sentence_74

The 169 Combined Statistical Areas (166 for the U.S. and three for Puerto Rico) each comprise two or more adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas. Metropolitan area_sentence_75

The Office of Management and Budget defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area as one or more adjacent counties or county equivalents that have at least one urban area of at least 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of economic and social integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. Metropolitan area_sentence_76

The OMB then defines a Combined Statistical Area as consisting of various combinations of adjacent metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas with economic ties measured by commuting patterns. Metropolitan area_sentence_77

The Office of Management and Budget further defines a core-based statistical area (CBSA) to be a geographical area that consists of one or more counties (or equivalents) anchored by an urban center of at least 10,000 people plus adjacent counties that are socioeconomically tied to the urban center by commuting. Metropolitan area_sentence_78

See also Metropolitan area_section_16

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: area.