Mexico

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This article is about the federal republic in North America. Mexico_sentence_0

For other uses, see Mexico (disambiguation). Mexico_sentence_1

"United Mexican States" redirects here. Mexico_sentence_2

For the historical states, see First Mexican Republic and Second Federal Republic of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_3

Mexico_table_infobox_0

United Mexican States

Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Spanish)Mexico_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityMexico_header_cell_0_1_0

Mexico CityMexico_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesMexico_header_cell_0_2_0 Mexico_cell_0_2_1
Recognized regional languagesMexico_header_cell_0_3_0 Spanish and 68 Amerindian languagesMexico_cell_0_3_1
National languageMexico_header_cell_0_4_0 Spanish (de facto)Mexico_cell_0_4_1
Ethnic groupsMexico_header_cell_0_5_0 56 Amerindian and diverse foreign ethnic groupsMexico_cell_0_5_1
Religion (2010)Mexico_header_cell_0_6_0 90.7% Christianity

—82.7% Roman Catholic —6.6% Protestantism —1.4% Other Christian 4.7% No religion 1.9% Other religions 2.7% UndeclaredMexico_cell_0_6_1

Demonym(s)Mexico_header_cell_0_7_0 MexicanMexico_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentMexico_header_cell_0_8_0 Federal presidential

constitutional republicMexico_cell_0_8_1

PresidentMexico_header_cell_0_9_0 Andrés Manuel López ObradorMexico_cell_0_9_1
President of the SenateMexico_header_cell_0_10_0 Mónica Fernández BalboaMexico_cell_0_10_1
President of the Chamber of DeputiesMexico_header_cell_0_11_0 Dulce María Sauri RianchoMexico_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureMexico_header_cell_0_12_0 CongressMexico_cell_0_12_1
Upper houseMexico_header_cell_0_13_0 SenateMexico_cell_0_13_1
Lower houseMexico_header_cell_0_14_0 Chamber of DeputiesMexico_cell_0_14_1
Independence from SpainMexico_header_cell_0_15_0
DeclaredMexico_header_cell_0_16_0 16 September 1810Mexico_cell_0_16_1
ConsummatedMexico_header_cell_0_17_0 27 September 1821Mexico_cell_0_17_1
RecognizedMexico_header_cell_0_18_0 28 December 1836Mexico_cell_0_18_1
First constitutionMexico_header_cell_0_19_0 4 October 1824Mexico_cell_0_19_1
Second constitutionMexico_header_cell_0_20_0 5 February 1857Mexico_cell_0_20_1
Current constitutionMexico_header_cell_0_21_0 5 February 1917Mexico_cell_0_21_1
Area Mexico_header_cell_0_22_0
TotalMexico_header_cell_0_23_0 1,972,550 km (761,610 sq mi) (13th)Mexico_cell_0_23_1
Water (%)Mexico_header_cell_0_24_0 2.5Mexico_cell_0_24_1
PopulationMexico_header_cell_0_25_0
2020 estimateMexico_header_cell_0_26_0 128,649,565 (10th)Mexico_cell_0_26_1
DensityMexico_header_cell_0_27_0 61/km (158.0/sq mi) (142nd)Mexico_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Mexico_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateMexico_cell_0_28_1
TotalMexico_header_cell_0_29_0 $2.715 trillion (11th)Mexico_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaMexico_header_cell_0_30_0 $21,362 (64th)Mexico_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Mexico_header_cell_0_31_0 2020 estimateMexico_cell_0_31_1
TotalMexico_header_cell_0_32_0 $1.322 trillion (15th)Mexico_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaMexico_header_cell_0_33_0 $10,405 (64th)Mexico_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2016)Mexico_header_cell_0_34_0 49.8

highMexico_cell_0_34_1

HDI (2018)Mexico_header_cell_0_35_0 0.767

high · 76thMexico_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyMexico_header_cell_0_36_0 Peso (MXN)Mexico_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneMexico_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−8 to −5 (See Time in Mexico)Mexico_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Mexico_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−7 to −5 (varies)Mexico_cell_0_38_1
Driving sideMexico_header_cell_0_39_0 rightMexico_cell_0_39_1
Calling codeMexico_header_cell_0_40_0 +52Mexico_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeMexico_header_cell_0_41_0 MXMexico_cell_0_41_1
Internet TLDMexico_header_cell_0_42_0 .mxMexico_cell_0_42_1

Mexico (Spanish: México [ˈmexiko (listen); Nahuan languages: Mēxihco), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [esˈtaðos uˈniðoz mexiˈkanos (listen)), is a country in the southern portion of North America. Mexico_sentence_4

It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_5

Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi) and has approximately 128,649,565 inhabitants, making it the world's 13th-largest country by area, 10th-most-populous country, and most populous Spanish-speaking nation. Mexico_sentence_6

It is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital city and largest metropolis. Mexico_sentence_7

Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León. Mexico_sentence_8

Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most well known among them the Maya and the Aztecs. Mexico_sentence_9

In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico City, which then became known as New Spain. Mexico_sentence_10

The Catholic Church played an important role as millions of indigenous inhabitants converted. Mexico_sentence_11

These populations were heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious material, which became a major source of wealth for the Spanish. Mexico_sentence_12

Mexico became an independent nation state after the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. Mexico_sentence_13

The War of Texas Independence in 1836 and the Mexican–American War led to huge territorial losses in Mexico's sparsely populated north, contiguous to the United States. Mexico_sentence_14

The newly instituted reforms that granted protection to indigenous communities, and curtailed the power of the military and the church, were enshrined in the Constitution of 1857. Mexico_sentence_15

This triggered the War of the Reform and French intervention. Mexico_sentence_16

Maximilian Habsburg was installed as emperor by France and Benito Juárez kept an opposing republican government in exile. Mexico_sentence_17

The following decades were marked by instability and dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, who sought to modernize Mexico and restore order. Mexico_sentence_18

The Porfiriato ended with the Mexican Revolution in 1910 and the winning Constitutionalist faction drafted a new 1917 Constitution. Mexico_sentence_19

The revolutionary generals of the winning northern faction dominated the 1920s and served as presidents, but the 1928 assassination of Alvaro Obregón led to the formation of the Institutional Revolutionary Party in 1929, under which Mexico was a de facto one-party state until 2000. Mexico_sentence_20

Mexico is a developing country, ranking 76th on the Human Development Index, but is considered a newly industrialized state by several analysts. Mexico_sentence_21

It has the world's 15th-largest economy by nominal GDP and the 11th-largest by PPP, with the United States being its largest economic partner. Mexico_sentence_22

The large economy, area, population and politics make Mexico a regional power and a middle power, and is often identified as an emerging power. Mexico_sentence_23

However, Mexico continues to struggle with social inequalities, poverty and extensive crime; the country ranks poorly on the Global Peace Index. Mexico_sentence_24

Since 2006, the conflict between the government and drug trafficking syndicates has led to over 120,000 deaths. Mexico_sentence_25

Mexico ranks first in the Americas and 7th in the world for the number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico_sentence_26

Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking 5th in the world for its natural biodiversity. Mexico_sentence_27

Mexico receives a significant number of tourists every year; in 2018, it was the 6th most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico_sentence_28

Mexico is a member of the United Nations (UN), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, and the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mexico_sentence_29

Etymology Mexico_section_0

Main article: Name of Mexico Mexico_sentence_30

Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica. Mexico_sentence_31

The terms are plainly linked; it is generally believed that the toponym for the valley was the origin of the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance, but it may have been the other way around. Mexico_sentence_32

In the colonial era, when Mexico was called New Spain, this central region became the Intendency of Mexico, during the eighteenth-century reorganization of the empire, the Bourbon Reforms. Mexico_sentence_33

After the colony achieved independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, said territory came to be known as the State of Mexico, with the new country being named after its capital: Mexico City, which itself was founded in 1524 on the site of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Mexico_sentence_34

The official name of the country has changed as the form of government has changed. Mexico_sentence_35

The declaration of independence signed on 6 November 1813 by the deputies of the Congress of Anáhuac called the territory América Septentrional (Northern America) in the Plan of Iguala (1821). Mexico_sentence_36

On two occasions (1821–1823 and 1863–1867), the country was known as Imperio Mexicano (Mexican Empire). Mexico_sentence_37

All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name Estados Unidos Mexicanos—or the variant Estados-Unidos Mexicanos, all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States". Mexico_sentence_38

The phrase República Mexicana, "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws. Mexico_sentence_39

History Mexico_section_1

Main article: History of Mexico Mexico_sentence_40

See also: History of the Catholic Church in Mexico, Economic history of Mexico, History of democracy in Mexico, History of Mexico City, and Military history of Mexico Mexico_sentence_41

Indigenous civilizations Mexico_section_2

Main articles: Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology Mexico_sentence_42

The earliest human artifacts in Mexico are chips of stone tools found near campfire remains in the Valley of Mexico and radiocarbon-dated to circa 10,000 years ago. Mexico_sentence_43

Mexico is the site of the domestication of maize, tomato, and beans, which produced an agricultural surplus. Mexico_sentence_44

This enabled the transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers to sedentary agricultural villages beginning around 5000 BC. Mexico_sentence_45

In the subsequent formative eras, maize cultivation and cultural traits such as a mythological and religious complex, and a vigesimal (base 20) numeric system, were diffused from the Mexican cultures to the rest of the Mesoamerican culture area. Mexico_sentence_46

In this period, villages became more dense in terms of population, becoming socially stratified with an artisan class, and developing into chiefdoms. Mexico_sentence_47

The most powerful rulers had religious and political power, organizing the construction of large ceremonial centers developed. Mexico_sentence_48

The earliest complex civilization in Mexico was the Olmec culture, which flourished on the Gulf Coast from around 1500 BC. Mexico_sentence_49

Olmec cultural traits diffused through Mexico into other formative-era cultures in Chiapas, Oaxaca and the Valley of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_50

The formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. Mexico_sentence_51

The formative-era of Mesoamerica is considered one of the six independent cradles of civilization. Mexico_sentence_52

In the subsequent pre-classical period, the Maya and Zapotec civilizations developed complex centers at Calakmul and Monte Albán, respectively. Mexico_sentence_53

During this period the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures. Mexico_sentence_54

The Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya Hieroglyphic script. Mexico_sentence_55

The earliest written histories date from this era. Mexico_sentence_56

The tradition of writing was important after the Spanish conquest in 1521. Mexico_sentence_57

In Central Mexico, the height of the classic period saw the ascendancy of Teotihuacán, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area as well as north. Mexico_sentence_58

Teotihuacan, with a population of more than 150,000 people, had some of the largest pyramidal structures in the pre-Columbian Americas. Mexico_sentence_59

After the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 AD, competition ensued between several important political centers in central Mexico such as Xochicalco and Cholula. Mexico_sentence_60

At this time, during the Epi-Classic, Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, and became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages. Mexico_sentence_61

During the early post-classic era (ca. 1000-1519 CE), Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, and the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán. Mexico_sentence_62

Toward the end of the post-Classic period, the Mexica established dominance, establishing a political and economic empire based in the city of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City), extending from central Mexico to the border with Guatemala. Mexico_sentence_63

Alexander von Humboldt popularized the modern usage of "Aztec" as a collective term applied to all the people linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to the Mexica state and Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, the Triple Alliance. Mexico_sentence_64

In 1843, with the publication of the work of William H. Prescott, it was adopted by most of the world, including 19th-century Mexican scholars who considered it a way to distinguish present-day Mexicans from pre-conquest Mexicans. Mexico_sentence_65

This usage has been the subject of debate since the late 20th century. Mexico_sentence_66

The Aztec empire was an informal or hegemonic empire because it did not exert supreme authority over the conquered territories; it was satisfied with the payment of tributes from them. Mexico_sentence_67

It was a discontinuous empire because not all dominated territories were connected; for example, the southern peripheral zones of Xoconochco were not in direct contact with the center. Mexico_sentence_68

The hegemonic nature of the Aztec empire was demonstrated by their restoration of local rulers to their former position after their city-state was conquered. Mexico_sentence_69

The Aztec did not interfere in local affairs, as long as the tributes were paid. Mexico_sentence_70

The Aztec of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mexico. Mexico_sentence_71

The Aztec were noted for practicing human sacrifice on a large scale. Mexico_sentence_72

Along with this practice, they avoided killing enemies on the battlefield. Mexico_sentence_73

Their warring casualty rate was far lower than that of their Spanish counterparts, whose principal objective was immediate slaughter during battle. Mexico_sentence_74

This distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition of human sacrifice ended with the gradually Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Mexico_sentence_75

Over the next centuries many other Mexican indigenous cultures were conquered and gradually subjected to Spanish colonial rule. Mexico_sentence_76

Conquest of the Aztec Empire (1519–1521) Mexico_section_3

Further information: Spanish conquest of Mexico Mexico_sentence_77

Although the Spanish had established colonies in the Caribbean starting in 1493, it was not until the second decade of the sixteenth century that they began exploring the coast of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_78

The Spanish first learned of Mexico during the Juan de Grijalva expedition of 1518. Mexico_sentence_79

The natives kept "repeating: Colua, Colua, and Mexico, Mexico, but we [explorers] did not know what Colua or Mexico meant", until encountering Montezuma's governor at the mouth of the Rio de las Banderas. Mexico_sentence_80

The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire began in February 1519 when Hernán Cortés landed on the Gulf Coast and founded the Spanish city of Veracruz. Mexico_sentence_81

Around 500 conquistadores, along with horses, cannons, swords, and long guns gave the Spanish some technological advantages over indigenous warriors, but key to the Spanish victory was making strategic alliances with disgruntled indigenous city-states (altepetl) who supplied the Spaniards and fought with them against the Aztec Triple Alliance. Mexico_sentence_82

Also important to the Spanish victory was Cortés's cultural translator, Malinche, a Nahua woman enslaved in the Maya area whom the Spanish acquired as a gift. Mexico_sentence_83

She quickly learned Spanish and gave strategic advise about how to deal with both indigenous allies and indigenous foes. Mexico_sentence_84

The unconquered city-state of Tlaxcala allied with the Spanish against their enemies, the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan. Mexico_sentence_85

The Spanish gained other indigenous allies, who also joined in the war for their own reasons. Mexico_sentence_86

We know so much about the conquest because it is among the best documented events in world history from multiple points of view. Mexico_sentence_87

There are accounts by the Spanish leader Cortés and multiple other Spanish participants, including Bernal Díaz del Castillo. Mexico_sentence_88

There are indigenous accounts in Spanish, Nahuatl, and pictorial narratives by allies of the Spanish, most prominently the Tlaxcalans, as well as Texcocans and Huejotzincans, and the defeated Mexican themselves, recorded in the last volume of Bernardino de Sahagún's General History of the Things of New Spain. Mexico_sentence_89

When the Spaniards arrived, the ruler of the Aztec empire was Moctezuma II, who after a delay allowed the Spanish to proceed inland to Tenochtitlan. Mexico_sentence_90

The Spanish captured him, holding him hostage. Mexico_sentence_91

He died while in their custody and the Spanish retreated from Tenochtitlan in great disarray. Mexico_sentence_92

His successor and brother Cuitláhuac took control of the Aztec empire, but was among the first to fall from the first smallpox epidemic in the area a short time later. Mexico_sentence_93

Unintentionally introduced by Spanish conquerors, among whom smallpox, measles, and other contagious diseases were endemic, epidemics of Old World infectious diseases ravaged Mesoamerica starting in the 1520s. Mexico_sentence_94

The exact number of deaths is disputed, but unquestionably more than 3 million natives who they had no immunity. Mexico_sentence_95

Other sources, however, mentioned that the death toll of the Aztecs might have reached 15 million (out of a population of less than 30 million) although such a high number conflicts with the 350,000 Aztecs who ruled an empire of 5 million or 10 million. Mexico_sentence_96

Severely weakened, the Aztec empire was easily defeated by Cortés and his forces on his second return with the help of state of Tlaxcala whose population estimate was 300,000. Mexico_sentence_97

The native population declined 80–90% by 1600 to 1–2.5 million. Mexico_sentence_98

Any population estimate of pre-Columbian Mexico is bound to be a guess but 8–12 million is often suggested for the area encompassed by the modern nation. Mexico_sentence_99

The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain in 1535. Mexico_sentence_100

Mexico City was systematically rebuilt by Cortés following the Fall of Tenochtitlan in 1521. Mexico_sentence_101

Much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico developed during the 300-year colonial period from 1521 to independence in 1821. Mexico_sentence_102

Viceroyalty of New Spain (1521–1821) Mexico_section_4

Main article: New Spain Mexico_sentence_103

See also: History of Mexico § Spanish Rule (1521-1821); Economic history of Mexico § Economy of New Spain, 1521–1821; and History of Mexico City § Colonial period, 1521-1821 Mexico_sentence_104

The 1521 capture Tenochtitlan and immediate founding of the Spanish capital Mexico City on its ruins was the beginning of a 300-year-long colonial era during which Mexico was known as Nueva España (New Spain). Mexico_sentence_105

The Kingdom of New Spain was created from the remnants of the Aztec empire. Mexico_sentence_106

The two pillars of Spanish rule were the State and the Roman Catholic Church, both under the authority of the Spanish crown. Mexico_sentence_107

In 1493 the pope had granted sweeping powers to the Spanish crown, with the proviso that the crown spread Christianity in its new realms. Mexico_sentence_108

In 1524, King Charles I created the Council of the Indies based in Spain to oversee State power its overseas territories; in New Spain the crown established a high court in Mexico City, the Real Audiencia, and then in 1535 created the viceroyalty. Mexico_sentence_109

The viceroy was highest official of the State. Mexico_sentence_110

In the religious sphere, the diocese of Mexico was created in 1530 and elevated to the Archdiocese of Mexico in 1546, with the archbishop as the head of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, overseeing Roman Catholic clergy. Mexico_sentence_111

Castilian Spanish was the language of rulers. Mexico_sentence_112

The Catholic faith the only one permitted, with non-Catholics (Jews and Protestants) and Catholics (excluding Indians) holding unorthodox views being subject to the Mexican Inquisition, established in 1571. Mexico_sentence_113

In the first half-century of Spanish rule, a network of Spanish cities was created, sometimes on pre-Hispanic sites. Mexico_sentence_114

The capital Mexico City was and remains the premier city. Mexico_sentence_115

Cities and towns were hubs of civil officials, ecclesiastics, business, Spanish elites, and mixed-race and indigenous artisans and workers. Mexico_sentence_116

When deposits of silver were discovered in sparsely populated northern Mexico, far from the dense populations of central Mexico, the Spanish secured the region against fiercely resistant indigenous Chichimecas. Mexico_sentence_117

The Viceroyalty at its greatest extent included the territories of modern Mexico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, and the western United States. Mexico_sentence_118

The Viceregal capital Mexico City also administrated the Spanish West Indies (the Caribbean), the Spanish East Indies (that is, the Philippines), and Spanish Florida. Mexico_sentence_119

In 1819, the Spain signed the Adams-Onís Treaty with the United States, setting New Spain's northern boundary. Mexico_sentence_120

The population of Mexico was overwhelmingly indigenous and rural during the entire colonial period and beyond, despite the massive decrease in their numbers due to epidemic diseases. Mexico_sentence_121

Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and others were introduced by Europeans and African slaves, especially in the sixteenth century. Mexico_sentence_122

The indigenous population stabilized around one to one and a half million individuals in the 17th century from the most commonly accepted five to thirty million pre-contact population. Mexico_sentence_123

During the three hundred years of the colonial era, Mexico received between 400,000 and 500,000 Europeans, between 200,000 and 250,000 African slaves. Mexico_sentence_124

and between 40,000 and 120,000 Asians. Mexico_sentence_125

The first census in Mexico (then known as New Spain) that included an ethnic classification was the 1793 census. Mexico_sentence_126

Also known as the Revillagigedo census. Mexico_sentence_127

Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as German scientist Alexander von Humboldt. Mexico_sentence_128

Europeans ranged from 18% to 22% of New Spain's population, Mestizos from 21% to 25%, Indians from 51% to 61% and Africans were between 6,000 and 10,000. Mexico_sentence_129

The total population ranged from 3,799,561 to 6,122,354. Mexico_sentence_130

It is concluded that the population growth trends of whites and mestizos were even, while the percentage of the indigenous population decreased at a rate of 13%–17% per century, mostly due to the latter having higher mortality rates from living in remote locations and being in constant war with the colonists. Mexico_sentence_131

Independent-era Mexico eliminated the legal basis of the Colonial caste system which led to exclusion of racial classification in the censuses to come. Mexico_sentence_132

Colonial law with Spanish roots was introduced and attached to native customs creating a hierarchy between local jurisdiction (the Cabildos) and the Spanish Crown. Mexico_sentence_133

Upper administrative offices were closed to native-born people, even those of pure Spanish blood (criollos). Mexico_sentence_134

Administration was based on the racial separation. Mexico_sentence_135

Society was organized in a racial hierarchy, with whites on top, mixed-race persons and blacks in the middle, and indigenous at the bottom. Mexico_sentence_136

There were formal legal designations of racial categories. Mexico_sentence_137

The Republic of Spaniards (República de Españoles) comprised European- and American-born Spaniards, mixed-race castas, and black Africans. Mexico_sentence_138

The Republic of Indians (República de Indios) comprised the indigenous populations, which the Spanish lumped under the term Indian (indio), a Spanish colonial social construct which indigenous groups and individuals rejected as a category. Mexico_sentence_139

Spaniards were exempt from paying tribute, Spanish men had access to higher education, could hold civil and ecclesiastical offices, were subject to the Inquisition, and liable for military service when the standing military was established in the late eighteenth century. Mexico_sentence_140

Indigenous paid tribute, but were exempt from the Inquisition, indigenous men were excluded from the priesthood; and exempt from military service. Mexico_sentence_141

Although the racial system appears fixed and rigid, there was some fluidity within it, and racial domination of whites was not complete. Mexico_sentence_142

Since the indigenous population of New Spain was so large, there was less labor demand for expensive black slaves than other parts of Spanish America. Mexico_sentence_143

In the late eighteenth century the crown instituted reforms that privileged Iberian-born Spaniards (peninsulares) over American-born (criollos), limiting their access to offices. Mexico_sentence_144

This discrimination between the two became a sparking point of discontent for white elites in the colony. Mexico_sentence_145

The Marian apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe said to have appeared to the indigenous Juan Diego in 1531 gave impetus to the evangelization of central Mexico. Mexico_sentence_146

The Virgin of Guadalupe became a symbol for American-born Spaniards' (criollos) patriotism, seeking in her a Mexican source of pride, distinct from Spain. Mexico_sentence_147

The Virgin of Guadalupe was invoked by the insurgents for independence who followed Father Miguel Hidalgo during the War of Independence. Mexico_sentence_148

The rich deposits of silver, particularly in Zacatecas and Guanajuato, resulted in silver extraction dominating the economy of New Spain. Mexico_sentence_149

Taxes on silver production became a major source of income for Spain. Mexico_sentence_150

Other important industries were the haciendas and mercantile activities in the main cities and ports. Mexico_sentence_151

Wealth created during the colonial era spurred the development of New Spanish Baroque. Mexico_sentence_152

As a result of its trade links with Asia, the rest of the Americas, Africa and Europe and the profound effect of New World silver, central Mexico was one of the first regions to be incorporated into a globalized economy. Mexico_sentence_153

Being at the crossroads of trade, people and cultures, Mexico City has been called the "first world city". Mexico_sentence_154

The Nao de China (Manila Galleons) operated for two and a half centuries and connected New Spain with Asia. Mexico_sentence_155

Silver and the red dye cochineal were shipped from Veracruz to Atlantic ports in the Americas and Spain. Mexico_sentence_156

Veracruz was also the main port of entry in mainland New Spain for European goods, immigrants from Spain, and African slaves. Mexico_sentence_157

The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro connected Mexico City with the interior of New Spain. Mexico_sentence_158

Mexican silver pesos became the first globally used currency. Mexico_sentence_159

Spanish forces, sometimes accompanied by native allies, led expeditions to conquer territory or quell rebellions through the colonial era. Mexico_sentence_160

Notable Amerindian revolts in sporadically populated northern New Spain include the Chichimeca War (1576–1606), Tepehuán Revolt (1616–1620), and the Pueblo Revolt (1680), the Tzeltal Rebellion of 1712 was a regional Maya revolt. Mexico_sentence_161

Most rebellions were small-scale and local, posing no major threat to the ruling elites. Mexico_sentence_162

To protect Mexico from the attacks of English, French, and Dutch pirates and protect the Crown's monopoly of revenue, only two ports were open to foreign trade—Veracruz on the Atlantic and Acapulco on the Pacific. Mexico_sentence_163

Among the best-known pirate attacks are the 1663 Sack of Campeche and 1683 Attack on Veracruz. Mexico_sentence_164

Of greater concern to the crown was of foreign invasion, especially after Britain seized in 1762 the Spanish ports of Havana, Cuba and Manila, the Philippines in the Seven Years' War. Mexico_sentence_165

It created a standing military, increased coastal fortifications, and expanded the northern presidios and missions into Alta California. Mexico_sentence_166

The volatility of the urban poor in Mexico City was evident in the 1692 riot in the Zócalo. Mexico_sentence_167

The riot over the price of maize escalated to a full-scale attack on the seats of power, with the viceregal palace and the archbishop's residence attacked by the mob. Mexico_sentence_168

Due to the importance of New Spain administrative base, Mexico was the location of the first printing shop (1539), first university (1551), first public park (1592), and first public library (1640) in the Americas, among other institutions. Mexico_sentence_169

Important artists of the colonial period, include the writers Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora, and Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, painters Cristóbal de Villalpando and Miguel Cabrera, and architect Manuel Tolsá. Mexico_sentence_170

The Academy of San Carlos (1781) was the first major school and museum of art in the Americas. Mexico_sentence_171

German scientist Alexander von Humboldt spent a year in Mexico, finding the scientific community in the capital active and learned. Mexico_sentence_172

He met Mexican scientist Andrés Manuel del Río Fernández, who discovered the element vanadium in 1801. Mexico_sentence_173

Many Mexican cultural features including tequila, first distilled in the 16th century, charreria (17th), mariachi (18th) and Mexican cuisine, a fusion of American and European (particularly Spanish) cuisine, arose during the colonial era. Mexico_sentence_174

War of Independence (1810–1821) Mexico_section_5

Main article: Mexican War of Independence Mexico_sentence_175

On 16 September 1810, a "loyalist revolt" against the ruling junta was declared by priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato. Mexico_sentence_176

This event, known as the Cry of Dolores (Spanish: Grito de Dolores) is commemorated each year, on 16 September, as Mexico's independence day. Mexico_sentence_177

The first insurgent group was formed by Hidalgo, the Spanish viceregal army captain Ignacio Allende, the militia captain Juan Aldama and La Corregidora (English: "The Magistrate") Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez. Mexico_sentence_178

Hidalgo and some of his soldiers were captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua, on 31 July 1811. Mexico_sentence_179

Following Hidalgo's death, the leadership was assumed by Ignacio López Rayón and then by the priest José María Morelos, who occupied key southern cities with the support of Mariano Matamoros and Nicolás Bravo. Mexico_sentence_180

In one notable incident, Nicolas Bravo captured 200 royalist soldiers, whom Morelos ordered should be executed in revenge of the murder of Bravo's father. Mexico_sentence_181

In an act of mercy, Bravo instead pardoned the prisoners, most of whom then joined the insurgent cause. Mexico_sentence_182

In 1813 the Congress of Chilpancingo was convened and, on 6 November, signed the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America". Mexico_sentence_183

. Mexico_sentence_184

This Act also abolished slavery and the caste system and, being a Catholic priest himself, Morelos called for Roman Catholicism to be the exclusive faith in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_185

Morelos was captured and executed on 22 December 1815. Mexico_sentence_186

In subsequent years, the insurgency was near collapse, but in 1820 Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent an army under the criollo general Agustín de Iturbide against the troops of Vicente Guerrero who had among his trusted soldiers, Filipino Mexicans who were concentrated in Guerrero, a state later named after Vicente Guerrero himself and where the Mexican flag was first sewn. Mexico_sentence_187

Chief among the Filipino-Mexican soldiers was General Isidoro Montes de Oca who defeated Royalist armies 3 times his force's size. Mexico_sentence_188

Then, the Criollo Royalist, Agustin Iturbide, instead of attacking Vicente Guerrero, approached Guerrero to join forces as he was impressed with his tenacity despite fighting larger odds, and on 24 August 1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala". Mexico_sentence_189

Similarly to José María Morelos' goals. Mexico_sentence_190

A provision of the Plan of Iguala of Agustín de Iturbide bringing about Mexican independence in 1821, also included Catholic exclusivity in the religious sphere. Mexico_sentence_191

The Constitution of 1824 declared that the official religion of the Republic would be Catholic. Mexico_sentence_192

Mexico's short recovery after the War of Independence was soon cut short again by the civil wars, foreign invasion and occupation, and institutional instability of the mid-19th century, which lasted until the government of Porfirio Díaz reestablished conditions that paved the way for economic growth. Mexico_sentence_193

The conflicts that arose from the mid-1850s had a profound effect because they were widespread and made themselves perceptible in the vast rural areas of the countries, involved clashes between castes, different ethnic groups, and haciendas, and entailed a deepening of the political and ideological divisions between republicans and monarchists. Mexico_sentence_194

Mexican Empire and the Early Republic (1821–1855) Mexico_section_6

Main articles: First Mexican Empire, First Mexican Republic, and Centralist Republic of Mexico Mexico_sentence_195

The first thirty-five years after Mexico's independence were marked by political instability and the changing form of the Mexican State, from a monarchy to a federated republic. Mexico_sentence_196

There were military coups d'état, foreign invasions, ideological conflict between Conservatives and Liberals, and economic stagnation. Mexico_sentence_197

Catholicism remained the only permitted religious faith and the Catholic Church as an institution retained its special privileges, prestige, and property, a bulwark of Conservatism. Mexico_sentence_198

The army, another Conservative institution, also retained its privileges. Mexico_sentence_199

Former Royal Army General Agustín de Iturbide, became regent, as newly independent Mexico sought a constitutional monarch from Europe. Mexico_sentence_200

When no member of a European royal house desired the position, Iturbide himself was declared Emperor Agustín I. Mexico_sentence_201

The young and weak United States was the first country to recognize Mexico's independence, sending an ambassador to the court of the emperor and sending a message to Europe via the Monroe Doctrine not to intervene in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_202

The emperor's rule was short (1822–23) and he was overthrown by army officers. Mexico_sentence_203

The successful rebels established the First Mexican Republic. Mexico_sentence_204

In 1824, a constitution of a federated republic was promulgated and former insurgent general Guadalupe Victoria became the first president of the newly born republic. Mexico_sentence_205

Central America, including Chiapas, left the union. Mexico_sentence_206

In 1829, former insurgent general and fierce Liberal Vicente Guerrero, a signatory of the Plan de Iguala that achieved independence, became president in a disputed election. Mexico_sentence_207

During his short term in office, April to December 1829, he abolished slavery. Mexico_sentence_208

As a visibly mixed-race man of modest origins, Guerrero was seen by white political elites as an interloper. Mexico_sentence_209

His Conservative vice president, former Royalist General Anastasio Bustamante, led a coup against him and Guerrero was judicially murdered. Mexico_sentence_210

There was constant strife between Liberals, supporters of a federal form of decentralized government and often called Federalists and their political rivals, the Conservatives, who proposed a hierarchical form of government, were termed Centralists. Mexico_sentence_211

Mexico's ability to maintain its independence and establish a viable government was in question. Mexico_sentence_212

Spain attempted to reconquer its former colony during the 1820s, but eventually recognized its independence. Mexico_sentence_213

France attempted to recoup losses it claimed for its citizens during Mexico's unrest and blockaded the Gulf Coast during the so-called Pastry War of 1838–39. Mexico_sentence_214

Santa Anna lost a leg in combat during this conflict, which he used for political purposes. Mexico_sentence_215

Emerging as a national hero in defending Mexico was creole army general, Antonio López de Santa Anna, who had participated in the overthrow of the emperor, fought the Spanish invasion, and came to dominate the politics for the next 25 years, until his own overthrow in 1855. Mexico_sentence_216

Mexico also contended with indigenous groups which controlled territory that Mexico claimed in the north. Mexico_sentence_217

The Comanche controlled a huge territory in the sparsely populated region of central and northern Texas. Mexico_sentence_218

Wanting to stabilize and develop the frontier, the Mexican government encouraged Anglo-American immigration into present-day Texas. Mexico_sentence_219

The region bordered the United States, and was territory controlled by Comanches. Mexico_sentence_220

There were few settlers from central Mexico moving to this remote and hostile territory. Mexico_sentence_221

Mexico by law was a Catholic country; the Anglo Americans were primarily Protestant English speakers from the southern United States. Mexico_sentence_222

Some brought their black slaves, which after 1829 was contrary to Mexican law. Mexico_sentence_223

Santa Anna sought to centralize government rule, suspending the constitution and promulgating the Seven Laws, which place power in his hands. Mexico_sentence_224

When he suspended the 1824 Constitution, civil war spread across the country. Mexico_sentence_225

Three new governments declared independence: the Republic of Texas, the Republic of the Rio Grande and the Republic of Yucatán. Mexico_sentence_226

The largest blow to Mexico was the U.S. invasion of Mexico in 1846 in the Mexican American War. Mexico_sentence_227

Mexico lost much of its sparsely populated northern territory, sealed in the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico_sentence_228

Despite that disastrous loss, Conservative Santa Anna returned to the presidency yet again and then was ousted and exiled in the Liberal Revolution of Ayutla. Mexico_sentence_229

Liberal Reform, French Intervention, and Restored Republic (1855–1876) Mexico_section_7

Main articles: Second Mexican Republic, La Reforma, and Second Mexican Empire Mexico_sentence_230

The overthrow of Santa Anna and the establishment of a civilian government by Liberals allowed them to enact laws that they considered vital for Mexico's economic development. Mexico_sentence_231

It was a prelude to more civil wars and yet another foreign invasion. Mexico_sentence_232

The Liberal Reform attempted to modernize Mexico's economy and institutions along liberal principles. Mexico_sentence_233

They promulgated a new Constitution of 1857, separating Church and State, stripping the Conservative institutions of the Church and the military of their special privileges (fueros); mandating the sale of Church-owned property and sale of indigenous community lands, and secularizing education. Mexico_sentence_234

Conservatives revolted, touching off civil war between rival Liberal and Conservative governments (1858–61). Mexico_sentence_235

The Liberals defeated the Conservative army on the battlefield, but Conservatives sought another solution to gain power via foreign intervention by the French. Mexico_sentence_236

Mexican conservatives asked Emperor Napoleon III to place a European monarch as head of state in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_237

The French Army defeated the Mexican Army and placed Maximilian Hapsburg on the newly established throne of Mexico, supported by Mexican Conservatives and propped up by the French Army. Mexico_sentence_238

The Liberal republic under Benito Juárez was basically a government in internal exile, but with the end of the Civil War in the U.S. in April 1865, that government began aiding the Mexican Republic. Mexico_sentence_239

Two years later, the French Army withdrew its support, Maximilian remained in Mexico rather than return to Europe. Mexico_sentence_240

Republican forces captured him and he was executed in Querétaro, along with two Conservative Mexican generals. Mexico_sentence_241

The "Restored Republic" saw the return of Juárez, who was "the personification of the embattled republic," as president. Mexico_sentence_242

The Conservatives had been not only defeated militarily, but also discredited politically for their collaboration with the French invaders. Mexico_sentence_243

Liberalism became synonymous with patriotism. Mexico_sentence_244

The Mexican Army that had its roots in the colonial royal army and then the army of the early republic was destroyed. Mexico_sentence_245

New military leaders had emerged from the War of the Reform and the conflict with the French, most notably Porfirio Díaz, a hero of the Cinco de Mayo, who now sought civilian power. Mexico_sentence_246

Juárez won re-election in 1867, but was challenged by Díaz, who criticized him for running for re-election. Mexico_sentence_247

Díaz then rebelled, crushed by Juárez. Mexico_sentence_248

Having won re-election, Juárez died in office of natural causes in July 1872, and Liberal Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada became president, declaring a "religion of state" for rule of law, peace, and order. Mexico_sentence_249

When Lerdo ran for re-election, Díaz rebelled against the civilian president, issuing the Plan of Tuxtepec. Mexico_sentence_250

Díaz had more support and waged guerrilla warfare against Lerdo. Mexico_sentence_251

On the verge of Díaz's victory on the battlefield, Lerdo fled from office, going into exile. Mexico_sentence_252

Another army general assumed the presidency of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_253

Porfiriato (1876–1911) Mexico_section_8

Main articles: Porfirio Díaz and Porfiriato Mexico_sentence_254

After the turmoil in Mexico from 1810 to 1876, the 35-year rule of Liberal General Porfirio Díaz (r.1876-1911) allowed Mexico to rapidly modernize in a period characterized as one of "order and progress". Mexico_sentence_255

The Porfiriato was characterized by economic stability and growth, significant foreign investment and influence, an expansion of the railroad network and telecommunications, and investments in the arts and sciences. Mexico_sentence_256

The period was also marked by economic inequality and political repression. Mexico_sentence_257

Díaz knew the potential for army rebellions, and systematically downsized the expenditure for the force, rather expanding the rural police force under direct control of the president. Mexico_sentence_258

Díaz did not provoke the Catholic Church, coming to a modus vivendi with it; but he did not remove the anticlerical articles from the 1857 Constitution. Mexico_sentence_259

From the late nineteenth century Porfiriato, Protestants began to make inroads in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_260

The government encouraged British and U.S. investment. Mexico_sentence_261

Commercial agriculture developed in northern Mexico, with many investors from the U.S. acquiring vast ranching estates and expanding irrigated cultivation of crops. Mexico_sentence_262

The Mexican government ordered a survey of land with the aim of selling it for development. Mexico_sentence_263

In this period, many indigenous communities lost their lands and the men became landless wage earners on large landed enterprises (haciendas). Mexico_sentence_264

British and U.S. investors developed extractive mining of copper, lead, and other minerals, as well as petroleum on the Gulf Coast. Mexico_sentence_265

Changes in Mexican law allowed for private enterprises to own the subsoil rights of land, rather than continuing the colonial law that gave all subsoil rights to the State. Mexico_sentence_266

An industrial manufacturing sector also developed, particularly in textiles. Mexico_sentence_267

At the same time, new enterprises gave rise to an industrial work force, which began organizing to gain labor rights and protections. Mexico_sentence_268

Díaz ruled with a group of advisors that became known as the científicos ("scientists"). Mexico_sentence_269

The most influential cientifco was Secretary of Finance José Yves Limantour. Mexico_sentence_270

The Porfirian regime was influenced by positivism. Mexico_sentence_271

They rejected theology and idealism in favor of scientific methods being applied towards national development. Mexico_sentence_272

As an integral aspect of the liberal project was secular education. Mexico_sentence_273

Díaz's long success did not include planning for a political transition beyond his own presidency. Mexico_sentence_274

He made no attempt, however, to establish a family dynasty, naming no relative as his successor. Mexico_sentence_275

As the centennial of independence approached, Díaz gave an interview where he said he was not going to run in the 1910 elections, when he would be 80. Mexico_sentence_276

Political opposition had been suppressed and there were few avenues for a new generation of leaders. Mexico_sentence_277

But his announcement set off a frenzy of political activity, including the unlikely candidacy of the scion of a rich landowning family, Francisco I. Madero. Mexico_sentence_278

Madero won a surprising amount of political support when Díaz changed his mind an ran in the election, jailing Madero. Mexico_sentence_279

The September centennial celebration of independence was the last celebration of the Porfiriato. Mexico_sentence_280

The Mexican Revolution starting in 1910 saw a decade of civil war, the "wind that swept Mexico." Mexico_sentence_281

Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) Mexico_section_9

Further information: Mexican Revolution Mexico_sentence_282

The Mexican Revolution was a decade-long transformational conflict in Mexico, with consequences to this day. Mexico_sentence_283

It saw uprisings against President Díaz, his resignation, an interim presidency, and the democratic election of a rich landowner, Francisco I. Madero in 1911. Mexico_sentence_284

In February 1913, a military coup d'état overthrew Madero's government, with the support of the U.S., resulted in Madero's murder by agents of Federal Army General Victoriano Huerta. Mexico_sentence_285

A coalition of anti-Huerta forces in the North, the Constitutionalist Army overseen by Venustiano Carranza, and a peasant army in the South under Emiliano Zapata, defeated the Federal Army. Mexico_sentence_286

In 1914 that army was dissolved as an institution. Mexico_sentence_287

Following the revolutionaries' victory against Huerta, revolutionary armies sought to broker a peaceful political solution, but the coalition splintered, plunging Mexico into civil war again. Mexico_sentence_288

Constitutionalist general Pancho Villa, commander of the Division of the North, broke with Carranza and allied with Zapata. Mexico_sentence_289

Carranza's best general, Alvaro Obregón, defeated Villa, his former comrade-in-arms in the battle of Celaya in 1915, and Villa's forces melted away. Mexico_sentence_290

Carranza became the de facto head of Mexico, and the U.S. recognized his government. Mexico_sentence_291

In 1916, the winners met at a constitutional convention to draft the Constitution of 1917, which was ratified in February 1917. Mexico_sentence_292

Said Constitution strengthened the anticlerical provisions that were carried over from the 1857 Constitution. Mexico_sentence_293

With amendments, it remains the governing document of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_294

It is estimated that the war killed 900,000 of the 1910 population of 15 million. Mexico_sentence_295

The U.S. has had a history of inference and intervention in Mexico, most notably the Mexican-American War. Mexico_sentence_296

During the Revolution, the Taft administration supported the Huerta coup against Madero, but when Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated as president in March 1913, it refused to recognize Huerta's regime and allowed arms sales to the Constitutionalists. Mexico_sentence_297

Wilson ordered troops to occupy the strategic port of Veracruz in 1914, which was lifted. Mexico_sentence_298

After Pancho Villa was defeated by revolutionary forces in 1915, he led a raid into Columbus, New Mexico incursion, prompting the U.S. to send 10,000 troops led by General John J. Pershing in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Villa. Mexico_sentence_299

Carranza pushed back against U.S. troops being in northern Mexico. Mexico_sentence_300

The expeditionary forces withdrew as the U.S. entered World War I. Germany attempted to get Mexico to side with it, sending a coded telegram in 1917 to incite war between the U.S. and Mexico, with Mexico to regain the territory it lost in the Mexican-American War. Mexico_sentence_301

Mexico remained neutral in the conflict. Mexico_sentence_302

Consolidating power, President Carranza had peasant-leader Emiliano Zapata assassinated in 1919. Mexico_sentence_303

Carranza had gained support of the peasantry during the Revolution, but once in power he did little to distribute land, and, in fact, returned some confiscated land to their original owners. Mexico_sentence_304

President Carranza's best general, Obregón, served briefly in Carranza's administration, but returned to his home state of Sonora to position himself to run in the 1920 presidential election. Mexico_sentence_305

Carranza chose a political and revolutionary no-body to succeed him. Mexico_sentence_306

Obregón and two other Sonoran revolutionary generals drew up the Plan of Agua Prieta, overthrowing Carranza, who died fleeing Mexico City in 1920. Mexico_sentence_307

General Adolfo de la Huerta became interim president, followed the election of General Álvaro Obregón. Mexico_sentence_308

Political consolidation and one-party rule (1920–2000) Mexico_section_10

Further information: Institutional Revolutionary Party Mexico_sentence_309

The first quarter-century of the post-revolutionary period (1920-1946) was characterized by revolutionary generals serving as Presidents of Mexico, including Álvaro Obregón (1920–24), Plutarco Elías Calles (1924-28), Lázaro Cárdenas (1934–40), and Manuel Avila Camacho (1940–46). Mexico_sentence_310

Since 1946, no member of the military has been President of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_311

The post-revolutionary project of the Mexican government sought to bring order to the country, end military intervention in politics, and create organizations of interest groups. Mexico_sentence_312

Workers, peasants, urban office workers, and even the army for a short period were incorporated as sectors of the single party that dominated Mexican politics from its founding in 1929. Mexico_sentence_313

Obregón instigated land reform and strengthened the power of organized labor. Mexico_sentence_314

He gained recognition from the United States and took steps to settle claims with companies and individuals that lost property during the Revolution. Mexico_sentence_315

He imposed his fellow former Sonoran revolutionary general, Calles, as his successor, prompting an unsuccessful military revolt. Mexico_sentence_316

As president Calles provoked a major conflict with the Catholic Church and Catholic guerrilla armies when he strictly enforced anticlerical articles of the 1917 Constitution. Mexico_sentence_317

The Church-State conflict was mediated and ended with the aid of the U.S. Mexico_sentence_318

Ambassador to Mexico and ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict, by means of which the respective fields of action were defined. Mexico_sentence_319

Although the constitution prohibited reelection of the president, Obregón wished to run again and the constitution was amended to allow non-consecutive re-election. Mexico_sentence_320

Obregón won the 1928 elections, but was assassinated by a Catholic zealot, causing a political crisis of succession. Mexico_sentence_321

Calles could not become president again, since he has just ended his term. Mexico_sentence_322

He sought to set up a structure to manage presidential succession, founding the party that was to dominate Mexico until the late twentieth century. Mexico_sentence_323

Calles declared that the Revolution had moved from caudillismo (rule by strongmen) to the era institucional (institutional era). Mexico_sentence_324

Despite not holding the presidency, Calles remained the key political figure during the period known as the Maximato (1929-1934). Mexico_sentence_325

The Maximato ended during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, who expelled Calles from the country and implemented many economic and social reforms. Mexico_sentence_326

This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March 1938, which nationalized the U.S. Mexico_sentence_327

and Anglo-Dutch oil company known as the Mexican Eagle Petroleum Company. Mexico_sentence_328

This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company Pemex. Mexico_sentence_329

This sparked a diplomatic crisis with the countries whose citizens had lost businesses by Cárdenas's radical measure, but since then the company has played an important role in the economic development of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_330

Cárdenas's successor, Manuel Ávila Camacho (1940-1946) was more moderate, and relations between the U.S. and Mexico vastly improved during World War II, when Mexico was a significant ally, providing manpower and materiel to aid the war effort. Mexico_sentence_331

From 1946 the election of Miguel Alemán, the first civilian president in the post-revolutionary period, Mexico embarked on an aggressive program of economic development, known as the Mexican miracle, which was characterized by industrialization, urbanization, and the increase of inequality in Mexico between urban and rural areas. Mexico_sentence_332

With robust economic growth, Mexico sought to showcase it to the world by hosting the 1968 Summer Olympics. Mexico_sentence_333

The government poured huge resources into building new facilities. Mexico_sentence_334

At the same time, there was political unrest by university students and others with those expenditures, while their own circumstances were difficult. Mexico_sentence_335

Demonstrations in central Mexico City went on for weeks before the planned opening of the games, with the government of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz cracking down. Mexico_sentence_336

The culmination was the Tlatelolco Massacre, which claimed the lives of around 300 protesters based on conservative estimates and perhaps as many as 800. Mexico_sentence_337

Although the economy continued to flourish for some, social inequality remained a factor of discontent. Mexico_sentence_338

PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive in what is now referred to as the Mexican Dirty War Mexico_sentence_339

Luis Echeverría, Minister of the Interior under Díaz Ordaz, carrying out the repression during the Olympics, was elected president in 1970. Mexico_sentence_340

His government had to contend with mistrust of Mexicans and increasing economic problems. Mexico_sentence_341

He instituted some with electoral reforms. Mexico_sentence_342

Echeverría chose José López Portillo as his successor in 1976. Mexico_sentence_343

Economic problems worsened in his early term, then massive reserves of petroleum were located off Mexico's Gulf Coast. Mexico_sentence_344

Pemex did not have the capacity to develop these reserves itself, and brought in foreign firms. Mexico_sentence_345

Oil prices had been high because of OPEC's lock on oil production, and López Portilla borrowed money from foreign banks for current spending to fund social programs. Mexico_sentence_346

Those foreign banks were happy to lend to Mexico because the oil reserves were enormous and future revenues were collateral for loans denominated in U.S. dollars. Mexico_sentence_347

When the price of oil dropped, Mexico's economy collapsed in the 1982 Crisis. Mexico_sentence_348

Interest rates soared, the peso devalued, and unable to pay loans, the government defaulted on its debt. Mexico_sentence_349

President Miguel de la Madrid (1982–88) resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation. Mexico_sentence_350

In the 1980s the first cracks emerged in the PRI's complete political dominance. Mexico_sentence_351

In Baja California, the PAN candidate was elected as governor. Mexico_sentence_352

When De la Madrid chose Carlos Salinas de Gortari as the candidate for the PRI, and therefore a foregone presidential victor, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, son of former President Lázaro Cárdenas, broke with the PRI and challenged Salinas in the 1988 elections. Mexico_sentence_353

In 1988 there was massive electoral fraud, with results showing that Salinas had won the election by the narrowest percentage ever. Mexico_sentence_354

There were massive protests in Mexico City to the stolen election. Mexico_sentence_355

Salinas took the oath of office on 1 December 1988. Mexico_sentence_356

In 1990 the PRI was famously described by Mario Vargas Llosa as the "perfect dictatorship", but by then there had been major challenges to the PRI's hegemony. Mexico_sentence_357

Although Salinas won by fraud, he embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate of the peso, controlled inflation, opened Mexico to foreign investment, and began talks with the U.S. and Canada to join their free-trade agreement. Mexico_sentence_358

In order to do that, the Constitution of 1917 was amended in several important ways. Mexico_sentence_359

Article 27, which allowed the government to expropriate natural resources and distribute land, was amended to end agrarian reform and to guarantee private owners' property rights. Mexico_sentence_360

The anti-clerical articles that muzzled religious institutions, especially the Catholic Church, were amended and Mexico reestablished of diplomatic relations with the Holy See, to which the Mexican State did not recognize as a political entity. Mexico_sentence_361

Signing on to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) removed Mexico's autonomy over trade policy. Mexico_sentence_362

The agreement came into effect on 1 January 1994; the same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization. Mexico_sentence_363

In 1994, following the assassination of the PRI's presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio, Salinas was succeeded by substitute PRI candidate Ernesto Zedillo. Mexico_sentence_364

Salinas left Zedillo's government to deal with the Mexican peso crisis, requiring a $50 billion IMF bailout. Mexico_sentence_365

Major macroeconomic reforms were started by President Zedillo, and the economy rapidly recovered and growth peaked at almost 7% by the end of 1999. Mexico_sentence_366

Contemporary Mexico Mexico_section_11

In 2000, after 71 years, the PRI lost a presidential election to Vicente Fox of the opposition National Action Party (PAN). Mexico_sentence_367

In the 2006 presidential election, Felipe Calderón from the PAN was declared the winner, with a very narrow margin (0.58%) over leftist politician Andrés Manuel López Obrador then the candidate of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Mexico_sentence_368

López Obrador, however, contested the election and pledged to create an "alternative government". Mexico_sentence_369

After twelve years, in 2012, the PRI won the presidency again with the election of Enrique Peña Nieto, the governor of the State of Mexico from 2005 to 2011. Mexico_sentence_370

However, he won with a plurality of about 38%, and did not have a legislative majority. Mexico_sentence_371

After founding the new political party MORENA, Andrés Manuel López Obrador won the 2018 presidential election with over 50% of the vote. Mexico_sentence_372

His political coalition, led by his left-wing party, founded after the 2012 elections includes parties and politicians from all over the political spectrum. Mexico_sentence_373

The coalition also won a majority in both the upper and lower congress chambers. Mexico_sentence_374

AMLO's (one of his many nicknames) success is attributed to the country's other strong political alternatives exhausting their chances as well as the politician adopting a moderate discourse with focus in conciliation. Mexico_sentence_375

Mexico has contended with high crime rates, official corruption, narcotrafficking, and a stagnant economy. Mexico_sentence_376

Many state-owned industrial enterprises were privatized starting in the 1990s, with neoliberal reforms, but Pemex, the state-owned petroleum company is only slowly being privatized, with exploration licenses being issued. Mexico_sentence_377

In AMLO's push against government corruption, the ex-CEO of Pemex has been arrested. Mexico_sentence_378

Although there were fears of electoral fraud in Mexico's 2018 presidential elections, the results gave a mandate to AMLO. Mexico_sentence_379

Mexico's literacy rate is high, at 94.86% in 2018, up from 82.99% in 1980, with the literacy rates of males and females being relatively equal. Mexico_sentence_380

During the COVID-19 pandemic, as of mid-March, the country had a few cases, but as of mid-July, there were over 320,000 cases reported. Mexico_sentence_381

Geography Mexico_section_12

Main article: Geography of Mexico Mexico_sentence_382

Mexico is located between latitudes 14° and 33°N, and longitudes 86° and 119°W in the southern portion of North America. Mexico_sentence_383

Almost all of Mexico lies in the North American Plate, with small parts of the Baja California peninsula on the Pacific and Cocos Plates. Mexico_sentence_384

Geophysically, some geographers include the territory east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec (around 12% of the total) within Central America. Mexico_sentence_385

Geopolitically, however, Mexico is entirely considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States. Mexico_sentence_386

Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km (761,606 sq mi), making it the world's 13th largest country by total area. Mexico_sentence_387

It has coastlines on the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, as well as the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, the latter two forming part of the Atlantic Ocean. Mexico_sentence_388

Within these seas are about 6,000 km (2,317 sq mi) of islands (including the remote Pacific Guadalupe Island and the Revillagigedo Islands). Mexico_sentence_389

From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 2,000 mi (3,219 km) in length. Mexico_sentence_390

On its north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km (1,952 mi) border with the United States. Mexico_sentence_391

The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_392

A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. Mexico_sentence_393

On its south, Mexico shares an 871 km (541 mi) border with Guatemala and a 251 km (156 mi) border with Belize. Mexico_sentence_394

Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental, which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. Mexico_sentence_395

From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. Mexico_sentence_396

A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca. Mexico_sentence_397

As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba (5,700 m or 18,701 ft), Popocatépetl (5,462 m or 17,920 ft) and Iztaccihuatl (5,286 m or 17,343 ft) and the Nevado de Toluca (4,577 m or 15,016 ft). Mexico_sentence_398

Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca, Greater Mexico City and Puebla. Mexico_sentence_399

Climate Mexico_section_13

Biodiversity Mexico_section_14

Mexico ranks fourth in the world in biodiversity and is one of the 17 megadiverse countries. Mexico_sentence_400

With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home of 10–12% of the world's biodiversity. Mexico_sentence_401

Mexico ranks first in biodiversity in reptiles with 707 known species, second in mammals with 438 species, fourth in amphibians with 290 species, and fourth in flora, with 26,000 different species. Mexico_sentence_402

Mexico is also considered the second country in the world in ecosystems and fourth in overall species. Mexico_sentence_403

About 2,500 species are protected by Mexican legislations. Mexico_sentence_404

In 2002, Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil. Mexico_sentence_405

The government has taken another initiative in the late 1990s to broaden the people's knowledge, interest and use of the country's esteemed biodiversity, through the Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Mexico_sentence_406

In Mexico, 170,000 square kilometres (65,637 sq mi) are considered "Protected Natural Areas". Mexico_sentence_407

These include 34 biosphere reserves (unaltered ecosystems), 67 national parks, 4 natural monuments (protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones rich in diverse species). Mexico_sentence_408

The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants. Mexico_sentence_409

Some of Mexico's native culinary ingredients include: chocolate, avocado, tomato, maize, vanilla, guava, chayote, epazote, camote, jícama, nopal, zucchini, tejocote, huitlacoche, sapote, mamey sapote, many varieties of beans, and an even greater variety of chiles, such as the habanero and the jalapeño. Mexico_sentence_410

Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl. Mexico_sentence_411

Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies. Mexico_sentence_412

The first highly successful instance being the discovery in 1947 of the tuber "Barbasco" (Dioscorea composita) which has a high content of diosgenin, revolutionizing the production of synthetic hormones in the 1950s and 1960s and eventually leading to the invention of combined oral contraceptive pills. Mexico_sentence_413

Government and politics Mexico_section_15

Government Mexico_section_16

Main article: Federal government of Mexico Mexico_sentence_414

The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the 1917 Constitution. Mexico_sentence_415

The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. Mexico_sentence_416

According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, which will include a state Supreme Court of Justice. Mexico_sentence_417

They also have their own civil and judicial codes. Mexico_sentence_418

The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union, composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Mexico_sentence_419

The Congress makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments. Mexico_sentence_420

The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation. Mexico_sentence_421

The Chamber of Deputies has 500 deputies. Mexico_sentence_422

Of these, 300 are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts (the federal electoral districts) and 200 are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies. Mexico_sentence_423

The Senate is made up of 128 senators. Mexico_sentence_424

Of these, 64 senators (two for each state and two for Mexico City) are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up (one for each state and one for Mexico City), and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists. Mexico_sentence_425

The executive is the President of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. Mexico_sentence_426

The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. Mexico_sentence_427

The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills. Mexico_sentence_428

The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice, the national supreme court, which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. Mexico_sentence_429

The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Mexico_sentence_430

Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary. Mexico_sentence_431

Politics Mexico_section_17

Main article: Politics of Mexico Mexico_sentence_432

Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), a center-left party and member of Socialist International that was founded in 1929 to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the National Action Party (PAN), a conservative party founded in 1939 and belonging to the Christian Democrat Organization of America; and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) a left-wing party, founded in 1989 as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties. Mexico_sentence_433

PRD emerged after what has now been proven was a stolen election in 1988, and has won numerous state and local elections since then. Mexico_sentence_434

PAN won its first governorship in 1989, and won the presidency in 2000 and 2006. Mexico_sentence_435

A new political party, National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), a leftist-populist party, emerged after the 2012 election and dominated the 2018 Mexican general election. Mexico_sentence_436

Unlike many Latin American countries, the military in Mexico does not participate in politics and is under civilian control. Mexico_sentence_437

Law enforcement Mexico_section_18

Main article: Law enforcement in Mexico Mexico_sentence_438

Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities. Mexico_sentence_439

Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties. Mexico_sentence_440

All levels report to the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública (Secretary of Public Security). Mexico_sentence_441

The General Attorney's Office (Fiscalía General de la República, FGR) is a constitutional autonomous organism in charge of investigating and prosecuting crimes at the federal level, mainly those related to drug and arms trafficking, espionage, and bank robberies. Mexico_sentence_442

The FGR operates the Federal Ministerial Police (Policia Federal Ministerial, PMF) an investigative and preventive agency. Mexico_sentence_443

While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods. Mexico_sentence_444

The National Human Rights Commission has had little impact in reversing this trend, engaging mostly in documentation but failing to use its powers to issue public condemnations to the officials who ignore its recommendations. Mexico_sentence_445

By law, all defendants have the rights that assure them fair trials and humane treatment; however, the system is overburdened and overwhelmed with several problems. Mexico_sentence_446

Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens. Mexico_sentence_447

The Global Integrity Index which measures the existence and effectiveness of national anti-corruption mechanisms rated Mexico 31st behind Kenya, Thailand, and Russia. Mexico_sentence_448

In 2008, president Calderón proposed a major reform of the judicial system, which was approved by the Congress of the Union, which included oral trials, the presumption of innocence for defendants, the authority of local police to investigate crime—until then a prerogative of special police units—and several other changes intended to speed up trials. Mexico_sentence_449

Crime Mexico_section_19

Main articles: Crime in Mexico, Mexican Drug War, and Human trafficking in Mexico Mexico_sentence_450

Drug cartels are a major concern in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_451

Mexico's drug war, ongoing since 2006, has left over 120,000 dead and perhaps another 37,000 missing. Mexico_sentence_452

The Mexican drug cartels have as many as 100,000 members. Mexico_sentence_453

Mexico's National Geography and Statistics Institute estimated that in 2014, one-fifth of Mexicans were victims of some sort of crime. Mexico_sentence_454

The U.S. Department of State warns its citizens to exercise increased caution when traveling in Mexico, issuing travel advisories on its website. Mexico_sentence_455

President Felipe Calderón (2006–12) made eradicating organized crime one of the top priorities of his administration by deploying military personnel to cities where drug cartels operate. Mexico_sentence_456

This move was criticized by the opposition parties and the National Human Rights Commission for escalating the violence, but its effects have been positively evaluated by the US State Department's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs as having obtained "unprecedented results" with "many important successes". Mexico_sentence_457

Since President Felipe Calderón launched a crackdown against cartels in 2006, more than 28,000 alleged criminals have been successfully killed. Mexico_sentence_458

Of the total drug-related violence 4% are innocent people, mostly by-passers and people trapped in between shootings; 90% accounts for criminals and 6% for military personnel and police officers. Mexico_sentence_459

In October 2007, President Calderón and US president George W. Bush announced the Mérida Initiative, a plan of law enforcement cooperation between the two countries. Mexico_sentence_460

More than 100 journalists and media workers have been killed or disappeared since 2000, and most of these crimes remained unsolved, improperly investigated, and with few perpetrators arrested and convicted. Mexico_sentence_461

The mass kidnapping of the 43 students in Iguala on 26 September 2014 triggered nationwide protests against the government's weak response to the disappearances and widespread corruption that gives free rein to criminal organizations. Mexico_sentence_462

Foreign relations Mexico_section_20

Main article: Foreign relations of Mexico Mexico_sentence_463

The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mexico_sentence_464

The principles of the foreign policy are constitutionally recognized in the Article 89, Section 10, which include: respect for international law and legal equality of states, their sovereignty and independence, trend to non-interventionism in the domestic affairs of other countries, peaceful resolution of conflicts, and promotion of collective security through active participation in international organizations. Mexico_sentence_465

Since the 1930s, the Estrada Doctrine has served as a crucial complement to these principles. Mexico_sentence_466

Mexico is founding member of several international organizations, most notably the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the OPANAL and the Rio Group. Mexico_sentence_467

In 2008, Mexico contributed over 40 million dollars to the United Nations regular budget. Mexico_sentence_468

In addition, it was the only Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development since it joined in 1994 until Chile gained full membership in 2010. Mexico_sentence_469

Mexico is considered a regional power hence its presence in major economic groups such as the G8+5 and the G-20. Mexico_sentence_470

In addition, since the 1990s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club. Mexico_sentence_471

After the War of Independence, the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner, and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs. Mexico_sentence_472

Mexico supported the Cuban government since its establishment in the early 1960s, the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua during the late 1970s, and leftist revolutionary groups in El Salvador during the 1980s. Mexico_sentence_473

Felipe Calderón's administration (2006-2012) put a greater emphasis on relations with Latin America and the Caribbean. Mexico_sentence_474

Enrique Peña Nieto (2012-2018) emphasized economic issues and foreign investment, particularly the now-defunct Trans-Pacific Partnership. Mexico_sentence_475

Andrés Manuel López Obrador has taken a cautious approach, unwilling to challenge U.S. President Donald Trump on either trade or migration, while maintaining neutrality on Venezuela and welcoming Chinese money. Mexico_sentence_476

Military Mexico_section_21

Main article: Mexican Armed Forces Mexico_sentence_477

See also: Military history of Mexico Mexico_sentence_478

The Mexican military "provides a unique example of a military leadership's transforming itself into a civilian political elite, simultaneously transferring the basis of power from the army to a civilian state." Mexico_sentence_479

The transformation was brought about by revolutionary generals in the 1920s and 1930s, following the demise of the Federal Army following its complete defeat during the decade-long Mexican Revolution. Mexico_sentence_480

The Mexican Armed Forces have two branches: the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force), and the Mexican Navy. Mexico_sentence_481

The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics; military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies. Mexico_sentence_482

In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms, missiles, aircraft, vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics, defense systems, armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels. Mexico_sentence_483

Since the 1990s, when the military escalated its role in the war on drugs, increasing importance has been placed on acquiring airborne surveillance platforms, aircraft, helicopters, digital war-fighting technologies, urban warfare equipment and rapid troop transport. Mexico_sentence_484

Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1968 and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Mexico_sentence_485

In 1970, Mexico's national institute for nuclear research successfully refined weapons grade uranium which is used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons but in April 2010, Mexico agreed to turn over its weapons grade uranium to the United States. Mexico_sentence_486

Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts, with the exception of World War II. Mexico_sentence_487

However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions, or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it. Mexico_sentence_488

Mexico signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Mexico_sentence_489

Political divisions Mexico_section_22

Main articles: Administrative divisions of Mexico, States of Mexico, Municipalities of Mexico, and List of Mexican state legislatures Mexico_sentence_490

The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City. Mexico_sentence_491

Each state has its own constitution, congress, and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms. Mexico_sentence_492

Mexico City is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state. Mexico_sentence_493

Formerly known as the Federal District, its autonomy was previously limited relative to that of the states. Mexico_sentence_494

It dropped this designation in 2016 and is in the process of achieving greater political autonomy by becoming a federal entity with its own constitution and congress. Mexico_sentence_495

The states are divided into municipalities, the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president (presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality. Mexico_sentence_496

Mexico_table_general_1

Entity/AbbreviationMexico_header_cell_1_0_0 CapitalMexico_header_cell_1_0_1 Entity/AbbreviationMexico_header_cell_1_0_2 CapitalMexico_header_cell_1_0_3
Aguascalientes (AGS)Mexico_cell_1_1_0 AguascalientesMexico_cell_1_1_1 Morelos (MOR)Mexico_cell_1_1_2 CuernavacaMexico_cell_1_1_3
Baja California (BC)Mexico_cell_1_2_0 MexicaliMexico_cell_1_2_1 Nayarit (NAY)Mexico_cell_1_2_2 TepicMexico_cell_1_2_3
Baja California Sur (BCS)Mexico_cell_1_3_0 La PazMexico_cell_1_3_1 Nuevo León (NL)Mexico_cell_1_3_2 MonterreyMexico_cell_1_3_3
Campeche (CAM)Mexico_cell_1_4_0 CampecheMexico_cell_1_4_1 Oaxaca (OAX)Mexico_cell_1_4_2 OaxacaMexico_cell_1_4_3
Chiapas (CHIS)Mexico_cell_1_5_0 Tuxtla GutiérrezMexico_cell_1_5_1 Puebla (PUE)Mexico_cell_1_5_2 PueblaMexico_cell_1_5_3
Chihuahua (CHIH)Mexico_cell_1_6_0 ChihuahuaMexico_cell_1_6_1 Querétaro (QRO)Mexico_cell_1_6_2 QuerétaroMexico_cell_1_6_3
Coahuila (COAH)Mexico_cell_1_7_0 SaltilloMexico_cell_1_7_1 Quintana Roo (QR)Mexico_cell_1_7_2 ChetumalMexico_cell_1_7_3
Colima (COL)Mexico_cell_1_8_0 ColimaMexico_cell_1_8_1 San Luis Potosí (SLP)Mexico_cell_1_8_2 San Luis PotosíMexico_cell_1_8_3
Durango (DUR)Mexico_cell_1_9_0 DurangoMexico_cell_1_9_1 Sinaloa (SNL)Mexico_cell_1_9_2 CuliacánMexico_cell_1_9_3
Guanajuato (GTO)Mexico_cell_1_10_0 GuanajuatoMexico_cell_1_10_1 Sonora (SON)Mexico_cell_1_10_2 HermosilloMexico_cell_1_10_3
Guerrero (GRO)Mexico_cell_1_11_0 ChilpancingoMexico_cell_1_11_1 Tabasco (TAB)Mexico_cell_1_11_2 VillahermosaMexico_cell_1_11_3
Hidalgo (HGO)Mexico_cell_1_12_0 PachucaMexico_cell_1_12_1 Tamaulipas (TAMPS)Mexico_cell_1_12_2 VictoriaMexico_cell_1_12_3
Jalisco (JAL)Mexico_cell_1_13_0 GuadalajaraMexico_cell_1_13_1 Tlaxcala (TLAX)Mexico_cell_1_13_2 TlaxcalaMexico_cell_1_13_3
State of Mexico (EM)Mexico_cell_1_14_0 TolucaMexico_cell_1_14_1 Veracruz (VER)Mexico_cell_1_14_2 XalapaMexico_cell_1_14_3
Mexico City (CDMX)Mexico_cell_1_15_0 Mexico CityMexico_cell_1_15_1 Yucatán (YUC)Mexico_cell_1_15_2 MéridaMexico_cell_1_15_3
Michoacán (MICH)Mexico_cell_1_16_0 MoreliaMexico_cell_1_16_1 Zacatecas (ZAC)Mexico_cell_1_16_2 ZacatecasMexico_cell_1_16_3

Economy Mexico_section_23

Main article: Economy of Mexico Mexico_sentence_497

See also: Economic history of Mexico Mexico_sentence_498

As of April 2018, Mexico has the 15th largest nominal GDP (US$1.15 trillion) and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity (US$2.45 trillion). Mexico_sentence_499

GDP annual average growth was 2.9% in 2016 and 2% in 2017. Mexico_sentence_500

Agriculture has comprised 4% of the economy over the last two decades, while industry contributes 33% (mostly automotive, oil, and electronics) and services (notably financial services and tourism) contribute 63%. Mexico_sentence_501

Mexico's GDP in PPP per capita was US$18,714.05. Mexico_sentence_502

The World Bank reported in 2009 that the country's Gross National Income in market exchange rates was the second highest in Latin America, after Brazil at US$1,830.392 billion, which led to the highest income per capita in the region at $15,311. Mexico_sentence_503

Mexico is now firmly established as an upper middle-income country. Mexico_sentence_504

After the slowdown of 2001 the country has recovered and has grown 4.2, 3.0 and 4.8 percent in 2004, 2005 and 2006, even though it is considered to be well below Mexico's potential growth. Mexico_sentence_505

The International Monetary Fund predicts growth rates of 2.3% and 2.7% for 2018 and 2019, respectively. Mexico_sentence_506

By 2050, Mexico could potentially become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy. Mexico_sentence_507

Although multiple international organizations coincide and classify Mexico as an upper middle income country, or a middle class country Mexico's National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CONEVAL), which is the organization in charge to measure the country's poverty reports that a huge percentage of Mexico's population lives in poverty. Mexico_sentence_508

According to said council, from 2006 to 2010 (year on which the CONEVAL published its first nationwide report of poverty) the portion of Mexicans who live in poverty rose from 18%-19% to 46% (52 million people). Mexico_sentence_509

However, rather than Mexico's economy crashing, international economists attribute the huge increase in the percentage of population living below the country's poverty line to the CONEVAL using new standards to define it, as now besides people who lives below the economic welfare line, people who lacks at least one "social need" such as complete education, access to healthcare, access to regular food, housing services and goods, social security etc. were considered to be living in poverty (several countries do collect information regarding the persistence of said vulnerabilities on their population, but Mexico is the only one that classifies people lacking one or more of those needs as living below its national poverty line). Mexico_sentence_510

Said economists do point out that the percentage of people living in poverty according to Mexico's national poverty line is around 40 times higher than the one reported by the World Bank's international poverty line (with said difference being the biggest in the world) and ponder if it would not be better for countries in the situation of Mexico to adopt internationalized standards to measure poverty so the numbers obtained could be used to make accurate international comparisons. Mexico_sentence_511

According to the OECD's own poverty line (defined as the percentage of a country's population who earns 60% or less of the national median income) 20% of Mexico's population lives in a situation of poverty. Mexico_sentence_512

Among the OECD countries, Mexico has the second-highest degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, after Chile – although it has been falling over the last decade, being one of few countries in which this is the case. Mexico_sentence_513

The bottom ten percent in the income hierarchy disposes of 1.36% of the country's resources, whereas the upper ten percent dispose of almost 36%. Mexico_sentence_514

The OECD also notes that Mexico's budgeted expenses for poverty alleviation and social development is only about a third of the OECD average. Mexico_sentence_515

This is also reflected by the fact that infant mortality in Mexico is three times higher than the average among OECD nations whereas its literacy levels are in the median range of OECD nations. Mexico_sentence_516

Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs, by 2050 Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world. Mexico_sentence_517

According to a 2008 UN report the average income in a typical urbanized area of Mexico was $26,654, while the average income in rural areas just miles away was only $8,403. Mexico_sentence_518

Daily minimum wages are set annually being set at $102.68 Mexican pesos (US$5.40) in 2019. Mexico_sentence_519

All of the indices of social development for the Mexican Indigenous population are considerably lower than the national average, which is motive of concern for the government. Mexico_sentence_520

The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Mexico_sentence_521

Mexico has the sixth largest electronics industry in the world after China, United States, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Mexico_sentence_522

Mexico is the second-largest exporter of electronics to the United States where it exported $71.4 billion worth of electronics in 2011. Mexico_sentence_523

The Mexican electronics industry is dominated by the manufacture and OEM design of televisions, displays, computers, mobile phones, circuit boards, semiconductors, electronic appliances, communications equipment and LCD modules. Mexico_sentence_524

The Mexican electronics industry grew 20% between 2010 and 2011, up from its constant growth rate of 17% between 2003 and 2009. Mexico_sentence_525

Currently electronics represent 30% of Mexico's exports. Mexico_sentence_526

Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation. Mexico_sentence_527

The industry produces technologically complex components and engages in some research and development activities. Mexico_sentence_528

The "Big Three" (General Motors, Ford and Chrysler) have been operating in Mexico since the 1930s, while Volkswagen and Nissan built their plants in the 1960s. Mexico_sentence_529

In Puebla alone, 70 industrial part-makers cluster around Volkswagen. Mexico_sentence_530

In the 2010s expansion of the sector was surging. Mexico_sentence_531

In 2014 alone, more than $10 billion in investment was committed. Mexico_sentence_532

In September 2016 Kia motors opened a $1 billion factory in Nuevo León, with Audi also opening an assembling plant in Puebla the same year. Mexico_sentence_533

BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Nissan currently have plants in constructuion. Mexico_sentence_534

The domestic car industry is represented by DINA S.A., which has built buses and trucks since 1962, and the new Mastretta company that builds the high-performance Mastretta MXT sports car. Mexico_sentence_535

In 2006, trade with the United States and Canada accounted for almost 50% of Mexico's exports and 45% of its imports. Mexico_sentence_536

During the first three quarters of 2010, the United States had a $46.0 billion trade deficit with Mexico. Mexico_sentence_537

In August 2010 Mexico surpassed France to become the 9th largest holder of US debt. Mexico_sentence_538

The commercial and financial dependence on the US is a cause for concern. Mexico_sentence_539

The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0.2% of Mexico's GDP which was equal to US$20 billion per year in 2004 and is the tenth largest source of foreign income after oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services. Mexico_sentence_540

According to Mexico's central bank, remittances in 2008 amounted to $25bn. Mexico_sentence_541

Communications Mexico_section_24

Main article: Telecommunications in Mexico Mexico_sentence_542

The telecommunications industry is mostly dominated by Telmex (Teléfonos de México), privatized in 1990. Mexico_sentence_543

By 2006, Telmex had expanded its operations to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, and the United States. Mexico_sentence_544

Other players in the domestic industry are Axtel, Maxcom, Alestra, Marcatel, AT&T Mexico. Mexico_sentence_545

Because of Mexican orography, providing a landline telephone service at remote mountainous areas is expensive, and the penetration of line-phones per capita is low compared to other Latin American countries, at 40 percent; however, 82% of Mexicans over the age of 14 own a mobile phone. Mexico_sentence_546

Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines. Mexico_sentence_547

The telecommunication industry is regulated by the government through Cofetel (Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones). Mexico_sentence_548

The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates 120 earth stations. Mexico_sentence_549

There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable. Mexico_sentence_550

Mexican satellites are operated by Satélites Mexicanos (Satmex), a private company, leader in Latin America and servicing both North and South America. Mexico_sentence_551

It offers broadcast, telephone and telecommunication services to 37 countries in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Mexico_sentence_552

Through business partnerships Satmex provides high-speed connectivity to ISPs and Digital Broadcast Services. Mexico_sentence_553

Satmex maintains its own satellite fleet with most of the fleet being designed and built in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_554

Major players in the broadcasting industry are Televisa, the largest Mexican media company in the Spanish-speaking world, TV Azteca and Imagen Televisión. Mexico_sentence_555

Energy Mexico_section_25

See also: Electricity sector in Mexico Mexico_sentence_556

Energy production in Mexico is managed by the state-owned companies Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex. Mexico_sentence_557

Pemex, the public company in charge of exploration, extraction, transportation and marketing of crude oil and natural gas, as well as the refining and distribution of petroleum products and petrochemicals, is one of the largest companies in the world by revenue, making US$86 billion in sales a year. Mexico_sentence_558

Mexico is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world, with 3.7 million barrels per day. Mexico_sentence_559

In 1980 oil exports accounted for 61.6% of total exports; by 2000 it was only 7.3%. Mexico_sentence_560

The largest hydro plant in Mexico is the 2,400 MW Manuel Moreno Torres Dam in Chicoasén, Chiapas, in the Grijalva River. Mexico_sentence_561

This is the world's fourth most productive hydroelectric plant. Mexico_sentence_562

Mexico is the country with the world's third largest solar potential. Mexico_sentence_563

The country's gross solar potential is estimated at 5kWh/m2 daily, which corresponds to 50 times national electricity generation. Mexico_sentence_564

Currently, there is over 1 million square meters of solar thermal panels installed in Mexico, while in 2005, there were 115,000 square meters of solar PV (photo-voltaic). Mexico_sentence_565

It is expected that in 2012 there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels. Mexico_sentence_566

The project named SEGH-CFE 1, located in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Northwest of Mexico, will have capacity of 46.8 MW from an array of 187,200 solar panels when complete in 2013. Mexico_sentence_567

All of the electricity will be sold directly to the CFE and absorbed into the utility's transmission system for distribution throughout their existing network. Mexico_sentence_568

At an installed capacity of 46.8 MWp, when complete in 2013, the project will be the first utility scale project of its kind in Mexico and the largest solar project of any kind in Latin America. Mexico_sentence_569

Science and technology Mexico_section_26

Main article: History of science and technology in Mexico Mexico_sentence_570

The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in 1910, and the university became one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_571

UNAM provides world class education in science, medicine, and engineering. Mexico_sentence_572

Many scientific institutes and new institutes of higher learning, such as National Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1936), were established during the first half of the 20th century. Mexico_sentence_573

Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM. Mexico_sentence_574

Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from 1929 to 1973. Mexico_sentence_575

In 1959, the Mexican Academy of Sciences was created to coordinate scientific efforts between academics. Mexico_sentence_576

In 1995, the Mexican chemist Mario J. Molina shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Paul J. Crutzen and F. Mexico_sentence_577

Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. Mexico_sentence_578

Molina, an alumnus of UNAM, became the first Mexican citizen to win the Nobel Prize in science. Mexico_sentence_579

In recent years, the largest scientific project being developed in Mexico was the construction of the Large Millimeter Telescope (Gran Telescopio Milimétrico, GMT), the world's largest and most sensitive single-aperture telescope in its frequency range. Mexico_sentence_580

It was designed to observe regions of space obscured by stellar dust. Mexico_sentence_581

Tourism Mexico_section_27

Main article: Tourism in Mexico Mexico_sentence_582

As of 2017, Mexico was the 6th most visited country in the world and had the 15th highest income from tourism in the world which is also the highest in Latin America. Mexico_sentence_583

The vast majority of tourists come to Mexico from the United States and Canada followed by Europe and Asia. Mexico_sentence_584

A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries. Mexico_sentence_585

In the 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report, Mexico was ranked 22nd in the world, which was 3rd in the Americas. Mexico_sentence_586

The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sunbathers and other visitors. Mexico_sentence_587

According to national law, the entirety of the coastlines are under federal ownership, that is, all beaches in the country are public. Mexico_sentence_588

On the Yucatán peninsula, one of the most popular beach destinations is the resort town of Cancún, especially among university students during spring break. Mexico_sentence_589

Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres, and to the east is the Isla Holbox. Mexico_sentence_590

To the south of Cancun is the coastal strip called Riviera Maya which includes the beach town of Playa del Carmen and the ecological parks of Xcaret and Xel-Há. Mexico_sentence_591

A day trip to the south of Cancún is the historic port of Tulum. Mexico_sentence_592

In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins. Mexico_sentence_593

On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco. Mexico_sentence_594

Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors. Mexico_sentence_595

Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: trained divers who leap from the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below. Mexico_sentence_596

At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas, a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing. Mexico_sentence_597

Further north along the Sea of Cortés is the Bahía de La Concepción, another beach town known for its sports fishing. Mexico_sentence_598

Closer to the United States border is the weekend draw of San Felipe, Baja California. Mexico_sentence_599

Transportation Mexico_section_28

Main article: Transportation in Mexico Mexico_sentence_600

The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it. Mexico_sentence_601

The roadway network in Mexico has an extent of 366,095 km (227,481 mi), of which 116,802 km (72,577 mi) are paved. Mexico_sentence_602

Of these, 10,474 km (6,508 mi) are multi-lane expressways: 9,544 km (5,930 mi) are four-lane highways and the rest have 6 or more lanes. Mexico_sentence_603

Starting in the late nineteenth century, Mexico was one of the first Latin American countries to promote railway development, and the network covers 30,952 km (19,233 mi). Mexico_sentence_604

The Secretary of Communications and Transport of Mexico proposed a high-speed rail link that will transport its passengers from Mexico City to Guadalajara, Jalisco. Mexico_sentence_605

The train, which will travel at 300 kilometres per hour (190 miles per hour), will allow passengers to travel from Mexico City to Guadalajara in just 2 hours. Mexico_sentence_606

The whole project was projected to cost 240 billion pesos, or about 25 billion US$ and is being paid for jointly by the Mexican government and the local private sector including the wealthiest man in the world, Mexico's billionaire business tycoon Carlos Slim. Mexico_sentence_607

The government of the state of Yucatán is also funding the construction of a high speed line connecting the cities of Cozumel to Mérida and Chichen Itza and Cancún. Mexico_sentence_608

Mexico has 233 airports with paved runways; of these, 35 carry 97% of the passenger traffic. Mexico_sentence_609

The Mexico City International Airport remains the busiest in Latin America and the 36th busiest in the world transporting 45 million passengers a year. Mexico_sentence_610

Water supply and sanitation Mexico_section_29

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Mexico Mexico_sentence_611

Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas (96.4%) as well as in rural areas (69.4%) as of 2018. Mexico_sentence_612

Other achievements include the existence of a functioning national system to finance water and sanitation infrastructure with a National Water Commission as its apex institution. Mexico_sentence_613

The challenges include water scarcity in the northern and central parts of the country; inadequate water service quality (drinking water quality; 11% of Mexicans receiving water only intermittently as of 2014); poor technical and commercial efficiency of most utilities (with an average level of non-revenue water of 43.2% in 2010); increasing the national percentage of fully sanitized water which at 57%, is considered to not be enough, as the country's theorically aviable percentage of water per capita is 60% lower than it was 60 years ago; and the improvement of adequate access in rural areas. Mexico_sentence_614

In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment. Mexico_sentence_615

Demographics Mexico_section_30

Main article: Demographics of Mexico Mexico_sentence_616

Throughout the 19th century, the population of Mexico had barely doubled. Mexico_sentence_617

This trend continued during the first two decades of the 20th century, and even in the 1921 census there was a loss of about 1 million inhabitants. Mexico_sentence_618

The phenomenon can be explained because during the decade from 1910 to 1921 the Mexican Revolution took place. Mexico_sentence_619

The growth rate increased dramatically between the 1930s and the 1980s, when the country registered growth rates of over 3% (1950–1980). Mexico_sentence_620

The Mexican population doubled in twenty years, and at that rate it was expected that by the year 2000 there would be 120 million Mexicans. Mexico_sentence_621

Life expectancy went from 36 years (in 1895) to 72 years (in the year 2000). Mexico_sentence_622

According to estimations made by Mexico's National Geography and Statistics Institute, as of 2017 Mexico has 123.5 million inhabitants making it the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Mexico_sentence_623

Between 2005 and 2010, the Mexican population grew at an average of 1.70% per year, up from 1.16% per year between 2000 and 2005. Mexico_sentence_624

Even though Mexico is a very ethnically diverse country, research about ethnicity has largely been a forgotten field, in consequence of the post-revolutionary efforts of Mexico's government to unify all non-indigenous Mexicans under a single ethnic identity (that of the "Mestizo"). Mexico_sentence_625

As a result, since 1930 the only explicit ethnic classification that has been included in Mexican censuses has been that of "Indigenous peoples". Mexico_sentence_626

Even then, across the years the government has used different criterias to count Indigenous peoples, with each of them returning considerably different numbers ranging from 5.4% to 23% of the country's population. Mexico_sentence_627

It is not until very recently that the Mexican government begun conducting surveys that considered other ethnic groups that live in the country such as Afro-Mexicans who amount to 2% of Mexico's population or White Mexicans which amount to 47% of Mexico's population (with the criteria being based on appearance rather than on self-declared of ancestry). Mexico_sentence_628

Less numerous groups in Mexico such as Asians and Middle Easterners are also accounted for, with numbers of around 1% each. Mexico_sentence_629

As of 2017, it is estimated that 1.2 million foreigners have settled in the country, up from nearly 1 million in 2010. Mexico_sentence_630

The vast majority of migrants come from the United States (900,000), making Mexico the top destination for U.S. Mexico_sentence_631

citizens abroad. Mexico_sentence_632

The second largest group comes from neighboring Guatemala (54,500), followed by Spain (27,600). Mexico_sentence_633

Other major sources of migration are fellow Latin American countries, which include Colombia (20,600), Argentina (19,200) and Cuba (18,100). Mexico_sentence_634

Historically, the Lebanese diaspora and the German-born Mennonite migration have left a notorious impact in the country's culture, particularly in its cuisine and traditional music. Mexico_sentence_635

At the turn of the 21st century, several trends have increased the number of foreigners residing in the country such as the 2008–2014 Spanish financial crisis, increasing gang-related violence in the Northern Triangle of Central America, the ongoing political and economic crisis in Venezuela, and the automotive industry boom led by Japanese and South Korean investment. Mexico_sentence_636

Ethnicity and race Mexico_section_31

Regardless of ethnicity, the majority of Mexicans are united under the same national identity. Mexico_sentence_637

This is the product of an ideology strongly promoted by Mexican academics such as Manuel Gamio and José Vasconcelos known as mestizaje, whose goal was that of Mexico becoming a racially and culturally homogeneous country. Mexico_sentence_638

The ideology's influence was reflected in Mexico's national censuses of 1921 and 1930: in the former, which was Mexico's first-ever national census (but second-ever if the census made in colonial times is taken into account) that considered race, approximately 60% of Mexico's population identified as Mestizos, and in the latter, Mexico's government declared that all Mexicans were now Mestizos, for which racial classifications would be dropped in favor of language-based ones in future censuses. Mexico_sentence_639

During most of the 20th century these censuses' results were taken as fact, with extraofficial international publications often using them as a reference to estimate Mexico's racial composition, but in recent time historians and academics have claimed that said resuslts are not accurate, as on its efforts to homogenize Mexico the government inflated the Mestizo label's percentage by classifying a good number of people as such regardless of whether they were of actual mixed ancestry or not, pointing out that an alteration so drastic of population trends compared to earlier censuses such as New Spain's 1793 census (on which Europeans were estimated to be 18% to 22% of the population, Mestizos 21% to 25% and Indigenous peoples 51% to 61%) is not possible and that the frequency of marriages between people of different ancestries in colonial and early independent Mexico was low. Mexico_sentence_640

it is also observed that when asked directly about their ethno-racial identification, many Mexicans nowadays do not identify as Mestizos and that "static" ethnoracial labels such as "White" or "Indian" are far more prominent in contemporary Mexican society than the "Mestizo" one is, whose use is mostly limited to intellectual circles, result of the label's constantly-changing and subjective definition. Mexico_sentence_641

The total percentage of Mexico's indigenous peoples tends to vary depending on the criteria used by the government on its censuses: it is 5.4% if the ability to speak an indigenous language is used as the criteria to define a person as indigenous, if racial self-identification is used it is 14.9% and if people who consider themselves part indigenous are also included it amounts to 23%. Mexico_sentence_642

Nonetheless, all the censuses conclude that the majority of Mexico's indigenous population is concentrated in rural areas of the southern and south-eastern Mexican states. Mexico_sentence_643

with the highest percentages being found in Yucatán at 59% of the population, Oaxaca with 48%, Quintana Roo with 39%, Chiapas with 28% and Campeche with 27%. Mexico_sentence_644

Similarly to Mestizo and indigenous peoples, estimates of the percentage of European-descended Mexicans vary considerably depending of the criteria used: recent nationwide field surveys that account for different phenotypical traits (hair color, skin color etc.) report a percentage between 18%-23% if the criteria is the presence of blond hair, and of 47% if the criteria is skin color, with the later surveys having been conducted by Mexico's government itself. Mexico_sentence_645

While during the colonial era, most of the European migration into Mexico was Spanish, in the 19th and 20th centuries a substantial number of non-Spanish Europeans immigrated to the country, with Europeans often being the most numerous ethnic group in colonial Mexican cities. Mexico_sentence_646

Nowadays Mexico's northern and western regions have the highest percentages of European populations, with the majority of the people not having native admixture or being of predominantly European ancestry. Mexico_sentence_647

The Afro-Mexican population (1,381,853 individuals as of 2015) is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent. Mexico_sentence_648

Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period, and some 200,000 Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century. Mexico_sentence_649

The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past; it passively eliminated the African ancestors and contributions. Mexico_sentence_650

Most of the African-descended population was absorbed into the surrounding Mestizo (mixed European/indigenous) and indigenous populations through unions among the groups. Mexico_sentence_651

Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the 2015 inter-census, 64.9% (896,829) of Afro-Mexicans also identified as indigenous. Mexico_sentence_652

It was also reported that 9.3% of Afro-Mexicans speak an indigenous language. Mexico_sentence_653

The states with the highest self-report of Afro-Mexicans were Guerrero (6.5% of the population), Oaxaca (4.95%) and Veracruz (3.28%). Mexico_sentence_654

Afro-Mexican culture is strongest in the communities of the Costa Chica of Oaxaca and Costa Chica of Guerrero. Mexico_sentence_655

During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs (mostly Christians) began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. Mexico_sentence_656

The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated 400,000 Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry. Mexico_sentence_657

Smaller ethnic groups in Mexico include South and East Asians, present since the colonial era. Mexico_sentence_658

During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino (regardless of ethnicity), and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves. Mexico_sentence_659

A study by Juan Esteban Rodríguez, a graduate student at the National Laboratory of Genomics for Biodiversity, indicated that up to one third of people sampled from Guerrero state had significantly more Asian ancestry than most Mexicans, primarily Filipino or Indonesian. Mexico_sentence_660

Modern Asian immigration began in the late 19th century, and at one point in the early 20th century the Chinese were the second largest immigrant group. Mexico_sentence_661

Emigration Mexico_section_32

Main article: Emigration from Mexico Mexico_sentence_662

In the early 1960s, around 600,000 Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the 1990s to 4.4 million. Mexico_sentence_663

At the turn of the 21st century, this figure more than doubled to 9.5 million. Mexico_sentence_664

As of 2017, it is estimated that 12.9 million Mexicans live abroad, primarily in the United States, which concentrates nearly 98% of the expatriate population. Mexico_sentence_665

The majority of Mexicans have settled in states such as California, Texas and Illinois, particularly around the metropolitan areas of Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth. Mexico_sentence_666

As a result of these major migration flows in recent decades, around 36 million U.S. residents, or 11.2% of the country's population, identified as being of full or partial Mexican ancestry. Mexico_sentence_667

The remaining 2% of expatriates have settled in Canada (86,000), primarily in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, followed by Spain (49,000) and Germany (18,000), both European destinations represent almost two-thirds of the Mexican population living in the continent. Mexico_sentence_668

As for Latin America, it is estimated that 69,000 Mexicans live in the region, Guatemala (18,000) being the top destination for expatriates, followed by Bolivia (10,000) and Panama (5,000). Mexico_sentence_669

Languages Mexico_section_33

Main article: Languages of Mexico Mexico_sentence_670

Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of the population, making Mexico the world's most populous Hispanophone country. Mexico_sentence_671

Mexican Spanish refers to the varieties of the language spoken in the country, which differ from one region to another in sound, structure, and vocabulary. Mexico_sentence_672

In general, Mexican Spanish does not make any phonetic distinction among the letters s and z, as well as c when preceding the vowels e and i, as opposed to Peninsular Spanish. Mexico_sentence_673

The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well. Mexico_sentence_674

Furthermore, the usage of vos, the second person singular pronoun, found in several Latin American varieties, is replaced by ; whereas vosotros, the second person plural pronoun, fell out of use and was effectively replaced by ustedes. Mexico_sentence_675

In written form, the Spanish Royal Academy serves as the primary guideline for spelling, except for words of Amerindian origin that retain their original phonology such as cenzontle instead of sinzontle and México not Méjico. Mexico_sentence_676

Words of foreign origin also maintain their original spelling such as whisky and film, as opposed to güisqui and filme as the Royal Academy suggests. Mexico_sentence_677

The letter x is distinctly used in Mexican Spanish, which may be pronounced as [ks] (as in oxígeno or taxi), as [ʃ] particularly in Amerindian words (e.g. mixiote, Xola and uxmal) and as the voiceless velar fricative x (such as Texas and Oaxaca). Mexico_sentence_678

The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and 364 varieties of indigenous languages. Mexico_sentence_679

It is estimated that around 8.3 million citizens speak these languages, with Nahuatl being the most widely spoken by more than 1.7 million, followed by Yucatec Maya used daily by nearly 850,000 people, Tzeltal and Tzotzil, two variants of the Mayan languages, are spoken by around half a million people each, primarily in the southern state of Chiapas. Mexico_sentence_680

Mixtec and Zapotec, both with estimated 500,000 native speakers each, are two other well-known language groups. Mexico_sentence_681

Since its creation in March 2003, the National Indigenous Languages Institute has been in charge of promoting and protecting the use of the country's indigenous languages, through the General Law of Indigenous Peoples' Linguistic Rights, which recognizes them de jure as "national languages" with status equal to that of Spanish. Mexico_sentence_682

Notwithstanding, in practice, indigenous peoples often face discrimination and are unable to have proper access to public services such as education and healthcare, as well as the justice system, as Spanish is the prominent language. Mexico_sentence_683

Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,000-strong Menonite population, primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions. Mexico_sentence_684

The Chipilo dialect, a variance of the Venetian language, is spoken in the town of Chipilo, located in the central state of Puebla, by around 2,500 people, mainly descendants of Venetians that migrated to the area in the late 19th century. Mexico_sentence_685

Furthermore, English is the most commonly taught foreign language in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_686

It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels. Mexico_sentence_687

However, a high level of English proficiency is limited to only 5% of the population. Mexico_sentence_688

Moreover, French is the second most widely taught foreign language, as every year between 200,000 and 250,000 Mexican students enroll in language courses. Mexico_sentence_689

Urban areas Mexico_section_34

Main articles: Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico Mexico_sentence_690

The 20 largest cities in Mexico as of the 2010 census. Mexico_sentence_691

Ecatepec and Nezahualcóyotl are part of Metropolitan Mexico City; Juárez is northern border city, directly across from El Paso, Texas; Tijuana is across from San Diego, California; and Mexicali is across from Calexico, California. Mexico_sentence_692

Religion Mexico_section_35

See also: Religion in Mexico Mexico_sentence_693

The 2010 census by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (National Institute of Statistics and Geography) gave Roman Catholicism as the main religion, with 82.7% of the population, while 10% (10,924,103) belong to other Christian denominations, including Evangelicals (5%); Pentecostals (1.6%); other Protestant or Reformed (0.7%); Jehovah's Witnesses (1.4%); Seventh-day Adventists (0.6%); and members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (0.3%). Mexico_sentence_694

172,891 (or less than 0.2% of the total) belonged to other, non-Christian religions; 4.7% declared having no religion; 2.7% were unspecified. Mexico_sentence_695

The 92,924,489 Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, after Brazil's. Mexico_sentence_696

47% percent of them attend church services weekly. Mexico_sentence_697

The feast day of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the patron saint of Mexico, is celebrated on 12 December and is regarded by many Mexicans as the most important religious holiday of their country. Mexico_sentence_698

The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities. Mexico_sentence_699

In fact, Pentecostal churches together have more than 1.3 million adherents, which in net numbers place them as the second Christian creed in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_700

The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities. Mexico_sentence_701

The third-largest Christian group is the Jehovah's Witnesses, which totals more than 1 million adherents. Mexico_sentence_702

In the same census The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, whose members are known as Mormons, reported 314,932 members, though the church claimed in 2009 to have over one million registered members. Mexico_sentence_703

Other groups are growing, such as Iglesia apostólica de la Fe en Cristo Jesús, Mennonites and Seventh-day Adventist Church and Church of the La Luz del Mundo, which has its center in "La Hermosa Provincia", a colony of Guadalajara. Mexico_sentence_704

Migratory phenomena have led to the spread of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants, Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church. Mexico_sentence_705

The presence of Jews in Mexico dates back to 1521, when Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs, accompanied by several Conversos. Mexico_sentence_706

According to the 2010 census, there are 67,476 Jews in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_707

Islam in Mexico is practiced mostly by Arab Mexicans. Mexico_sentence_708

In the 2010 census 18,185 Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion, a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population. Mexico_sentence_709

According to Jacobo Grinberg (in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico), it is remarkable the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups, not only in the current indigenous people but in the mestizos and whites that make up the Mexican rural and urban society. Mexico_sentence_710

There is often a syncretism between shamanism and the Catholic tradition. Mexico_sentence_711

Another religion of popular syncretism in Mexico (especially in recent years) is the Santería. Mexico_sentence_712

This is mainly due to the large number of Cubans who settled in the territory after the Cuban Revolution (mainly in states such as Veracruz and Yucatán). Mexico_sentence_713

Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new. Mexico_sentence_714

In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. Mexico_sentence_715

One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead (Santa Muerte). Mexico_sentence_716

The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. Mexico_sentence_717

However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the Christ Child and the adoration of God. Mexico_sentence_718

Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead, which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists. Mexico_sentence_719

In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity. Mexico_sentence_720

It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices (the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues). Mexico_sentence_721

The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images. Mexico_sentence_722

In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages. Mexico_sentence_723

The best known cases are those of San Juan Chamula, in Chiapas, and San Nicolás, in Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo. Mexico_sentence_724

A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute (SIL), in the year 1979, which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures. Mexico_sentence_725

The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL. Mexico_sentence_726

Conflicts have also occurred in other areas of social life. Mexico_sentence_727

For example, given that Jehovah's Witnesses are prohibited from surrendering honors to national symbols (something that is done every Monday in Mexican public schools), children who have been educated in that religion were expelled from public schools. Mexico_sentence_728

This type of problem can only be solved with the intervention of the National Commission of Human Rights, and not always with favorable results for children. Mexico_sentence_729

Health Mexico_section_36

Main article: Healthcare in Mexico Mexico_sentence_730

Since the early 1990s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan. Mexico_sentence_731

Mexico's medical infrastructure is highly rated for the most part and is usually excellent in major cities, but rural communities still lack equipment for advanced medical procedures, forcing patients in those locations to travel to the closest urban areas to get specialized medical care. Mexico_sentence_732

Social determinants of health can be used to evaluate the state of health in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_733

State-funded institutions such as Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE) play a major role in health and social security. Mexico_sentence_734

Private health services are also very important and account for 13% of all medical units in the country. Mexico_sentence_735

Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Mexico_sentence_736

Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara, have signed agreements with the U.S. to receive and train American students in Medicine. Mexico_sentence_737

Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners. Mexico_sentence_738

Education Mexico_section_37

Main article: Education in Mexico Mexico_sentence_739

In 2004, the literacy rate was at 97% for youth under the age of 14, and 91% for people over 15, placing Mexico at 24th place in the world according to UNESCO. Mexico_sentence_740

The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 103rd in the QS World University Rankings, making it the best university in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_741

After it comes the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education as the best private school in Mexico and 158th worldwide in 2019. Mexico_sentence_742

Private business schools also stand out in international rankings. Mexico_sentence_743

IPADE and EGADE, the business schools of Universidad Panamericana and of Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education respectively, were ranked in the top 10 in a survey conducted by The Wall Street Journal among recruiters outside the United States. Mexico_sentence_744

Women Mexico_section_38

Main article: Women in Mexico Mexico_sentence_745

Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an overwhelmingly rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community. Mexico_sentence_746

With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire, cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages. Mexico_sentence_747

Beginning in the late nineteenth century, women including middle-class women began working outside the home in offices and factories, and the gained access to education. Mexico_sentence_748

Women were granted suffrage in 1953. Mexico_sentence_749

In the 21st century, Mexican women are prominent in politics, academia, journalism, literature, and visual arts among other fields. Mexico_sentence_750

In President Andrés Manuel López Obrador's first cabinet following his 2018 election, he appointed women in equal numbers as men. Mexico_sentence_751

However, a wave of feminism in 2020 has criticized the president for his tone-deaf response to murders of women in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_752

Mexico is among the countries that treat particular murders of women as femicide. Mexico_sentence_753

In 2014, Mexico had the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Mexico_sentence_754

The remains of the victims were frequently mutilated. Mexico_sentence_755

According to a 1997 study, domestic abuse in Mexican culture "is embedded in gender and marital relations fostered in Mexican women's dependence on their spouses for subsistence and for self-esteem, sustained by ideologies of romantic love, by family structure and residential arrangements". Mexico_sentence_756

The perpetrators are often the boyfriend, father-in-law, ex-husbands or husbands but only 1.6% of the murder cases led to an arrest and sentencing in 2015. Mexico_sentence_757

After a particularly well-publicized gruesome femicide followed by that of a kidnapped little girl, women began protesting more vociferously, falling on deaf ears, including those of President López Obrador. Mexico_sentence_758

This is the first new and major movement with which his presidency has had to deal. Mexico_sentence_759

On International Women's Day (8 March) in 2020, women staged a massive demonstration in Mexico City with some 80,000 participants. Mexico_sentence_760

On Monday, 9 March 2020, the second day of action was marked by the absence of women at work, in class, shopping and other public activities. Mexico_sentence_761

The "Day Without Women" (Día Sin Nosotras) was reported in the international press along with the previous day's demonstrations. Mexico_sentence_762

Culture Mexico_section_39

Main article: Culture of Mexico Mexico_sentence_763

Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spain's 300-year colonial rule of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_764

Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed. Mexico_sentence_765

The Porfirian era (el Porfiriato), in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. Mexico_sentence_766

After four decades of civil unrest and war, Mexico saw the development of philosophy and the arts, promoted by President Díaz himself. Mexico_sentence_767

Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution, cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje, of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element is the core. Mexico_sentence_768

In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in La Raza Cósmica (The Cosmic Race) (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of the mestizo) not only biologically but culturally as well. Mexico_sentence_769

Other Mexican intellectuals grappled with the idea of Lo Mexicano, which seeks "to discover the national ethos of Mexican culture." Mexico_sentence_770

Nobel laureate Octavio Paz explores the notion of a Mexican national character in The Labyrinth of Solitude. Mexico_sentence_771

Painting Mexico_section_40

Main article: Mexican art Mexico_sentence_772

Painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. Mexico_sentence_773

Cave painting in Mexican territory is about 7500 years old and has been found in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula. Mexico_sentence_774

Pre-Hispanic Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices, in ceramics, in garments, etc. Mexico_sentence_775

. Mexico_sentence_776

examples of this are the Maya mural paintings of Bonampak, or those of Teotihuacán, those of Cacaxtla and those of Monte Albán. Mexico_sentence_777

Mural painting with religious themes had an important flowering during the 16th century; the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman, Actopan, Huejotzingo, Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec. Mexico_sentence_778

These were also manifested in illustrated manuscripts such as the 1576 Florentine codex overseen by Franciscan Bernardino de Sahagún. Mexico_sentence_779

Most art in the colonial era was religious, but starting in the late seventeenth century and most prominently in the eighteenth century, secular portraits and casta painting appeared. Mexico_sentence_780

Important painters of the late colonial period were Juan Correa, Cristóbal de Villalpando and Miguel Cabrera. Mexico_sentence_781

Nineteenth-century painting had a marked romantic influence; landscapes and portraits were the greatest expressions of this era. Mexico_sentence_782

Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art. Mexico_sentence_783

Other painters include , Félix Parra, Eugenio Landesio, and his noted pupil, the landscape artist José María Velasco. Mexico_sentence_784

Mexican painting of the 20th century has achieved world renown with figures such as David Alfaro Siqueiros, José Clemente Orozco, Joaquín Clausell, Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera, a generation of idealists who marked the image of modern Mexico in the face of strong social and economic criticism. Mexico_sentence_785

The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of ancestral and modern culture. Mexico_sentence_786

Freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century. Mexico_sentence_787

Federico Cantú Garza, Juan O'Gorman, and Rufino Tamayo are also important artists. Mexico_sentence_788

Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed by the Rockefellers the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin. Mexico_sentence_789

Some of Rivera's murals are displayed at the Mexican National Palace and the Palace of Fine Arts. Mexico_sentence_790

Some of the most outstanding painters in the late 20th century and early 21st century: Francisco Toledo was a Mexican Zapotec painter, sculptor, and graphic artist. Mexico_sentence_791

In a career that spanned seven decades, Toledo produced thousands of works of art and became widely regarded as one of Mexico's most important contemporary artists. Mexico_sentence_792

Verónica Ruiz de Velasco is a neofigurative painter and muralist. Mexico_sentence_793

Both Verónica Ruiz de Velasco and Francisco Toledo were students of Rufino Tamayo. Mexico_sentence_794

Gilberto Aceves Navarro is also considered an important contemporary artist. Mexico_sentence_795

Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_796

Among the most outstanding we can mention are Claudio Linati, Daniel Thomas Egerton, Carl Nebel, Thomas Moran, and Leonora Carrington. Mexico_sentence_797

Sculpture Mexico_section_41

Main article: Sculpture in Mexico Mexico_sentence_798

Sculpture was an integral part of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican civilizations, (Mayans, Olmecs, Toltecs, Mixtecs, Aztecs), and others, usually religious in nature. Mexico_sentence_799

From the Spanish conquest in 1521, civil and religious sculpture was created by indigenous artists, with guidance from Spaniards, so some pre-Hispanic features are evident. Mexico_sentence_800

Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism. Mexico_sentence_801

After independence in 1821, sculpture was influenced by Romanticism, which tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, while it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism. Mexico_sentence_802

Religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature. Mexico_sentence_803

Between 1820 and 1880 the predominant themes were, successively: religious images, biblical scenes, allegories to the symbols of the independence insurgency, scenes and personages of pre-Hispanic history, and busts of the old aristocracy, of the nascent bourgeoisie and commanders of the pre-revolution. Mexico_sentence_804

During the 20th century, some important exponents of Mexican sculpture are Juan Soriano, José Luis Cuevas, and Enrique Carbajal (also known as Sebastián). Mexico_sentence_805

Architecture Mexico_section_42

Main article: Architecture of Mexico Mexico_sentence_806

The presence of the humans in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man. Mexico_sentence_807

The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Mexico_sentence_808

Urbanism had a great development in pre-Hispanic cultures, where we can see the magnitude of the cities of Teotihuacán, Tollan-Xicocotitlan and México-Tenochtitlan, within the environmentalist urbanism highlight the Mayan cities to be incorporated into the monumentality of its buildings with the thickness of the jungle and complex networks of roads called sakbés. Mexico_sentence_809

Mesoamerican architecture is noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Mexico_sentence_810

Template:Fcat Mexico_sentence_811

Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico_sentence_812

Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. Mexico_sentence_813

With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced. Mexico_sentence_814

Due to the process of evangelization, when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries, unique in their type in architecture. Mexico_sentence_815

The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui (from Nahuatl: worker). Mexico_sentence_816

Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies. Mexico_sentence_817

In the 19th century the neoclassical movement arose as a response to the objectives of the republican nation, one of its examples are the Hospicio Cabañas where the strict plastic of the classical orders are represented in their architectural elements, new religious buildings also arise, civilian and military that demonstrate the presence of neoclassicism. Mexico_sentence_818

Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture. Mexico_sentence_819

The art nouveau, and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols. Mexico_sentence_820

Modern architecture in Mexico has an important development in the plasticity of form and space, José Villagrán García develops a theory of form that sets the pattern of teaching in many schools of architecture in the country within functionalism. Mexico_sentence_821

The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations. Mexico_sentence_822

The development of a Mexican modernist architecture was perhaps mostly fully manifested in the mid-1950s construction of the Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, the main campus of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Mexico_sentence_823

Designed by the most prestigious architects of the era, including Mario Pani, Eugenio Peschard, and Enrique del Moral, the buildings feature murals by artists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and José Chávez Morado. Mexico_sentence_824

It has since been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mexico_sentence_825

Juan O'Gorman was one of the first environmental architects in Mexico, developing the "organic" theory, trying to integrate the building with the landscape within the same approaches of Frank Lloyd Wright. Mexico_sentence_826

In the search for a new architecture that does not resemble the styles of the past, it achieves a joint manifestation with the mural painting and the landscaping. Mexico_sentence_827

The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. Mexico_sentence_828

Luis Barragán combined the shape of the space with forms of rural vernacular architecture of Mexico and Mediterranean countries (Spain-Morocco), integrating an impressive color that handles light and shade in different tones and opens a look at the international minimalism. Mexico_sentence_829

He won the 1980 Pritzker Prize, the highest award in architecture. Mexico_sentence_830

Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends. Mexico_sentence_831

Photography Mexico_section_43

Further information: Mexican art § Photography in Mexico Mexico_sentence_832

Mexico has been photographed since the nineteenth century, when the technology was first developed. Mexico_sentence_833

During the Porfiriato, Díaz realized the importance of photography in shaping the understanding of his regime and its accomplishments. Mexico_sentence_834

The government hired Guillermo Kahlo (father of painter Frida Kahlo) to create photographic images of Mexico's new industrial structures as well as its pre-Hispanic and colonial past. Mexico_sentence_835

Photographer Hugo Brehme specialized in images of "picturesque" Mexico, with images of Mexican places and often rural people. Mexico_sentence_836

During the Mexican Revolution, photographers chronicled the conflict, usually in the aftermath of a battle, since large and heavy equipment did not permit action shots. Mexico_sentence_837

Agustín Victor Casasola is the most famous of photographer of the revolutionary era, and he collected other photographers' images in the Casasola Archive; his vast collection was purchased by the Mexican government and is now part of the government photographic repository, the Fototeca. Mexico_sentence_838

After the revolution, Mexican photographers created photographs as art images. Mexico_sentence_839

Among others, notable Mexican photographers include Manuel Álvarez Bravo, Héctor García Cobo, and Graciela Iturbide. Mexico_sentence_840

Literature Mexico_section_44

Main articles: Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature Mexico_sentence_841

Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literature of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica. Mexico_sentence_842

Poetry had a rich cultural tradition in prehispanic Mexico, being divided into two broad categories—secular and religious. Mexico_sentence_843

Aztec poetry was sung, chanted, or spoken, often to the accompanyment of a drum or a harp. Mexico_sentence_844

While Tenochtitlan was the political capital, Texcoco was the cultural center; the Texcocan language was considered the most melodious and refined. Mexico_sentence_845

The best well-known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Mexico_sentence_846

Literature during the 16th century consisted largely of histories of Spanish conquests, and most of the writers at this time were from Spain. Mexico_sentence_847

Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of Mexico is still widely read today. Mexico_sentence_848

Spanish-born poet Bernardo de Balbuena extolled the virtues of Mexico in Grandeza mexicana (Mexican grandeur) (1604); was the first Mexican-born poet to attain renown. Mexico_sentence_849

Baroque literature flourished in the 17th century; the most notable writers of this period were Juan Ruiz de Alarcón and Juana Inés de la Cruz. Mexico_sentence_850

Sor Juana was famous in her own time, called the "Ten Muse." Mexico_sentence_851

The 18th and early 19th centuries gave us José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, whose The Mangy Parrot ("El Periquillo Sarniento"), is said to be the first Latin American novel. Mexico_sentence_852

Several Jesuit humanists wrote at this time, and they were among the first to call for independence from Spain. Mexico_sentence_853

Other writers include Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, Octavio Paz (Nobel Laureate), Carlos Fuentes, Alfonso Reyes, Renato Leduc, Carlos Monsiváis, Elena Poniatowska, Mariano Azuela (Los de abajo) and Juan Rulfo (Pedro Páramo). Mexico_sentence_854

Bruno Traven wroteCanasta de cuentos mexicano (A basket of Mexican tales) and El tesoro de la Sierra Madre (Treasure of the Sierra Madre), Luis Spota, Jaime Sabines, Martín Luis Guzmán, Nellie Campobello, (Cartucho), and Valeria Luiselli (Faces in the Crowd) are also noteworthy. Mexico_sentence_855

Cinema Mexico_section_45

Main article: Cinema of Mexico Mexico_sentence_856

Mexican films from the Golden Age in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexico_sentence_857

Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Mexico_sentence_858

María Candelaria (1943) by Emilio Fernández, was one of the first films awarded a Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946, the first time the event was held after World War II. Mexico_sentence_859

The famous Spanish-born director Luis Buñuel realized in Mexico between 1947 and 1965 some of his masterpieces like Los Olvidados (1949) and Viridiana (1961). Mexico_sentence_860

Famous actors and actresses from this period include María Félix, Pedro Infante, Dolores del Río, Jorge Negrete and the comedian Cantinflas. Mexico_sentence_861

More recently, films such as Como agua para chocolate (1992), Cronos (1993), Y tu mamá también (2001), and Pan's Labyrinth (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognized, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Mexico_sentence_862

Mexican directors Alejandro González Iñárritu (Amores perros, Babel, Birdman, The Revenant), Alfonso Cuarón (Children of Men, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Gravity), Guillermo del Toro, Carlos Carrera (The Crime of Father Amaro), screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga and photographer Emmanuel Lubezki are some of the most known present-day film makers. Mexico_sentence_863

Numerous Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars. Mexico_sentence_864

Media Mexico_section_46

Further information: Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico Mexico_sentence_865

There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa, TV Azteca and Imagen Television. Mexico_sentence_866

Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network. Mexico_sentence_867

Media company Grupo Imagen is another national coverage television broadcaster in Mexico, that also owns the newspaper Excélsior. Mexico_sentence_868

Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. Mexico_sentence_869

The telenovelas are very traditional in Mexico and are translated to many languages and seen all over the world with renowned names like Verónica Castro, Lucía Méndez and Thalía. Mexico_sentence_870

Mexican cuisine Mexico_section_47

Main article: Mexican cuisine Mexico_sentence_871

See also: Mexican wine Mexico_sentence_872

In 2005, Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose. Mexico_sentence_873

However, in a first instance the result was negative, because the committee did not place the proper emphasis on the importance of corn in Mexican cuisine. Mexico_sentence_874

Finally, on 16 November 2010 Mexican gastronomy was recognized as Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO. Mexico_sentence_875

In addition, Daniela Soto-Innes was named the best female chef in the world by The World's Best 50 Restaurants in April 2019. Mexico_sentence_876

The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonial era, a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients. Mexico_sentence_877

Of foods originated in Mexico is the corn, the pepper vegetables (together with Central and South America), calabazas (together with the Americas), avocados, sweet potato (together with Central and South America), the turkey (together with the Americas) and other fruits and spices. Mexico_sentence_878

Other Indigenous products are many beans. Mexico_sentence_879

Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate. Mexico_sentence_880

With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn, sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans. Mexico_sentence_881

From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole, mole sauce, barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate, a large range of breads, tacos, and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods. Mexico_sentence_882

Beverages such as atole, champurrado, milk chocolate and aguas frescas were born; desserts such as acitrón and the full range of crystallized sweets, rompope, cajeta, jericaya and the wide repertoire of delights created in the convents of nuns in all parts of the country. Mexico_sentence_883

Music Mexico_section_48

Main article: Music of Mexico Mexico_sentence_884

Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Mexico_sentence_885

Traditional music includes mariachi, banda, norteño, ranchera and corridos; on an everyday basis most Mexicans listen to contemporary music such as pop, rock, etc. in both English and Spanish. Mexico_sentence_886

Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain. Mexico_sentence_887

Sports Mexico_section_49

Main article: Sport in Mexico Mexico_sentence_888

Mexico's most popular sport is association football. Mexico_sentence_889

It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. Mexico_sentence_890

By 1902 a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence. Mexico_sentence_891

Mexico's top clubs are América with 12 championships, Guadalajara with 11, and Toluca with 10. Mexico_sentence_892

Antonio Carbajal was the first player to appear in five World Cups, and Hugo Sánchez was named best CONCACAF player of the 20th century by IFFHS. Mexico_sentence_893

Rafael Márquez is the only Mexican to have won the Champions League. Mexico_sentence_894

The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. Mexico_sentence_895

While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles. Mexico_sentence_896

Mexican teams have won the Caribbean Series nine times. Mexico_sentence_897

Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela. Mexico_sentence_898

Mexico City hosted the XIX Olympic Games in 1968, making it the first Latin American city to do so. Mexico_sentence_899

The country has also hosted the FIFA World Cup twice, in 1970 and 1986. Mexico_sentence_900

In 2013, Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the 2014 Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs. Mexico_sentence_901

Because of these achievements the country earned the hosting rights for the 2015 FIBA Americas Championship. Mexico_sentence_902

Bullfighting (Spanish: corrida de toros) came to Mexico 500 years ago with the arrival of the Spanish. Mexico_sentence_903

Despite efforts by animal rights activists to outlaw it, bullfighting remains a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico_sentence_904

Plaza México in Mexico City, which seats 45,000 people, is the largest bullring in the world. Mexico_sentence_905

Mexico is an international power in professional boxing. Mexico_sentence_906

Thirteen Olympic boxing medals have been won by Mexico. Mexico_sentence_907

Professional wrestling (or Lucha libre in Spanish) is a major crowd draw with national promotions such as AAA, CMLL and others. Mexico_sentence_908

See also Mexico_section_50

Mexico_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexico.