Mexico City

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This article is about the capital of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_0

For other uses, see Mexico City (disambiguation). Mexico City_sentence_1

Mexico City_table_infobox_0

Mexico City

Ciudad de México  (Spanish)Mexico City_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryMexico City_header_cell_0_1_0 MexicoMexico City_cell_0_1_1
FoundedMexico City_header_cell_0_2_0 Mexico City_cell_0_2_1
Founded byMexico City_header_cell_0_3_0 Mexico City_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentMexico City_header_cell_0_4_0
MayorMexico City_header_cell_0_5_0 National_Regeneration_Movement Claudia SheinbaumMexico City_cell_0_5_1
SenatorsMexico City_header_cell_0_6_0 Mexico City_cell_0_6_1
DeputiesMexico City_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal DeputiesMexico City_cell_0_7_1
AreaMexico City_header_cell_0_8_0
Capital cityMexico City_header_cell_0_9_0 1,485 km (573 sq mi)Mexico City_cell_0_9_1
Mexico City_header_cell_0_10_0 Ranked 32ndMexico City_cell_0_10_1
ElevationMexico City_header_cell_0_11_0 2,240 m (7,350 ft)Mexico City_cell_0_11_1
Highest elevation (Ajusco)Mexico City_header_cell_0_12_0 3,930 m (12,890 ft)Mexico City_cell_0_12_1
Population (2015)Mexico City_header_cell_0_13_0
Capital cityMexico City_header_cell_0_14_0 8,918,653Mexico City_cell_0_14_1
RankMexico City_header_cell_0_15_0 2ndMexico City_cell_0_15_1
DensityMexico City_header_cell_0_16_0 6,000/km (16,000/sq mi)Mexico City_cell_0_16_1
Density rankMexico City_header_cell_0_17_0 1stMexico City_cell_0_17_1
UrbanMexico City_header_cell_0_18_0 21 millionMexico City_cell_0_18_1
DemonymsMexico City_header_cell_0_19_0 Mexico City_cell_0_19_1
Time zoneMexico City_header_cell_0_20_0 UTC−06:00 (CST)Mexico City_cell_0_20_1
Summer (DST)Mexico City_header_cell_0_21_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Mexico City_cell_0_21_1
Postal codeMexico City_header_cell_0_22_0 00–16Mexico City_cell_0_22_1
Area codeMexico City_header_cell_0_23_0 55/56Mexico City_cell_0_23_1
ISO 3166 codeMexico City_header_cell_0_24_0 MX-CMXMexico City_cell_0_24_1
Patron SaintMexico City_header_cell_0_25_0 Philip of Jesus (Spanish: San Felipe de Jesús)Mexico City_cell_0_25_1
HDIMexico City_header_cell_0_26_0 0.827 Very HighMexico City_cell_0_26_1
GDP (Nominal)Mexico City_header_cell_0_27_0 $266 billionMexico City_cell_0_27_1
WebsiteMexico City_header_cell_0_28_0 (in Spanish)Mexico City_cell_0_28_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteMexico City_header_cell_0_29_0
Official nameMexico City_header_cell_0_30_0 Historic center of Mexico City, Xochimilco and Central University City Campus of the UNAMMexico City_cell_0_30_1
TypeMexico City_header_cell_0_31_0 CulturalMexico City_cell_0_31_1
CriteriaMexico City_header_cell_0_32_0 i, ii, iii, iv, vMexico City_cell_0_32_1
DesignatedMexico City_header_cell_0_33_0 1987, 2007 (11th, 31st sessions)Mexico City_cell_0_33_1
Reference no.Mexico City_header_cell_0_34_0 ,Mexico City_cell_0_34_1
State PartyMexico City_header_cell_0_35_0 MexicoMexico City_cell_0_35_1
RegionMexico City_header_cell_0_36_0 Latin America and the CaribbeanMexico City_cell_0_36_1

Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México, locally [sjuˈða(ð) ðe ˈmexiko (listen); abbreviated as CDMX; Nahuatl languages: Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital and largest city of Mexico and the most-populous city in North America. Mexico City_sentence_2

Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the world. Mexico City_sentence_3

It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). Mexico City_sentence_4

The city has 16 subdivisions, formerly known as boroughs. Mexico City_sentence_5

The 2009 population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers (573 sq mi). Mexico City_sentence_6

According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the second largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere (behind São Paulo, Brazil), the eleventh-largest agglomeration (2017), and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Mexico City_sentence_7

Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world. Mexico City_sentence_8

The city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, and the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP. Mexico City_sentence_9

If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico City_sentence_10

Mexico's capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by indigenous people, the other being Quito, Ecuador. Mexico City_sentence_11

The city was originally built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. Mexico City_sentence_12

In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, and as of 1585, it was officially known as Ciudad de México (Mexico City). Mexico City_sentence_13

Mexico City was the political, administrative, and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. Mexico City_sentence_14

After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. Mexico City_sentence_15

After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were finally given the right to elect both a head of government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997. Mexico City_sentence_16

Ever since, left-wing parties (first the Party of the Democratic Revolution and later the National Regeneration Movement) have controlled both of them. Mexico City_sentence_17

The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on demand, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage. Mexico City_sentence_18

On 29 January 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District (Spanish: Distrito Federal or D.F.) Mexico City_sentence_19

and is now officially known as Ciudad de México (or CDMX), with a greater degree of autonomy. Mexico City_sentence_20

A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, however, prevents it from becoming a state within the Mexican federation, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were to be relocated elsewhere. Mexico City_sentence_21

History Mexico City_section_0

Main articles: History of Mexico City and Timeline of Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_22

The oldest signs of human occupation in the area of Mexico City are those of the "Peñon woman" and others found in San Bartolo Atepehuacan (Gustavo A. Madero). Mexico City_sentence_23

They were believed to correspond to the lower Cenolithic period (9500–7000 BC). Mexico City_sentence_24

However, recent studies place the age of the Peñon woman at 12,700 years old, making her one of the oldest human remains discovered in the Americas. Mexico City_sentence_25

Studies of her mitochondrial DNA suggest she was either of Asian origin, or Caucasian having an appearance like Western Europeans, or Australian. Mexico City_sentence_26

The area was the destination of the migrations of the Teochichimecas during the 8th and 13th centuries, peoples that would give rise to the Toltec, and Mexica (Aztecs) cultures. Mexico City_sentence_27

The latter arrived around the 14th century to settle first on the shores of the lake. Mexico City_sentence_28

Aztec period Mexico City_section_1

Main article: Mexico-Tenochtitlan Mexico City_sentence_29

See also: List of pre-columbian archaeological sites in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_30

The city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. Mexico City_sentence_31

The old Mexica city that is now simply referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. Mexico City_sentence_32

According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, Huitzilopochtli, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Mexico City_sentence_33

Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength, eventually dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_34

When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. Mexico City_sentence_35

Spanish conquest Mexico City_section_2

After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on 8 November 1519. Mexico City_sentence_36

Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, and the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards; they exchanged gifts, but the camaraderie did not last long. Mexico City_sentence_37

Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest, hoping to rule through him. Mexico City_sentence_38

Tensions increased until, on the night of 30 June 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Mexico City_sentence_39

Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala. Mexico City_sentence_40

The Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, and they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died; the next king was Cuauhtémoc. Mexico City_sentence_41

Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. Mexico City_sentence_42

For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans. Mexico City_sentence_43

Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and slowly fought their way through the city. Mexico City_sentence_44

Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521. Mexico City_sentence_45

The Spaniards practically razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Mexico City_sentence_46

Rebuilding Mexico City_section_3

Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order. Mexico City_sentence_47

He did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. Mexico City_sentence_48

The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. Mexico City_sentence_49

By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Mexico City_sentence_50

Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Mexico City_sentence_51

Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico" because the Spanish found the word easier to pronounce. Mexico City_sentence_52

Growth of colonial Mexico City Mexico City_section_4

See also: List of colonial churches in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_53

The city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. Mexico City_sentence_54

The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on the main square or Zócalo. Mexico City_sentence_55

The Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was constructed on another side of the Zócalo, as was the archbishop's palace, and across from it the building housing the city council or ayuntamiento of the city. Mexico City_sentence_56

A late seventeenth-century painting of the Zócalo by Cristóbal de Villalpando depicts the main square, which had been the old Aztec ceremonial center. Mexico City_sentence_57

The existing central place of the Aztecs was effectively and permanently transformed to the ceremonial center and seat of power during the colonial period, and remains to this day in modern Mexico, the central place of the nation. Mexico City_sentence_58

The rebuilding of the city after the siege of Tenochtitlan was accomplished by the abundant indigenous labor in the surrounding area. Mexico City_sentence_59

Franciscan friar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, one of the Twelve Apostles of Mexico who arrived in New Spain in 1524, described the rebuilding of the city as one of the afflictions or plagues of the early period: Mexico City_sentence_60

Preconquest Tenochtitlan was built in the center of the inland lake system, with the city reachable by canoe and by wide causeways to the mainland. Mexico City_sentence_61

The causeways were rebuilt under Spanish rule with indigenous labor. Mexico City_sentence_62

Colonial Spanish cities were constructed on a grid pattern, if no geographical obstacle prevented it. Mexico City_sentence_63

In Mexico City, the Zócalo (main square) was the central place from which the grid was then built outward. Mexico City_sentence_64

The Spanish lived in the area closest to the main square in what was known as the traza, in orderly, well laid-out streets. Mexico City_sentence_65

Indian residences were outside that exclusive zone and houses were haphazardly located. Mexico City_sentence_66

Spaniards sought to keep Indians separate from Spaniards but since the Zócalo was a center of commerce for Indians, they were a constant presence in the central area, so strict segregation was never enforced. Mexico City_sentence_67

At intervals Zócalo was where major celebrations took place as well as executions. Mexico City_sentence_68

It was also the site of two major riots in the seventeenth century, one in 1624, the other in 1692. Mexico City_sentence_69

The city grew as the population did, coming up against the lake's waters. Mexico City_sentence_70

As the depth of the lake water fluctuated, Mexico City was subject to periodic flooding. Mexico City_sentence_71

A major labor draft, the desagüe, compelled thousands of Indians over the colonial period to work on infrastructure to prevent flooding. Mexico City_sentence_72

Floods were not only an inconvenience but also a health hazard, since during flood periods human waste polluted the city's streets. Mexico City_sentence_73

By draining the area, the mosquito population dropped as did the frequency of the diseases they spread. Mexico City_sentence_74

However, draining the wetlands also changed the habitat for fish and birds and the areas accessible for Indian cultivation close to the capital. Mexico City_sentence_75

The 16th century saw a proliferation of churches, many of which can still be seen today in the historic center. Mexico City_sentence_76

Economically, Mexico City prospered as a result of trade. Mexico City_sentence_77

Unlike Brazil or Peru, Mexico had easy contact with both the Atlantic and Pacific worlds. Mexico City_sentence_78

Although the Spanish crown tried to completely regulate all commerce in the city, it had only partial success. Mexico City_sentence_79

The concept of nobility flourished in New Spain in a way not seen in other parts of the Americas. Mexico City_sentence_80

Spaniards encountered a society in which the concept of nobility mirrored that of their own. Mexico City_sentence_81

Spaniards respected the indigenous order of nobility and added to it. Mexico City_sentence_82

In the ensuing centuries, possession of a noble title in Mexico did not mean one exercised great political power, for one's power was limited even if the accumulation of wealth was not. Mexico City_sentence_83

The concept of nobility in Mexico was not political but rather a very conservative Spanish social one, based on proving the worthiness of the family. Mexico City_sentence_84

Most of these families proved their worth by making fortunes in New Spain outside of the city itself, then spending the revenues in the capital, building churches, supporting charities and building extravagant palatial homes. Mexico City_sentence_85

The craze to build the most opulent residence possible reached its height in the last half of the 18th century. Mexico City_sentence_86

Many of these palaces can still be seen today, leading to Mexico City's nickname of "The city of palaces" given by Alexander Von Humboldt. Mexico City_sentence_87

The Grito de Dolores ("Cry of Dolores"), also known as El Grito de la Independencia ("Cry of Independence"), marked the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence. Mexico City_sentence_88

The Battle of Guanajuato, the first major engagement of the insurgency, occurred four days later. Mexico City_sentence_89

After a decade of war, Mexico's independence from Spain was effectively declared in the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire on 27 September 1821. Mexico City_sentence_90

Agustín de Iturbide is proclaimed Emperor of the First Mexican Empire by Congress, crowned in the Cathedral of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_91

Unrest followed for the next several decades, as different factions fought for control of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_92

The Mexican Federal District was established by the new government and by the signing of their new constitution, where the concept of a federal district was adapted from the United States Constitution. Mexico City_sentence_93

Before this designation, Mexico City had served as the seat of government for both the State of Mexico and the nation as a whole. Mexico City_sentence_94

Texcoco de Mora and then Toluca became the capital of the State of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_95

The Battle of Mexico City in the U.S.–Mexican War of 1847 Mexico City_section_5

During the 19th century, Mexico City was the center stage of all the political disputes of the country. Mexico City_sentence_96

It was the imperial capital on two occasions (1821–1823 and 1864–1867), and of two federalist states and two centralist states that followed innumerable coups d'états in the space of half a century before the triumph of the Liberals after the Reform War. Mexico City_sentence_97

It was also the objective of one of the two French invasions to Mexico (1861–1867), and occupied for a year by American troops in the framework of the Mexican–American War (1847–1848). Mexico City_sentence_98

The Battle for Mexico City was the series of engagements from 8 to 15 September 1847, in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the U.S. Mexico City_sentence_99

Mexican War. Mexico City_sentence_100

Included are major actions at the battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec, culminating with the fall of Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_101

The U.S. Army under Winfield Scott scored a major success that ended the war. Mexico City_sentence_102

The American invasion into the Federal District was first resisted during the Battle of Churubusco on 8 August, where the Saint Patrick's Battalion, which was composed primarily of Catholic Irish and German immigrants but also Canadians, English, French, Italians, Poles, Scots, Spaniards, Swiss, and Mexicans, fought for the Mexican cause, repelling the American attacks. Mexico City_sentence_103

After defeating the Saint Patrick's Battalion, the Mexican–American War came to a close after the United States deployed combat units deep into Mexico resulting in the capture of Mexico City and Veracruz by the U.S. Mexico City_sentence_104

Army's 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Divisions. Mexico City_sentence_105

The invasion culminated with the storming of Chapultepec Castle in the city itself. Mexico City_sentence_106

During this battle, on 13 September, the 4th Division, under John A. Quitman, spearheaded the attack against Chapultepec and carried the castle. Mexico City_sentence_107

Future Confederate generals George E. Pickett and James Longstreet participated in the attack. Mexico City_sentence_108

Serving in the Mexican defense were the cadets later immortalized as Los Niños Héroes (the "Boy Heroes"). Mexico City_sentence_109

The Mexican forces fell back from Chapultepec and retreated within the city. Mexico City_sentence_110

Attacks on the Belén and San Cosme Gates came afterwards. Mexico City_sentence_111

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in what is now the far north of the city. Mexico City_sentence_112

Porfirian era (1876–1911) Mexico City_section_6

Events such as the Mexican–American War, the French Intervention and the Reform War left the city relatively untouched and it continued to grow, especially during the rule of President Porfirio Díaz. Mexico City_sentence_113

During this time the city developed a modern infrastructure, such as roads, schools, transportation systems and communication systems. Mexico City_sentence_114

However the regime concentrated resources and wealth into the city while the rest of the country languished in poverty. Mexico City_sentence_115

Under the rule of Porfirio Díaz, Mexico City experienced a massive transformation. Mexico City_sentence_116

Díaz's goal was to create a city which could rival the great European cities. Mexico City_sentence_117

He and his government came to the conclusion that they would use Paris as a model, while still containing remnants of Amerindian and Hispanic elements. Mexico City_sentence_118

This style of Mexican-French fusion architecture became colloquially known as Porfirian Architecture. Mexico City_sentence_119

Porfirian architecture became very influenced by Paris' Haussmannization. Mexico City_sentence_120

During this era of Porfirian rule, the city underwent an extensive modernization. Mexico City_sentence_121

Many Spanish Colonial style buildings were destroyed, replaced by new much larger Porfirian institutions and many outlying rural zones were transformed into urban or industrialized districts with most having electrical, gas and sewage utilities by 1908. Mexico City_sentence_122

While the initial focus was on developing modern hospitals, schools, factories and massive public works, perhaps the most long-lasting effects of the Porfirian modernization were creation of the Colonia Roma area and the development of Reforma Avenue. Mexico City_sentence_123

Many of Mexico City's major attractions and landmarks were built during this era in this style. Mexico City_sentence_124

Diaz's plans called for the entire city to eventually be modernized or rebuilt in the Porfirian/French style of the Colonia Roma; but the Mexican Revolution began soon afterward and the plans never came to fruition, with many projects being left half-completed. Mexico City_sentence_125

One of the best examples of this is the Monument to the Mexican Revolution. Mexico City_sentence_126

Originally the monument was to be the main dome of Diaz's new senate hall, but when the revolution erupted only the dome of the senate hall and its supporting pillars were completed, this was subsequently seen as a symbol by many Mexicans that the Porfirian era was over once and for all and as such, it was turned into a monument to victory over Diaz. Mexico City_sentence_127

Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) Mexico City_section_7

The capital escaped the worst of the violence of the ten-year conflict of the Mexican Revolution. Mexico City_sentence_128

The most significant episode of this period for the city was the February 1913 la Decena Trágica ("The Ten Tragic Days"), when forces counter to the elected government of Francisco I. Madero staged a successful coup. Mexico City_sentence_129

The center of the city was subjected to artillery attacks from the army stronghold of the ciudadela or citadel, with significant civilian casualties and the undermining of confidence in the Madero government. Mexico City_sentence_130

Victoriano Huerta, chief general of the Federal Army, saw a chance to take power, forcing Madero and Pino Suarez to sign resignations. Mexico City_sentence_131

The two were murdered later while on their way to Lecumberri prison. Mexico City_sentence_132

Huerta's ouster in July 1914 saw the entry of the armies of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata, but the city did not experience violence. Mexico City_sentence_133

Huerta had abandoned the capital and the conquering armies marched in. Mexico City_sentence_134

Venustiano Carranza's Constitutionalist faction ultimately prevailed in the revolutionary civil war and Carranza took up residence in the presidential palace. Mexico City_sentence_135

20th century to present Mexico City_section_8

The history of the rest of the 20th century to the present focuses on the phenomenal growth of the city and its environmental and political consequences. Mexico City_sentence_136

In 1900, the population of Mexico City was about 500,000. Mexico City_sentence_137

The city began to grow rapidly westward in the early part of the 20th century and then began to grow upwards in the 1950s, with the Torre Latinoamericana becoming the city's first skyscraper. Mexico City_sentence_138

The rapid development of Mexico City as a center for modernist architecture was most fully manifested in the mid-1950s construction of the Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, the main campus of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_139

Designed by the most prestigious architects of the era, including Mario Pani, Eugenio Peschard, and Enrique del Moral, the buildings feature murals by artists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and José Chávez Morado. Mexico City_sentence_140

It has since been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Mexico City_sentence_141

The 1968 Olympic Games brought about the construction of large sporting facilities. Mexico City_sentence_142

In 1969, the Metro system was inaugurated. Mexico City_sentence_143

Explosive growth in the population of the city started in the 1960s, with the population overflowing the boundaries of the Federal District into the neighboring State of Mexico, especially to the north, northwest, and northeast. Mexico City_sentence_144

Between 1960 and 1980 the city's population more than doubled to nearly 9 million. Mexico City_sentence_145

In 1980 half of all the industrial jobs in Mexico were located in Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_146

Under relentless growth, the Mexico City government could barely keep up with services. Mexico City_sentence_147

Villagers from the countryside who continued to pour into the city to escape poverty only compounded the city's problems. Mexico City_sentence_148

With no housing available, they took over lands surrounding the city, creating huge shantytowns that extended for many miles. Mexico City_sentence_149

This caused serious air pollution in Mexico City and water pollution problems, as well as subsidence due to overextraction of groundwater. Mexico City_sentence_150

Air and water pollution has been contained and improved in several areas due to government programs, the renovation of vehicles and the modernization of public transportation. Mexico City_sentence_151

The autocratic government that ruled Mexico City since the Revolution was tolerated, mostly because of the continued economic expansion since World War II. Mexico City_sentence_152

This was the case even though this government could not handle the population and pollution problems adequately. Mexico City_sentence_153

Nevertheless, discontent and protests began in the 1960s leading to the massacre of an unknown number of protesting students in Tlatelolco. Mexico City_sentence_154

Three years later, a demonstration in the Maestros avenue, organized by former members of the 1968 student movement, was violently repressed by a paramilitary group called "Los Halcones", composed of gang members and teenagers from many sports clubs who received training in the U.S. Mexico City_sentence_155

On Thursday, 19 September 1985, at 7:19 am CST, Mexico City was struck by an earthquake of magnitude 8.1 on the Richter magnitude scale. Mexico City_sentence_156

Although this earthquake was not as deadly or destructive as many similar events in Asia and other parts of Latin America, it proved to be a disaster politically for the one-party government. Mexico City_sentence_157

The government was paralyzed by its own bureaucracy and corruption, forcing ordinary citizens to create and direct their own rescue efforts and to reconstruct much of the housing that was lost as well. Mexico City_sentence_158

However, the last straw may have been the controversial elections of 1988. Mexico City_sentence_159

That year, the presidency was set between the P.R.I. Mexico City_sentence_160

's candidate, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, and a coalition of left-wing parties led by Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas, son of the former president Lázaro Cárdenas. Mexico City_sentence_161

The counting system "fell" because coincidentally the light went out and suddenly, when it returned, the winning candidate was Salinas, even though Cárdenas had the upper hand. Mexico City_sentence_162

As a result of the fraudulent election, Cárdenas became a member of the Party of the Democratic Revolution. Mexico City_sentence_163

Discontent over the election eventually led Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas to become the first elected mayor of Mexico City in 1997. Mexico City_sentence_164

Cárdenas promised a more democratic government, and his party claimed some victories against crime, pollution, and other major problems. Mexico City_sentence_165

He resigned in 1999 to run for the presidency. Mexico City_sentence_166

Geography Mexico City_section_9

Mexico City is located in the Valley of Mexico, sometimes called the Basin of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_167

This valley is located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in the high plateaus of south-central Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_168

It has a minimum altitude of 2,200 meters (7,200 feet) above sea level and is surrounded by mountains and volcanoes that reach elevations of over 5,000 meters (16,000 feet). Mexico City_sentence_169

This valley has no natural drainage outlet for the waters that flow from the mountainsides, making the city vulnerable to flooding. Mexico City_sentence_170

Drainage was engineered through the use of canals and tunnels starting in the 17th century. Mexico City_sentence_171

Mexico City primarily rests on what was Lake Texcoco. Mexico City_sentence_172

Seismic activity is frequent there. Mexico City_sentence_173

Lake Texcoco was drained starting from the 17th century. Mexico City_sentence_174

Although none of the lake waters remain, the city rests on the lake bed's heavily saturated clay. Mexico City_sentence_175

This soft base is collapsing due to the over-extraction of groundwater, called groundwater-related subsidence. Mexico City_sentence_176

Since the beginning of the 20th century the city has sunk as much as nine meters (30 feet) in some areas. Mexico City_sentence_177

This sinking is causing problems with runoff and wastewater management, leading to flooding problems, especially during the summer. Mexico City_sentence_178

The entire lake bed is now paved over and most of the city's remaining forested areas lie in the southern boroughs of Milpa Alta, Tlalpan and Xochimilco. Mexico City_sentence_179

Climate Mexico City_section_10

Mexico City has a subtropical highland climate (Köppen climate classification Cwb), due to its tropical location but high elevation. Mexico City_sentence_180

The lower region of the valley receives less rainfall than the upper regions of the south; the lower boroughs of Iztapalapa, Iztacalco, Venustiano Carranza and the east portion of Gustavo A. Madero are usually drier and warmer than the upper southern boroughs of Tlalpan and Milpa Alta, a mountainous region of pine and oak trees known as the range of Ajusco. Mexico City_sentence_181

The average annual temperature varies from 12 to 16 °C (54 to 61 °F), depending on the altitude of the borough. Mexico City_sentence_182

The temperature is rarely below 3 °C (37 °F) or above 30 °C (86 °F). Mexico City_sentence_183

At the Tacubaya observatory, the lowest temperature ever registered was −4.4 °C (24 °F) on 13 February 1960, and the highest temperature on record was 33.9 °C (93 °F) on 9 May 1998. Mexico City_sentence_184

Overall precipitation is heavily concentrated in the summer months, and includes dense hail. Mexico City_sentence_185

Snow falls in the city very rarely, although somewhat more often in nearby mountain tops. Mexico City_sentence_186

Throughout its history, the Central Valley of Mexico was accustomed to having several snowfalls per decade (including a period between 1878 and 1895 in which every single year—except 1880—recorded snowfalls) mostly lake-effect snow. Mexico City_sentence_187

The effects of the draining of Lake Texcoco and global warming have greatly reduced snowfalls after the snow flurries of 12 February 1907. Mexico City_sentence_188

Since 1908, snow has only fallen three times, snow on 14 February 1920; snow flurries on 14 March 1940; and on 12 January 1967, when 8 centimetres (3 in) of snow fell on the city, the most on record. Mexico City_sentence_189

The 1967 snowstorm coincided with the operation of Deep Drainage System that resulted in the total draining of what was left of Lake Texcoco. Mexico City_sentence_190

After the disappearance of Lake Texcoco, snow has never fallen again over Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_191

The region of the Valley of Mexico receives anti-cyclonic systems. Mexico City_sentence_192

The weak winds of these systems do not allow for the dispersion, outside the basin, of the air pollutants which are produced by the 50,000 industries and 4 million vehicles operating in and around the metropolitan area. Mexico City_sentence_193

The area receives about 820 millimeters (32 in) of annual rainfall, which is concentrated from May through October with little or no precipitation the remainder of the year. Mexico City_sentence_194

The area has two main seasons. Mexico City_sentence_195

The wet humid summer runs from May to October when winds bring in tropical moisture from the sea, the wettest month being July. Mexico City_sentence_196

The cool sunny winter runs from November to April, when the air is relatively drier, the driest month being December. Mexico City_sentence_197

This season is subdivided into a cold winter period and a warm spring period. Mexico City_sentence_198

The cold period spans from November to February, when polar air masses push down from the north and keep the air fairly dry. Mexico City_sentence_199

The warm period extends from March to May when subtropical winds again dominate but do not yet carry enough moisture for rain to form. Mexico City_sentence_200

Environment Mexico City_section_11

See also: Water management in Greater Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_201

Originally much of the valley lay beneath the waters of Lake Texcoco, a system of interconnected salt and freshwater lakes. Mexico City_sentence_202

The Aztecs built dikes to separate the fresh water used to raise crops in chinampas and to prevent recurrent floods. Mexico City_sentence_203

These dikes were destroyed during the siege of Tenochtitlan, and during colonial times the Spanish regularly drained the lake to prevent floods. Mexico City_sentence_204

Only a small section of the original lake remains, located outside Mexico City, in the municipality of Atenco, State of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_205

Architects Teodoro González de León and Alberto Kalach along with a group of Mexican urbanists, engineers and biologists have developed the project plan for Recovering the City of Lakes. Mexico City_sentence_206

If approved by the government the project will contribute to the supply of water from natural sources to the Valley of Mexico, the creation of new natural spaces, a great improvement in air quality, and greater population establishment planning. Mexico City_sentence_207

Pollution Mexico City_section_12

Further information: Air pollution in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_208

By the 1990s Mexico City had become infamous as one of the world's most polluted cities; however, the city has become a model for drastically lowering pollution levels. Mexico City_sentence_209

By 2014 carbon monoxide pollution had dropped drastically, while levels of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide were nearly three times lower than in 1992. Mexico City_sentence_210

The levels of signature pollutants in Mexico City are similar to those of Los Angeles. Mexico City_sentence_211

Despite the cleanup, the metropolitan area is still the most ozone-polluted part of the country, with ozone levels 2.5 times beyond WHO-defined safe limits. Mexico City_sentence_212

To clean up pollution, the federal and local governments implemented numerous plans including the constant monitoring and reporting of environmental conditions, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. Mexico City_sentence_213

When the levels of these two pollutants reached critical levels, contingency actions were implemented which included closing factories, changing school hours, and extending the A day without a car program to two days of the week. Mexico City_sentence_214

The government also instituted industrial technology improvements, a strict biannual vehicle emission inspection and the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels. Mexico City_sentence_215

The introduction of Metrobús bus rapid transit and the Ecobici bike-sharing were among efforts to encourage alternate, greener forms of transportation. Mexico City_sentence_216

Politics Mexico City_section_13

Political structure Mexico City_section_14

The Acta Constitutiva de la Federación of 31 January 1824, and the Federal Constitution of 4 October 1824, fixed the political and administrative organization of the United Mexican States after the Mexican War of Independence. Mexico City_sentence_217

In addition, Section XXVIII of Article 50 gave the new Congress the right to choose where the federal government would be located. Mexico City_sentence_218

This location would then be appropriated as federal land, with the federal government acting as the local authority. Mexico City_sentence_219

The two main candidates to become the capital were Mexico City and Querétaro. Mexico City_sentence_220

Due in large part to the persuasion of representative Servando Teresa de Mier, Mexico City was chosen because it was the center of the country's population and history, even though Querétaro was closer to the center geographically. Mexico City_sentence_221

The choice was official on 18 November 1824, and Congress delineated a surface area of two leagues square (8,800 acres) centered on the Zocalo. Mexico City_sentence_222

This area was then separated from the State of Mexico, forcing that state's government to move from the Palace of the Inquisition (now Museum of Mexican Medicine) in the city to Texcoco. Mexico City_sentence_223

This area did not include the population centers of the towns of Coyoacán, Xochimilco, Mexicaltzingo and Tlalpan, all of which remained as part of the State of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_224

In 1854 president Antonio López de Santa Anna enlarged the area of Mexico City almost eightfold from the original 220 to 1,700 km (80 to 660 sq mi), annexing the rural and mountainous areas to secure the strategic mountain passes to the south and southwest to protect the city in event of a foreign invasion. Mexico City_sentence_225

(The Mexican–American War had just been fought.) Mexico City_sentence_226

The last changes to the limits of Mexico City were made between 1898 and 1902, reducing the area to the current 1,479 km (571 sq mi) by adjusting the southern border with the state of Morelos. Mexico City_sentence_227

By that time, the total number of municipalities within Mexico City was twenty-two. Mexico City_sentence_228

While Mexico City was ruled by the federal government through an appointed governor, the municipalities within it were autonomous, and this duality of powers created tension between the municipalities and the federal government for more than a century. Mexico City_sentence_229

In 1903, Porfirio Díaz largely reduced the powers of the municipalities within the Federal District. Mexico City_sentence_230

Eventually, in December 1928, the federal government decided to abolish all the municipalities of the Federal District. Mexico City_sentence_231

In place of the municipalities, the Federal District was divided into one "Central Department" and 13 delegaciones (boroughs) administered directly by the government of the Federal District. Mexico City_sentence_232

The Central Department was integrated by the former municipalities of Mexico City, Tacuba, Tacubaya and Mixcoac. Mexico City_sentence_233

In 1941, the General Anaya borough was merged with the Central Department, which was then renamed "Mexico City" (thus reviving the name but not the autonomous municipality). Mexico City_sentence_234

From 1941 to 1970, the Federal District comprised twelve delegaciones and Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_235

In 1970, Mexico City was split into four different delegaciones: Cuauhtémoc, Miguel Hidalgo, Venustiano Carranza and Benito Juárez, increasing the number of delegaciones to 16. Mexico City_sentence_236

Since then, the whole Federal District, whose delegaciones had by then almost formed a single urban area, began to be considered de facto a synonym of Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_237

The lack of a de jure stipulation left a legal vacuum that led to a number of sterile discussions about whether one concept had engulfed the other or if the latter had ceased to exist altogether. Mexico City_sentence_238

In 1993, the situation was solved by an amendment to the 44th article of the Constitution of Mexico; Mexico City and the Federal District were stated to be the same entity. Mexico City_sentence_239

The amendment was later introduced into the second article of the Statute of Government of the Federal District. Mexico City_sentence_240

On 29 January 2016, Mexico City ceased to be the Federal District (Spanish: Distrito Federal or D.F. Mexico City_sentence_241

), and was officially renamed "Ciudad de México" (or "CDMX"). Mexico City_sentence_242

On that date, Mexico City began a transition to become the country's 32nd federal entity, giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. Mexico City_sentence_243

It will have its own constitution and its legislature, and its delegaciones will now be headed by mayors. Mexico City_sentence_244

Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, as it is the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, or the capital of the country has to be relocated elsewhere. Mexico City_sentence_245

Mexico City, being the seat of the powers of the Union, belongs not to any particular state but to all of them. Mexico City_sentence_246

Therefore, the president, representing the federation, used to designate the head of government of the national capital (today the head of the government of Mexico City), sometimes called outside Mexico as the "Mayor" of Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_247

In the 1980s, the dramatic increase in population of the previous decades, the inherent political inconsistencies of the system, and dissatisfaction with the inadequate response of the federal government after the 1985 earthquake made residents begin to request political and administrative autonomy to manage their local affairs. Mexico City_sentence_248

In response to the demands, Mexico City received a greater degree of autonomy, with the 1987 elaboration the first Statute of Government (Estatuto de Gobierno) and the creation of an assembly of representatives. Mexico City_sentence_249

In the 1990s, this autonomy was further expanded, and since 1997, residents can directly elect the head of government to Mexico City and the representatives of a unicameral Legislative Assembly, which succeeded the previous assembly, by popular vote. Mexico City_sentence_250

The first elected head of government was Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas. Mexico City_sentence_251

He resigned in 1999 to run in the 2000 presidential elections and designated Rosario Robles to succeed him, who became the first woman, elected or otherwise, to govern Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_252

In 2000, Andrés Manuel López Obrador was elected, and he resigned in 2005 to run in the 2006 presidential elections; Alejandro Encinas was designated by the Legislative Assembly to finish the term. Mexico City_sentence_253

In 2006, Marcelo Ebrard was elected to serve until 2012. Mexico City_sentence_254

The city has a Statute of Government, and as of its ratification on 31 January 2017, a , similar to the states of the Union. Mexico City_sentence_255

As part of the recent changes in autonomy, the budget is administered locally; it is proposed by the head of government and approved by the Legislative Assembly. Mexico City_sentence_256

Nonetheless, it is the Congress of the Union that sets the ceiling to internal and external public debt issued by the city government. Mexico City_sentence_257

According to the 44th article of the Mexican Constitution, if the powers of the Union move to another city, Mexico City would become a new state, the "State of the Valley of Mexico", with the new limits set by the Congress of the Union. Mexico City_sentence_258

Elections and government Mexico City_section_15

In 2012, elections were held for the post of head of government and the representatives of the Legislative Assembly. Mexico City_sentence_259

Heads of government are elected for a six-year period without the possibility of re-election. Mexico City_sentence_260

Traditionally, the position has been considered as the second most important executive office in the country. Mexico City_sentence_261

The Legislative Assembly of Mexico City is formed, as it is the case for state legislatures in Mexico, by both single-seat and proportional seats, making it a system of parallel voting. Mexico City_sentence_262

Mexico City is divided into 40 electoral constituencies of similar population which elect one representative by the plurality voting system, locally called "uninominal deputies". Mexico City_sentence_263

Mexico City, as a whole, is a single constituency for the parallel election of 26 representatives, elected by proportional representation, with open-party lists, locally called "plurinominal deputies". Mexico City_sentence_264

Even though proportionality is supposed to prevent a party from being overrepresented, several restrictions apply in the assignation of the seats. Mexico City_sentence_265

No party can have more than 63% of all seats, both uninominal and plurinominal. Mexico City_sentence_266

In the 2006 elections, the PRD got the absolute majority in the direct uninominal elections, securing 34 of the 40 FPP seats. Mexico City_sentence_267

As such, the PRD was not assigned any plurinominal seat to comply with the law that prevents over-representation. Mexico City_sentence_268

The overall composition of the Legislative Assembly is: Mexico City_sentence_269

Mexico City_table_general_1

Political partyMexico City_header_cell_1_0_0 FPPMexico City_header_cell_1_0_1 PRMexico City_header_cell_1_0_2 TotalMexico City_header_cell_1_0_3
National Regeneration MovementMexico City_cell_1_1_0 18Mexico City_cell_1_1_1 4Mexico City_cell_1_1_2 22Mexico City_cell_1_1_3
Party of the Democratic Revolution / Labour Party / New Alliance PartyMexico City_cell_1_2_0 14Mexico City_cell_1_2_1 7Mexico City_cell_1_2_2 21Mexico City_cell_1_2_3
National Action PartyMexico City_cell_1_3_0 5Mexico City_cell_1_3_1 5Mexico City_cell_1_3_2 10Mexico City_cell_1_3_3
Institutional Revolutionary Party / Ecologist Green Party of MexicoMexico City_cell_1_4_0 3Mexico City_cell_1_4_1 6Mexico City_cell_1_4_2 9Mexico City_cell_1_4_3
Social Encounter PartyMexico City_cell_1_5_0 0Mexico City_cell_1_5_1 2Mexico City_cell_1_5_2 2Mexico City_cell_1_5_3
Citizens' MovementMexico City_cell_1_6_0 0Mexico City_cell_1_6_1 1Mexico City_cell_1_6_2 1Mexico City_cell_1_6_3
Humanist PartyMexico City_cell_1_7_0 0Mexico City_cell_1_7_1 1Mexico City_cell_1_7_2 1Mexico City_cell_1_7_3
TotalMexico City_cell_1_8_0 40Mexico City_cell_1_8_1 26Mexico City_cell_1_8_2 66Mexico City_cell_1_8_3

The politics pursued by the administrations of heads of government in Mexico City since the second half of the 20th century have usually been more liberal than those of the rest of the country, whether with the support of the federal government, as was the case with the approval of several comprehensive environmental laws in the 1980s, or by laws that were since approved by the Legislative Assembly. Mexico City_sentence_270

The Legislative Assembly expanded provisions on abortions, becoming the first federal entity to expand abortion in Mexico beyond cases of rape and economic reasons, to permit it at the choice of the mother before the 12th week of pregnancy. Mexico City_sentence_271

In December 2009, the then Federal District became the first city in Latin America and one of very few in the world to legalize same-sex marriage. Mexico City_sentence_272

Boroughs and neighborhoods Mexico City_section_16

See also: Municipalities of Mexico City and Neighborhoods in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_273

For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 16 alcadias, or councils (formerly delegaciones). Mexico City_sentence_274

While they are not fully equivalent to municipalities, the boroughs have gained significant autonomy, and since 2000, their heads of government have been elected directly by plurality (they had been appointed by the Head of Government). Mexico City_sentence_275

Since Mexico City is organized entirely as a Federal District, most of the city services are provided or organized by the city government, not by the boroughs themselves; in the constituent states, such services would be provided by the municipalities. Mexico City_sentence_276

The boroughs of Mexico City with their 2010 populations are: Mexico City_sentence_277

The boroughs are composed of hundreds of colonias, or neighborhoods, which have no jurisdictional autonomy or representation. Mexico City_sentence_278

The Historic Center, in the borough of Cuauhtémoc, is the oldest part of the city (along with some other, formerly separate colonial towns such as Coyoacán and San Ángel), some of the buildings dating back to the 16th century. Mexico City_sentence_279

Other well-known central neighborhoods include Condesa, known for its Art Deco architecture and its restaurant scene; Colonia Roma, a beaux arts neighborhood and artistic and culinary hot-spot, the Zona Rosa, formerly the center of nightlife and restaurants, now reborn as the center of the LGBT and Korean-Mexican communities; and Tepito and La Lagunilla, known for their local working-class folklore and large flea markets. Mexico City_sentence_280

Santa María la Ribera and San Rafael are the latest neighborhoods of magnificent Porfiriato architecture seeing the first signs of gentrification. Mexico City_sentence_281

West of the Historic Center (Centro Histórico) along Paseo de la Reforma are many of the city's wealthiest neighborhoods such as Polanco, Lomas de Chapultepec, Bosques de las Lomas, Santa Fe, and (in the State of Mexico) Interlomas, which are also the city's most important areas of class A office space, corporate headquarters, skyscrapers, and shopping malls. Mexico City_sentence_282

Nevertheless, some areas of lower-income colonias are right next to rich neighborhoods, particularly in the case of Santa Fe. Mexico City_sentence_283

The south of the city is home to some other high-income neighborhoods such as Colonia del Valle and Jardines del Pedregal and the formerly separate colonial towns of Coyoacán, San Ángel, and San Jerónimo. Mexico City_sentence_284

Along Avenida Insurgentes from Paseo de la Reforma, near the center, south past the World Trade Center and UNAM university toward the Periférico ring road, is another important corridor of corporate office space. Mexico City_sentence_285

The far-southern boroughs of Xochimilco and Tláhuac have a significant rural population, with Milpa Alta being entirely rural. Mexico City_sentence_286

East of the center are mostly lower-income areas with some middle-class neighborhoods such as Jardín Balbuena. Mexico City_sentence_287

Urban sprawl continues further east for many miles into the State of Mexico, including Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl, now increasingly middle class but once full of informal settlements. Mexico City_sentence_288

Such slums are still found on the eastern edges of the metropolitan area in the Chalco area. Mexico City_sentence_289

North of the Historic Center, Azcapotzalco and Gustavo A. Madero have important industrial centers and neighborhoods that range from established middle-class colonias such as Claveria and Lindavista to huge low-income housing areas that share hillsides with adjacent municipalities in the State of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_290

In recent years, much of northern Mexico City's industry has moved to nearby municipalities in the State of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_291

Northwest of Mexico City itself is Ciudad Satélite, a vast middle-class to upper-middle-class residential and business area. Mexico City_sentence_292

The Human Development Index report of 2005 shows that there were three boroughs with a very high Human Development Index, 12 with a high HDI value (9 above .85), and one with a medium HDI value (almost high). Mexico City_sentence_293

Benito Juárez borough had the highest HDI of the country (0.9510) followed by Miguel Hidalgo, which came up fourth nationally with an HDI of (0.9189), and Coyoacán was fifth nationally, with an HDI of (0.9169). Mexico City_sentence_294

Cuajimalpa (15th), Cuauhtémoc (23rd), and Azcapotzalco (25th) also had very high values of 0.8994, 0.8922, and 0.8915, respectively. Mexico City_sentence_295

In contrast, the boroughs of Xochimilco (172nd), Tláhuac (177th), and Iztapalapa (183rd) presented the lowest HDI values of Mexico City, with values of 0.8481, 0.8473, and 0.8464, respectively, which are still in the global high-HDI range. Mexico City_sentence_296

The only borough that did not have a high HDI was that of rural Milpa Alta, which had a "medium" HDI of 0.7984, far below those of all the other boroughs (627th nationally, the rest being in the top 200). Mexico City_sentence_297

Mexico City's HDI for the 2005 report was 0.9012 (very high), and its 2010 value of 0.9225 (very high), or (by newer methodology) 0.8307, was Mexico's highest. Mexico City_sentence_298

Metropolitan area Mexico City_section_17

Main article: Greater Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_299

Greater Mexico City is formed by Mexico City, 60 municipalities from the State of Mexico and one from the state of Hidalgo. Mexico City_sentence_300

Greater Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in Mexico and the area with the highest population density. Mexico City_sentence_301

As of 2009, 21,163,226 people live in this urban agglomeration, of which 8,841,916 live in Mexico City proper. Mexico City_sentence_302

In terms of population, the biggest municipalities that are part of Greater Mexico City (excluding Mexico City proper) are: Mexico City_sentence_303

Mexico City_unordered_list_0

The above municipalities are located in the state of Mexico but are part of the Greater Mexico City area. Mexico City_sentence_304

Approximately 75% (10 million) of the state of México's population live in municipalities that are part of Greater Mexico City's conurbation. Mexico City_sentence_305

Greater Mexico City was the fastest growing metropolitan area in the country until the late 1980s. Mexico City_sentence_306

Since then, and through a policy of decentralization in order to reduce the environmental pollutants of the growing conurbation, the annual rate of growth of the agglomeration has decreased, and it is lower than that of the other four largest metropolitan areas (namely Greater Guadalajara, Greater Monterrey, Greater Puebla and Greater Toluca) even though it is still positive. Mexico City_sentence_307

The net migration rate of Mexico City proper from 1995 to 2000 was negative, which implies that residents are moving to the suburbs of the metropolitan area, or to other states of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_308

In addition, some inner suburbs are losing population to outer suburbs, indicating the continuing expansion of Greater Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_309

Law enforcement Mexico City_section_18

Main article: Law enforcement in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_310

The Secretariat of Public Security of Mexico City (Secretaría de Seguridad Pública de la Ciudad de México – SSP) manages a combined force of over 90,000 officers in Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_311

The SSP is charged with maintaining public order and safety in the heart of Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_312

The historic district is also roamed by tourist police, aiming to orient and serve tourists. Mexico City_sentence_313

These horse-mounted agents dress in traditional uniforms. Mexico City_sentence_314

The investigative Judicial Police of Mexico City (Policía Judicial de la Ciudad de México – PJCDMX) is organized under the Office of the Attorney General of Mexico City (the Procuraduría General de Justicia de la Ciudad de México). Mexico City_sentence_315

The PGJCDMX maintains 16 precincts (delegaciones) with an estimated 3,500 judicial police, 1,100 investigating agents for prosecuting attorneys (agentes del ministerio público), and nearly 1,000 criminology experts or specialists (peritos). Mexico City_sentence_316

Between 2000 and 2004 an average of 478 crimes were reported each day in Mexico City; however, the actual crime rate is thought to be much higher "since most people are reluctant to report crime". Mexico City_sentence_317

Under policies enacted by Mayor Marcelo Ebrard between 2009 and 2011, Mexico City underwent a major security upgrade with violent and petty crime rates both falling significantly despite the rise in violent crime in other parts of the country. Mexico City_sentence_318

Some of the policies enacted included the installation of 11,000 security cameras around the city and a very large expansion of the police force. Mexico City_sentence_319

Mexico City has one of the world's highest police officer-to-resident ratios, with one uniformed officer per 100 citizens. Mexico City_sentence_320

Since 1997 the prison population has increased by more than 500%. Mexico City_sentence_321

Political scientist Markus-Michael Müller argues that mostly informal street vendors are hit by these measures. Mexico City_sentence_322

He sees punishment "related to the growing politicisation of security and crime issues and the resulting criminalisation of the people living at the margins of urban society, in particular those who work in the city's informal economy." Mexico City_sentence_323

Femicides and violence against women Mexico City_section_19

In 2016, the incidence of femicides was 3.2 per 100 000 inhabitants, the national average being 4.2. Mexico City_sentence_324

A 2015 city government report found that two of three women over the age of 15 in the capital suffered some form of violence. Mexico City_sentence_325

In addition to street harassment, one of the places where women in Mexico City live in violence is public transport. Mexico City_sentence_326

Annually the Metro of Mexico City receives 300 complaints of sexual harassment. Mexico City_sentence_327

While the violence against women in Mexico City is rising, there is still a large number of incidents of kidnappings and killings that go undetected and unreported due to the corruption in the police department. Mexico City_sentence_328

Health Mexico City_section_20

Mexico City is home to some of the best private hospitals in the country, including Hospital Ángeles, Hospital ABC and Médica Sur. Mexico City_sentence_329

The national public healthcare institution for private-sector employees, IMSS, has its largest facilities in Mexico City—including the National Medical Center and the La Raza Medical Center—and has an annual budget of over 6 billion pesos. Mexico City_sentence_330

The IMSS and other public health institutions, including the ISSSTE (Public Sector Employees' Social Security Institute) and the National Health Ministry (SSA) maintain large specialty facilities in the city. Mexico City_sentence_331

These include the National Institutes of Cardiology, Nutrition, Psychiatry, Oncology, Pediatrics, Rehabilitation, among others. Mexico City_sentence_332

The World Bank has sponsored a project to curb air pollution through public transport improvements and the Mexican government has started shutting down polluting factories. Mexico City_sentence_333

They have phased out diesel buses and mandated new emission controls on new cars; since 1993 all new cars must be fitted with a catalytic converter, which reduces the emissions released. Mexico City_sentence_334

Trucks must use only liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Mexico City_sentence_335

Also construction of an underground rail system was begun in 1968 in order to help curb air pollution problems and alleviate traffic congestion. Mexico City_sentence_336

It has over 201 km (125 mi) of track and carries over 5 million people every day. Mexico City_sentence_337

Fees are kept low to encourage use of the system and during rush hours the crush is so great, that authorities have reserved a special carriage specifically for women. Mexico City_sentence_338

Due to these initiatives and others, the air quality in Mexico City has begun to improve; it is cleaner than it was in 1991, when the air quality was declared to be a public health risk for 355 days of the year. Mexico City_sentence_339

Economy Mexico City_section_21

Mexico City is one of the most important economic hubs in Latin America. Mexico City_sentence_340

The city proper produces 15.8% of the country's gross domestic product. Mexico City_sentence_341

According to a study conducted by PwC, Mexico City had a GDP of $390 billion, ranking it as the eighth richest city in the world and the richest in Latin America. Mexico City_sentence_342

Mexico City alone would rank as the 30th largest economy in the world. Mexico City_sentence_343

Mexico City is the greatest contributor to the country's industrial GDP (15.8%) and also the greatest contributor to the country's GDP in the service sector (25.3%). Mexico City_sentence_344

Due to the limited non-urbanized space at the south—most of which is protected through environmental laws—the contribution of Mexico City in agriculture is the smallest of all federal entities in the country. Mexico City_sentence_345

Mexico City has one of the world's fastest-growing economies and its GDP is set to double from 2008 to 2020. Mexico City_sentence_346

In 2002, Mexico City had a Human Development Index score of 0.915, identical to that of South Korea. Mexico City_sentence_347

The top twelve percent of GDP per capita holders in the city had a mean disposable income of US$98,517 in 2007. Mexico City_sentence_348

The high spending power of Mexico City inhabitants makes the city attractive for companies offering prestige and luxury goods. Mexico City_sentence_349

The economic reforms of President Carlos Salinas de Gortari had a tremendous effect on the city, as a number of businesses, including banks and airlines, were privatized. Mexico City_sentence_350

He also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico City_sentence_351

This led to decentralization and a shift in Mexico City's economic base, from manufacturing to services, as most factories moved away to either the State of Mexico, or more commonly to the northern border. Mexico City_sentence_352

By contrast, corporate office buildings set their base in the city. Mexico City_sentence_353

Demographics Mexico City_section_22

Historically, and since Pre-Columbian times, the Valley of Anahuac has been one of the most densely populated areas in Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_354

When the Federal District was created in 1824, the urban area of Mexico City extended approximately to the area of today's Cuauhtémoc borough. Mexico City_sentence_355

At the beginning of the 20th century, the elites began migrating to the south and west and soon the small towns of Mixcoac and San Ángel were incorporated by the growing conurbation. Mexico City_sentence_356

According to the 1921 census, 54.78% of the city's population was considered Mestizo (Indigenous mixed with European), 22.79% considered European, and 18.74% considered Indigenous. Mexico City_sentence_357

This was the last Mexican Census which asked people to self-identify with a heritage other than Amerindian. Mexico City_sentence_358

However, the census had the particularity that, unlike racial/ethnic census in other countries, it was focused in the perception of cultural heritage rather than in a racial perception, leading to a good number of white people to identify with "Mixed heritage" due to cultural influence. Mexico City_sentence_359

In 1921, Mexico City had less than one million inhabitants. Mexico City_sentence_360

Up to the 1990s, the Federal District was the most populous federal entity in Mexico, but since then, its population has remained stable at around 8.7 million. Mexico City_sentence_361

The growth of the city has extended beyond the limits of the city to 59 municipalities of the State of Mexico and 1 in the state of Hidalgo. Mexico City_sentence_362

With a population of approximately 19.8 million inhabitants (2008), it is one of the most populous conurbations in the world. Mexico City_sentence_363

Nonetheless, the annual rate of growth of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is much lower than that of other large urban agglomerations in Mexico, a phenomenon most likely attributable to the environmental policy of decentralization. Mexico City_sentence_364

The net migration rate of Mexico City from 1995 to 2000 was negative. Mexico City_sentence_365

Representing around 18.74% of the city's population, indigenous peoples from different areas of Mexico have migrated to the capital in search of better economic opportunities. Mexico City_sentence_366

Nahuatl, Otomi, Mixtec, Zapotec and Mazahua are the indigenous languages with the greatest number of speakers in Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_367

Nationality Mexico City_section_23

Mexico City is also home to large communities of expatriates and immigrants from the rest of North America (U.S. and Canada), from South America (mainly from Argentina and Colombia, but also from Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Venezuela), from Central America and the Caribbean (mainly from Cuba, Guatemala, El Salvador, Haiti and Honduras); from Europe (mainly from Spain, Germany and Switzerland, but also from Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Romania), from the Middle East (mainly from Egypt, Lebanon and Syria); and recently from Asia-Pacific (mainly from China, Japan, Pakistan, India and South Korea). Mexico City_sentence_368

Historically since the era of New Spain, many Filipinos settled in the city and have become integrated in Mexican society. Mexico City_sentence_369

While no official figures have been reported, population estimates of each of these communities are quite significant. Mexico City_sentence_370

Mexico City is home to the largest population of U.S. Mexico City_sentence_371

Americans living outside the United States. Mexico City_sentence_372

Estimates are as high as 700,000 U.S. Americans living in Mexico City, while in 1999 the U.S. Bureau of Consular Affairs estimated over 440,000 Americans lived in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Mexico City_sentence_373

Religion Mexico City_section_24

The majority (82%) of the residents in Mexico City are Roman Catholic, slightly lower than the 2010 census national percentage of 87%, though it has been decreasing over the last decades. Mexico City_sentence_374

Many other religions and philosophies are also practiced in the city: many different types of Protestant groups, different types of Jewish communities, Buddhist, Islamic and other spiritual and philosophical groups. Mexico City_sentence_375

There are also growing numbers of irreligious people, whether agnostic or atheist. Mexico City_sentence_376

The patron saint of Mexico City is Saint Philip of Jesus, a Mexican Catholic missionary who became one of the Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan. Mexico City_sentence_377

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico is the largest archdiocese in the world. Mexico City_sentence_378

There are two Roman Catholic cathedrals in the city, the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral and the Iztapalapa Cathedral, and three former Catholic churches who are now the cathedrals of other rites, the San José de Gracia Cathedral (Anglican church), the Porta Coeli Cathedral (Melkite Greek Catholic church) and the Valvanera Cathedral (Maronite church). Mexico City_sentence_379

Culture Mexico City_section_25

Tourism Mexico City_section_26

See also: Barrios Mágicos of Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_380

Mexico City is a destination for many foreign tourists. Mexico City_sentence_381

The Historic center of Mexico City (Centro Histórico) and the "floating gardens" of Xochimilco in the southern borough have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Mexico City_sentence_382

Landmarks in the Historic Center include the Plaza de la Constitución (Zócalo), the main central square with its epoch-contrasting Spanish-era Metropolitan Cathedral and National Palace, ancient Aztec temple ruins Templo Mayor ("Major Temple") and modern structures, all within a few steps of one another. Mexico City_sentence_383

(The Templo Mayor was discovered in 1978 while workers were digging to place underground electric cables). Mexico City_sentence_384

The most recognizable icon of Mexico City is the golden Angel of Independence on the wide, elegant avenue Paseo de la Reforma, modeled by the order of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico after the Champs-Élysées in Paris. Mexico City_sentence_385

This avenue was designed over the Americas' oldest known major roadway in the 19th century to connect the National Palace (seat of government) with the Castle of Chapultepec, the imperial residence. Mexico City_sentence_386

Today, this avenue is an important financial district in which the Mexican Stock Exchange and several corporate headquarters are located. Mexico City_sentence_387

Another important avenue is the Avenida de los Insurgentes, which extends 28.8 km (17.9 mi) and is one of the longest single avenues in the world. Mexico City_sentence_388

Chapultepec Park houses the Chapultepec Castle, now a museum on a hill that overlooks the park and its numerous museums, monuments and the national zoo and the National Museum of Anthropology (which houses the Aztec Calendar Stone). Mexico City_sentence_389

Another piece of architecture is the Palacio de Bellas Artes, a white marble theatre/museum whose weight is such that it has gradually been sinking into the soft ground below. Mexico City_sentence_390

Its construction began during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz and ended in 1934, after being interrupted by the Mexican Revolution in the 1920s. Mexico City_sentence_391

The Plaza de las Tres Culturas, in this square are located the College of Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, that is the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas, and the archaeological site of the city-state of Tlatelolco, and the shrine and Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe are also important sites. Mexico City_sentence_392

There is a double-decker bus, known as the "Turibus", that circles most of these sites, and has timed audio describing the sites in multiple languages as they are passed. Mexico City_sentence_393

In addition, according to the Secretariat of Tourism, the city has about 170 museums—is among the top ten of cities in the world with highest number of museums—over 100 art galleries, and some 30 concert halls, all of which maintain a constant cultural activity during the whole year. Mexico City_sentence_394

It has either the third or fourth-highest number of theatres in the world after New York, London and perhaps Toronto. Mexico City_sentence_395

Many areas (e.g. Palacio Nacional and the National Institute of Cardiology) have murals painted by Diego Rivera. Mexico City_sentence_396

He and his wife Frida Kahlo lived in Coyoacán, where several of their homes, studios, and art collections are open to the public. Mexico City_sentence_397

The house where Leon Trotsky was initially granted asylum and finally murdered in 1940 is also in Coyoacán. Mexico City_sentence_398

In addition, there are several haciendas that are now restaurants, such as the San Ángel Inn, the Hacienda de Tlalpan, Hacienda de Cortés and the Hacienda de los Morales. Mexico City_sentence_399

Art Mexico City_section_27

Main article: Mexican art Mexico City_sentence_400

Having been capital of a vast pre-Hispanic empire, and also the capital of richest viceroyalty within the Spanish Empire (ruling over a vast territory in the Americas and Spanish West Indies), and, finally, the capital of the United Mexican States, Mexico City has a rich history of artistic expression. Mexico City_sentence_401

Since the mesoamerican pre-Classical period the inhabitants of the settlements around Lake Texcoco produced many works of art and complex craftsmanship, some of which are today displayed at the world-renowned National Museum of Anthropology and the Templo Mayor museum. Mexico City_sentence_402

While many pieces of pottery and stone-engraving have survived, the great majority of the Amerindian iconography was destroyed during the Conquest of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_403

Much of the early colonial art stemmed from the codices (Aztec illustrated books), aiming to recover and preserve some Aztec and other Amerindian iconography and history. Mexico City_sentence_404

From then, artistic expressions in Mexico were mostly religious in theme. Mexico City_sentence_405

The Metropolitan Cathedral still displays works by Juan de Rojas, Juan Correa and an oil painting whose authorship has been attributed to Murillo. Mexico City_sentence_406

Secular works of art of this period include the equestrian sculpture of Charles IV of Spain, locally known as El Caballito ("The little horse"). Mexico City_sentence_407

This piece, in bronze, was the work of Manuel Tolsá and it has been placed at the Plaza Tolsá, in front of the Palacio de Mineria (Mining Palace). Mexico City_sentence_408

Directly in front of this building is the Museo Nacional de Arte (Munal) (the National Museum of Art). Mexico City_sentence_409

During the 19th century, an important producer of art was the Academia de San Carlos (San Carlos Art Academy), founded during colonial times, and which later became the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas (the National School of Arts) including painting, sculpture and graphic design, one of UNAM's art schools. Mexico City_sentence_410

Many of the works produced by the students and faculty of that time are now displayed in the Museo Nacional de San Carlos (National Museum of San Carlos). Mexico City_sentence_411

One of the students, José María Velasco, is considered one of the greatest Mexican landscape painters of the 19th century. Mexico City_sentence_412

Porfirio Díaz's regime sponsored arts, especially those that followed the French school. Mexico City_sentence_413

Popular arts in the form of cartoons and illustrations flourished, e.g. those of José Guadalupe Posada and Manuel Manilla. Mexico City_sentence_414

The permanent collection of the San Carlos Museum also includes paintings by European masters such as Rembrandt, Velázquez, Murillo, and Rubens. Mexico City_sentence_415

After the Mexican Revolution, an avant-garde artistic movement originated in Mexico City: muralism. Mexico City_sentence_416

Many of the works of muralists José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera are displayed in numerous buildings in the city, most notably at the National Palace and the Palacio de Bellas Artes. Mexico City_sentence_417

Frida Kahlo, wife of Rivera, with a strong nationalist expression, was also one of the most renowned of Mexican painters. Mexico City_sentence_418

Her house has become a museum that displays many of her works. Mexico City_sentence_419

The former home of Rivera muse Dolores Olmedo houses the namesake museum. Mexico City_sentence_420

The facility is in Xochimilco borough in southern Mexico City and includes several buildings surrounded by sprawling manicured lawns. Mexico City_sentence_421

It houses a large collection of Rivera and Kahlo paintings and drawings, as well as living Xoloizcuintles (Mexican Hairless Dog). Mexico City_sentence_422

It also regularly hosts small but important temporary exhibits of classical and modern art (e.g. Venetian Masters and Contemporary New York artists). Mexico City_sentence_423

During the 20th century, many artists immigrated to Mexico City from different regions of Mexico, such as Leopoldo Méndez, an engraver from Veracruz, who supported the creation of the socialist Taller de la Gráfica Popular (Popular Graphics Workshop), designed to help blue-collar workers find a venue to express their art. Mexico City_sentence_424

Other painters came from abroad, such as Catalan painter Remedios Varo and other Spanish and Jewish exiles. Mexico City_sentence_425

It was in the second half of the 20th century that the artistic movement began to drift apart from the Revolutionary theme. Mexico City_sentence_426

José Luis Cuevas opted for a modernist style in contrast to the muralist movement associated with social politics. Mexico City_sentence_427

Museums Mexico City_section_28

Mexico City has numerous museums dedicated to art, including Mexican colonial, modern and contemporary art, and international art. Mexico City_sentence_428

The Museo Tamayo was opened in the mid-1980s to house the collection of international contemporary art donated by famed Mexican (born in the state of Oaxaca) painter Rufino Tamayo. Mexico City_sentence_429

The collection includes pieces by Picasso, Klee, Kandinsky, Warhol and many others, though most of the collection is stored while visiting exhibits are shown. Mexico City_sentence_430

The Museo de Arte Moderno (Museum of Modern Art) is a repository of Mexican artists from the 20th century, including Rivera, Orozco, Siqueiros, Kahlo, Gerzso, Carrington, Tamayo, among others, and also regularly hosts temporary exhibits of international modern art. Mexico City_sentence_431

In southern Mexico City, the Museo Carrillo Gil (Carrillo Gil Museum) showcases avant-garde artists, as does the University Museum/Contemporary Art (Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo – or MUAC), designed by famed Mexican architect Teodoro González de León, inaugurated in late 2008. Mexico City_sentence_432

The Museo Soumaya, named after the wife of Mexican magnate Carlos Slim, has the largest private collection of original Rodin sculptures outside Paris. Mexico City_sentence_433

It also has a large collection of Dalí sculptures, and recently began showing pieces in its masters collection including El Greco, Velázquez, Picasso and Canaletto. Mexico City_sentence_434

The museum inaugurated a new futuristic-design facility in 2011 just north of Polanco, while maintaining a smaller facility in Plaza de Loreto in southern Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_435

The Colección Júmex is a contemporary art museum located on the sprawling grounds of the Jumex juice company in the northern industrial suburb of Ecatepec. Mexico City_sentence_436

It is said to have the largest private contemporary art collection in Latin America and hosts pieces from its permanent collection as well as traveling exhibits by leading contemporary artists. Mexico City_sentence_437

The new Museo Júmex in Nuevo Polanco was slated to open in November 2013. Mexico City_sentence_438

The Museo de San Ildefonso, housed in the Antiguo Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City's historic downtown district is a 17th-century colonnaded palace housing an art museum that regularly hosts world-class exhibits of Mexican and international art. Mexico City_sentence_439

Recent exhibits have included those on David LaChapelle, Antony Gormley and Ron Mueck. Mexico City_sentence_440

The National Museum of Art (Museo Nacional de Arte) is also located in a former palace in the historic center. Mexico City_sentence_441

It houses a large collection of pieces by all major Mexican artists of the last 400 years and also hosts visiting exhibits. Mexico City_sentence_442

Jack Kerouac, the noted American author, spent extended periods of time in the city, and wrote his masterpiece volume of poetry Mexico City Blues here. Mexico City_sentence_443

Another American author, William S. Burroughs, also lived in the Colonia Roma neighborhood of the city for some time. Mexico City_sentence_444

It was here that he accidentally shot his wife. Mexico City_sentence_445

Most of Mexico City's more than 150 museums can be visited from Tuesday to Sunday from 10 am to 5 pm, although some of them have extended schedules, such as the Museum of Anthropology and History, which is open to 7 pm. Mexico City_sentence_446

In addition to this, entrance to most museums are free on Sunday. Mexico City_sentence_447

In some cases a modest fee may be charged. Mexico City_sentence_448

Another major addition to the city's museum scene is the Museum of Remembrance and Tolerance (Museo de la Memoria y Tolerancia), inaugurated in early 2011. Mexico City_sentence_449

The brainchild of two young Mexican women as a Holocaust museum, the idea morphed into a unique museum dedicated to showcasing all major historical events of discrimination and genocide. Mexico City_sentence_450

Permanent exhibits include those on the Holocaust and other large-scale atrocities. Mexico City_sentence_451

It also houses temporary exhibits; one on Tibet was inaugurated by the Dalai Lama in September 2011. Mexico City_sentence_452

Music, theater and entertainment Mexico City_section_29

Mexico City is home to a number of orchestras offering season programs. Mexico City_sentence_453

These include the Mexico City Philharmonic, which performs at the Sala Ollin Yoliztli; the National Symphony Orchestra, whose home base is the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of the Fine Arts), a masterpiece of art nouveau and art decó styles; the Philharmonic Orchestra of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (OFUNAM), and the Minería Symphony Orchestra, both of which perform at the Sala Nezahualcóyotl, which was the first wrap-around concert hall of the world's western hemisphere when inaugurated in 1976. Mexico City_sentence_454

There are also many smaller ensembles that enrich the city's musical scene, including the Carlos Chávez Youth Symphony, the Cuarteto Latinoamericano, the New World Orchestra (Orquesta del Nuevo Mundo), the National Polytechnical Symphony and the Bellas Artes Chamber Orchestra (Orquesta de Cámara de Bellas Artes). Mexico City_sentence_455

The city is also a leading center of popular culture and music. Mexico City_sentence_456

There are a multitude of venues hosting Spanish and foreign-language performers. Mexico City_sentence_457

These include the 10,000-seat National Auditorium that regularly schedules the Spanish and English-language pop and rock artists, as well as many of the world's leading performing arts ensembles, the auditorium also broadcasts grand opera performances from New York's Metropolitan Opera on giant, high definition screens. Mexico City_sentence_458

In 2007 National Auditorium was selected world's best venue by multiple genre media. Mexico City_sentence_459

Other sites for pop-artist performances include the 3,000-seat Teatro Metropolitan, the 15,000-seat Palacio de los Deportes, and the larger 50,000-seat Foro Sol Stadium, where popular international artists perform on a regular basis. Mexico City_sentence_460

The Cirque du Soleil has held several seasons at the Carpa Santa Fe, in the Santa Fe district in the western part of the city. Mexico City_sentence_461

There are numerous venues for smaller musical ensembles and solo performers. Mexico City_sentence_462

These include the Hard Rock Live, Bataclán, Foro Scotiabank, Lunario, Circo Volador and Voilá Acoustique. Mexico City_sentence_463

Recent additions include the 20,000-seat Arena Ciudad de México, the 3,000-seat Pepsi Center World Trade Center, and the 2,500-seat Auditorio Blackberry. Mexico City_sentence_464

The Centro Nacional de las Artes (National Center for the Arts has several venues for music, theatre, dance. Mexico City_sentence_465

UNAM's main campus, also in the southern part of the city, is home to the Centro Cultural Universitario (the University Culture Center) (CCU). Mexico City_sentence_466

The CCU also houses the National Library, the interactive Universum, Museo de las Ciencias, the Sala Nezahualcóyotl concert hall, several theatres and cinemas, and the new University Museum of Contemporary Art (MUAC). Mexico City_sentence_467

A branch of the National University's CCU cultural center was inaugurated in 2007 in the facilities of the former Ministry of Foreign Affairs, known as Tlatelolco, in north-central Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_468

The José Vasconcelos Library, a national library, is located on the grounds of the former Buenavista railroad station in the northern part of the city. Mexico City_sentence_469

The Papalote children's museum, which houses the world's largest dome screen, is located in the wooded park of Chapultepec, near the Museo Tecnológico, and La Feria amusement park. Mexico City_sentence_470

The theme park Six Flags México (the largest amusement park in Latin America) is located in the Ajusco neighborhood, in Tlalpan borough, southern Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_471

During the winter, the main square of the Zócalo is transformed into a gigantic ice skating rink, which is said to be the largest in the world behind that of Moscow's Red Square. Mexico City_sentence_472

The Cineteca Nacional (the Mexican Film Library), near the Coyoacán suburb, shows a variety of films, and stages many film festivals, including the annual International Showcase, and many smaller ones ranging from Scandinavian and Uruguayan cinema, to Jewish and LGBT-themed films. Mexico City_sentence_473

Cinépolis and Cinemex, the two biggest film business chains, also have several film festivals throughout the year, with both national and international movies. Mexico City_sentence_474

Mexico City has a number of IMAX theatres, providing residents and visitors access to films ranging from documentaries to blockbusters on these large screens. Mexico City_sentence_475

Cuisine Mexico City_section_30

Once considered plebeian fare, by the 19th century tacos had become a standard of Mexico City's cuisine. Mexico City_sentence_476

As authorities struggled to tax local taquerias, imposing licensing requirements and penalties, they recorded some details of the types of foods being served by these establishments. Mexico City_sentence_477

The most frequent reference was for tacos de barbacoa. Mexico City_sentence_478

Also mentioned are enchiladas, tacos de minero and gorditas, along with oyster shops and fried fish stands. Mexico City_sentence_479

There is evidence of some regional specialties being made available for recent migrants; at least two shops were known to serve pozole, a type of stew similar to hominy that is a staple of Guadalajara, Jalisco. Mexico City_sentence_480

Mexico City is known for having some of the freshest fish and seafood in Mexico's interior. Mexico City_sentence_481

La Nueva Viga Market is the second largest seafood market in the world after the Tsukiji fish market in Japan. Mexico City_sentence_482

Restaurants Mexico City_section_31

Mexico City offers a variety of cuisines: restaurants specializing in the regional cuisines of Mexico's 31 states are available in the city, and the city also has several branches of internationally recognized restaurants. Mexico City_sentence_483

These include Paris' Au Pied de Cochon and Brasserie Lipp, Philippe (by Philippe Chow); Nobu, Quintonil, Morimoto; Pámpano, owned by Mexican-raised opera singer Plácido Domingo. Mexico City_sentence_484

There are branches of Japanese restaurant Suntory, Italian restaurant Alfredo, as well as New York steakhouses Morton's and The Palm, and Monte Carlo's BeefBar. Mexico City_sentence_485

Three of Lima's Haute restaurants, serving Peruvian cuisine, have locations in Mexico City: La Mar, Segundo Muelle and Astrid y Gastón. Mexico City_sentence_486

For the 2019 list of World's 50 Best Restaurants as named by the British magazine Restaurant, Mexico City ranked 12th best with the Mexican avant-garde restaurant Pujol (owned by Mexican chef Enrique Olvera). Mexico City_sentence_487

Also notable is the Basque-Mexican fusion restaurant Biko (run and co-owned by Bruno Oteiza and Mikel Alonso), which placed outside the list at 59th, but in previous years has ranked within the top 50. Mexico City_sentence_488

Other that has been placed on the list in 2019 is the restaurant Sud 777 at 58th place. Mexico City_sentence_489

At the other end of the scale are working class pulque bars known as pulquerías, a challenge for tourists to locate and experience. Mexico City_sentence_490

Transportation Mexico City_section_32

Public transportation Mexico City_section_33

Mexico City has many modes of public transportation, from the metro (subway) system, to suburban rail, light rail, regular buses, BRT (bus rapid transit), 'pesero' minibuses, and trolleybuses, to bike share. Mexico City_sentence_491

Metro Mexico City_section_34

Main article: Mexico City Metro Mexico City_sentence_492

Mexico City is served by the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo, a 225.9 km (140 mi) metro system, which is the largest in Latin America. Mexico City_sentence_493

The first portions were opened in 1969 and it has expanded to 12 lines with 195 stations. Mexico City_sentence_494

The metro transports 4.4 million people every day. Mexico City_sentence_495

It is the 8th busiest metro system in the world, behind Tokyo (10.0 million), Beijing (9.3 million), Shanghai (7.8 million), Seoul (7.3 million), Moscow (6.7 million), Guangzhou (6.2 million), and New York City (4.9 million). Mexico City_sentence_496

It is heavily subsidized, and has some of the lowest fares in the world, each trip costing 5.00 pesos (roughly US$0.27) from 05:00 am to midnight. Mexico City_sentence_497

Several stations display pre-Columbian artifacts and architecture that were discovered during the metro's construction. Mexico City_sentence_498

However, the metro covers less than half of the total urban area. Mexico City_sentence_499

The Metro stations are also differentiated by the use of icons and glyphs which were created for the illiterate, a unique system that has become iconic characteristic of Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_500

Each icon was developed based on historical (characters, sites, pre-Hispanic motifs), linguistic, symbolic (glyphs) or geographic references. Mexico City_sentence_501

A complementary system of icons was used for the Metrobús (BRT) stops. Mexico City_sentence_502

Suburban rail Mexico City_section_35

A suburban rail system, the Tren Suburbano serves the metropolitan area, beyond the reach of the metro, with only one line serving to municipalities such as Tlalnepantla and Cuautitlán Izcalli, but with future lines planned to serve e.g. Chalco and La Paz. Mexico City_sentence_503

Peseros Mexico City_section_36

Peseros are typically half-length passenger buses (known as microbús) that sit 22 passengers and stand up to 28. Mexico City_sentence_504

As of 2007, the approximately 28,000 peseros carried up to 60 percent of the city's passengers. Mexico City_sentence_505

In August 2016, Mayor Mancera announced that new pesero vehicle and concessions would be eliminated completely unless they were ecologically friendly vehicles, and in October 2011 the city's Secretary of Mobility Héctor Serrano states that by the end of the current administration (2018) there would no longer by any peseros/microbuses circulating at all, and that new full-sized buses would take over the routes. Mexico City_sentence_506

Mid-size buses Mexico City_section_37

In 2014, the city launched so-called "Bus Rapid Service", with mid-sized Mercedes-Benz Boxer buses carrying 75–85 passengers painted purple-on-white, replacing 'peseros' on certain groups of routes. Mexico City_sentence_507

Operation is a concession to the private firms (SAUSA, COTOBUSA, TREPSA) instead of to individual vehicle operators. Mexico City_sentence_508

Full-sized buses Mexico City_section_38

City agency Red de Transporte de Pasajeros (RTP), formerly M1, operates various networks of large buses including regular, Ecobús, Circuito Bicentenario, Atenea, Express, school and night routes. Mexico City_sentence_509

In 2016, more bus routes were added to replace pesero routes. Mexico City_sentence_510

In 2016, the SVBUS express bus service was launched, with limited stops and utilizing the city's toll roads on the second-level of the Periférico ring road and Supervía Poniente and connecting Toreo/Cuatro Caminos with Santa Fe, San Jerónimo Lídice and Tepepan near Xochimilco in the southeast. Mexico City_sentence_511

Suburban buses also leave from the city's main intercity bus stations. Mexico City_sentence_512

Bus rapid transit Mexico City_section_39

The city's first bus rapid transit line, the Metrobús, began operation in June 2005, along Avenida Insurgentes. Mexico City_sentence_513

More and more lines opened and as of mid-2017 there are 6 routes with a 7th planned along Paseo de la Reforma to connect Santa Fe with the city center and points north. Mexico City_sentence_514

As each line opened, the 'pesero' minibuses were removed from each route, in order to reduce pollution and commute times. Mexico City_sentence_515

As of mid-2017, there were 568 Metrobús buses. Mexico City_sentence_516

In late 2016 they transported an average of 1.1 million passengers daily. Mexico City_sentence_517

Mexibús provides 3 bus rapid transit lines connecting Metro Ciudad Azteca and Metro Pantitlán with Cuautitlán, Ecatepec and other suburban areas in the State of Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_518

Trolleybus, light rail, streetcars Mexico City_section_40

Electric transport other than the metro also exists, in the form of several Mexico City trolleybus routes and the Xochimilco Light Rail line, both of which are operated by Servicio de Transportes Eléctricos. Mexico City_sentence_519

The central area's last streetcar line (tramway, or ) closed in 1979. Mexico City_sentence_520

Roads and car transport Mexico City_section_41

In the late 1970s many arterial roads were redesigned as ejes viales; high-volume one-way roads that cross, in theory, Mexico City proper from side to side. Mexico City_sentence_521

The eje vial network is based on a quasi-Cartesian grid, with the ejes themselves being called Eje 1 Poniente, Eje Central, and Eje 1 Oriente, for example, for the north–south roads, and Eje 2 Sur and Eje 3 Norte, for example, for east–west roads. Mexico City_sentence_522

Ring roads are the Circuito Interior (inner ring), Anillo Periférico; the Circuito Exterior Mexiquense ("State of Mexico outer loop") toll road skirting the northeastern and eastern edges of the metropolitan area, the Chamapa-La Venta toll road skirting the northwestern edge, and the Arco Norte completely bypassing the metropolitan area in an arc from northwest (Atlacomulco) to north (Tula, Hidalgo) to east (Puebla). Mexico City_sentence_523

A second level (where tolls are charged) of the Periférico, colloquially called the segundo piso ("second floor"), was officially opened in 2012, with sections still being completed. Mexico City_sentence_524

The Viaducto Miguel Alemán crosses the city east–west from Observatorio to the airport. Mexico City_sentence_525

In 2013 the Supervía Poniente opened, a toll road linking the new Santa Fe business district with southwestern Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_526

There is an environmental program, called Hoy No Circula ("Today Does Not Run", or "One Day without a Car"), whereby vehicles that have not passed emissions testing are restricted from circulating on certain days according to the ending digit of their license plates; this in an attempt to cut down on pollution and traffic congestion. Mexico City_sentence_527

While in 2003, the program still restricted 40% of vehicles in the metropolitan area, with the adoption of stricter emissions standards in 2001 and 2006, in practice, these days most vehicles are exempt from the circulation restrictions as long as they pass regular emissions tests. Mexico City_sentence_528

Parking Mexico City_section_42

Main article: Parking in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_529

Street parking in urban neighborhoods is mostly controlled by the franeleros a.k.a. "viene vienes" (lit. Mexico City_sentence_530

"come on, come on"), who ask drivers for a fee to park. Mexico City_sentence_531

Double parking is common (with franeleros moving the cars as required), impeding on the available lanes for traffic to pass. Mexico City_sentence_532

In order to mitigate that and other problems and to raise revenue, 721 parking meters (as of October 2013), have been installed in the west-central neighborhoods Lomas de Chapultepec, Condesa, Roma, Polanco and Anzures, in operation from 8 AM to 8 PM on weekdays and charging a rate of 2 pesos per 15 minutes, with offenders' cars booted, costing about 500 pesos to remove. Mexico City_sentence_533

30 percent of the monthly 16 million-peso (as of October 2013) income from the parking-meter system (named "ecoParq") is earmarked for neighborhood improvements. Mexico City_sentence_534

The granting of the license for all zones exclusively to a new company without experience in operating parking meters, Operadora de Estacionamientos Bicentenario, has generated controversy. Mexico City_sentence_535

Cycling Mexico City_section_43

Main article: EcoBici (Mexico City) Mexico City_sentence_536

The local government continuously strives for a reduction of massive traffic congestion, and has increased incentives for making a bicycle-friendly city. Mexico City_sentence_537

This includes North America's second-largest bicycle sharing system, EcoBici, launched in 2010, in which registered residents can get bicycles for 45 minutes with a pre-paid subscription of 300 pesos a year. Mexico City_sentence_538

There are, as of September 2013, 276 stations with 4,000 bicycles across an area stretching from the Historic center to Polanco. Mexico City_sentence_539

within 300 meters (980 feet) of one another and are fully automatic using a transponder based card. Mexico City_sentence_540

Bicycle-service users have access to several permanent Ciclovías (dedicated bike paths/lanes/streets), including ones along Paseo de la Reforma and Avenida Chapultepec as well as one running 59 kilometers (37 miles) from Polanco to Fierro del Toro, which is located south of Cumbres del Ajusco National Park, near the Morelos state line. Mexico City_sentence_541

The city's initiative is inspired by forward thinking examples, such as Denmark's Copenhagenization. Mexico City_sentence_542

Intercity buses Mexico City_section_44

The city has four major bus stations (North, South, Observatorio, TAPO), which comprise one of the world's largest transportation agglomerations, with bus service to many cities across the country and international connections. Mexico City_sentence_543

There are some intercity buses that leave directly from the Mexico City International Airport. Mexico City_sentence_544

Airports Mexico City_section_45

Mexico City is served by Mexico City International Airport (IATA Airport Code: MEX). Mexico City_sentence_545

This airport is Latin America's busiest, with daily flights to United States and Canada, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Asia. Mexico City_sentence_546

Aeroméxico (Skyteam) is based at this airport, and provide codeshare agreements with non-Mexican airlines that span the entire globe. Mexico City_sentence_547

The airport is also a hub for Volaris, Interjet and Aeromar. Mexico City_sentence_548

In 2016, the airport handled almost 42 million passengers, about 3.3 million more than the year before. Mexico City_sentence_549

This traffic exceeds the capacity of the airport, which has historically centralized the majority of air traffic in the country. Mexico City_sentence_550

An alternate option is Lic. Mexico City_sentence_551

Adolfo López Mateos International Airport (IATA Airport Code: TLC) in nearby Toluca, State of Mexico, although due to several airlines' decisions to terminate service to TLC, the airport has seen a passenger drop to just over 700,000 passengers in 2014 from over 2.1 million passengers just four years prior. Mexico City_sentence_552

In the Mexico City airport, the government engaged in an extensive restructuring program that includes the addition of a new second terminal, which began operations in 2007, and the enlargement of four other airports (at the nearby cities of Toluca, Querétaro, Puebla and Cuernavaca) that, along with Mexico City's airport, comprise the Grupo Aeroportuario del Valle de México, distributing traffic to different regions in Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_553

The city of Pachuca will also provide additional expansion to central Mexico's airport network. Mexico City_sentence_554

Education Mexico City_section_46

In the Plaza de las Tres Culturas is the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco that is recognized for being the first and oldest European school of higher learning in the Americas and the first major school of interpreters and translators in the New World. Mexico City_sentence_555

The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), located in Mexico City, is the largest university on the continent, with more than 300,000 students from all backgrounds. Mexico City_sentence_556

Three Nobel laureates, several Mexican entrepreneurs and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. Mexico City_sentence_557

UNAM conducts 50% of Mexico's scientific research and has presence all across the country with satellite campuses, observatories and research centres. Mexico City_sentence_558

UNAM ranked 74th in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by Times Higher Education (then called Times Higher Education Supplement) in 2006, making it the highest ranked Spanish-speaking university in the world. Mexico City_sentence_559

The sprawling main campus of the university, known as Ciudad Universitaria, was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2007. Mexico City_sentence_560

The second largest higher-education institution is the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), which includes among many other relevant centers the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), where varied high-level scientific and technological research is done. Mexico City_sentence_561

Other major higher-education institutions in the city include the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM), the National School of Anthropology and History (ENAH), the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM), the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education (3 campuses), the Universidad Panamericana (UP), the Universidad La Salle, the Universidad del Valle de Mexico (UVM), the Universidad Anáhuac, Simon Bolivar University (USB), the Alliant International University, the Universidad Iberoamericana, El Colegio de México (Colmex), Escuela Libre de Derecho and the Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económica, (CIDE). Mexico City_sentence_562

In addition, the prestigious University of California maintains a campus known as "Casa de California" in the city. Mexico City_sentence_563

The Universidad Tecnológica de México is also in Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_564

Unlike those of Mexican states' schools, curricula of Mexico City's public schools is managed by the federal Secretary of Public Education. Mexico City_sentence_565

The whole funding is allocated by the government of Mexico City (in some specific cases, such as El Colegio de México, funding comes from both the city's government and other public and private national and international entities). Mexico City_sentence_566

The city's public high school system is the Instituto de Educación Media Superior de la Ciudad de México (IEMS-DF). Mexico City_sentence_567

A special case is that of El Colegio Nacional, created during the district's governmental period of Miguel Alemán Valdés to have, in Mexico, an institution similar to the College of France. Mexico City_sentence_568

The select and privileged group of Mexican scientists and artists belonging to this institution—membership is for life—include, among many, Mario Lavista, Ruy Pérez Tamayo, José Emilio Pacheco, Marcos Moshinsky (d.2009), Guillermo Soberón Acevedo. Mexico City_sentence_569

Members are obligated to publicly disclose their works through conferences and public events such as concerts and recitals. Mexico City_sentence_570

Among its many public and private schools (K–13), the city offers multi-cultural, multi-lingual and international schools attended by Mexican and foreign students. Mexico City_sentence_571

Best known are the Colegio Alemán (German school with three main campuses), the Liceo Mexicano Japonés (Japanese), the Centro Cultural Coreano en México (Korean), the Lycée Franco-Mexicain (French), the American School, The Westhill Institute (American School), the Edron Academy and the Greengates School (British). Mexico City_sentence_572

Shopping Mexico City_section_47

Mexico City offers an immense and varied consumer retail market, ranging from basic foods to ultra high-end luxury goods. Mexico City_sentence_573

Consumers may buy in fixed indoor markets, in mobile markets (tianguis), from street vendors, from downtown shops in a street dedicated to a certain type of good, in convenience stores and traditional neighborhood stores, in modern supermarkets, in warehouse and membership stores and the shopping centers that they anchor, in department stores, in big-box stores, and in modern shopping malls. Mexico City_sentence_574

In addition, "tianguis" or mobile markets set up shop on streets in many neighborhoods, depending on day of week. Mexico City_sentence_575

Sundays see the largest number of these markets. Mexico City_sentence_576

Traditional markets Mexico City_section_48

See also: Traditional fixed markets in Mexico Mexico City_sentence_577

The city's main source of fresh produce is the Central de Abasto. Mexico City_sentence_578

This in itself is a self-contained mini-city in Iztapalapa borough covering an area equivalent to several dozen city blocks. Mexico City_sentence_579

The wholesale market supplies most of the city's "mercados", supermarkets and restaurants, as well as people who come to buy the produce for themselves. Mexico City_sentence_580

Tons of fresh produce are trucked in from all over Mexico every day. Mexico City_sentence_581

The principal fish market is known as La Nueva Viga, in the same complex as the Central de Abastos. Mexico City_sentence_582

The world-renowned market of Tepito occupies 25 blocks, and sells a variety of products. Mexico City_sentence_583

A staple for consumers in the city is the omnipresent "mercado". Mexico City_sentence_584

Every major neighborhood in the city has its own borough-regulated market, often more than one. Mexico City_sentence_585

These are large well-established facilities offering most basic products, such as fresh produce and meat/poultry, dry goods, tortillerías, and many other services such as locksmiths, herbal medicine, hardware goods, sewing implements; and a multitude of stands offering freshly made, home-style cooking and drinks in the tradition of aguas frescas and atole. Mexico City_sentence_586

Street vendors Mexico City_section_49

Main article: Street vendors in Mexico City Mexico City_sentence_587

Street vendors ply their trade from stalls in the tianguis as well as at non-officially controlled concentrations around metro stations and hospitals; at plazas comerciales, where vendors of a certain "theme" (e.g. stationery) are housed; originally these were organized to accommodate vendors formerly selling on the street; or simply from improvised stalls on a city sidewalk. Mexico City_sentence_588

In addition, food and goods are sold from people walking with baskets, pushing carts, from bicycles or the backs of trucks, or simply from a tarp or cloth laid on the ground. Mexico City_sentence_589

In the centre of the city informal street vendors are increasingly targeted by laws and prosecution. Mexico City_sentence_590

The weekly San Felipe de Jesús Tianguis is reported to be the largest in Latin America. Mexico City_sentence_591

Downtown shopping Mexico City_section_50

The Historic Center of Mexico City is widely known for specialized, often low-cost retailers. Mexico City_sentence_592

Certain blocks or streets are dedicated to shops selling a certain type of merchandise, with areas dedicated to over 40 categories such as home appliances, lamps and electricals, closets and bathrooms, housewares, wedding dresses, jukeboxes, printing, office furniture and safes, books, photography, jewelry, and opticians. Mexico City_sentence_593

The main department stores are also represented downtown. Mexico City_sentence_594

Traditional markets downtown include the La Merced Market; the Mercado de Jamaica specializes in fresh flowers, the Mercado de Sonora in the occult, and La Lagunilla in furniture. Mexico City_sentence_595

Ethnic shopping areas are located in Chinatown, downtown along Calle Dolores, but Mexico City's Koreatown, or Pequeño Seúl, is located in the Zona Rosa. Mexico City_sentence_596

Supermarkets and neighborhood stores Mexico City_section_51

Large, modern chain supermarkets, hypermarkets and warehouse clubs including Soriana, Comercial Mexicana, Chedraui, Bodega Aurrerá, Walmart and Costco, are located across the city. Mexico City_sentence_597

Many anchor shopping centers that contain smaller shops, services, a food court and sometimes cinemas. Mexico City_sentence_598

Small "mom-and-pop" corner stores ("abarroterías" or more colloquially as "changarros") abound in all neighborhoods, rich and poor. Mexico City_sentence_599

These are small shops offering basics such as soft drinks, packaged snacks, canned goods and dairy products. Mexico City_sentence_600

Thousands of C-stores or corner stores, such as Oxxo, 7-Eleven and Extra are located throughout the city. Mexico City_sentence_601

Parks and recreation Mexico City_section_52

Chapultepec, the city's most iconic public park, has history back to the Aztec emperors who used the area as a retreat. Mexico City_sentence_602

It is south of Polanco district, and houses the Chapultepec Zoo the main city's zoo, several ponds and seven museums, including the National Museum of Anthropology. Mexico City_sentence_603

Other iconic city parks include the Alameda Central historic center, a city park since colonial times and renovated in 2013; Parque México and Parque España in the hip Condesa district; Parque Hundido and Parque de los Venados in Colonia del Valle, and Parque Lincoln in Polanco. Mexico City_sentence_604

There are many smaller parks throughout the city. Mexico City_sentence_605

Most are small "squares" occupying two or three square blocks amid residential or commercial districts. Mexico City_sentence_606

Several other larger parks such as the Bosque de Tlalpan and Viveros de Coyoacán, and in the east Alameda Oriente, offer many recreational activities. Mexico City_sentence_607

Northwest of the city is a large ecological reserve, the Bosque de Aragón. Mexico City_sentence_608

In the southeast is the Xochimilco Ecological Park and Plant Market, a World Heritage site. Mexico City_sentence_609

West of Santa Fe district are the pine forests of the Desierto de los Leones National Park. Mexico City_sentence_610

Amusement parks include Six Flags México, in Ajusco neighborhood which is the largest in Latin America. Mexico City_sentence_611

There are numerous seasonal fairs present in the city. Mexico City_sentence_612

Mexico City has three zoos. Mexico City_sentence_613

Chapultepec Zoo, the San Juan de Aragon Zoo and Los Coyotes Zoo. Mexico City_sentence_614

Chapultepec Zoo is located in the first section of Chapultepec Park in the Miguel Hidalgo. Mexico City_sentence_615

It was opened in 1924. Mexico City_sentence_616

Visitors can see about 243 specimens of different species including kangaroos, giant panda, gorillas, caracal, hyena, hippos, jaguar, giraffe, lemur, lion, among others. Mexico City_sentence_617

Zoo San Juan de Aragon is near the San Juan de Aragon Park in the Gustavo A. Madero. Mexico City_sentence_618

In this zoo, opened in 1964, there are species that are in danger of extinction such as the jaguar and the Mexican wolf. Mexico City_sentence_619

Other guests are the golden eagle, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, caracara, zebras, African elephant, macaw, hippo, among others. Mexico City_sentence_620

Zoo Los Coyotes is a 27.68-acre (11.2 ha) zoo located south of Mexico City in the Coyoacan. Mexico City_sentence_621

It was inaugurated on 2 February 1999. Mexico City_sentence_622

It has more than 301 specimens of 51 species of wild native or endemic fauna from the area, featuring eagles, ajolotes, coyotes, macaws, bobcats, Mexican wolves, raccoons, mountain lions, teporingos, foxes, white-tailed deer. Mexico City_sentence_623

Sports Mexico City_section_53

Mexico City_table_general_2

TeamMexico City_header_cell_2_0_0 StadiumMexico City_header_cell_2_0_1 SportMexico City_header_cell_2_0_2 LeagueMexico City_header_cell_2_0_3
AméricaMexico City_cell_2_1_0 Azteca StadiumMexico City_cell_2_1_1 Association footballMexico City_cell_2_1_2 Liga MXMexico City_cell_2_1_3
UNAMMexico City_cell_2_2_0 University Olympic StadiumMexico City_cell_2_2_1 Association footballMexico City_cell_2_2_2 Liga MXMexico City_cell_2_2_3
Cruz AzulMexico City_cell_2_3_0 Azteca StadiumMexico City_cell_2_3_1 Association footballMexico City_cell_2_3_2 Liga MXMexico City_cell_2_3_3
Diablos Rojos del MéxicoMexico City_cell_2_4_0 Fray Nano StadiumMexico City_cell_2_4_1 BaseballMexico City_cell_2_4_2 Mexican LeagueMexico City_cell_2_4_3
MayasMexico City_cell_2_5_0 Wilfrido Massieu StadiumMexico City_cell_2_5_1 American footballMexico City_cell_2_5_2 Liga de Fútbol Americano ProfesionalMexico City_cell_2_5_3
MexicasMexico City_cell_2_6_0 Casco de Santo Tomás ArenaMexico City_cell_2_6_1 American footballMexico City_cell_2_6_2 Liga de Fútbol Americano ProfesionalMexico City_cell_2_6_3
CondorsMexico City_cell_2_7_0 Jesús Martínez "Palillo" StadiumMexico City_cell_2_7_1 American footballMexico City_cell_2_7_2 Liga de Fútbol Americano ProfesionalMexico City_cell_2_7_3
Capitanes de Ciudad de MéxicoMexico City_cell_2_8_0 Juan de la Barrera Olympic GymnasiumMexico City_cell_2_8_1 BasketballMexico City_cell_2_8_2 Liga Nacional de Baloncesto ProfesionalMexico City_cell_2_8_3

Association football is the country's most popular and most televised franchised sport. Mexico City_sentence_624

Its important venues in Mexico City include the Azteca Stadium, home to the Mexico national football team and giants América, which can seat 91,653 fans, making it the biggest stadium in Latin America. Mexico City_sentence_625

The Olympic Stadium in Ciudad Universitaria is home to the football club giants Universidad Nacional, with a seating capacity of over 52,000. Mexico City_sentence_626

The Estadio Azul, which seats 33,042 fans, is near the World Trade Center Mexico City in the Nochebuena neighborhood, and is home to the giants Cruz Azul. Mexico City_sentence_627

The three teams are based in Mexico City and play in the First Division; they are also part, with Guadalajara-based giants Club Deportivo Guadalajara, of Mexico's traditional "Big Four" (though recent years have tended to erode the teams' leading status at least in standings). Mexico City_sentence_628

The country hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1970 and 1986, and Azteca Stadium is the first stadium in World Cup history to host the final twice. Mexico City_sentence_629

Mexico City is the first Latin American city to host the Olympic Games, having held the Summer Olympics in 1968, winning bids against Buenos Aires, Lyon and Detroit. Mexico City_sentence_630

The city hosted the 1955 and 1975 Pan American Games, the last after Santiago and São Paulo withdrew. Mexico City_sentence_631

The ICF Flatwater Racing World Championships were hosted here in 1974 and 1994. Mexico City_sentence_632

Lucha libre is a Mexican style of wrestling, and is one of the more popular sports throughout the country. Mexico City_sentence_633

The main venues in the city are Arena México and Arena Coliseo. Mexico City_sentence_634

The Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez is the main venue for motorsport, and hosts the Formula 1 Mexican Grand Prix since its return to the sport in 2015, the event being held in the past from 1962 to 1970, and again from 1986 to 1992. Mexico City_sentence_635

From 1980 to 1981 and again from 2002 to 2007, the circuit hosted the Champ Car World Series Gran Premio de México. Mexico City_sentence_636

Beginning in 2005, the NASCAR Nationwide Series ran the Telcel-Motorola México 200. Mexico City_sentence_637

2005 also marked the first running of the Mexico City 250 by the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. Mexico City_sentence_638

Both races were removed from their series' schedules for 2009. Mexico City_sentence_639

Baseball is another sport played professionally in the city. Mexico City_sentence_640

Mexico City is home of the Mexico City Red Devils of the Mexican League, which is considered a Triple-A league by Major League Baseball. Mexico City_sentence_641

The Devils play their home games at Estadio Alfredo Harp Helú designed by international Mexican-American architect Founder Francisco Gonzalez Pulido in collaboration with local architect Taller ADG. Mexico City_sentence_642

Mexico City has some 10 Little Leagues for young baseball players. Mexico City_sentence_643

In 2005, Mexico City became the first city to host an NFL regular season game outside of the United States, at the Azteca Stadium. Mexico City_sentence_644

The crowd of 103,467 people attending this game was the largest ever for a regular season game in NFL history until 2009. Mexico City_sentence_645

The city has also hosted several NBA pre-season games and has hosted international basketball's FIBA Americas Championship, along with north-of-the-border Major League Baseball exhibition games at Foro Sol. Mexico City_sentence_646

In 2017, NBA commissioner Adam Silver expressed interest in placing an NBA G League expansion team in Mexico City as early as 2018. Mexico City_sentence_647

This came to fruition on 12 December 2019 when commissioner Silver announced at a press conference in Mexico City Arena that LNBP team, Capitanes de Ciudad de México will be joining the G League in the 2020–21 season on a five-year agreement. Mexico City_sentence_648

Other sports facilities in Mexico City are the Palacio de los Deportes indoor arena, Francisco Márquez Olympic Swimming Pool, the Hipódromo de Las Américas, the Agustin Melgar Olympic Velodrome, and venues for equestrianism and horse racing, ice hockey, rugby, American-style football, baseball, and basketball. Mexico City_sentence_649

Bullfighting takes place every Sunday during bullfighting season at the 50,000-seat Plaza México, the world's largest bullring. Mexico City_sentence_650

Mexico City's golf courses have hosted Women's LPGA action, and two Men's Golf World Cups. Mexico City_sentence_651

Courses throughout the city are available as private as well as public venues. Mexico City_sentence_652

Media Mexico City_section_54

Mexico City is Latin America's leading center for the television, music and film industries. Mexico City_sentence_653

It is also Mexico's most important for the printed media and book publishing industries. Mexico City_sentence_654

Dozens of daily newspapers are published, including El Universal, Excélsior, Reforma and La Jornada. Mexico City_sentence_655

Other major papers include Milenio, Crónica, El Economista and El Financiero. Mexico City_sentence_656

Leading magazines include Expansión, Proceso, Poder, as well as dozens of entertainment publications such as Vanidades, Quién, Chilango, TV Notas, and local editions of Vogue, GQ, and Architectural Digest. Mexico City_sentence_657

It is also a leading center of the advertising industry. Mexico City_sentence_658

Most international ad firms have offices in the city, including Grey, JWT, Leo Burnett, Euro RSCG, BBDO, Ogilvy, Saatchi & Saatchi, and McCann Erickson. Mexico City_sentence_659

Many local firms also compete in the sector, including Alazraki, Olabuenaga/Chemistri, Terán, Augusto Elías, and Clemente Cámara, among others. Mexico City_sentence_660

There are 60 radio stations operating in the city and many local community radio transmission networks. Mexico City_sentence_661

The two largest media companies in the Spanish-speaking world, Televisa and TV Azteca, are headquartered in Mexico City. Mexico City_sentence_662

Other local television channels include: Mexico City_sentence_663

XHDF 1 (Azteca Uno), XEW 2 (Televisa W), XHCTMX 3, XHTV 4, XHGC 5, XHTDMX 6, XHIMT 7, XEQ 9, XEIPN 11, XHUNAM 20, XHCDM 21, XEIMT 22, XHTRES 28, XHTVM 40 and XHHCU 45. Mexico City_sentence_664

Nicknames and mottos Mexico City_section_55

Mexico City was traditionally known as La Ciudad de los Palacios ("the City of the Palaces"), a nickname attributed to Baron Alexander von Humboldt when visiting the city in the 19th century, who, sending a letter back to Europe, said Mexico City could rival any major city in Europe. Mexico City_sentence_665

But it was English politician Charles Latrobe who really penned the following: "... look at their works: the moles, aqueducts, churches, roads—and the luxurious City of Palaces which has risen from the clay-builts ruins of Tenochtitlan...", on page 84 of the Letter V of The Rambler in Mexico. Mexico City_sentence_666

During all the colony the city's motto was "Muy Noble e Insigne, Muy Leal e Imperial" (Very Noble and Distinguished, Very Loyal and Imperial). Mexico City_sentence_667

During Andrés López Obrador's administration a political slogan was introduced: la Ciudad de la Esperanza ("The City of Hope"). Mexico City_sentence_668

This motto was quickly adopted as a city nickname but has faded since the new motto, Capital en Movimiento ("Capital in Movement"), was adopted by the administration headed by Marcelo Ebrard, though the latter is not treated as often as a nickname in media. Mexico City_sentence_669

Since 2013, to refer to the City particularly in relation to government campaigns, the abbreviation CDMX has been used (from Ciudad de México), prior to this but recently, the abbreviation was "the DF" (from Distrito Federal de México). Mexico City_sentence_670

The city is colloquially known as Chilangolandia after the locals' nickname chilangos. Mexico City_sentence_671

Chilango is used pejoratively by people living outside Mexico City to "connote a loud, arrogant, ill-mannered, loutish person". Mexico City_sentence_672

For their part those living in Mexico City designate insultingly those who live elsewhere as living in la provincia ("the provinces", the periphery) and many proudly embrace the term chilango. Mexico City_sentence_673

Residents of Mexico City are more recently called defeños (deriving from the postal abbreviation of the Federal District in Spanish: D.F., which is read "De-Efe"). Mexico City_sentence_674

They are formally called capitalinos (in reference to the city being the capital of the country), but "[p]erhaps because capitalino is the more polite, specific, and correct word, it is almost never utilized". Mexico City_sentence_675

International relations Mexico City_section_56

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Mexico Mexico City_sentence_676

Twin towns – sister cities Mexico City_section_57

Mexico City is twinned with: Mexico City_sentence_677

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities Mexico City_section_58

Mexico City also is a part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities. Mexico City_sentence_678

See also Mexico City_section_59

Mexico City_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: City.