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This article is about the city in Florida. Miami_sentence_0

For other uses, see Miami (disambiguation). Miami_sentence_1


Miami, FloridaMiami_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMiami_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesMiami_cell_0_1_1
StateMiami_header_cell_0_2_0 FloridaMiami_cell_0_2_1
CountyMiami_header_cell_0_3_0 Miami-DadeMiami_cell_0_3_1
SettledMiami_header_cell_0_4_0 1825Miami_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedMiami_header_cell_0_5_0 July 28, 1896Miami_cell_0_5_1
Named forMiami_header_cell_0_6_0 MayaimiMiami_cell_0_6_1
TypeMiami_header_cell_0_8_0 Mayor–commissionMiami_cell_0_8_1
MayorMiami_header_cell_0_9_0 Francis X. Suarez (R)Miami_cell_0_9_1
City ManagerMiami_header_cell_0_10_0 Arthur NoriegaMiami_cell_0_10_1
Metropolitan cityMiami_header_cell_0_12_0 56.07 sq mi (145.23 km)Miami_cell_0_12_1
LandMiami_header_cell_0_13_0 36.00 sq mi (93.23 km)Miami_cell_0_13_1
WaterMiami_header_cell_0_14_0 20.08 sq mi (52.00 km)Miami_cell_0_14_1
UrbanMiami_header_cell_0_15_0 1,116.1 sq mi (2,891 km)Miami_cell_0_15_1
MetroMiami_header_cell_0_16_0 6,137 sq mi (15,890 km)Miami_cell_0_16_1
ElevationMiami_header_cell_0_17_0 6 ft (2 m)Miami_cell_0_17_1
Highest elevationMiami_header_cell_0_18_0 42 ft (13 m)Miami_cell_0_18_1
Lowest elevationMiami_header_cell_0_19_0 0 ft (0 m)Miami_cell_0_19_1
Population (2010)Miami_header_cell_0_20_0
Metropolitan cityMiami_header_cell_0_21_0 399,457Miami_cell_0_21_1
Estimate (2019)Miami_header_cell_0_22_0 467,963Miami_cell_0_22_1
RankMiami_header_cell_0_23_0 2nd in Florida

43rd in United StatesMiami_cell_0_23_1

DensityMiami_header_cell_0_24_0 13,000.42/sq mi (5,019.42/km)Miami_cell_0_24_1
UrbanMiami_header_cell_0_25_0 5,502,379 (US: 4th)Miami_cell_0_25_1
MetroMiami_header_cell_0_26_0 6,158,824 (US: 7th)Miami_cell_0_26_1
CSAMiami_header_cell_0_27_0 6,828,241 (US: 10th)Miami_cell_0_27_1
DemonymsMiami_header_cell_0_28_0 MiamianMiami_cell_0_28_1
Time zoneMiami_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))Miami_cell_0_29_1
Summer (DST)Miami_header_cell_0_30_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Miami_cell_0_30_1
ZIP CodesMiami_header_cell_0_31_0 33010–33299Miami_cell_0_31_1
Area code(s)Miami_header_cell_0_32_0 305 and 786Miami_cell_0_32_1
FIPS codeMiami_header_cell_0_33_0 12-45000Miami_cell_0_33_1
GNIS feature IDsMiami_header_cell_0_34_0 ,Miami_cell_0_34_1
Primary AirportMiami_header_cell_0_35_0 Miami International AirportMiami_cell_0_35_1
Secondary AirportsMiami_header_cell_0_36_0 Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport

Palm Beach International AirportMiami_cell_0_36_1

InterstatesMiami_header_cell_0_37_0 Interstate_75_in_Florida Interstate_95_in_Florida Interstate_195_in_Florida Interstate_395_in_FloridaMiami_cell_0_37_1
Rapid TransitMiami_header_cell_0_38_0 MetrorailMiami_cell_0_38_1
Commuter RailMiami_header_cell_0_39_0 Tri-Rail, Virgin Trains USAMiami_cell_0_39_1
WebsiteMiami_header_cell_0_40_0 Miami_cell_0_40_1

Miami (/maɪˈæmi/), officially the City of Miami, is a metropolis located in southeastern Florida in the United States. Miami_sentence_2

It is the third most populous metropolis on the East coast of the United States, and it is the seventh largest in the country. Miami_sentence_3

The city is an economic powerhouse, serving as the financial and business capital of Latin America. Miami_sentence_4

The city has the third tallest skyline in the U.S. with over 300 high-rises, 55 of which exceed 491 ft (150 m). Miami_sentence_5

Miami is a major center and leader in finance, commerce, culture, arts, and international trade. Miami_sentence_6

The metro area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States, with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. Miami_sentence_7

In 2020, Miami was classified as a Beta + level global city by the GaWC. Miami_sentence_8

In 2019, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 31st among global cities in business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement. Miami_sentence_9

According to a 2018 UBS study of 77 world cities, the city was ranked as the third-richest in the United States and the eighth-richest in the world in purchasing power. Miami_sentence_10

Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Miami_sentence_11

Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, and is home to many large national and international companies. Miami_sentence_12

The Health District is a major center for hospitals, clinics, and the biotechnology and medical research industries. Miami_sentence_13

PortMiami is the busiest cruise port in the world in both passenger traffic and cruise lines, and refers to itself as the "Cruise Capital of the World". Miami_sentence_14

Miami is also a major tourism hub for international visitors, ranking second in the country after New York City. Miami_sentence_15

History Miami_section_0

Main articles: History of Miami and Timeline of Miami Miami_sentence_16

See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Miami, Florida Miami_sentence_17

The Tequesta tribe occupied the Miami area for around 2,000 years before contact with Europeans. Miami_sentence_18

A village of hundreds of people, dating to 500–600 B.C., was located at the mouth of the Miami River. Miami_sentence_19

It is believed that the entire tribe migrated to Cuba by the mid-1700s. Miami_sentence_20

In 1566, admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. Miami_sentence_21

A Spanish mission was constructed one year later. Miami_sentence_22

Spain and Britain successively ruled Florida until Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. Miami_sentence_23

In 1836, the U.S. built Fort Dallas on the banks of the Miami River as part of its development of the Florida Territory and its attempt to suppress and remove the Seminoles. Miami_sentence_24

As a result, the Miami area became a site of fighting in the Second Seminole War. Miami_sentence_25

Miami is noted as the only major city in the United States founded by a woman. Miami_sentence_26

Julia Tuttle, a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native, was the original owner of the land upon which the city was built. Miami_sentence_27

In the late 19th century, the area was known as "Biscayne Bay Country", and reports described it as a promising wilderness and "one of the finest building sites in Florida". Miami_sentence_28

The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops there were the only ones in Florida that survived. Miami_sentence_29

Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced railroad tycoon Henry Flagler to extend his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami". Miami_sentence_30

Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. Miami_sentence_31

It was named for the Miami River, derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee and the Native Americans that lived around it. Miami_sentence_32

African American labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. Miami_sentence_33

During the early 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Miami_sentence_34

Despite their role in the city's growth, their community was limited to a small space. Miami_sentence_35

When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans around Avenue J (what would later become NW Fifth Avenue), a gang of white men with torches marched through the neighborhood and warned the residents to move or be bombed. Miami_sentence_36

Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure as northerners moved to the city. Miami_sentence_37

The legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami_sentence_38

Miami's chief of police at the time, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Miami_sentence_39

Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Miami_sentence_40

Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman". Miami_sentence_41

The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, and the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. Miami_sentence_42

When World War II began, Miami became a base for U.S. defense against German submarines due to its prime location on the southern coast of Florida. Miami_sentence_43

This brought an increase in Miami's population; 172,172 people lived in the city by 1940. Miami_sentence_44

The city's nickname, The Magic City, came from its rapid growth, which was noticed by winter visitors who remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic. Miami_sentence_45

After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba following the Revolution in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the city's population. Miami_sentence_46

Miami developed new businesses and cultural amenities as part of the New South in the 1980s and 1990s. Miami_sentence_47

At the same time, South Florida weathered social problems related to drug wars, immigration from Haiti and Latin America, and the widespread destruction of Hurricane Andrew. Miami_sentence_48

Racial and cultural tensions sometimes sparked, but the city developed in the latter half of the 20th century as a major international, financial, and cultural center. Miami_sentence_49

It is the second-largest U.S. city with a Spanish-speaking majority (after El Paso, Texas), and the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Miami_sentence_50

Geography Miami_section_1

Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay to the east, which extends from Lake Okeechobee southward to Florida Bay. Miami_sentence_51

The elevation of the area averages at around 6 ft (1.8 m) above sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. Miami_sentence_52

The highest points are found along the Miami Rock Ridge, which lies under most of the eastern Miami metro. Miami_sentence_53

The main portion of the city is on the shores of Biscayne Bay, which contains several hundred natural and artificial barrier islands, the largest of which contains Miami Beach and South Beach. Miami_sentence_54

The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24 km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year. Miami_sentence_55

Geology Miami_section_2

The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. Miami_sentence_56

This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 50 feet (15 m) thick. Miami_sentence_57

Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glacial periods, or ice ages. Miami_sentence_58

Beginning some 130,000 years ago, the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (8 m) above the current level. Miami_sentence_59

All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Miami_sentence_60

Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. Miami_sentence_61

The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Miami_sentence_62

Starting about 100,000 years ago, the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. Miami_sentence_63

By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped 300 to 350 feet (90 to 110 m) below the current level. Miami_sentence_64

The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4,000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level. Miami_sentence_65

Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer, a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay. Miami_sentence_66

It comes closest to the surface around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Miami_sentence_67

Most of the Miami metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from the Biscayne Aquifer. Miami_sentence_68

As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20 ft (5 to 6 m) beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction, though some underground parking garages exist. Miami_sentence_69

For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami are elevated or at-grade. Miami_sentence_70

Most of the western fringes of the city border the Everglades, a tropical marshland covering most of the southern portion of Florida. Miami_sentence_71

Alligators that live in the marshes have ventured into Miami communities and onto major highways. Miami_sentence_72

In land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. Miami_sentence_73

According to the U.S. Miami_sentence_74 Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 56.06 sq mi (145.2 km), of which 35.99 sq mi (93.2 km) is land and 20.08 sq mi (52.0 km) is water. Miami_sentence_75

That means Miami comprises over 470,000 people in about 36 square miles (93 km), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, along with New York City, San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia. Miami_sentence_76

Cityscape Miami_section_3

See also: List of tallest buildings in Miami Miami_sentence_77

Neighborhoods Miami_section_4

Main article: Neighborhoods in Miami Miami_sentence_78

Miami is split roughly into north, south, west and Downtown areas. Miami_sentence_79

The heart of the city is Downtown Miami, which is on the eastern side and includes the neighborhoods of Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, as well as PortMiami. Miami_sentence_80

Downtown Miami is Florida's largest and most influential central business district, with many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. Miami_sentence_81

Brickell Avenue has the largest concentration of international banks in the United States. Miami_sentence_82

Just northwest of Downtown is the Health District, which is Miami's center for hospitals, research institutes and biotechnology, with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital and the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine. Miami_sentence_83

The southern side of Miami includes the neighborhoods of Coral Way, The Roads and Coconut Grove. Miami_sentence_84

Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 between Downtown and Coral Gables, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Miami_sentence_85

Coconut Grove, established in 1825, is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy. Miami_sentence_86

It is the location of Miami's City Hall at Dinner Key, the former Coconut Grove Playhouse, CocoWalk, and the Coconut Grove Convention Center. Miami_sentence_87

It is also home to many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, and bohemian shops, which makes it very popular with local college students. Miami_sentence_88

Coconut Grove is known for its many parks and gardens, such as Vizcaya Museum, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and numerous other historic homes and estates. Miami_sentence_89

The western side of Miami includes the neighborhoods of Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami. Miami_sentence_90

Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities. Miami_sentence_91

The northern side of Miami includes Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity ranging from West Indians to Hispanics to European Americans. Miami_sentence_92

The Edgewater neighborhood of Midtown is mostly composed of high-rise residential towers and is home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts. Miami_sentence_93

Wynwood is an art district with ten galleries in former warehouses, as well as a large outdoor mural project. Miami_sentence_94

The wealthier residents of Miami usually live in the Design District and the Upper Eastside, which has many 1920s homes as well as examples of Miami Modern architecture in the MiMo Historic District. Miami_sentence_95

The northern side of Miami also has notable African-American and Caribbean immigrant communities, including Little Haiti, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater), and Liberty City. Miami_sentence_96

Climate Miami_section_5

Main article: Climate of Miami Miami_sentence_97

Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am) with a marked drier season in the winter. Miami_sentence_98

Although it is relatively cooler than most other tropical places in the winter and does get occasional 40 degree Fahrenheit (4 °C) lows, Miami nevertheless meets the minimum requirements to be in the tropical climate zone, making it one of the northernmost major cities on Earth within this classification. Miami_sentence_99

The city's sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the Gulf Stream shape its climate. Miami_sentence_100

Average winter high temperatures, from December to March, range from 76.4–80.3 °F (24.7–26.8 °C). Miami_sentence_101

January is the coolest month with an average daily temperature of 68.2 °F (20.1 °C). Miami_sentence_102

Low temperatures fall below 50 °F (10 °C) about 10–15 nights during the winter season, after the passage of cold fronts that produce much of the winter rainfall. Miami_sentence_103

The wet season begins sometime in June, ending in mid-October. Miami_sentence_104

During this period, temperatures range from the mid 80s to low 90s °F (29–35 °C) and are accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved in the afternoon by thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean. Miami_sentence_105

Much of the year's 61.9 inches (1,572 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period. Miami_sentence_106

Dew points in the warm months range from 71.9 °F (22.2 °C) in June to 73.7 °F (23.2 °C) in August. Miami_sentence_107

Extremes range from 27 °F (−2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917 to 100 °F (38 °C) on July 21, 1942. Miami_sentence_108

While Miami has never recorded snowfall at any official weather station since records have been kept, snow flurries fell in some parts of the city on January 19, 1977. Miami_sentence_109

Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. Miami_sentence_110

The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season, which is mid-August through the end of September. Miami_sentence_111

Although tornadoes are uncommon in the area, one struck in 1925 and another in 1997. Miami_sentence_112

Around 40% of homes in Miami are built upon floodplains and are considered as flood-risk zones.will Miami_sentence_113

Miami falls under the Department of Agriculture's 10b/11a plant hardiness zone. Miami_sentence_114

Miami is one of the major coastal cities and major cities in the United States that will be most affected by climate change. Miami_sentence_115

Global sea level rise, which in Miami will be 31 inches until 2060, will lead to an increase in storm damage, more intense flooding and will threaten the city's water supply. Miami_sentence_116

Real estate prices in Miami already reflect the increase in prices for real estate at a higher elevation within the city compared to real estate at a lower elevation. Miami_sentence_117

Demographics Miami_section_6

The city proper is home to less than one-thirteenth of the population of South Florida. Miami_sentence_118

Miami is the 42nd-most populous city in the United States. Miami_sentence_119

The Miami metropolitan area, however, which includes Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, had a combined population of more than 5.5 million people, ranked seventh largest in the United States, and is the largest metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. Miami_sentence_120

As of 2008, the United Nations estimates that the Miami Urban Agglomeration is the 44th-largest in the world. Miami_sentence_121

In 1960, Hispanics made up about 5% of the population of Miami-Dade County. Miami_sentence_122

Between 1960 and 2000, 90% of the population growth in the county was made up of Hispanics, raising the Hispanic portion of the population to more than 57% by 2000. Miami_sentence_123

In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Miami's population as 45.3% Hispanic, 32.9% non-Hispanic White, and 22.7% Black. Miami_sentence_124

Miami's explosive population growth has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country, primarily up until the 1980s, as well as by immigration, primarily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Miami_sentence_125

Today, immigration to Miami has continued and Miami's growth today is attributed greatly to its fast urbanization and high-rise construction, which has increased its inner city neighborhood population densities, such as in Downtown, Brickell, and Edgewater, where one area in Downtown alone saw a 2,069% increase in population in the 2010 Census. Miami_sentence_126

Miami is regarded as more of a multicultural mosaic, than it is a melting pot, with residents still maintaining much of, or some of their cultural traits. Miami_sentence_127

The overall culture of Miami is heavily influenced by its large population of Hispanics from the Caribbean and South America and black people mainly from the Caribbean islands. Miami_sentence_128

Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages Miami_section_7

Miami has a minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 11.9%, down from 41.7% in 1970. Miami_sentence_129

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) make up 70% of Miami's population. Miami_sentence_130

As of the 2010 census, the racial makeup of the population of Miami was 72.6% White American (including White Hispanic), 19.2% Black or African American, 1% Asian American, and the remainder belonged to other groups or was of mixed ancestry. Miami_sentence_131

The 2010 US Census reported that the Hispanic population in Miami accounted for 70% of its total population, with 34.4% of city residents being of Cuban origin, 15.8% had a Central American background (7.2% Nicaraguan, 5.8% Honduran, 1.2% Salvadoran, and 1.0% Guatemalan), 8.7% were of South American descent (3.2% Colombian, 1.4% Venezuelan, 1.2% Peruvian, 1.2% Argentine, 1.0% Chilean and 0.7% Ecuadorian), 4.0% had other Hispanic or Latino origins (0.5% Spaniard), 3.2% descended from Puerto Ricans, 2.4% were Dominican, and 1.5% had Mexican ancestry. Miami_sentence_132

As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 19.2% of Miami's population. Miami_sentence_133

Of the city's total population, 5.6% were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American origin (4.4% Haitian, 0.4% Jamaican, 0.4% Bahamian, 0.1% British West Indian, and 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian, 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian), 3.0% were Black Hispanics, and 0.4% were Subsaharan African origin. Miami_sentence_134

As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 11.9% of Miami's population. Miami_sentence_135

Of the city's total population, 1.7% were German, 1.6% Italian, 1.4% Irish, 1.0% English, 0.8% French, 0.6% Russian, and 0.5% were Polish. Miami_sentence_136

Since the 1960s, there has been massive white flight with many non-Hispanic whites moving outside Miami due to the influx of immigrants settling in most parts of Miami. Miami_sentence_137

As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.0% of Miami's population. Miami_sentence_138

Of the city's total population, 0.3% were Indian people/Indo-Caribbean American (1,206 people), 0.3% Chinese (1,804 people), 0.2% Filipino (647 people), 0.1% were other Asian (433 people), 0.1% Japanese (245 people), 0.1% Korean (213 people), and 0.0% were Vietnamese (125 people). Miami_sentence_139

In 2010, 1.9% of the population considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.) Miami_sentence_140

while 0.5% were of Arab ancestry, as of 2010. Miami_sentence_141

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Miami (68%), with 39% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 27% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. Miami_sentence_142

followed by Judaism (9%); Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and a variety of other religions have smaller followings; atheism or no self-identifying organized religious affiliation was practiced by 21%. Miami_sentence_143

There has been a Norwegian Seamen's church in Miami since the early 1980s. Miami_sentence_144

In November 2011, Crown Princess Mette-Marit opened a new building for the church. Miami_sentence_145

The church was built as a center for the 10,000 Scandinavians that live in Florida. Miami_sentence_146

Around 4,000 of them are Norwegian. Miami_sentence_147

The church is also an important place for the 150 Norwegians that work at Disney World. Miami_sentence_148

As of 2016, a total of 73% of Miami's population age five and over spoke a language other than English at home. Miami_sentence_149

Of this 73%, 64.5% of the population only spoke Spanish at home while 21.1% of the population spoke English at home. Miami_sentence_150

About 7% spoke other Indo-European languages at home, while about 0.9% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. Miami_sentence_151

The remaining 0.7% of the population spoke other languages at home. Miami_sentence_152

As of 2010, 70.2% of Miami's population age five and over spoke only Spanish at home while 22.7% of the population spoke English at home. Miami_sentence_153

About 6.3% spoke other Indo-European languages at home. Miami_sentence_154

About 0.4% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. Miami_sentence_155

The remaining 0.3% of the population spoke other languages at home. Miami_sentence_156

In total, 77.3% spoke another language other than English. Miami_sentence_157

Education, households, income, and poverty Miami_section_8

As of 2010, 80% of people over age 25 were a High School graduate or higher. Miami_sentence_158

27.3% of people in Miami had a bachelor's degree or higher. Miami_sentence_159

As of 2010, there were 158,317 households, of which 14.0% were vacant. Miami_sentence_160

22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 18.1% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. Miami_sentence_161

33.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4.0% male and 7.3% female.) Miami_sentence_162

The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.15. Miami_sentence_163

In 2010, the city population was spread out, with 18.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. Miami_sentence_164

The median age was 38.8 years. Miami_sentence_165

For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. Miami_sentence_166

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. Miami_sentence_167

In 2010, 58.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 41.1% being naturalized American citizens. Miami_sentence_168

Of foreign-born residents, 95.4% were born in Latin America, 2.4% were born in Europe, 1.4% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.2% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania. Miami_sentence_169

In 2004, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) reported that Miami had the highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any major city worldwide (59%), followed by Toronto (50%). Miami_sentence_170

About 22.2% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line at the census, including 37.1% of those under age 18 and 32.8% of those aged 65 or over. Miami_sentence_171


Miami demographicsMiami_header_cell_1_0_0
2010 CensusMiami_header_cell_1_1_0 MiamiMiami_header_cell_1_1_1 Miami-Dade CountyMiami_header_cell_1_1_2 FloridaMiami_header_cell_1_1_3
Total populationMiami_cell_1_2_0 399,457Miami_cell_1_2_1 2,496,435Miami_cell_1_2_2 18,801,310Miami_cell_1_2_3
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010Miami_cell_1_3_0 +10.2%Miami_cell_1_3_1 +10.8%Miami_cell_1_3_2 +17.6%Miami_cell_1_3_3
Population densityMiami_cell_1_4_0 11,135.9/sq mi


1,315.5/sq mi


350.6/sq mi


White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)Miami_cell_1_5_0 72.6%Miami_cell_1_5_1 73.8%Miami_cell_1_5_2 75.0%Miami_cell_1_5_3
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Miami_cell_1_6_0 70.0%Miami_cell_1_6_1 65.0%Miami_cell_1_6_2 22.5%Miami_cell_1_6_3
Black or African-AmericanMiami_cell_1_7_0 19.2%Miami_cell_1_7_1 18.9%Miami_cell_1_7_2 16.0%Miami_cell_1_7_3
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)Miami_cell_1_8_0 11.9%Miami_cell_1_8_1 15.4%Miami_cell_1_8_2 57.9%Miami_cell_1_8_3
AsianMiami_cell_1_9_0 1.0%Miami_cell_1_9_1 1.5%Miami_cell_1_9_2 2.4%Miami_cell_1_9_3
Native American or Native AlaskanMiami_cell_1_10_0 0.3%Miami_cell_1_10_1 0.2%Miami_cell_1_10_2 0.4%Miami_cell_1_10_3
Pacific Islander or Native HawaiianMiami_cell_1_11_0 0.0%Miami_cell_1_11_1 0.0%Miami_cell_1_11_2 0.1%Miami_cell_1_11_3
Two or more races (Multiracial)Miami_cell_1_12_0 2.7%Miami_cell_1_12_1 2.4%Miami_cell_1_12_2 2.5%Miami_cell_1_12_3
Some Other RaceMiami_cell_1_13_0 4.2%Miami_cell_1_13_1 3.2%Miami_cell_1_13_2 3.6%Miami_cell_1_13_3

Economy Miami_section_9

See also: List of companies based in Miami Miami_sentence_172

Miami is a major center of commerce and finance and boasts a strong international business community. Miami_sentence_173

According to the 2020 ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami is considered an Beta + level world city. Miami_sentence_174

Miami has a Gross Metropolitan Product of $257 billion, ranking 11th in the United States and 20th worldwide in GMP. Miami_sentence_175

Several large companies are headquartered in Miami, including but not limited to Akerman LLP, Alienware, Arquitectonica, Brightstar Corporation, Celebrity Cruises, Carnival Corporation, Duany Plater-Zyberk, Element Solutions, Greenberg Traurig, Inktel Direct, Lennar Corporation, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, OPKO Health, Parkjockey, RCTV International, Royal Caribbean International, Sitel, Southern Wine & Spirits, Telefónica USA, Telemundo, Vector Group, Watsco and World Fuel Services. Miami_sentence_176

Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for more than 1400 multinational corporations, including AIG, American Airlines, Cisco Systems, Disney, ExxonMobil, FedEx, Kraft Foods, LEO Pharma Americas, Microsoft, Yahoo! Miami_sentence_177 , Oracle, Sony, Symantec, Visa, and Walmart. Miami_sentence_178

Additionally, companies based in nearby cities or unincorporated areas of Miami-Dade County include Bacardi, Benihana, Burger King, Carnival Cruise Line, Navarro Discount Pharmacies, Perry Ellis International, Ryder, Sedano's, UniMás, Univision, and U.S. Miami_sentence_179 Century Bank. Miami_sentence_180

Miami is a major television production center, and the most important city in the United States for Spanish language media. Miami_sentence_181

Telemundo and UniMás have their headquarters in the Miami area. Miami_sentence_182

Univisión Studios and Telemundo Studios produce much of the original programming for their respective parent networks, such as telenovelas, news, sports, and talk shows. Miami_sentence_183

In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami. Miami_sentence_184

Miami is also a significant music recording center, with the Sony Music Latin headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels. Miami_sentence_185

The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shoots. Miami_sentence_186

During the mid-2000s, the city witnessed its largest real estate boom since the Florida land boom of the 1920s, and the city had well over a hundred approved high-rise construction projects. Miami_sentence_187

However, only 50 were actually built. Miami_sentence_188

Rapid high-rise construction led to fast population growth in the Miami's inner neighborhoods, with Downtown, Brickell and Edgewater becoming the fastest-growing areas of the city. Miami_sentence_189

The city currently has the seven tallest (as well as fifteen of top twenty) skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the 868-foot (265 m) Panorama Tower. Miami_sentence_190

The housing market crash of 2007 caused a foreclosure crisis in the area. Miami_sentence_191

In 2012, Forbes magazine named Miami the most miserable city in the United States because of the crippling housing crisis that cost multitudes of residents their homes and jobs. Miami_sentence_192

In addition, the metro area has one of the highest violent crime rates in the country and workers face lengthy daily commutes. Miami_sentence_193

Like other metro areas in the United States, crime in Miami is localized to specific neighborhoods. Miami_sentence_194

In a 2016 study by the website 24/7 Wall Street, Miami was rated as the worst U.S. city in which to live, based on crime, poverty, income inequality and housing costs that far exceed the national median. Miami_sentence_195

Miami International Airport (MIA) and PortMiami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. Miami_sentence_196

PortMiami is the world's busiest cruise port, and MIA is the busiest airport in Florida and the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America. Miami_sentence_197

Due to its strength in international business, finance and trade, the city has among the largest concentration of international banks in the country, primarily along Brickell Avenue in Brickell, Miami's financial district. Miami_sentence_198

Miami was the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations. Miami_sentence_199

Miami is the home to the National Hurricane Center and the headquarters of the United States Southern Command, responsible for military operations in Central and South America. Miami_sentence_200

Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. Miami_sentence_201

These industries are centered largely on the western fringes of the city near Doral and Hialeah. Miami_sentence_202

According to the U.S. Miami_sentence_203 Census Bureau in 2012, Miami had the fourth highest percentage of family incomes below the federal poverty line out of all large cities in the United States, behind Detroit, Michigan, Cleveland, Ohio, and Cincinnati, Ohio, respectively. Miami_sentence_204

Miami is also one of the very few cities in the U.S. where the local government has gone bankrupt, in 2001. Miami_sentence_205

On the other hand, Miami has won accolades for its environmental policies: in 2008, it was ranked as "America's Cleanest City" according to Forbes for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and citywide recycling programs. Miami_sentence_206

PortMiami Miami_section_10

Main article: PortMiami Miami_sentence_207

Miami is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the PortMiami. Miami_sentence_208

It is the largest cruise ship port in the world, and is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas". Miami_sentence_209

It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade, accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. Miami_sentence_210

In 2017, the port served 5,340,559 cruise passengers. Miami_sentence_211

Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 9,162,340 tons of cargo in 2017. Miami_sentence_212

Among North American ports, it ranks second to New Orleans' Port of South Louisiana in cargo tonnage imported from Latin America. Miami_sentence_213

The port sits on 518 acres (2 km) and has seven passenger terminals. Miami_sentence_214

China is the port's number one import country and number one export country. Miami_sentence_215

Miami has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Royal Caribbean International. Miami_sentence_216

In 2014, the Port of Miami Tunnel was opened, connecting the MacArthur Causeway to PortMiami. Miami_sentence_217

Tourism and conventions Miami_section_11

Tourism is one of the Miami's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than 144,800 jobs in Miami-Dade County. Miami_sentence_218

The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. Miami_sentence_219

In 2016, it attracted the second-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States, after New York City, and is among the top 20 cities worldwide by international visitor spending. Miami_sentence_220

More than 15.9 million visitors arrived in Miami in 2017, adding $26.1 billion to the economy. Miami_sentence_221

With a large hotel infrastructure and the newly renovated Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences. Miami_sentence_222

Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Miami include South Beach, Lincoln Road, Bayside Marketplace, Downtown Miami, and Brickell City Centre. Miami_sentence_223

The Art Deco District in Miami Beach is reputed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Miami_sentence_224

Annual events such as the Miami Open, Art Basel, the Winter Music Conference, the South Beach Wine and Food Festival, and Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami attract millions to the metropolis every year. Miami_sentence_225

Culture Miami_section_12

See also: Miami in popular culture, LGBT culture in Miami, and List of films and television shows set in Miami Miami_sentence_226

Miami enjoys a vibrant culture that is influenced by a diverse population from all around the world. Miami_sentence_227

Miami is known as the "Magic City" for seemingly popping up overnight due to its young age and massive growth. Miami_sentence_228

It is also nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" because of its high population of Spanish-speakers. Miami_sentence_229

Miami has been the setting of numerous films and television shows, including Miami Vice, Burn Notice, Jane the Virgin, Scarface, The Birdcage, Ace Ventura: Pet Detective. Miami_sentence_230

The fictional Vice City, featured in several video games across the Grand Theft Auto series, most notably Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, is based on Miami. Miami_sentence_231

Entertainment and performing arts Miami_section_13

Main article: Music of Miami Miami_sentence_232

In addition to annual festivals like the Calle Ocho Festival, Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. Miami_sentence_233

The newest addition to the Miami arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, home of the Florida Grand Opera and the second-largest performing arts center in the United States after Lincoln Center in New York City. Miami_sentence_234

The center attracts many large-scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world. Miami_sentence_235

Other performing arts venues in Miami include the Olympia Theater, Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Fair Expo Center, the Tower Theater, and the Bayfront Park Amphitheater. Miami_sentence_236

Another celebrated event is the Miami International Film Festival, taking place every year for 10 days around the first week of March, during which independent international and American films are screened across the city. Miami_sentence_237

Miami has over a half dozen independent film theaters. Miami_sentence_238

Miami attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. Miami_sentence_239

The city has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Miami_sentence_240

These include the Florida Grand Opera, FIU School of Music, Frost School of Music, and the New World School of the Arts. Miami_sentence_241

Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. Miami_sentence_242

The city is host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami, held in the Wynwood Art District. Miami_sentence_243

Miami will be having their first boat-in movie theater on Saturday, July 25, 2020. Miami_sentence_244

This idea came about because of the social distancing efforts amid the COVID-19-Pandemic. Miami_sentence_245

The event is $50 per boat and there is no swimming allowed in the area. Miami_sentence_246

Guests are expected to bring their own boat and to remain inside of it for safety. Miami_sentence_247

Other cities implementing similar ideas are: Chicago, Los Angeles, Cincinnati, NYC and Paris. Miami_sentence_248

Museums and visual arts Miami_section_14

Some of the museums in Miami include the Frost Art Museum, Frost Museum of Science, HistoryMiami, Institute of Contemporary Art, Miami Children's Museum, Pérez Art Museum, Lowe Art Museum, and the Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, a National Historic Landmark set on a 28-acre early 20th century estate in Coconut Grove. Miami_sentence_249

Cuisine Miami_section_15

The cuisine of Miami is a reflection of its diverse population, with a heavy influence from Caribbean and Latin American cuisine. Miami_sentence_250

By combining the two with American cuisine, it has spawned a unique South Florida style of cooking known as Floribbean cuisine. Miami_sentence_251

It is widely available throughout Miami and South Florida and can be found in restaurant chains such as Pollo Tropical. Miami_sentence_252

Cuban immigrants in the 1960s originated the Cuban sandwich and brought medianoche, Cuban espresso, and croquetas, all of which have grown in popularity among all Miamians and have become symbols of the city's varied cuisine. Miami_sentence_253

Today, these are part of the local culture and can be found throughout the city at window cafés, particularly outside of supermarkets and restaurants. Miami_sentence_254

Some of these locations, such as the Versailles restaurant in Little Havana, are landmark eateries of Miami. Miami_sentence_255

Located on the Atlantic Ocean, and with a long history as a seaport, Miami is also known for its seafood, with many seafood restaurants located along the Miami River and in and around Biscayne Bay. Miami_sentence_256

The city is also the headquarters of restaurant chains such as Burger King and Benihana. Miami_sentence_257

Dialect Miami_section_16

Main article: Miami accent Miami_sentence_258

The Miami area has a unique dialect, commonly called the "Miami accent", that is widely spoken. Miami_sentence_259

The accent developed among second- or third-generation Hispanics, including Cuban Americans, whose first language was English (though some non-Hispanic white, black, and other races who were born and raised in the Miami area tend to adopt it as well). Miami_sentence_260

It is based on a fairly standard American accent but with some changes, very similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic (especially those in the New York area and Northern New Jersey, including New York Latino English). Miami_sentence_261

Unlike Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, Northeast American dialects and Florida Cracker dialect, "Miami accent" is rhotic; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish (wherein rhythm is syllable-timed). Miami_sentence_262

This is a native dialect of English, not learner English or interlanguage; it is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second-language speakers in that the "Miami accent" does not generally display the following features: there is no addition of /ɛ/ before initial consonant clusters with /s/, speakers do not confuse of /dʒ/ with /j/, (e.g., Yale with jail), and /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced as alveolar approximant [ɹ instead of alveolar tap [ɾ] or alveolar trill [r] in Spanish. Miami_sentence_263

Sports Miami_section_17

See also: Sport in Miami Miami_sentence_264

Miami's main five sports teams are the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association, the Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball, the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League, and Inter Miami CF of Major League Soccer. Miami_sentence_265

The Miami Open, an annual tennis tournament, was previously held in Key Biscayne before moving to Hard Rock Stadium after the tournament was purchased by Miami Dolphins owner Stephen Ross in 2019. Miami_sentence_266

The city is home to numerous greyhound racing tracks, marinas, jai alai venues, and golf courses. Miami_sentence_267

The city streets have hosted professional auto races in the past, most notably the open-wheel Grand Prix of Miami and the sports car Grand Prix of Miami. Miami_sentence_268

The Homestead-Miami Speedway oval hosts NASCAR races. Miami_sentence_269

The Heat and the Marlins play within Miami's city limits, at the American Airlines Arena in Downtown and Marlins Park in Little Havana, respectively. Miami_sentence_270

Marlins Park is built on the site of the old Miami Orange Bowl stadium. Miami_sentence_271

The Miami Dolphins play at Hard Rock Stadium in suburban Miami Gardens, while the Florida Panthers play in nearby Sunrise at the BB&T Center. Miami_sentence_272

Inter Miami CF plays at Inter Miami CF Stadium in nearby Fort Lauderdale, temporarily until a stadium is built in Miami. Miami_sentence_273

The Orange Bowl, one of the major bowl games in the College Football Playoff of the NCAA, is played at Hard Rock Stadium every winter. Miami_sentence_274

The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the Miami metro area has hosted the game a total of ten times (five times at the current Hard Rock Stadium and five at the Miami Orange Bowl), tying New Orleans for the most games. Miami_sentence_275

Miami is also the home of many college sports teams. Miami_sentence_276

The two largest are the University of Miami Hurricanes, whose football team plays at Hard Rock Stadium and Florida International University Panthers, whose football team plays at Ricardo Silva Stadium. Miami_sentence_277

Miami is also home to Paso Fino horses, and competitions are held at Tropical Park Equestrian Center. Miami_sentence_278

The following table shows the major professional and Division I college teams in the Miami metro area with an average attendance of more than 10,000: Miami_sentence_279


Major professional and D-I college teams (attendance > 10,000)Miami_table_caption_2
ClubMiami_header_cell_2_0_0 SportMiami_header_cell_2_0_1 LeagueMiami_header_cell_2_0_2 Venue (Capacity)Miami_header_cell_2_0_3 AttendanceMiami_header_cell_2_0_4 League ChampionshipsMiami_header_cell_2_0_5
Miami DolphinsMiami_cell_2_1_0 FootballMiami_cell_2_1_1 National Football LeagueMiami_cell_2_1_2 Hard Rock Stadium (64,767)Miami_cell_2_1_3 70,035Miami_cell_2_1_4 Super Bowl (2) — 1972, 1973Miami_cell_2_1_5
Miami HurricanesMiami_cell_2_2_0 FootballMiami_cell_2_2_1 NCAA D-I (ACC)Miami_cell_2_2_2 Hard Rock Stadium (64,767)Miami_cell_2_2_3 53,837Miami_cell_2_2_4 National titles (5) — 1983, 1987, 1989, 1991, 2001Miami_cell_2_2_5
Miami MarlinsMiami_cell_2_3_0 BaseballMiami_cell_2_3_1 Major League BaseballMiami_cell_2_3_2 Marlins Park (36,742)Miami_cell_2_3_3 21,386Miami_cell_2_3_4 World Series (2) — 1997, 2003Miami_cell_2_3_5
Miami HeatMiami_cell_2_4_0 BasketballMiami_cell_2_4_1 National Basketball AssociationMiami_cell_2_4_2 American Airlines Arena (19,600)Miami_cell_2_4_3 19,710Miami_cell_2_4_4 NBA Finals (3) — 2006, 2012, 2013Miami_cell_2_4_5
FIU PanthersMiami_cell_2_5_0 FootballMiami_cell_2_5_1 NCAA D-I (Conference USA)Miami_cell_2_5_2 FIU Stadium (23,500)Miami_cell_2_5_3 15,453Miami_cell_2_5_4 NoneMiami_cell_2_5_5
Florida PanthersMiami_cell_2_6_0 HockeyMiami_cell_2_6_1 National Hockey LeagueMiami_cell_2_6_2 BB&T Center (19,250)Miami_cell_2_6_3 10,250Miami_cell_2_6_4 NoneMiami_cell_2_6_5

Beaches and parks Miami_section_18

The City of Miami has various lands operated by the National Park Service, the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, and the City of Miami Department of Parks and Recreation. Miami_sentence_280

Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoor activities. Miami_sentence_281

The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoor activities. Miami_sentence_282

Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs that make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. Miami_sentence_283

There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city. Miami_sentence_284

The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park and Museum Park (located in the heart of Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena and Bayside Marketplace), Tropical Park, Peacock Park, Virginia Key, and Watson Island. Miami_sentence_285

Other popular cultural destinations in or near Miami include Zoo Miami, Jungle Island, the Miami Seaquarium, Monkey Jungle, Coral Castle, Charles Deering Estate, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, and Key Biscayne. Miami_sentence_286

In its 2018 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in the City of Miami was the 50th best park system among the 100 most populous US cities, down slightly from 48th place in the 2017 ranking. Miami_sentence_287

ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents. Miami_sentence_288

Law and government Miami_section_19

Main article: Government of the City of Miami Miami_sentence_289

The government of the City of Miami uses the mayor-commissioner type of system. Miami_sentence_290

The city commission consists of five commissioners that are elected from single member districts. Miami_sentence_291

The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances, adopt regulations, and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter. Miami_sentence_292

The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. Miami_sentence_293

The City of Miami is governed by Mayor Francis X. Suarez and 5 city commissioners that oversee the five districts in the city. Miami_sentence_294

The commission's regular meetings are held at Miami City Hall, which is located at 3500 Pan American Drive on Dinner Key in the neighborhood of Coconut Grove. Miami_sentence_295

City Commission Miami_section_20

See also: List of mayors of Miami Miami_sentence_296




  • Ken Russell (D) – Miami Commissioner, District 2Miami_item_2_4



  • Joe Carollo (R) – Miami Commissioner, District 3Miami_item_4_7



  • Manolo Reyes (D) – Miami Commissioner, District 4Miami_item_6_10



  • Jeffrey Watson (D) – Miami Commissioner, District 5Miami_item_8_13



  • Arthur Noriega – City ManagerMiami_item_10_16
  • Victoria Méndez – City AttorneyMiami_item_10_17
  • Todd B. Hannon – City ClerkMiami_item_10_18

Education Miami_section_21

Colleges and universities Miami_section_22

Miami-Dade County has over 200,000 students enrolled in local colleges and universities, placing it seventh in the nation in per capita university enrollment. Miami_sentence_297

In 2010, the city's four largest colleges and universities (MDC, FIU, UM, and Barry) graduated 28,000 students. Miami_sentence_298

Miami is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other, related educational programs. Miami_sentence_299

Per Scholas, for example is a nonprofit organization that offers free professional certification training directed towards successfully passing CompTIA A+ and Network+ certification exams as a route to securing jobs and building careers. Miami_sentence_300

Colleges and universities in and around Miami: Miami_sentence_301


Primary and secondary schools Miami_section_23

Main article: Miami-Dade County Public Schools Miami_sentence_302

Public schools in Miami are governed by Miami-Dade County Public Schools, which is the largest school district in Florida and the fourth-largest in the United States. Miami_sentence_303

As of September 2008 it has a student enrollment of 385,655 and over 392 schools and centers. Miami_sentence_304

The district is also the largest minority public school system in the country, with 60% of its students being of Hispanic origin, 28% Black or West Indian American, 10% White (non-Hispanic) and 2% non-white of other minorities. Miami_sentence_305

Miami is home to some of the nation's best high schools, such as Design and Architecture High School, ranked the nation's best magnet school, MAST Academy, Coral Reef High School, ranked 20th-best public high school in the U.S., Miami Palmetto High School, and the New World School of the Arts. Miami_sentence_306

M-DCPS is also one of a few public school districts in the United States to offer optional bilingual education in Spanish, French, German, Haitian Creole, and Mandarin Chinese. Miami_sentence_307

Miami is home to several well-known Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools. Miami_sentence_308

The Archdiocese of Miami operates the city's Catholic private schools, which include St. Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Theresa School, Immaculata-Lasalle High School, Monsignor Edward Pace High School, Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame High School, St. Miami_sentence_309 Brendan High School, among numerous other Catholic elementary and high schools. Miami_sentence_310

Catholic preparatory schools operated by religious orders are Christopher Columbus High School and Belen Jesuit Preparatory School for boys and Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Lourdes Academy for girls. Miami_sentence_311

Non-denominational private schools in Miami are Ransom Everglades, Gulliver Preparatory School, and Miami Country Day School. Miami_sentence_312

Other schools in the area include Samuel Scheck Hillel Community Day School, Dade Christian School, Palmer Trinity School, Westminster Christian School, and Riviera Schools. Miami_sentence_313

Media Miami_section_24

Main article: Media in Miami Miami_sentence_314

See also: List of newspapers in Florida, List of radio stations in Florida, and List of television stations in Florida Miami_sentence_315

Miami has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida after Tampa Bay. Miami_sentence_316

Miami has several major newspapers, the main and largest newspaper being The Miami Herald. Miami_sentence_317

El Nuevo Herald is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. Miami_sentence_318

The Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald are Miami's and South Florida's main, major and largest newspapers. Miami_sentence_319

The papers left their longtime home in downtown Miami in 2013. Miami_sentence_320

The newspapers are now headquartered at the former home of U.S. Miami_sentence_321 Southern Command in Doral. Miami_sentence_322

Other major newspapers include Miami Today, headquartered in Brickell, Miami New Times, headquartered in Midtown, Miami Sun Post, South Florida Business Journal, Miami Times, and Biscayne Boulevard Times. Miami_sentence_323

An additional Spanish-language newspapers, Diario Las Americas also serve Miami. Miami_sentence_324

The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers and is headquartered in Downtown in Herald Plaza. Miami_sentence_325

Several other student newspapers from the local universities, such as the oldest, the University of Miami's The Miami Hurricane, Florida International University's The Beacon, Miami-Dade College's The Metropolis, Barry University's The Buccaneer, amongst others. Miami_sentence_326

Many neighborhoods and neighboring areas also have their own local newspapers such as the Aventura News, Coral Gables Tribune, Biscayne Bay Tribune, and the Palmetto Bay News. Miami_sentence_327

A number of magazines circulate throughout the greater Miami area, including Miami Monthly, Southeast Florida's only city/regional; Ocean Drive, a hot-spot social scene glossy; and South Florida Business Leader. Miami_sentence_328

Miami is also the headquarters and main production city of many of the world's largest television networks, record label companies, broadcasting companies and production facilities, such as Telemundo, TeleFutura, Galavisión, Mega TV, Univisión, Univision Communications, Inc., Universal Music Latin Entertainment, RCTV International and Sunbeam Television. Miami_sentence_329

In 2009, Univisión announced plans to build a new production studio in Miami, dubbed Univisión Studios. Miami_sentence_330

Univisión Studios is currently headquartered in Miami, and will produce programming for all of Univisión Communications' television networks. Miami_sentence_331

Miami is the twelfth largest radio market and the seventeenth largest television market in the United States. Miami_sentence_332

Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (UniMas), WBFS (My Network TV), WSFL (The CW), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (Ion), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (Fox), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS). Miami_sentence_333

Transportation Miami_section_25

Main article: Transportation in South Florida Miami_sentence_334

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 72.3% of working city of Miami residents commuted by driving alone, 8.7% carpooled, 9% used public transportation, and 3.7% walked. Miami_sentence_335

About 1.8% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. Miami_sentence_336

About 4.5% of working city of Miami residents worked at home. Miami_sentence_337

In 2015, 19.9% of city of Miami households were without a car, which decreased to 18.6% in 2016. Miami_sentence_338

The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Miami_sentence_339

Miami averaged 1.24 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household. Miami_sentence_340

Freeways and roads Miami_section_26

Miami's road system is based along the numerical Miami grid where Flagler Street forms the east–west baseline and Miami Avenue forms the north–south meridian. Miami_sentence_341

The corner of Flagler Street and Miami Avenue is in the middle of Downtown in front of the Downtown Macy's (formerly the Burdine's headquarters). Miami_sentence_342

The Miami grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue have "NW" in their address. Miami_sentence_343

Because its point of origin is in Downtown, which is close to the coast, the "NW" and "SW" quadrants are much larger than the "SE" and "NE" quadrants. Miami_sentence_344

Many roads, especially major ones, are also named (e.g., Tamiami Trail/SW 8th St), although, with exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals. Miami_sentence_345

With few exceptions, within this grid north–south roads are designated as Courts, Roads, Avenues or Places (often remembered by their acronym), while east–west roads are Streets, Terraces, Drives or occasionally Ways. Miami_sentence_346

Major roads in each direction are located at one mile intervals. Miami_sentence_347

There are 16 blocks to each mile on north–south avenues, and 10 blocks to each mile on east–west streets. Miami_sentence_348

Major north–south avenues generally end in "7" – e.g., 17th, 27th, 37th/Douglas Aves., 57th/Red Rd., 67th/Ludlam, 87th/Galloway, etc., all the way west beyond 177th/Krome Avenue. Miami_sentence_349

(One prominent exception is 42nd Avenue, LeJeune Road, located at the half-mile point instead.) Miami_sentence_350

Major east–west streets to the south of downtown are multiples of 16, though the beginning point of this system is at SW 8th St, one half mile south of Flagler ("zeroth") Street. Miami_sentence_351

Thus, major streets are at 8th St., 24th St./Coral Way, 40th St./Bird, 56th/Miller, 72nd/ Sunset, 88th/N. Miami_sentence_352

Kendall, 104th (originally S. Kendall), 120th/Montgomery, 136th/Howard, 152nd/Coral Reef, 168th/Richmond, 184th/Eureka, 200th/Quail Roost, 216th/Hainlin Mill, 232nd/Silver Palm, 248th/Coconut Palm, etc., well into the 300s. Miami_sentence_353

Within the grid, odd-numbered addresses are generally on the north or east side, and even-numbered addresses are on the south or west side. Miami_sentence_354

All streets and avenues in Miami-Dade County follow the Miami grid, with a few exceptions, most notably in Coral Gables, Hialeah, Coconut Grove and Miami Beach. Miami_sentence_355

One neighborhood, The Roads, is named as such because its streets run off the Miami grid at a 45-degree angle, and therefore are all named roads. Miami_sentence_356

Miami-Dade County is served by four Interstate Highways (I-75, I-95, I-195, I-395) and several U.S. Miami_sentence_357

Highways including U.S. Route 1, U.S. Route 27, U.S. Route 41, and U.S. Route 441. Miami_sentence_358

Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving Miami are: Miami_sentence_359


Miami has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean. Miami_sentence_360

The Rickenbacker Causeway is the southernmost causeway and connects Brickell to Virginia Key and Key Biscayne. Miami_sentence_361

The Venetian Causeway and MacArthur Causeway connect Downtown with South Beach. Miami_sentence_362

The Julia Tuttle Causeway connects Midtown and Miami Beach. Miami_sentence_363

The 79th Street Causeway connects the Upper East Side with North Beach. Miami_sentence_364

The northernmost causeway, the Broad Causeway, is the smallest of Miami's six causeways and connects North Miami with Bal Harbour. Miami_sentence_365

In 2007, Miami was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage. Miami_sentence_366

Miami is also consistently ranked as one of the most dangerous cities in the United States for pedestrians. Miami_sentence_367

Public transportation Miami_section_27

Main article: Miami-Dade Transit Miami_sentence_368

Public transportation in Miami is operated by Miami-Dade Transit and SFRTA, and includes commuter rail (Tri-Rail), heavy-rail rapid transit (Metrorail), an elevated people mover (Metromover), and buses (Metrobus). Miami_sentence_369

Miami has Florida's highest transit ridership as about 17% of Miamians use transit on a daily basis. Miami_sentence_370

The average Miami public transit commute on weekdays is 90 minutes, while 39% of public transit riders commute for more than 2 hours a day. Miami_sentence_371

The average wait time at a public transit stop or station is 18 minutes, while 37% of riders wait for more than 20 minutes on average every day. Miami_sentence_372

The average single trip distance with public transit is 7.46 mi (12 km), while 38% travel more than 8.08 mi (13 km) in each direction. Miami_sentence_373

Miami's heavy-rail rapid transit system, Metrorail, is an elevated system comprising two lines and 23 stations on a 24.4-mile (39.3 km)-long line. Miami_sentence_374

Metrorail connects the urban western suburbs of Hialeah, Medley, and inner-city Miami with suburban The Roads, Coconut Grove, Coral Gables, South Miami and urban Kendall via the central business districts of Miami International Airport, the Civic Center, and Downtown. Miami_sentence_375

A free, elevated people mover, Metromover, operates 21 stations on three different lines in greater Downtown Miami, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell. Miami_sentence_376

Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County. Miami_sentence_377

Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system operated by the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA), runs from Miami International Airport northward to West Palm Beach, making eighteen stops throughout Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties. Miami_sentence_378

The Miami Intermodal Center is a massive transportation hub servicing Metrorail, Amtrak, Tri-Rail, Metrobus, Greyhound Lines, taxis, rental cars, MIA Mover, private automobiles, bicycles and pedestrians adjacent to Miami International Airport. Miami_sentence_379

Miami Intermodal Center was completed in 2010, and is serving about 150,000 commuters and travelers in the Miami area. Miami_sentence_380

Phase I of MiamiCentral Station was completed in 2012, and the Tri-Rail part of Phase II was completed in 2015, but the construction of the Amtrak part remains delayed. Miami_sentence_381

Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. Miami_sentence_382

BayLink would connect Downtown with South Beach, and the Miami Streetcar would connect Downtown with Midtown. Miami_sentence_383

Miami is the southern terminus of Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services, running two lines, the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star, both terminating in New York City. Miami_sentence_384

The Miami Amtrak Station is located in the suburb of Hialeah near the Tri-Rail/Metrorail Station on NW 79 St and NW 38 Ave. Current construction of the Miami Central Station will move all Amtrak operations from its current out-of-the-way location to a centralized location with Metrorail, MIA Mover, Tri-Rail, Miami International Airport, and the Miami Intermodal Center all within the same station closer to Downtown. Miami_sentence_385

The station was expected to be completed by 2012, but experienced several delays and was later expected to be completed in late 2014, again pushed back to early 2015. Miami_sentence_386

Airports Miami_section_28

Miami International Airport serves as the primary international airport of the Greater Miami Area. Miami_sentence_387

One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport caters to over 45 million passengers a year. Miami_sentence_388

The airport is a major hub and the largest international gateway for American Airlines. Miami_sentence_389

Miami International is the second busiest airport by passenger traffic in Florida, the United States' third-largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport. Miami_sentence_390

The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Miami_sentence_391

Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami area. Miami_sentence_392

Miami-Opa Locka Executive Airport in Opa-locka and Miami Executive Airport in an unincorporated area southwest of Miami serve general aviation traffic in the Miami area. Miami_sentence_393

Cycling and walking Miami_section_29

The city government under former mayor Manny Diaz took an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami for both recreation and commuting. Miami_sentence_394

In 2010, Miami was ranked as the 44th-most bike-friendly city in the US according to Bicycling Magazine. Miami_sentence_395

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Miami the eighth-most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States. Miami_sentence_396

International relations Miami_section_30

See also: List of sister cities in Florida Miami_sentence_397

Sister cities Miami_section_31

Cooperation agreements Miami_section_32


See also Miami_section_33


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