Miami Beach, Florida
"Miami Beach" redirects here.
For the beach in Barbados, see Miami Beach, Barbados.
|Miami Beach, Florida|
|Incorporated||March 26, 1915|
|Vice Mayor||Steven Meiner|
|Commissioners||John Elizabeth Alemán
Ricky Arriola Michael Góngora Joy Malakoff Mark Samuelian Micky Steinberg
|City Manager||Jimmy L. Morales|
|City Clerk||Rafael E. Granado|
|City||15.22 sq mi (39.42 km)|
|Land||7.69 sq mi (19.92 km)|
|Water||7.53 sq mi (19.49 km) 62.37%|
|Elevation||4 ft (1.2 m)|
|Density||11,554.01/sq mi (4,461.28/km)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Zip codes||33109, 33139, 33140, 33141.|
|Area code(s)||305, 786|
|GNIS feature ID||0286750|
It was incorporated on March 26, 1915.
The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles (6.5 km) of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida.
Miami Beach's estimated population is 88,885 according to the most recent United States census estimates.
Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2019 estimates from the US Census Bureau.
It has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century.
The Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels, apartments and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District.
The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North.
The movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor.
Miami Beach is governed by a ceremonial mayor and six commissioners.
Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election.
The mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms.
Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon.
A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations.
An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are also appointed officials.
South Beach (also known as SoBe, or simply the Beach), the area from Biscayne Street (also known as South Pointe Drive) one block south of 1st Street to about 23rd Street, is one of the more popular areas of Miami Beach.
Although topless sunbathing by women has not been officially legalized, female toplessness is tolerated on South Beach and in a few hotel pools on Miami Beach.
Today, it is considered one of the richest commercial areas on the beach, yet poverty and crime still remain in some places near the area.
Lincoln Road, running east–west parallel between 16th and 17th Streets, is a nationally known spot for outdoor dining and shopping and features galleries of well known designers, artists and photographers such as Romero Britto, Peter Lik, and Jonathan Adler..
In 2015, the Miami Beach residents passed a law forbidding bicycling, rollerblading, skateboarding and other motorized vehicles on Lincoln Road during busy pedestrian hours between 9:00 am and 2:00 am.
Miami Beach has several local community news publications.
The Miami Beach Chamber of Commerce publishes the , there is the independent magazine, and the recently rebooted which focuses on local beach culture and sea level rise issues.
By the 1970s, jet travel had enabled vacationers from the northern parts of the US to travel to the Caribbean and other warm-weather climates in the winter.
Miami Beach's economy suffered.
Elderly retirees, many with little money, dominated the population of South Beach.
To help revive the area, city planners and developers sought to bulldoze many of the aging art deco buildings that were built in the 1930s.
By one count, the city had over 800 art deco buildings within its borders.
In 1976, Barbara Baer Capitman and a group of fellow activists formed the Miami Design Preservation League (MDPL) to try to halt the destruction of the historic buildings in South Beach.
After battling local developers and Washington DC bureaucrats, MDPL prevailed in its quest to have the Miami Beach Art Deco District named to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
While the recognition did not offer protection for the buildings from demolition, it succeeded in drawing attention to the plight of the buildings.
Due in part to the newfound awareness of the art deco buildings, vacationers, tourists and TV, and movie crews were drawn to South Beach.
Investors began to rehabilitate hotels, restaurants and apartment buildings in the area.
Despite the enthusiasm for the historic buildings by many, there were no real protections for historic buildings.
As wrecking crews threatened buildings, MDPL members protested by holding marches and candlelight vigils.
In one case, protestors stood in front of a hotel blocking bulldozers as they approached a hotel.
After many years of effort, the Miami Beach city commission created the first two historic preservation districts in 1986.
The designation of the districts helped protect buildings from demolition and created standards for renovation.
While some developers continued to focus on demolition, several investors like Tony Goldman and Ian Schrager bought art deco hotels and transformed them into world famous hot spots in the ‘80s and ‘90s.
Additional historic districts were created in 1992.
The new districts covered Lincoln Road, Collins Avenue between 16th and 22nd Streets and the area around the Bass Museum.
Several North Beach neighborhoods were designated as historic in 2018.
A large collection of MiMo (Miami Modern) buildings can be found in the area.
Jackie Gleason hosted his Jackie Gleason and His American Scene Magazine (September 29, 1962 – June 4, 1966) television show, after moving it from New York to Miami Beach in 1964, reportedly because he liked year-round access to the golf course at the nearby Inverrary Country Club in Lauderhill (where he built his final home).
His closing line became, almost invariably, "As always, the Miami Beach audience is the greatest audience in the world!"
In the Fall 1966 television season, he abandoned the American Scene Magazine format and converted the show into a standard variety hour with guest performers.
The show was renamed The Jackie Gleason Show, lasting from September 17, 1966 – September 12, 1970.
The show was shot in color on videotape at the Miami Beach Auditorium (later renamed the Jackie Gleason Theatre of the Performing Arts), now known as Fillmore Miami Beach, and Gleason never tired of promoting the "sun and fun capital of the world" on camera.
CBS canceled the series in 1970.
Each December, the City of Miami Beach hosts Art Basel Miami Beach, one of the largest art shows in the United States.
Art Basel Miami Beach, the sister event to the Art Basel event held each June in Basel, Switzerland, combines an international selection of top galleries with a program of special exhibitions, parties and crossover events featuring music, film, architecture, and design.
Exhibition sites are located in the city's Art Deco District, and ancillary events are scattered throughout the greater Miami metropolitan area.
The first Art Basel Miami Beach was held in 2002.
In 2016, about 77,000 people attended the fair.
The 2017 show featured about 250 galleries at the Miami Beach Convention Center.
The new Gehry building offers Live Wallcasts™, which allow visitors to experience select events throughout the season at the half-acre, outdoor Miami Beach SoundScape through the use of visual and audio technology on a 7,000-square-foot (650 m) projection wall.
In October 2016, Miami New Drama took over operations of the Colony Theatre, and since then, the 417-seat Art Deco venue hosts Miami New Drama's theatrical season as well as other live events.
The Miami City Ballet, a ballet company founded in 1985, is housed in a 63,000-square-foot (5,900 m) building near Miami Beach's Bass Museum of Art.
The Miami Beach Festival of the Arts is an annual outdoor art festival that was begun in 1974.
Miami Beach is home to several Orthodox Jewish communities with a network of well-established synagogues and yeshivas, the first of which being the Landow Yeshiva, a Chabad institution in operation for over 30 years.
Till his death in 1991, the Nobel laureate writer Isaac Bashevis Singer lived in the northern end of Miami Beach and breakfasted often at Sheldon's drugstore on Harding Avenue.
Miami Beach had roughly 60,000 people in Jewish households, 62 percent of the total population in 1982, but only 16,500, or 19 percent of the population in 2004, said Ira Sheskin, a demographer at the University of Miami who conducts surveys once a decade.
The Miami Beach Jewish community had decreased in size by 1994 due to migration to wealthier areas and aging of the population.
Miami Beach is home to the Holocaust Memorial of the Greater Miami Jewish Federation.
Main article: LGBT culture in Miami
Miami Beach has been regarded as a gay mecca for decades as well as being one of the most LGBT friendly cities in the United States.
Miami Beach is home to numerous gay bars and gay-specific events, and five service and resource organizations.
After decades of economic and social decline, an influx of gays and lesbians moving to South Beach in the late-1980s to mid-1990s contributed to Miami Beach's revitalization.
The newcomers purchased and restored dilapidated Art Deco hotels and clubs, started numerous businesses and built political power in city and county government.
The passage of progressive civil rights laws, election of outspokenly pro-gay Miami Beach Mayor Matti Bower, and the introduction of Miami Beach's Gay Pride Celebration, have reinvigorated the local LGBT community in recent years, which some argued had experienced a decline in the late 2000s.
In January 2010, Miami Beach passed a revised Human Rights Ordinance that strengthens enforcement of already existing human rights laws and adds protections for transgender people, making Miami Beach's human rights laws some of the most progressive in the state.
Miami Beach Pride has gained prominence since it first started in 2009, there has been an increase in attendance every year.
In 2013 there were more than 80,000 people who participated to now more than 130,000 people that participate in the festivities every year.
There are over 125 businesses who are LGBT supportive that sponsor Miami Beach Pride.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.7 sq mi (48.5 km), of which 7.0 sq mi (18.2 km) is land and 11.7 sq mi (30.2 km) (62.37%) is water.
Elevation and tidal flooding
Miami Beach encounters tidal flooding of certain roads during the annual king tides, though some tidal flooding has been the case for decades, as the parts of the western side of South Beach are at virtually 0 feet (0 m) above normal high tide, with the entire city averaging only 4.4 feet (1.3 m) above mean sea level (AMSL).
The fall 2015 king tides exceeded expectations in longevity and height.
Traditional sea level rise and storm mitigation measures including sea walls and dykes, such as those in the Netherlands and New Orleans, may not work in South Florida due to the porous nature of the ground and limestone beneath the surface.
In addition to present difficulty with below-grade development, some areas of southern Florida, especially Miami Beach, are beginning to engineer specifically for sea level rise and other potential effects of climate change.
This includes a five-year, US$500 million project for the installation of 60 to 80 pumps, building of taller sea walls, planting of red mangrove trees along the sea walls, and the physical raising of road tarmac levels, as well as possible zoning and building code changes, which could eventually lead to retrofitting of existing and historic properties.
Some streets and sidewalks were raised about 2.5 feet (0.76 m) over previous levels; the four initial pumps installed in 2014 are capable of pumping 4,000 US gallons per minute.
However, this plan is not without criticism.
Some residents worry that the efforts will not be sufficient to successfully adapt to rising sea levels and wish the city had pursued a more aggressive plan.
On the other hand, some worry that the city is moving too quickly with untested solutions.
Others yet have voiced concerns that the plan protects big-money interests in Miami Beach.
Pump failures such as during construction or power outages, including a Tropical Storm Emily-related rain flood on August 1, 2017, can cause great unexpected flooding.
Combined with the higher roads and sidewalks, this leaves unchanged properties relatively lower and prone to inundation.
Like much of Florida, there is a marked wet and dry season in Miami Beach.
The tropical rainy season runs from May through October, when showers and late day thunderstorms are common.
The dry season is from November through April, when few showers, sunshine, and low humidity prevail.
The island location of Miami Beach, however, creates fewer convective thunderstorms, so Miami Beach receives less rainfall in a given year than neighboring areas such as Miami and Fort Lauderdale.
Proximity to the moderating influence of the Atlantic gives Miami Beach lower high temperatures and higher lows than inland areas of Florida.
Miami Beach is in hardiness zone 11, like the Keys where temperatures rarely dip below 40, compared to mainland coastal Miami-Dade and the northern barrier islands at zone 10 where some frost is expected.
Miami has experienced several direct hits from major hurricanes in recorded weather history – the 1906 Florida Keys hurricane, 1926 Miami hurricane, 1935 Yankee hurricane, 1941 Florida hurricane, 1948 Miami Hurricane, 1950 Hurricane King and 1964 Hurricane Cleo, the area has seen indirect contact from hurricanes: 1945 Homestead Hurricane, Betsy (1965), Inez (1966), Andrew (1992), Irene (1999), Michelle (2001), Katrina (2005), Wilma (2005), and Irma (2017).
Miami's response to flooding
|Miami Beach demographics|
|2010 Census||Miami Beach||Miami-Dade County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||-0.2%||+10.8%||+17.6%|
|Population density||11,511.1/sq mi||1,315.5/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)||87.4%||73.8%||75.0%|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||40.5%||15.4%||57.9%|
|Black or African-American||4.4%||18.9%||16.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||53.0%||65.0%||22.5%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.3%||0.2%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.1%||0.0%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (Multiracial)||2.7%||2.4%||2.5%|
|Some Other Race||3.2%||3.2%||3.6%|
As of 2010, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 53.0% of Miami Beach's population.
Out of the 53.0%, 20.0% were Cuban, 4.9% Colombian, 4.6% Argentine, 3.7% Puerto Rican, 2.4% Peruvian, 2.1% Venezuelan, 1.8% Mexican, 1.7% Honduran, 1.6% Guatemalan, 1.4% Dominican, 1.1% Uruguayan, 1.1% Spaniard, 1.0% Nicaraguan, 0.9% Ecuadorian, and 0.8% were Chilean.
As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 4.4% of Miami Beach's population, which includes African Americans.
Out of the 4.4%, 1.3% were Black Hispanics, 0.8% were Subsaharan African, and 0.8% were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American (0.3% Jamaican, 0.3% Haitian, 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian, 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian.)
As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 40.5% of Miami Beach's population.
Out of the 40.5%, 9.0% Italian, 6.0% German, 3.8% were Irish, 3.8% Russian, 3.7% French, 3.4% Polish, 3.0% English, 1.2% Hungarian, 0.7% Swedish, 0.6% Scottish, 0.5% Portuguese, 0.5% Dutch, 0.5% Scotch-Irish, and 0.5% were Norwegian.
As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.9% of Miami Beach's population.
In 2010, 2.8% of the population considered themselves to be of only American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.)
And 1.5% were of Arab ancestry, as of 2010.
As of 2010, there were 67,499 households, while 30.1% were vacant.
13.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.3% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 61.1% were non-families.
49.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4.0% male and 8.0% female.)
The average household size was 1.84 and the average family size was 2.70.
In 2010, the city population was spread out, with 12.8% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 38.0% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40.3 years.
For every 100 females, there were 109.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.0 males.
As of 2010, the median income for a household in the city was $43,538, and the median income for a family was $52,104.
Males had a median income of $42,605 versus $36,269 for females.
The per capita income for the city was $40,515.
About 10.9% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 27.5% of those aged 65 or over.
In 2010, 51.7% of the city's population was foreign-born.
Of foreign-born residents, 76.9% were born in Latin America and 13.6% were born in Europe, with smaller percentages from North America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
As of 2000, Miami Beach had the 22nd highest concentration of Cuban residents in the United States, at 20.51% of the population.
It had the 28th highest percentage of Colombian residents, at 4.40% of the city's population, and was tied with two other locations for the 14th highest percentage of Brazilian residents, at 2.20% of its population.
It also had the 27th largest concentration of Peruvian ancestry, at 1.85%, and the 27th highest percentage of people of Venezuelan heritage, at 1.79%.
Miami Beach also has the 33rd highest concentration of Honduran ancestry at 1.21% and the 41st highest percentage of Nicaraguan residents, which made up 1.03% of the population.
Public Transportation in Miami Beach is operated by Miami-Dade Transit (MDT).
The South Beach Local (SBL) is one of the most heavily used lines in Miami and connects all major points of South Beach to other major bus lines in the city.
Metrobus ridership in Miami Beach is high, with some of the routes such as the L and S being the busiest Metrobus routes.
The Airport-Beach Express (Route 150), operated by MDT, is a direct-service bus line that connects Miami International Airport to major points in South Beach.
The ride costs $2.65, and runs every 30 minutes from 6:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. seven days a week.
Since the late 20th century, cycling has grown in popularity in Miami Beach.
Due to its dense, urban nature, and pedestrian-friendly streets, many Miami Beach residents get around by bicycle.
In March 2011 a public bicycle sharing system named Decobike was launched, one of only a handful of such programs in the United States.
The program is operated by a private corporation, Decobike, LLC, but is partnered with the City of Miami Beach in a revenue-sharing model.
Once fully implemented, the program hopes to have around 1000 bikes accessible from 100 stations throughout Miami Beach, from around 85th Street on the north side of Miami Beach all the way south to South Pointe Park.
Miami-Dade County Public Schools serves Miami Beach.
- North Beach Elementary
- Treasure Island Elementary
- South Pointe Elementary
- Mater Beach Academy
- Biscayne Elementary
- Fienberg/Fisher K - 8 Center
- Nautilus Middle School
- Miami Beach Senior High School
Private schools include Rabbi Alexander S. Gross Hebrew Academy, St. Patrick Catholic School, Landow Yeshiva – Lubavitch Educational Center (Klurman Mesivta High School for Boys and Beis Chana Middle and High School for Girls), and Mechina High School.
The archdiocese formerly operated Saint Joseph School in Miami Beach.
In the early history of Miami Beach, there was one elementary school and the Ida M. Fisher junior-senior high school.
The building of Miami Beach High was constructed in 1926, and classes began in 1928.
Colleges and universities
The Florida International University School of Architecture has a sister campus at 420 Lincoln Road in South Beach, with classroom spaces for FIU architecture, art, music and theater graduate students.
Other Colleges include:
- Johnson & Wales University (satellite campus closing at the end of the 2020-21 school year.)
- Belle Isle
- City Center
- Di Lido Island
- Flagler Monument Island
- Hibiscus Island
- Palm Island
- Rivo Alto Island
- San Marino Island
- Star Island
- South of Fifth
Points of interest
- Bass Museum
- Eden Roc (hotel)
- The Fillmore Miami Beach (originally the Miami Beach Municipal Auditorium)
- Flagler Monument Island
- Fontainebleau Hotel
- Versace Mansion (Casa Casuarina)
- Holocaust Memorial
- Jewish Museum of Florida
- Lincoln Road
- Miami Beach Architectural District
- Miami Beach Botanical Garden
- North Beach
- Ocean Drive
- South Beach
- South Pointe Park
- Wolfsonian-FIU Museum
- World Erotic Art Museum Miami
- The Setai Hotel
- George Abbott, playwright, screenwriter, producer, and director
- George Ade, writer
- Moses Annenberg, newspaper publisher
- Desi Arnaz, entertainer
- Walter Briggs, Sr., entrepreneur, owner of the Detroit Tigers
- Barbara Baer Capitman, historic preservation activist, writer
- Douglas Isaac Busch, photographer and teacher
- Al Capone, mobster
- David Caruso, actor and producer, star of NYPD Blue and CSI: Miami
- John S. Collins, horticulturist
- Kent Cooper, Associated Press
- James M. Cox, Governor of Ohio and presidential candidate
- Andrew Cunanan, serial killer
- Ron Dermer, Israeli Ambassador to the US
- Harvey Firestone, Firestone Tires
- Carl Graham Fisher, developer of Miami Beach
- Frank Gannett, Gannett Media Corporation
- Jackie Gleason, comedian, actor. TV host (Jackie Gleason and His American Scene Magazine 1964–66, The Jackie Gleason Show 1966-70)
- Tony Goldman, real estate developer
- Gabriel Heatter, radio commentator
- Jerry Herman, Broadway composer
- John D. Hertz, Hertz Rental Cars
- Nunnally Johnson, film director
- S.S. Kresge, retailer
- Meyer Lansky, mobster
- Albert Lasker, businessman
- Ring Lardner, writer
- Dan Le Batard, ESPN Radio & TV host
- Bernarr MacFadden, bodybuilder, owner of the Deauville Hotel
- Alex Omes, co-founder of Ultra Music Festival
- Yaxeni Oriquen-Garcia, IFBB professional bodybuilder
- James Cash Penney, department store magnate
- Irving Jacob Reuter, General Motors
- Grantland Rice, sportswriter
- Knute Rockne, football player and coach
- Damon Runyon, newspaperman and writer
- Nicholas Schenck, MGM studios
- Dutch Schultz, mobster
- Robin Sherwood, actress
- Sid Tepper, Songwriter
- Gianni Versace, fashion designer
- Betty Viana-Adkins, IFBB professional bodybuilder
- Neal Walk (1948–2015), basketball player
- Albert Warner, Warner Brothers studio founder
- Walter Winchell, columnist
- Garfield Wood, inventor
See also: List of sister cities in Florida
Miami Beach has 12 sister cities
- Canada Brampton, Canada
- Spain Almonte, Spain
- Spain Marbella, Spain
- Brazil Fortaleza, Brazil
- Colombia Santa Marta, Colombia
- Czech_Republic Český Krumlov, Czech Republic
- Israel Nahariya, Israel
- Italy Pescara, Italy
- Japan Fujisawa, Japan
- Mexico Cozumel, Mexico
- Peru Ica, Peru
- Switzerland Basel, Switzerland
- Eritrea Asmara, Eritrea
The City of Miami Beach accounts for more than half of tourism to Miami Dade County.
Of the 15.86 million people staying in the county in 2017, 58.5% lodged in Miami Beach.
Resort taxes account for over 10% of the city's operating budget, providing $83 million in the fiscal year 2016–2017.
On average, the city's resort tax revenue grows by three to five percent annually.
Miami Beach hosts 13.3 million visitors each year.
In fiscal year 2016/2017, Miami Beach had over 26,600 hotel rooms.
Average occupancy in fiscal year 2015/2016 was 76.4% and 78.5% in fiscal year 2016/2017.
The Miami Beach Visitor and Convention Authority
The Miami Beach Visitor and Convention Authority is a seven-member board, appointed by the City of Miami Beach Commission.
The authority, established in 1967 by the State of Florida legislature, is the official marketing and public relations organization for the city, to support its tourism industry.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miami Beach, Florida.