C (musical note)

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For other uses, see C (disambiguation) and Hi-C (disambiguation). C (musical note)_sentence_0

C or Do is the first note of the C major scale, the third note of the A minor scale (the relative minor of C major), and the fourth note (F, A, B, C) of the Guidonian hand, commonly pitched around 261.63 Hz. C (musical note)_sentence_1

The actual frequency has depended on historical pitch standards, and for transposing instruments a distinction is made between written and sounding or concert pitch. C (musical note)_sentence_2

In English the term Do is used interchangeably with C only by adherents of fixed-Do solfège; in the movable Do system Do refers to the tonic of the prevailing key. C (musical note)_sentence_3

Frequency C (musical note)_section_0

Historically, concert pitch has varied. C (musical note)_sentence_4

For an instrument in equal temperament tuned to the A440 pitch standard widely adopted in 1939, middle C has a frequency around 261.63 Hz (for other notes see piano key frequencies). C (musical note)_sentence_5

Scientific pitch was originally proposed in 1713 by French physicist Joseph Sauveur and based on the numerically convenient frequency of 256 Hz for middle C, all C's being powers of two. C (musical note)_sentence_6

After the A440 pitch standard was adopted by musicians, the Acoustical Society of America published new frequency tables for scientific use. C (musical note)_sentence_7

A movement to restore the older A435 standard has used the banners "Verdi tuning", "philosophical pitch" or the easily confused scientific pitch. C (musical note)_sentence_8

Octave nomenclature C (musical note)_section_1

Middle C C (musical note)_section_2

"Middle C" redirects here. C (musical note)_sentence_9

For the novel, see Middle C (novel). C (musical note)_sentence_10

Middle C (the fourth C key from left on a standard 88-key piano keyboard) is designated C4 in scientific pitch notation, and c′ in Helmholtz pitch notation; it is note number 60 in MIDI notation. C (musical note)_sentence_11

While the expression Middle C is generally clear across instruments and clefs, some musicians naturally use the term to refer to the C note in the middle of their specific instrument's range. C (musical note)_sentence_12

C4 may be called Low C by someone playing a Western concert flute, which has a higher and narrower playing range than the piano, while C5 (523.251 Hz) would be Middle C. This technically inaccurate practice has led some pedagogues to encourage standardizing on C4 as the definitive Middle C in instructional materials across all instruments. C (musical note)_sentence_13

On the Grand Staff, middle-C is notated with a ledger line above the top line of the bass staff or below the bottom line of the treble staff. C (musical note)_sentence_14

Alternatively, it is written on the centre line of a staff using the alto clef, or on the fourth line from the bottom, or the second line from the top, of staves using the tenor clef. C (musical note)_sentence_15

Other octaves C (musical note)_section_3

In vocal music, the term High C (sometimes less ambiguously called Top C) can refer to either the soprano's C6 (1046.502 Hz; c′′′ in Helmholtz notation) or the tenor's C5; both are written as the C two ledger lines above the treble clef but the tenor voice sings an octave lower. C (musical note)_sentence_16

The term Low C is sometimes used in vocal music to refer to C2 because this is considered the divide between true basses and bass-baritones: a basso can sing this note easily, whereas other male voices, including bass-baritones, typically cannot. C (musical note)_sentence_17

Tenor C is an organ builder's term for small C or C3 (130.813 Hz), the note one octave below Middle C. In stoplists it usually means that a rank is not full compass, omitting the bottom octave. C (musical note)_sentence_18

Designation by octave C (musical note)_section_4

C (musical note)_table_general_0

Scientific designationC (musical note)_header_cell_0_0_0 Helmholtz designationC (musical note)_header_cell_0_0_1 Octave nameC (musical note)_header_cell_0_0_2 Frequency (Hz)C (musical note)_header_cell_0_0_3 Other namesC (musical note)_header_cell_0_0_4 AudioC (musical note)_header_cell_0_0_5
C−1C (musical note)_cell_0_1_0 C͵͵͵ or ͵͵͵C or CCCCC (musical note)_cell_0_1_1 OctocontraC (musical note)_cell_0_1_2 8.176C (musical note)_cell_0_1_3 C (musical note)_cell_0_1_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_1_5
C0C (musical note)_cell_0_2_0 C͵͵ or ͵͵C or CCCC (musical note)_cell_0_2_1 SubcontraC (musical note)_cell_0_2_2 16.352C (musical note)_cell_0_2_3 C (musical note)_cell_0_2_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_2_5
C1C (musical note)_cell_0_3_0 C͵ or ͵C or CCC (musical note)_cell_0_3_1 ContraC (musical note)_cell_0_3_2 32.703C (musical note)_cell_0_3_3 C (musical note)_cell_0_3_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_3_5
C2C (musical note)_cell_0_4_0 CC (musical note)_cell_0_4_1 GreatC (musical note)_cell_0_4_2 65.406C (musical note)_cell_0_4_3 Low C, cello C, 8' C (see organ pipe length)C (musical note)_cell_0_4_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_4_5
C3C (musical note)_cell_0_5_0 cC (musical note)_cell_0_5_1 SmallC (musical note)_cell_0_5_2 130.813C (musical note)_cell_0_5_3 4' C or tenor C (organ), viola CC (musical note)_cell_0_5_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_5_5
C4C (musical note)_cell_0_6_0 c′C (musical note)_cell_0_6_1 One-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_6_2 261.626C (musical note)_cell_0_6_3 Middle CC (musical note)_cell_0_6_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_6_5
C5C (musical note)_cell_0_7_0 c′′C (musical note)_cell_0_7_1 Two-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_7_2 523.251C (musical note)_cell_0_7_3 Treble C, high C (written an octave higher for tenor voices)C (musical note)_cell_0_7_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_7_5
C6C (musical note)_cell_0_8_0 c′′′C (musical note)_cell_0_8_1 Three-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_8_2 1046.502C (musical note)_cell_0_8_3 High C (soprano)C (musical note)_cell_0_8_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_8_5
C7C (musical note)_cell_0_9_0 c′′′′C (musical note)_cell_0_9_1 Four-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_9_2 2093.005C (musical note)_cell_0_9_3 Double high CC (musical note)_cell_0_9_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_9_5
C8C (musical note)_cell_0_10_0 c′′′′′C (musical note)_cell_0_10_1 Five-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_10_2 4186.009C (musical note)_cell_0_10_3 Eighth octave C, triple high CC (musical note)_cell_0_10_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_10_5
C9C (musical note)_cell_0_11_0 c′′′′′′C (musical note)_cell_0_11_1 Six-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_11_2 8372.018C (musical note)_cell_0_11_3 Quadruple high CC (musical note)_cell_0_11_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_11_5
C10C (musical note)_cell_0_12_0 c′′′′′′′C (musical note)_cell_0_12_1 Seven-linedC (musical note)_cell_0_12_2 16744.036C (musical note)_cell_0_12_3 Quintuple high CC (musical note)_cell_0_12_4 Play (help·)C (musical note)_cell_0_12_5

20,000 hertz is the start of the ultrasound in healthy young adults. C (musical note)_sentence_19

Note that for a classical piano and musical theory, the middle C is usually labelled as C4; However, in the MIDI standard definition (like the one used in Apple's GarageBand), this middle C (261.626 Hz) is labelled C3. C (musical note)_sentence_20

In practice, a MIDI software can label middle C (261.626 Hz) as C3-C5, which can cause confusions, especially for beginners. C (musical note)_sentence_21

Graphic presentation C (musical note)_section_5

Scales C (musical note)_section_6

Common scales beginning on C C (musical note)_section_7

C (musical note)_unordered_list_0

  • C Major: C D E F G A B CC (musical note)_item_0_0
  • C Natural Minor: C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ CC (musical note)_item_0_1
  • C Harmonic Minor: C D E♭ F G A♭ B CC (musical note)_item_0_2
  • C Melodic Minor Ascending: C D E♭ F G A B CC (musical note)_item_0_3
  • C Melodic Minor Descending: C B♭ A♭ G F E♭ D CC (musical note)_item_0_4

Diatonic scales C (musical note)_section_8

C (musical note)_unordered_list_1

  • C Ionian: C D E F G A B CC (musical note)_item_1_5
  • C Dorian: C D E♭ F G A B♭ CC (musical note)_item_1_6
  • C Phrygian: C D♭ E♭ F G A♭ B♭ CC (musical note)_item_1_7
  • C Lydian: C D E F♯ G A B CC (musical note)_item_1_8
  • C Mixolydian: C D E F G A B♭ CC (musical note)_item_1_9
  • C Aeolian: C D E♭ F G A♭ B♭ CC (musical note)_item_1_10
  • C Locrian: C D♭ E♭ F G♭ A♭ B♭ CC (musical note)_item_1_11

Jazz melodic minor C (musical note)_section_9

C (musical note)_unordered_list_2

B sharp C (musical note)_section_10

Traversing the circle of fifths can result in a B♯ that is higher than C by 23.46 cents, the ratio of twelve just perfect fifths (B♯) to seven octaves being 531,441 / 524,288, the Pythagorean comma. C (musical note)_sentence_22

A B♯ that is three just major thirds above C is lower than the octave by an interval called a diesis, 125:128 or 41.06 cents. C (musical note)_sentence_23

See also C (musical note)_section_11

C (musical note)_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C (musical note).