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This article is about the historic county in England. Middlesex_sentence_0

For other uses, see Middlesex (disambiguation). Middlesex_sentence_1


FlagCoat of armsMiddlesex_cell_0_1_0
Middlesex_cell_0_2_0 Middlesex_cell_0_2_1
FlagMiddlesex_cell_0_3_0 Coat of armsMiddlesex_cell_0_3_1
AreaMiddlesex_header_cell_0_4_0 Middlesex_cell_0_4_1
1801/1881Middlesex_header_cell_0_5_0 734 km (181,320 acres)Middlesex_cell_0_5_1
1911Middlesex_header_cell_0_6_0 601.8 km (148,701 acres)Middlesex_cell_0_6_1
1961Middlesex_header_cell_0_7_0 601.7 km (148,691 acres)Middlesex_cell_0_7_1
CoordinatesMiddlesex_header_cell_0_8_0 Middlesex_cell_0_8_1
Area transferredMiddlesex_header_cell_0_9_0 Middlesex_cell_0_9_1
1889Middlesex_header_cell_0_10_0 Metropolitan parishes to County of LondonMiddlesex_cell_0_10_1
PopulationMiddlesex_header_cell_0_11_0 Middlesex_cell_0_11_1
1801Middlesex_header_cell_0_12_0 818,129Middlesex_cell_0_12_1
1881Middlesex_header_cell_0_13_0 2,920,485Middlesex_cell_0_13_1
1911Middlesex_header_cell_0_14_0 1,126,465Middlesex_cell_0_14_1
1961Middlesex_header_cell_0_15_0 2,234,543Middlesex_cell_0_15_1
DensityMiddlesex_header_cell_0_16_0 Middlesex_cell_0_16_1
1801Middlesex_header_cell_0_17_0 11 inhabitants per hectare (4.5/acre)Middlesex_cell_0_17_1
1881Middlesex_header_cell_0_18_0 40 inhabitants per hectare (16.1/acre)Middlesex_cell_0_18_1
1911Middlesex_header_cell_0_19_0 19 inhabitants per hectare (7.6/acre)Middlesex_cell_0_19_1
1961Middlesex_header_cell_0_20_0 37 inhabitants per hectare (15/acre)Middlesex_cell_0_20_1
HistoryMiddlesex_header_cell_0_21_0 Middlesex_cell_0_21_1
Preceded byMiddlesex_header_cell_0_22_0 Kingdom of EssexMiddlesex_cell_0_22_1
OriginMiddlesex_header_cell_0_23_0 Middle SaxonsMiddlesex_cell_0_23_1
CreatedMiddlesex_header_cell_0_24_0 Early Middle AgesMiddlesex_cell_0_24_1
StatusMiddlesex_header_cell_0_25_0 Ceremonial county (until 1965)

Administrative county (1889–1965)Middlesex_cell_0_25_1

Chapman codeMiddlesex_header_cell_0_26_0 MDXMiddlesex_cell_0_26_1
GovernmentMiddlesex_header_cell_0_27_0 Middlesex Quarter Sessions (until 1889)

Within the metropolis: Metropolitan Board of Works (1855–1889) Middlesex County Council (1889–1965)Middlesex_cell_0_27_1

HQMiddlesex_header_cell_0_28_0 see textMiddlesex_cell_0_28_1
SubdivisionsMiddlesex_header_cell_0_29_0 Middlesex_cell_0_29_1
TypeMiddlesex_header_cell_0_30_0 Hundreds (ancient)

Districts (1835–1965)Middlesex_cell_0_30_1

Middlesex (/ˈmɪdəlsɛks/; abbreviation: Middx) is a historic county in southeast England. Middlesex_sentence_2

Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in neighbouring ceremonial counties. Middlesex_sentence_3

It was established in the Anglo-Saxon period from the territory of the Middle Saxons, and existed as an official administrative unit until 1965. Middlesex_sentence_4

The county is bounded to the south by the River Thames, and has the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills forming its other boundaries. Middlesex_sentence_5

The largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest by area in 1831. Middlesex_sentence_6

The City of London was a county corporate from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_7

Westminster Abbey dominated most of the early financial, judicial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county. Middlesex_sentence_8

As London expanded into rural Middlesex, the Corporation of London resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice. Middlesex_sentence_9

In the 18th and 19th centuries the population density was especially high in the southeast of the county, including the East End and West End of London. Middlesex_sentence_10

From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works. Middlesex_sentence_11

When county councils were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of the historic county of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was incorporated into the new administrative county of London and the remainder incorporated into the administrative county of Middlesex, governed by the Middlesex County Council that met regularly at the Middlesex Guildhall in Westminster. Middlesex_sentence_12

The City of London, and Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. Middlesex_sentence_13

In the interwar years suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport, and the setting up of new industries. Middlesex_sentence_14

After the Second World War, the populations of the administrative county of London and of inner Middlesex were in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_15

After a Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, almost all of the area of the historic county of Middlesex was incorporated into Greater London in 1965, with the rest included in neighbouring administrative counties. Middlesex_sentence_16

History Middlesex_section_0

Toponymy Middlesex_section_1

The name means territory of the middle Saxons and refers to the tribal origin of its inhabitants. Middlesex_sentence_17

The word is formed from the Old English, 'middel' and 'Seaxe' ('Saxons') (cf. Middlesex_sentence_18

Essex, Sussex and Wessex). Middlesex_sentence_19

In 704, it is recorded as Middleseaxon in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham. Middlesex_sentence_20

The Latin text reads: "in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec". Middlesex_sentence_21

The Saxons derived their name, Seaxe in their own tongue, from the seax, a kind of knife for which they were known. Middlesex_sentence_22

The seax appears in the heraldry of the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, each of which bears three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, or rather the Tudor heralds' idea of what a seax looked like, portrayed in each case like a falchion or scimitar. Middlesex_sentence_23

The names 'Middlesex', 'Essex', 'Sussex' and 'Wessex', contain the name 'Seaxe'. Middlesex_sentence_24

Early settlement Middlesex_section_2

Further information: List of places in Middlesex Middlesex_sentence_25

There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county. Middlesex_sentence_26

Middlesex was formerly part of the Kingdom of Essex It was recorded in the Domesday Book as being divided into the six hundreds of Edmonton, Elthorne, Gore, Hounslow (Isleworth in all later records), Ossulstone and Spelthorne. Middlesex_sentence_27

The City of London has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a county corporate. Middlesex_sentence_28

Middlesex also included Westminster, which also had a high degree of autonomy. Middlesex_sentence_29

Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. Middlesex_sentence_30

During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, which, along with the Liberty of Westminster, largely took over the administrative functions of the hundred. Middlesex_sentence_31

The divisions were named Finsbury, Holborn, Kensington and Tower. Middlesex_sentence_32

The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century. Middlesex_sentence_33

The title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843. Middlesex_sentence_34

Economic development Middlesex_section_3

The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was primarily agricultural. Middlesex_sentence_35

A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay, livestock and building materials. Middlesex_sentence_36

Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington, Highgate and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and also formed part of the early economy. Middlesex_sentence_37

However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were increasingly urbanised. Middlesex_sentence_38

The Middlesex volume of John Norden's Speculum Britanniae (a chorography) of 1593 summarises: Middlesex_sentence_39

Similarly Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: Middlesex_sentence_40

In 1803 Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agriculture, spoke of the need to cultivate the substantial Finchley Common and Hounslow Heath (perhaps prophetic of the Dig for Victory campaign of World War II) and fellow Board member Middleton estimated that one tenth of the county, 17,000 acres (6,900 ha), was uncultivated common, capable of improvement. Middlesex_sentence_41

However William Cobbett, in casual travel writing in 1822, said that "A more ugly country between Egham (Surrey) and Kensington would with great difficulty be found in England. Middlesex_sentence_42

Flat as a pancake, and until you come to Hammersmith, the soil is a nasty, stony dirt upon a bed of gravel. Middlesex_sentence_43

Hounslow Heath which is only a little worse than the general run, is a sample of all that is bad in soil and villainous in look. Middlesex_sentence_44

Yet this is now enclosed, and what they call 'cultivated'. Middlesex_sentence_45

Here is a fresh robbery of villages, hamlets, and farm and labourers' buildings and abodes." Middlesex_sentence_46

Thomas Babington wrote in 1843, "An acre in Middlesex is worth a principality in Utopia" which contrasts neatly with its agricultural description. Middlesex_sentence_47

The building of radial railway lines from 1839 caused a fundamental shift away from agricultural supply for London towards large scale house building. Middlesex_sentence_48

Tottenham, Edmonton and Enfield in the north developed first as working-class residential suburbs with easy access to central London. Middlesex_sentence_49

The line to Windsor through Middlesex was completed in 1848, and the railway to Potters Bar in 1850; and the Metropolitan and District Railways started a series of extensions into the county in 1878. Middlesex_sentence_50

Closer to London, the districts of Acton, Willesden, Ealing and Hornsey came within reach of the tram and bus networks, providing cheap transport to central London. Middlesex_sentence_51

After World War I, the availability of labour and proximity to London made areas such as Hayes and Park Royal ideal locations for the developing new industries. Middlesex_sentence_52

New jobs attracted more people to the county and the population continued to rise, reaching a peak in 1951. Middlesex_sentence_53

Middlesex became a centre for the British film industry. Middlesex_sentence_54

Twickenham Studios were established in 1913. Middlesex_sentence_55

There were also studios at Cricklewood Studios, Gainsborough Pictures, Isleworth Studios, Kew Bridge Studios and Southall Studios. Middlesex_sentence_56

Governance Middlesex_section_4

Metropolis Middlesex_section_5

Further information: Population of Middlesex (1801–1881) Middlesex_sentence_57

By the 19th century, the East End of London had expanded to the eastern boundary with Essex, and the Tower division had reached a population of over a million. Middlesex_sentence_58

When the railways were built, the north western suburbs of London steadily spread over large parts of the county. Middlesex_sentence_59

The areas closest to London were served by the Metropolitan Police from 1829, and from 1840 the entire county was included in the Metropolitan Police District. Middlesex_sentence_60

Local government in the county was unaffected by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and civic works continued to be the responsibility of the individual parish vestries or ad hoc improvement commissioners. Middlesex_sentence_61

In 1855, the parishes of the densely populated area in the south east, but excluding the City of London, came within the responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works. Middlesex_sentence_62

Despite this innovation, the system was described by commentators at the time as one "in chaos". Middlesex_sentence_63

In 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888, the metropolitan area of approximately 30,000 acres (120 km) became part of the administrative county of London. Middlesex_sentence_64

The Act also provided that the part of Middlesex in the administrative county of London should be "severed from [Middlesex], and form a separate county for all non-administrative purposes". Middlesex_sentence_65

The part of the County of London that had been transferred from Middlesex was divided in 1900 into 18 metropolitan boroughs. Middlesex_sentence_66

They were merged in 1965 to form seven of the twelve current boroughs of Inner London: Middlesex_sentence_67


Extra-metropolitan area Middlesex_section_6

Further information: History of local government districts in Middlesex Middlesex_sentence_68

Middlesex outside the metropolitan area remained largely rural until the middle of the 19th century and so the special boards of local government for various metropolitan areas were late in developing. Middlesex_sentence_69

Other than the Cities of London and Westminster, there were no ancient boroughs. Middlesex_sentence_70

The importance of the hundred courts declined, and such local administration as there was divided between "county business" conducted by the justices of the peace meeting in quarter sessions, and the local matters dealt with by parish vestries. Middlesex_sentence_71

As the suburbs of London spread into the area, unplanned development and outbreaks of cholera forced the creation of local boards and poor law unions to help govern most areas; in a few cases parishes appointed improvement commissioners. Middlesex_sentence_72

In rural areas, parishes began to be grouped for different administrative purposes. Middlesex_sentence_73

From 1875 these local bodies were designated as urban or rural sanitary districts. Middlesex_sentence_74

Following the Local Government Act 1888, the remaining county came under the control of Middlesex County Council except for the parish of Monken Hadley, which became part of Hertfordshire. Middlesex_sentence_75

The area of responsibility of the Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex was reduced accordingly. Middlesex_sentence_76

Middlesex did not contain any county boroughs, so the county and administrative county (the area of county council control) were identical. Middlesex_sentence_77

The Local Government Act 1894 divided the administrative county into four rural districts and thirty-one urban districts, based on existing sanitary districts. Middlesex_sentence_78

One urban district, South Hornsey, was an exclave of Middlesex within the County of London until 1900, when it was transferred to the latter county. Middlesex_sentence_79

The rural districts were Hendon, South Mimms, Staines and Uxbridge. Middlesex_sentence_80

Because of increasing urbanisation these had all been abolished by 1934. Middlesex_sentence_81

Urban districts had been created, merged, and many had gained the status of municipal borough by 1965. Middlesex_sentence_82

The districts as at the 1961 census were: Middlesex_sentence_83


Middlesex_cell_1_0_0 Middlesex urban districts in 1961Middlesex_cell_1_0_1 Middlesex_cell_1_0_2

After 1889 the growth of London continued, and the county became almost entirely filled by suburbs of London, with a big rise in population density. Middlesex_sentence_84

This process was accelerated by the Metro-land developments, which covered a large part of the county. Middlesex_sentence_85

The expanding urbanisation had, however, been foretold in 1771 by Tobias Smollett in The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, in which it is said: Middlesex_sentence_86

Public transport in the county, including the extensive network of trams, buses and the London Underground came under control of the London Passenger Transport Board in 1933 and a New Works Programme was developed to further enhance services during the 1930s. Middlesex_sentence_87

Partly because of its proximity to the capital, the county had a major role during the Second World War. Middlesex_sentence_88

The county was subject to aerial bombardment and contained various military establishments, such as RAF Uxbridge and RAF Heston, which were involved in the Battle of Britain. Middlesex_sentence_89

Tower Division Middlesex_section_7

The Tower division, better known as the Tower Hamlets, was an area in the Southeast of the county covering what is now the London Borough of Tower Hamlets as well as most of what is now the London Borough of Hackney. Middlesex_sentence_90

The area was unusual in combining Hundred and many County responsibilities, to form a "county within a county" comparable to one of the Ridings of Yorkshire. Middlesex_sentence_91

Of particular note was its military autonomy: it had its own Lord-Lieutenant of the Tower Hamlets and was thus independent of the Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_92

County town Middlesex_section_8

Middlesex arguably never, and certainly not since 1789, had a single, established county town. Middlesex_sentence_93

The City of London could be regarded as its county town for most purposes and provided different locations for the various, mostly judicial, county purposes. Middlesex_sentence_94

The county assizes for Middlesex were held at the Old Bailey in the City of London. Middlesex_sentence_95

Until 1889, the High Sheriff of Middlesex was chosen by the City of London Corporation. Middlesex_sentence_96

The Sessions House for the Middlesex Quarter Sessions was at Clerkenwell Green from the early 18th century. Middlesex_sentence_97

The quarter sessions at the former Middlesex Sessions House performed most of the limited administration on a county level until the creation of the Middlesex County Council in 1889. Middlesex_sentence_98

New Brentford was first promulgated as the county town in 1789, on the basis that it was where elections of knights of the shire (or Members of Parliament) were held from 1701. Middlesex_sentence_99

Thus a traveller's and historian's London regional summary of 1795 states that (New) Brentford was "considered as the county-town; but there is no town-hall or other public building". Middlesex_sentence_100

Middlesex County Council took over at the Guildhall in Westminster, which became the Middlesex Guildhall. Middlesex_sentence_101

In the same year, this location was placed into the new County of London, and was thus outside the council's area of jurisdiction. Middlesex_sentence_102

Arms of Middlesex County Council Middlesex_section_9

Coats of arms were attributed by the mediaeval heralds to the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. Middlesex_sentence_103

That assigned to the Kingdom of the Middle and East Saxons depicted three "seaxes" or short notched swords on a red background. Middlesex_sentence_104

The seaxe was a weapon carried by Anglo-Saxon warriors, and the term "Saxon" may be derived from the word. Middlesex_sentence_105

These arms became associated with the two counties that approximated to the kingdom: Middlesex and Essex. Middlesex_sentence_106

County authorities, militia and volunteer regiments associated with both counties used the attributed arms. Middlesex_sentence_107

In 1910, it was noted that the county councils of Essex and Middlesex and the Sheriff's Office of the County of London were all using the same arms. Middlesex_sentence_108

Middlesex County Council decided to apply for a formal grant of arms from the College of Arms, with the addition of a heraldic "difference" to the attributed arms. Middlesex_sentence_109

Colonel Otley Parry, a justice of the peace for Middlesex and author of a book on military badges, was asked to devise an addition to the shield. Middlesex_sentence_110

The chosen addition was a "Saxon Crown", derived from the portrait of King Athelstan on a silver penny of his reign, stated to be the earliest form of crown associated with any English sovereign. Middlesex_sentence_111

The grant of arms was made by letters patent dated 7 November 1910. Middlesex_sentence_112


Middlesex_cell_2_0_0 The arms of the Middlesex County Council were blazoned:

Gules, three seaxes fessewise points to the sinister proper, pomels and hilts and in the centre chief point a Saxon crown or.Middlesex_cell_2_0_1

The undifferenced arms of the kingdom were eventually granted to Essex County Council in 1932. Middlesex_sentence_113

Seaxes were also used in the insignia of many of the boroughs and urban districts in the county, while the Saxon crown came to be a common heraldic charge in English civic arms. Middlesex_sentence_114

On the creation of the Greater London Council in 1965 a Saxon crown was introduced in its coat of arms. Middlesex_sentence_115

Seaxes appear in the arms of several London borough councils and of Spelthorne Borough Council. Middlesex_sentence_116

Creation of Greater London Middlesex_section_10

The population of inner London (then the County of London) had been in decline as more residents moved into the outer suburbs since its creation in 1889, and this continued after the Second World War. Middlesex_sentence_117

In contrast, the population of the administrative county of Middlesex had increased steadily during that period. Middlesex_sentence_118

From 1951 to 1961 the population of the inner districts of the county started to fall, and the population grew only in eight of the suburban outer districts. Middlesex_sentence_119

According to the 1961 census, Ealing, Enfield, Harrow, Hendon, Heston & Isleworth, Tottenham, Wembley, Willesden and Twickenham had each reached a population greater than 100,000, which would normally have entitled each of them to seek county borough status. Middlesex_sentence_120

If this status were to be granted to all those boroughs it would mean that the population of the administrative county of Middlesex would be reduced by over half, to just under one million. Middlesex_sentence_121

Evidence submitted to the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London included a recommendation to divide Middlesex into two administrative counties of North Middlesex and West Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_122

However, the commission instead proposed abolition of the county and merging of the boroughs and districts. Middlesex_sentence_123

This was enacted by Parliament as the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965. Middlesex_sentence_124

The Act abolished the administrative counties of Middlesex and London. Middlesex_sentence_125

The Administration of Justice Act 1964 abolished the Middlesex magistracy and lieutenancy, and altered the jurisdiction of the Central Criminal Court. Middlesex_sentence_126

In April 1965, nearly all of the area of the historic county of Middlesex became part of Greater London, under the control of the Greater London Council, and formed the new outer London boroughs of Barnet (part only), Brent, Ealing, Enfield, Haringey, Harrow, Hillingdon, Hounslow and Richmond upon Thames (part only). Middlesex_sentence_127

The remaining areas were Potters Bar Urban District, which became part of the administrative county of Hertfordshire, and Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District and Staines Urban District, which became part of the administrative county of Surrey. Middlesex_sentence_128

Following the changes, local acts of Parliament relating to Middlesex were henceforth to apply to the entirety of the nine "North West London Boroughs". Middlesex_sentence_129

In 1974, the three urban districts that had been transferred to Hertfordshire and Surrey were abolished and became the districts of Hertsmere (part only) and Spelthorne respectively. Middlesex_sentence_130

In 1995 the village of Poyle was transferred from Spelthorne to the Berkshire borough of Slough. Middlesex_sentence_131

Additionally, since 1965 the Greater London boundary to the west and north has been subject to several small changes. Middlesex_sentence_132

On its creation in 1965, Greater London was divided into five Commission Areas for justice. Middlesex_sentence_133

The one named "Middlesex" consisted of the boroughs of Barnet, Brent, Ealing, Enfield, Haringey, Harrow, Hillingdon and Hounslow. Middlesex_sentence_134

It was abolished on 1 July 2003. Middlesex_sentence_135

Geography Middlesex_section_11

The county lies within the London Basin and the most significant feature is the River Thames, which forms the southern boundary. Middlesex_sentence_136

The River Lea and the River Colne form natural boundaries to the east and west. Middlesex_sentence_137

The entire south west boundary of Middlesex follows a gently descending meander of the Thames without hills. Middlesex_sentence_138

In many places "Middlesex bank" is more accurate than "north bank" — for instance at Teddington the river flows north-westward, so the left (Middlesex) bank is the south-west bank. Middlesex_sentence_139

In the north, the boundary runs along a WSW/ENE aligned ridge of hills broken by Barnet or 'Dollis' valleys. Middlesex_sentence_140

(South of the boundary, these feed into the Welsh Harp Lake or Brent Reservoir which becomes the River Brent). Middlesex_sentence_141

This forms a long protrusion of Hertfordshire into the county. Middlesex_sentence_142

The county was once thickly wooded, with much of it covered by the ancient Forest of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_143

The highest point is the High Road by Bushey Heath at 502 feet (153 m). Middlesex_sentence_144

Former postal county Middlesex_section_12

Middlesex (abbreviated Middx) was a former postal county. Middlesex_sentence_145

Counties were an element of postal addressing in routine use until 1996, intended to avoid confusion between post towns, and are no longer required for the routing of the mail. Middlesex_sentence_146

The postal county did not match the boundaries of Middlesex because of the presence of the London postal district, which stretched into the county to include Tottenham, Willesden, Hornsey and Chiswick. Middlesex_sentence_147

Addresses in this area included "LONDON" which is the post town but any overlap with the then County of London was coincidental. Middlesex_sentence_148

In 1965 Royal Mail retained the postal county because it would have been too costly to amend addresses covering the bulk of Outer London. Middlesex_sentence_149

Exceptionally, the Potters Bar post town was transferred to Hertfordshire. Middlesex_sentence_150

Geographically the postal county consisted of two unconnected areas, 6 miles (10 km) apart. Middlesex_sentence_151

The first was in and around Enfield and the second, larger area was to the west. Middlesex_sentence_152

This led the retention of 25 Post Towns to this day: Middlesex_sentence_153


Postcode areaMiddlesex_header_cell_3_0_0 Post townsMiddlesex_header_cell_3_0_1
EN (part)Middlesex_cell_3_1_0 ENFIELD; POTTERS BAR (until 1965)Middlesex_cell_3_1_1

† = postal county was not required Middlesex_sentence_154

The postal county had many border inconsistencies where its constituent post towns encroached on neighbouring counties, such as the villages of Denham in Buckinghamshire, Wraysbury in Berkshire and Eastbury in Hertfordshire which were respectively in the post towns of Uxbridge, Staines and Northwood and therefore in the postal county of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_155

Egham Hythe, Surrey also had postal addresses of Staines, Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_156

Conversely, Hampton Wick was conveniently placed in Kingston, Surrey with its sorting offices just across the river. Middlesex_sentence_157

Nearby Hampton Court Palace has a postal address of East Molesey, therefore associating it with Surrey. Middlesex_sentence_158

The Enfield post town in the EN postcode area was in the former postal county. Middlesex_sentence_159

All post towns in the HA postcode area and UB postcode area were in the former postal county. Middlesex_sentence_160

Most of the TW postcode area was in the former postal county. Middlesex_sentence_161

Culture and community Middlesex_section_13

County flag Middlesex_section_14

The Middlesex Flag is included in the Flag Institute's registry of county and regional flags. Middlesex_sentence_162

The flag is a banner of the arms of the former Middlesex County Council, abolished in 1965. Middlesex_sentence_163

Whilst such banners of county arms are legally not generally available for public use, a similar design had been used traditionally as a local badge in Middlesex and neighbouring Essex for centuries. Middlesex_sentence_164

The seax is the symbol of the Saxons and the Saxon crown was added in 1909 to differentiate the arms and flag from those of Essex. Middlesex_sentence_165

County day Middlesex_section_15

Middlesex Day is celebrated each year on 16 May. Middlesex_sentence_166

This commemorates the actions of the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment in 1811, at the Battle of Albuera, during the Peninsular War. Middlesex_sentence_167

During the battle, Lieutenant-Colonel William Inglis, despite his injuries, refused to retire from the battle but remained with the regimental colours, encouraging his men with the words "Die hard 57th, die hard!" Middlesex_sentence_168

as they came under intense pressure from a French attack. Middlesex_sentence_169

The regiment held and the battle was won. Middlesex_sentence_170

The 'Die Hards' subsequently became the West Middlesex's regimental nickname and the phrase Die Hard entered the language. Middlesex_sentence_171

In 2003, an early day motion in the House of Commons noted the celebration of 16 May, the anniversary of Albuhera, as Middlesex Day. Middlesex_sentence_172

County flower Middlesex_section_16

In 2002 Plantlife ran a county flowers campaign to assign flowers to each of the counties of the United Kingdom. Middlesex_sentence_173

The general public was invited to vote for the bloom they felt most represented their county. Middlesex_sentence_174

The wood anemone was chosen as the flower of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_175

The flower was a common sight in the Forest of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_176

When the suburbs of London swept over Middlesex, many of its woods were bypassed and preserved. Middlesex_sentence_177

The wood anemone still blooms there to this day. Middlesex_sentence_178

County history societies Middlesex_section_17

The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS) was founded in 1855 for the study of the archaeology and local history of the City of London and the county of Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_179

It works in close association with the Museum of London and with the Museum of London Archaeology. Middlesex_sentence_180

It has over 40 affiliated local history societies in Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_181

The interests of family historians in Middlesex are supported by two member organisations of the Federation of Family History Societies: The London, Westminster and Middlesex Family History Society and the West Middlesex Family History Society. Middlesex_sentence_182

For genealogical research Middlesex is assigned Chapman code MDX, except for the City of London ("square mile") assigned LND. Middlesex_sentence_183

Literature Middlesex_section_18

Sir John Betjeman, Poet Laureate from 1972 until his death in 1984, was born in 1906 in Gospel Oak and grew up in Highgate. Middlesex_sentence_184

He published several poems about Middlesex and suburban life. Middlesex_sentence_185

Many were featured in the televised readings Metroland. Middlesex_sentence_186

Sport Middlesex_section_19

Rugby Union Middlesex_section_20

The Rugby Football Union, the governing body for rugby union in England, is based at Twickenham Stadium. Middlesex_sentence_187

The stadium hosts home test matches for the England national rugby union team. Middlesex_sentence_188

There are 7 rugby union clubs based in Middlesex playing in national leagues (levels 1-4). Middlesex_sentence_189

These are Harlequins, Saracens, London Scottish, Richmond, Ealing Trailfinders, London Irish Wild Geese and Barnes. Middlesex_sentence_190

Middlesex Rugby is the governing body for rugby union in Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_191

The union selects players from its 88 affiliated clubs for the Middlesex team in the County Championship. Middlesex_sentence_192

It runs the Middlesex RFU Senior Cup open to the top 8 Middlesex clubs that play between tiers 6-7 of the English rugby union system. Middlesex_sentence_193

It also runs the Middlesex RFU Senior Bowl and the Middlesex RFU Senior Vase for sides from lower down the pyramid. Middlesex_sentence_194

It helps run the Herts/Middlesex 1 (tier 9) and Herts/Middlesex 2 (tier 10) leagues. Middlesex_sentence_195

Middlesex Rugby is also active in promoting youth rugby and women's rugby in the county. Middlesex_sentence_196

Football Middlesex_section_21

The Football Association, the governing body of association football in England, is based at Wembley Stadium. Middlesex_sentence_197

The stadium hosts major football matches including home matches of the England national football team, and the FA Cup Final. Middlesex_sentence_198

There are 19 football clubs based in Middlesex in the top eight tiers of the English football league system (correct for 2018/9 season): Arsenal, Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur, Brentford, Fulham, Queens Park Rangers, Barnet, Hampton and Richmond Borough, Wealdstone, Enfield, Haringey Borough, Finchley and Wingate, Harrow Borough, Hayes and Yeading United, Hendon, Ashford Town (Middlesex), Bedfont Sports, Hanwell Town, and Northwood. Middlesex_sentence_199

There are 4 women's football clubs based in Middlesex in the top two tiers of Women's football in England: Arsenal Women, Chelsea F.C. Women, London Bees and Tottenham Hotspur Ladies. Middlesex_sentence_200

The Middlesex County Football Association regulates and promotes football in the county. Middlesex_sentence_201

The Middlesex F.A. Middlesex_sentence_202

organises many cup competitions, the most prestigious being the Middlesex Senior Cup (founded in 1889) and the Middlesex Senior Charity Cup (founded in 1901). Middlesex_sentence_203

The Middlesex County Football League was founded in 1984 and currently comprises 5 divisions. Middlesex_sentence_204

The premier divisions sits at level 7 of the National League System. Middlesex_sentence_205

Cricket Middlesex_section_22

Middlesex County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. Middlesex_sentence_206

The club was founded in 1864 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Middlesex_sentence_207

Middlesex have won thirteen County Championship titles (including 2 shared titles), the most recent in 2016. Middlesex_sentence_208

The Middlesex Cricket Board is the governing body of all recreational cricket in Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_209

The Middlesex County Cricket League is the top-level competition for all recreational club cricket in the county. Middlesex_sentence_210

The League consists of nine divisions in total. Middlesex_sentence_211

The top division has been designated an ECB Premier League. Middlesex_sentence_212

Marylebone Cricket Club (the MCC) was founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's Cricket Ground , which it owns, in St John's Wood. Middlesex_sentence_213

The club was formerly the governing body of cricket in England and Wales and, as the sport's legislator, held considerable global influence. Middlesex_sentence_214

Lord's Cricket Ground is also home to the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). Middlesex_sentence_215

Lord's is widely referred to as the Home of Cricket. Middlesex_sentence_216

Other sports Middlesex_section_23

Middlesex Bowling Association has over 80 affiliated clubs throughout the county. Middlesex_sentence_217

Middlesex County Amateur Swimming Association organises training, competitions and representative county teams in swimming, diving, water polo and synchronised swimming. Middlesex_sentence_218

Middlesex County Athletics Association is the organisation controlling Amateur Athletics in Middlesex under the direction of UK Athletics. Middlesex_sentence_219

Middlesex Golf represents all aspects of golf within the county. Middlesex_sentence_220

It has 33 affiliated golf clubs. Middlesex_sentence_221

Middlesex Tennis, affiliated to the LTA, works to create more opportunities for people in Middlesex to play and compete in tennis at all levels of the game. Middlesex_sentence_222

The Middlesex County Championships are the highlight of Middlesex's Competition Calendar. Middlesex_sentence_223

Middlesex County Badminton Association has over 80 affiliated clubs and organises men's, ladies' and mixed leagues. Middlesex_sentence_224

Middlesex Squash & Racketball Association is responsible for organising and promoting squash in Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_225

It was founded in the 1930s and ran the first Middlesex Open Championships in 1937. Middlesex_sentence_226

Middlesex County Archery Association is the governing body for the sport of archery in the county. Middlesex_sentence_227

Middlesex Small-Bore Rifle Association brings together small-bore rifle and airgun clubs located within the county, and organises teams to represent the County in competitions. Middlesex_sentence_228

Middlesex County Chess Association aims to foster chess throughout Middlesex. Middlesex_sentence_229

It has 15 affiliated clubs. Middlesex_sentence_230

Middlesex County Bridge Association runs the Middlesex Cup and the Middlesex League and enters county teams in national and regional competitions. Middlesex_sentence_231

See also Middlesex_section_24


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middlesex.