Midwestern United States

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"Midwest" redirects here. Midwestern United States_sentence_0

For other uses, see Midwest (disambiguation). Midwestern United States_sentence_1

Midwestern United States_table_infobox_0

Midwestern United States

MidwestMidwestern United States_header_cell_0_0_0

StatesMidwestern United States_header_cell_0_1_0 Midwestern United States_cell_0_1_1
Largest metro MSAMidwestern United States_header_cell_0_2_0 Midwestern United States_cell_0_2_1
Largest citiesMidwestern United States_header_cell_0_3_0 Midwestern United States_cell_0_3_1

The Midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). Midwestern United States_sentence_2

It occupies the northern central part of the United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_3

It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Midwestern United States_sentence_4

It is between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south. Midwestern United States_sentence_5

The Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Midwestern United States_sentence_6

The region generally lies on the broad Interior Plain between the states occupying the Appalachian Mountain Range and the states occupying the Rocky Mountain range. Midwestern United States_sentence_7

Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, and the Missouri River. Midwestern United States_sentence_8

A 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. Midwestern United States_sentence_9

The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions. Midwestern United States_sentence_10

The East North Central Division includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin, all of which are also part of the Great Lakes region. Midwestern United States_sentence_11

The West North Central Division includes Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, and South Dakota, several of which are located, at least partly, within the Great Plains region. Midwestern United States_sentence_12

Chicago is the most populous city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country. Midwestern United States_sentence_13

Other large Midwestern cities include (in order by population): Columbus, Indianapolis, Detroit, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Wichita, Cleveland, St. Midwestern United States_sentence_14 Paul, St. Midwestern United States_sentence_15 Louis, Cincinnati, Lincoln, Madison and Des Moines. Midwestern United States_sentence_16

Chicago and its suburbs, called Chicagoland, form the largest metropolitan area with 10 million people. Midwestern United States_sentence_17

Other large metropolitan areas include Metro Detroit, Minneapolis–St. Midwestern United States_sentence_18 Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cincinnati, the Kansas City metro area, the Columbus metro area, and Greater Cleveland. Midwestern United States_sentence_19

Background Midwestern United States_section_0

The term West was applied to the region in the early years of the country. Midwestern United States_sentence_20

In the early 19th century, anything west of Appalachia was considered the West; over time that moved to west of the Mississippi. Midwestern United States_sentence_21

The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country and the Ohio Country. Midwestern United States_sentence_22

In 1787, the Northwest Ordinance was enacted, creating the Northwest Territory, which was bounded by the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Midwestern United States_sentence_23

The Northwest Territory (1787) was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi. Midwestern United States_sentence_24

Because the Northwest Territory lay between the East Coast and the then-far-West, the states carved out of it were called the Northwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_25

The states of the "old Northwest" are now called the "East North Central States" by the United States Census Bureau, with the "Great Lakes region" being also a popular term. Midwestern United States_sentence_26

The states just west of the Mississippi River and the Great Plains states are called the "West North Central States" by the Census Bureau. Midwestern United States_sentence_27

Some entities in the Midwest are still referred to as "Northwest" for historical reasons (for example, Northwestern University in Illinois). Midwestern United States_sentence_28

Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is the heartland. Midwestern United States_sentence_29

Other designations for the region, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest and Mid-America have fallen out of use. Midwestern United States_sentence_30

Economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture (large sections of this land area make up the United States' Corn Belt), with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Midwestern United States_sentence_31

Its central location makes it a transportation crossroads for river boats, railroads, autos, trucks, and airplanes. Midwestern United States_sentence_32

Politically, the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections. Midwestern United States_sentence_33

After the sociological study Middletown (1929), which was based on Muncie, Indiana, commentators used Midwestern cities (and the Midwest generally) as "typical" of the nation. Midwestern United States_sentence_34

Earlier, the rhetorical question, "Will it play in Peoria? Midwestern United States_sentence_35

", had become a stock phrase using Peoria, Illinois to signal whether something would appeal to mainstream America. Midwestern United States_sentence_36

The region has a higher employment-to-population ratio (the percentage of employed people at least 16 years-old) than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states as of 2011. Midwestern United States_sentence_37

History of the term Midwest Midwestern United States_section_1

The first recorded use of the term Midwestern to refer to a region of the central U.S. occurred in 1886, Midwest appeared in 1894, and Midwesterner in 1916. Midwestern United States_sentence_38

One of the earliest late nineteenth century uses of Midwest was in reference to Kansas and Nebraska to indicate that they were the civilized areas of the west. Midwestern United States_sentence_39

The term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_40

A variant term, Middle West, has been used since the 19th century and remains relatively common. Midwestern United States_sentence_41

Definitions Midwestern United States_section_2

"Plains states" redirects here. Midwestern United States_sentence_42

For the geographic region, see Great Plains. Midwestern United States_sentence_43

Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase. Midwestern United States_sentence_44

The states of the Old Northwest are also known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_45

The Ohio River runs along the southeastern section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Midwestern United States_sentence_46

Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are also known as the Great Plains states, where the Missouri River is a major waterway joining with the Mississippi. Midwestern United States_sentence_47

The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the dividing line between future slave and non-slave states. Midwestern United States_sentence_48

The Midwest Region is defined by the U.S. Midwestern United States_sentence_49 Census Bureau as these 12 states: Midwestern United States_sentence_50

Midwestern United States_unordered_list_0

  • Illinois: Old Northwest, Mississippi River (Missouri River joins near the state border), Ohio River, and Great Lakes stateMidwestern United States_item_0_0
  • Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, and Great Lakes stateMidwestern United States_item_0_1
  • Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, and Missouri River stateMidwestern United States_item_0_2
  • Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, and Missouri River stateMidwestern United States_item_0_3
  • Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes stateMidwestern United States_item_0_4
  • Minnesota: Old Northwest, Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Lakes stateMidwestern United States_item_0_5
  • Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River (Ohio River joins near the state border), Missouri River, and border stateMidwestern United States_item_0_6
  • Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, and Missouri River stateMidwestern United States_item_0_7
  • North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Plains, and Missouri River stateMidwestern United States_item_0_8
  • Ohio: Old Northwest (Historic Connecticut Western Reserve), Ohio River, and Great Lakes state. The southeastern part of the state is part of northern AppalachiaMidwestern United States_item_0_9
  • South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, and Missouri River stateMidwestern United States_item_0_10
  • Wisconsin: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, and Great Lakes stateMidwestern United States_item_0_11

Various organizations define the Midwest with slightly different groups of states. Midwestern United States_sentence_51

For example, the Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination among state governments, includes in its Midwest regional office eleven states from the above list, omitting Missouri, which is in the CSG South region. Midwestern United States_sentence_52

The Midwest Region of the National Park Service consists of these twelve states plus the state of Arkansas. Midwestern United States_sentence_53

The Midwest Archives Conference, a professional archives organization, with hundreds of archivists, curators, and information professionals as members, covers the above twelve states plus Kentucky. Midwestern United States_sentence_54

Physical geography Midwestern United States_section_3

Main articles: Geography of Illinois, Geography of Indiana, Geography of Iowa, Geography of Kansas, Geography of Michigan, Geography of Minnesota, Geography of Missouri, Geography of Nebraska, Geography of North Dakota, Geography of Ohio, Geography of South Dakota, and Geography of Wisconsin Midwestern United States_sentence_55

The vast central area of the U.S., into Canada, is a landscape of low, flat to rolling terrain in the Interior Plains. Midwestern United States_sentence_56

Most of its eastern two-thirds form the Interior Lowlands. Midwestern United States_sentence_57

The Lowlands gradually rise westward, from a line passing through eastern Kansas, up to over 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in the unit known as the Great Plains. Midwestern United States_sentence_58

Most of the Great Plains area is now farmed. Midwestern United States_sentence_59

While these states are for the most part relatively flat, consisting either of plains or of rolling and small hills, there is a measure of geographical variation. Midwestern United States_sentence_60

In particular, the following areas exhibit a high degree of topographical variety: the eastern Midwest near the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains; the Great Lakes Basin; the heavily glaciated uplands of the North Shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota, part of the ruggedly volcanic Canadian Shield; the Ozark Mountains of southern Missouri; and the deeply eroded Driftless Area of southwest Wisconsin, southeast Minnesota, northeast Iowa, and northwest Illinois. Midwestern United States_sentence_61

Proceeding westward, the Appalachian Plateau topography gradually gives way to gently rolling hills and then (in central Ohio) to flat lands converted principally to farms and urban areas. Midwestern United States_sentence_62

This is the beginning of the vast Interior Plains of North America. Midwestern United States_sentence_63

As a result, prairies cover most of the Great Plains states. Midwestern United States_sentence_64

Iowa and much of Illinois lie within an area called the prairie peninsula, an eastward extension of prairies that borders conifer and mixed forests to the north, and hardwood deciduous forests to the east and south. Midwestern United States_sentence_65

Geographers subdivide the Interior Plains into the Interior Lowlands and the Great Plains on the basis of elevation. Midwestern United States_sentence_66

The Lowlands are mostly below 1,500 feet (460 m) above sea level whereas the Great Plains to the west are higher, rising in Colorado to around 5,000 feet (1,500 m). Midwestern United States_sentence_67

The Lowlands, then, are confined to parts of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Midwestern United States_sentence_68

Missouri and Arkansas have regions of Lowlands elevations, contrasting with their Ozark region (within the Interior Highlands). Midwestern United States_sentence_69

Eastern Ohio's hills are an extension of the Appalachian Plateau. Midwestern United States_sentence_70

The Interior Plains are largely coincident with the vast Mississippi River Drainage System (other major components are the Missouri and Ohio Rivers). Midwestern United States_sentence_71

These rivers have for tens of millions of years been eroding downward into the mostly horizontal sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic ages. Midwestern United States_sentence_72

The modern Mississippi River system has developed during the Pleistocene Epoch of the Cenozoic. Midwestern United States_sentence_73

Rainfall decreases from east to west, resulting in different types of prairies, with the tallgrass prairie in the wetter eastern region, mixed-grass prairie in the central Great Plains, and shortgrass prairie towards the rain shadow of the Rockies. Midwestern United States_sentence_74

Today, these three prairie types largely correspond to the corn/soybean area, the wheat belt, and the western rangelands, respectively. Midwestern United States_sentence_75

Much of the coniferous forests of the Upper Midwest were clear-cut in the late 19th century, and mixed hardwood forests have become a major component of the new woodlands since then. Midwestern United States_sentence_76

The majority of the Midwest can now be categorized as urbanized areas or pastoral agricultural areas. Midwestern United States_sentence_77

History Midwestern United States_section_4

Pre-Columbian Midwestern United States_section_5

Main article: Mississippian culture Midwestern United States_sentence_78

Among the American Indians Paleo-Indian cultures were the earliest in North America, with a presence in the Great Plains and Great Lakes areas from about 12,000 BCE to around 8,000 BCE. Midwestern United States_sentence_79

Following the Paleo-Indian period is the Archaic period (8,000 BCE to 1,000 BCE), the Woodland Tradition (1,000 BCE to 100 CE), and the Mississippian Period (900 to 1500 CE). Midwestern United States_sentence_80

Archaeological evidence indicates that Mississippian culture traits probably began in the St. Midwestern United States_sentence_81 Louis, Missouri area and spread northwest along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers and entered the state along the Kankakee River system. Midwestern United States_sentence_82

It also spread northward into Indiana along the Wabash, Tippecanoe, and White Rivers. Midwestern United States_sentence_83

Mississippian peoples in the Midwest were mostly farmers who followed the rich, flat floodplains of Midwestern rivers. Midwestern United States_sentence_84

They brought with them a well-developed agricultural complex based on three major crops—maize, beans, and squash. Midwestern United States_sentence_85

Maize, or corn, was the primary crop of Mississippian farmers. Midwestern United States_sentence_86

They gathered a wide variety of seeds, nuts, and berries, and fished and hunted for fowl to supplement their diets. Midwestern United States_sentence_87

With such an intensive form of agriculture, this culture supported large populations. Midwestern United States_sentence_88

The Mississippi period was characterized by a mound-building culture. Midwestern United States_sentence_89

The Mississippians suffered a tremendous population decline about 1400, coinciding with the global climate change of the Little Ice Age. Midwestern United States_sentence_90

Their culture effectively ended before 1492. Midwestern United States_sentence_91

Great Lakes Native Americans Midwestern United States_section_6

The major tribes of the Great Lakes region included the Hurons, Ottawa, Chippewas or Ojibwas, Potawatomis, Winnebago (Ho-chunk), Menominees, Sacs, Neutrals, Fox, and the Miami. Midwestern United States_sentence_92

Most numerous were the Hurons and Chippewas. Midwestern United States_sentence_93

Fighting and battle were often launched between tribes, with the losers forced to flee. Midwestern United States_sentence_94

Most are of the Algonquian language family. Midwestern United States_sentence_95

Some tribes—such as the Stockbridge-Munsee and the Brothertown—are also Algonkian-speaking tribes who relocated from the eastern seaboard to the Great Lakes region in the 19th century. Midwestern United States_sentence_96

The Oneida belong to the Iroquois language group and the Ho-Chunk of Wisconsin are one of the few Great Lakes tribes to speak a Siouan language. Midwestern United States_sentence_97

American Indians in this area did not develop a written form of language. Midwestern United States_sentence_98

In the 16th century, American Indians used projectiles and tools of stone, bone, and wood to hunt and farm. Midwestern United States_sentence_99

They made canoes for fishing. Midwestern United States_sentence_100

Most of them lived in oval or conical wigwams that could be easily moved away. Midwestern United States_sentence_101

Various tribes had different ways of living. Midwestern United States_sentence_102

The Ojibwas were primarily hunters and fishing was also important in the Ojibwas economy. Midwestern United States_sentence_103

Other tribes such as Sac, Fox, and Miami, both hunted and farmed. Midwestern United States_sentence_104

They were oriented toward the open prairies where they engaged in communal hunts for buffalo (bison). Midwestern United States_sentence_105

In the northern forests, the Ottawas and Potawatomis separated into small family groups for hunting. Midwestern United States_sentence_106

The Winnebagos and Menominees used both hunting methods interchangeably and built up widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, and east to the Atlantic Ocean. Midwestern United States_sentence_107

The Hurons reckoned descent through the female line, while the others favored the patrilineal method. Midwestern United States_sentence_108

All tribes were governed under chiefdoms or complex chiefdoms. Midwestern United States_sentence_109

For example, Hurons were divided into matrilineal clans, each represented by a chief in the town council, where they met with a town chief on civic matters. Midwestern United States_sentence_110

But Chippewa people's social and political life was simpler than that of settled tribes. Midwestern United States_sentence_111

The religious beliefs varied among tribes. Midwestern United States_sentence_112

Hurons believed in Yoscaha, a supernatural being who lived in the sky and was believed to have created the world and the Huron people. Midwestern United States_sentence_113

At death, Hurons thought the soul left the body to live in a village in the sky. Midwestern United States_sentence_114

Chippewas were a deeply religious people who believed in the Great Spirit. Midwestern United States_sentence_115

They worshiped the Great Spirit through all their seasonal activities, and viewed religion as a private matter: Each person's relation with his personal guardian spirit was part of his thinking every day of life. Midwestern United States_sentence_116

Ottawa and Potawatomi people had very similar religious beliefs to those of the Chippewas. Midwestern United States_sentence_117

In the Ohio River Valley, the dominant food supply was not hunting but agriculture. Midwestern United States_sentence_118

There were orchards and fields of crops that were maintained by indigenous women. Midwestern United States_sentence_119

Corn was their most important crop. Midwestern United States_sentence_120

Great Plains Indians Midwestern United States_section_7

Main article: Plains Indians Midwestern United States_sentence_121

The Plains Indians are the indigenous peoples who live on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. Midwestern United States_sentence_122

Their colorful equestrian culture and famous conflicts with settlers and the US Army have made the Plains Indians archetypical in literature and art for American Indians everywhere. Midwestern United States_sentence_123

Plains Indians are usually divided into two broad classifications, with some degree of overlap. Midwestern United States_sentence_124

The first group were fully nomadic, following the vast herds of buffalo. Midwestern United States_sentence_125

Some tribes occasionally engaged in agriculture, growing tobacco and corn primarily. Midwestern United States_sentence_126

These included the Blackfoot, Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Gros Ventre, Kiowa, Lakota, Lipan, Plains Apache (or Kiowa Apache), Plains Cree, Plains Ojibwe, Sarsi, Shoshone, Stoney, and Tonkawa. Midwestern United States_sentence_127

The second group of Plains Indians (sometimes referred to as Prairie Indians) were the semi-sedentary tribes who, in addition to hunting buffalo, lived in villages and raised crops. Midwestern United States_sentence_128

These included the Arikara, Hidatsa, Iowa, Kaw (or Kansa), Kitsai, Mandan, Missouria, Nez Perce, Omaha, Osage, Otoe, Pawnee, Ponca, Quapaw, Santee, Wichita, and Yankton. Midwestern United States_sentence_129

The nomadic tribes of the Great Plains survived on hunting, some of their major hunts centered on deer and buffalo. Midwestern United States_sentence_130

Some tribes are described as part of the 'Buffalo Culture' (sometimes called, for the American Bison). Midwestern United States_sentence_131

Although the Plains Indians hunted other animals, such as elk or antelope, bison was their primary game food source. Midwestern United States_sentence_132

Bison flesh, hide, and bones from Bison hunting provided the chief source of raw materials for items that Plains Indians made, including food, cups, decorations, crafting tools, knives, and clothing. Midwestern United States_sentence_133

The tribes followed the bison's seasonal grazing and migration. Midwestern United States_sentence_134

The Plains Indians lived in teepees because they were easily disassembled and allowed the nomadic life of following game. Midwestern United States_sentence_135

When Spanish horses were obtained, the Plains tribes rapidly integrated them into their daily lives. Midwestern United States_sentence_136

By the early 18th century, many tribes had fully adopted a horse culture. Midwestern United States_sentence_137

Before their adoption of guns, the Plains Indians hunted with spears, bows, and bows and arrows, and various forms of clubs. Midwestern United States_sentence_138

The use of horses by the Plains Indians made hunting (and warfare) much easier. Midwestern United States_sentence_139

Among the most powerful and dominant tribes were the Dakota or Sioux, who occupied large amounts of territory in the Great Plains of the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_140

The area of the Great Sioux Nation spread throughout the South and Midwest, up into the areas of Minnesota and stretching out west into the Rocky Mountains. Midwestern United States_sentence_141

At the same time, they occupied the heart of prime buffalo range, and also an excellent region for furs they could sell to French and American traders for goods such as guns. Midwestern United States_sentence_142

The Sioux (Dakota) became the most powerful of the Plains tribes and the greatest threat to American expansion. Midwestern United States_sentence_143

The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on Siouan dialect and subculture: Midwestern United States_sentence_144

Midwestern United States_unordered_list_1

  • Isáŋyathi or Isáŋathi ("Knife"): residing in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa, and are often referred to as the Santee or Eastern Dakota.Midwestern United States_item_1_12
  • Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋ and Iháŋktȟuŋwaŋna ("Village-at-the-end" and "little village-at-the-end"): residing in the Minnesota River area, they are considered the middle Sioux, and are often referred to as the Yankton and the Yanktonai, or, collectively, as the Wičhíyena (endonym) or the Western Dakota (and have been erroneously classified as Nakota).Midwestern United States_item_1_13
  • Thítȟuŋwaŋ or Teton (uncertain): the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture, are often referred to as the Lakota.Midwestern United States_item_1_14

Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States, as well as Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan in Canada. Midwestern United States_sentence_145

European exploration and early settlement Midwestern United States_section_8

The Middle Ground theory Midwestern United States_section_9

The theory of the middle ground was introduced in Richard White's seminal work: The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815 originally published in 1991. Midwestern United States_sentence_146

White defines the middle ground like so: Midwestern United States_sentence_147

White specifically designates "the lands bordering the rivers flowing into the northern Great Lakes and the lands south of the lakes to the Ohio" as the location of the middle ground. Midwestern United States_sentence_148

This includes the modern Midwestern states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan as well as parts of Canada. Midwestern United States_sentence_149

The middle ground was formed on the foundations of mutual accommodation and common meanings established between the French and the Indians that then transformed and degraded as both were steadily lost in the transition of imperial power from the French to the British and, finally, to the United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_150

Major aspects of the middle ground include blended culture, the fur trade, Native alliances with both the French and British, conflicts and treaties with the United States both during the American Revolution and after, and its ultimate clearing/erasure throughout the nineteenth century. Midwestern United States_sentence_151

New France Midwestern United States_section_10

Main article: New France Midwestern United States_sentence_152

European settlement of the area began in the 17th century following French exploration of the region and became known as New France. Midwestern United States_sentence_153

The French period began with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with their expulsion by the British, who split New France with Spain in 1763. Midwestern United States_sentence_154

Marquette and Jolliet Midwestern United States_section_11

Main articles: Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet Midwestern United States_sentence_155

In 1673, the governor of New France sent Jacques Marquette, a Catholic priest and missionary, and Louis Jolliet, a fur trader to map the way to the Northwest Passage to the Pacific. Midwestern United States_sentence_156

They traveled through Michigan's upper peninsula to the northern tip of Lake Michigan. Midwestern United States_sentence_157

On canoes, they crossed the massive lake and landed at present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin. Midwestern United States_sentence_158

They entered the Mississippi River on June 17, 1673. Midwestern United States_sentence_159

Marquette and Jolliet soon realized that the Mississippi could not possibly be the Northwest Passage because it flowed south. Midwestern United States_sentence_160

Nevertheless, the journey continued. Midwestern United States_sentence_161

They recorded much of the wildlife they encountered. Midwestern United States_sentence_162

They turned around at the junction of the Mississippi River and Arkansas River and headed back. Midwestern United States_sentence_163

Marquette and Jolliet were the first to map the northern portion of the Mississippi River. Midwestern United States_sentence_164

They confirmed that it was easy to travel from the St. Lawrence River through the Great Lakes all the way to the Gulf of Mexico by water, that the native peoples who lived along the route were generally friendly, and that the natural resources of the lands in between were extraordinary. Midwestern United States_sentence_165

New France officials led by LaSalle followed up and erected a 4,000-mile network of fur trading posts. Midwestern United States_sentence_166

Fur trade Midwestern United States_section_12

Main article: North American fur trade Midwestern United States_sentence_167

The fur trade was an integral part of early European and Indian relations. Midwestern United States_sentence_168

It was the foundation upon which their interactions were built and was a system that would evolve over time. Midwestern United States_sentence_169

Goods often traded included guns, clothing, blankets, strouds, cloth, tobacco, silver, and alcohol. Midwestern United States_sentence_170

France Midwestern United States_section_13

Main article: Louisiana (New France) Midwestern United States_sentence_171

The French and Indian exchange of goods was called an exchange of gifts rather than a trade. Midwestern United States_sentence_172

These gifts held greater meaning to the relationship between the two than a simple economic exchange because the trade itself was inseparable from the social relations it fostered and the alliance it created. Midwestern United States_sentence_173

In the meshed French and Algonquian system of trade, the Algonquian familial metaphor of a father and his children shaped the political relationship between the French and the Natives in this region. Midwestern United States_sentence_174

The French, regarded as the metaphoric father, were expected to provide for the needs of the Algonquians and, in return, the Algonquians, the metaphoric children, would be obligated to assist and obey them. Midwestern United States_sentence_175

Traders coming into Indian villages facilitated this system of symbolic exchange to establish or maintain alliances and friendships. Midwestern United States_sentence_176

Marriage also became an important aspect of the trade in both the Ohio River valley and the French pays d'en haut with the temporary closing of the French fur trade from 1690 to 1716 and beyond. Midwestern United States_sentence_177

French fur traders were forced to abandon most posts and those remaining in the region became illegal traders who potentially sought these marriages to secure their safety. Midwestern United States_sentence_178

Another benefit for French traders marrying Indian women was that the Indian women were in charge of the processing of the pelts necessary to the fur trade. Midwestern United States_sentence_179

Women were integral to the fur trade and their contributions were lauded, so much so that the absence of the involvement of an Indian Woman was once cited as the cause for a trader's failure. Midwestern United States_sentence_180

When the French fur trade re-opened in 1716 upon the discovery that their overstock of pelts had been ruined, legal French traders continued to marry Indian women and remain in their villages. Midwestern United States_sentence_181

With the growing influence of women in the fur trade also came the increasing demand of cloth which very quickly grew to be the most desired trade good. Midwestern United States_sentence_182

Britain Midwestern United States_section_14

Main article: Indian Reserve (1763) Midwestern United States_sentence_183

Great Britain entered the Ohio country as a serious competitor in the fur trade around the 1690s. Midwestern United States_sentence_184

The British almost consistently offered the Indians better goods and better rates than the French and the Indians were able to play that to their advantage, throwing the French and the British into competition with each other to their own benefit. Midwestern United States_sentence_185

The Indian demand for certain kinds of cloth in particular fueled this competition. Midwestern United States_sentence_186

This, however, changed following the Seven Years' War with Britain's victory over France and the cession of New France to Great Britain. Midwestern United States_sentence_187

Britain tried to enforce imperialism over the Indians of the pays d'en haut and force the relationship between them into the roles of conqueror and subject and eliminated the practice of gift giving. Midwestern United States_sentence_188

This, in combination with an underwhelming trade with too much whiskey, too high of prices, and not enough of anything else led to unrest among the Indians that was exacerbated by the decision to significantly cut down on the trade of rum, a product they had been pushing in the trade for years. Midwestern United States_sentence_189

This all would culminate in Pontiac's Rebellion during 1763. Midwestern United States_sentence_190

Following the rebellion, the British, having failed to reduce the natives to subjects, were forced to compromise and loosely re-created a trade system that was an echo of the French one. Midwestern United States_sentence_191

American settlement Midwestern United States_section_15

Main article: American frontier § New Nation Midwestern United States_sentence_192

While French control ended in 1763 after their defeat by Britain, most of the several hundred French settlers in small villages along the Mississippi River and its tributaries remained, and were not disturbed by the new British government. Midwestern United States_sentence_193

By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Spain was given Louisiana; the area west of the Mississippi. Midwestern United States_sentence_194

St. Midwestern United States_sentence_195 Louis and Ste. Midwestern United States_sentence_196 Genevieve in Missouri were the main towns, but there was little new settlement. Midwestern United States_sentence_197

France regained Louisiana from Spain in exchange for Tuscany by the terms of the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800. Midwestern United States_sentence_198

Napoleon had lost interest in re-establishing a French colonial empire in North America following the Haitian Revolution and together with the fact that France could not effectively defend Louisiana from Great Britain, he sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Midwestern United States_sentence_199

Meanwhile, the British maintained forts and trading posts in U.S. territory, not giving them up until 1796 by the Jay Treaty. Midwestern United States_sentence_200

American settlement began either via routes over the Appalachian Mountains or through the waterways of the Great Lakes. Midwestern United States_sentence_201

Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_202

Marietta, Ohio in 1787 became the first settlement in Ohio, but not until the defeat of Native American tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 was large-scale settlement possible. Midwestern United States_sentence_203

Large numbers also came north from Kentucky into southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Midwestern United States_sentence_204

The region's fertile soil produced corn and vegetables; most farmers were self-sufficient. Midwestern United States_sentence_205

They cut trees and claimed the land, then sold it to newcomers and then moved further west to repeat the process. Midwestern United States_sentence_206

Squatters Midwestern United States_section_16

Main article: Northwest Territory Midwestern United States_sentence_207

Illegal settlers, called squatters, had been encroaching on the lands now the Midwest for years before the founding of the United States of America, pushing further and further down the Ohio River during the 1760s and 1770s and inciting conflict and competition with the Native Americans whose lands they intruded on every step of the way. Midwestern United States_sentence_208

These squatters were characterized by British General, Thomas Gage, as "too Numerous, too Lawless, and Licentious ever to be restrained," and regarded them as "almost out of Reach of Law and government; Neither the Endeavors of Government, or Fear of Indians has kept them properly within Bounds." Midwestern United States_sentence_209

The British had a long-standing goal of building a "neutral", but pro-British Native American buffer state in the American Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_210

When the American Revolution concluded and the formation of the United States of America began, the American government sought to evict these illegal settlers from areas that were now federally owned public lands. Midwestern United States_sentence_211

In 1785, soldiers led by General Josiah Harmar were sent into the Ohio country to destroy the crops and burn down the homes of any squatters they found living there. Midwestern United States_sentence_212

Eventually, after the formation of the Constitutional United States, the president became authorized to use military force to attack squatters and drive them off the land through the 1810s. Midwestern United States_sentence_213

Squatters began to petition Congress to stop attacking them and to recognize them as actual settlers using a variety of different arguments over the first half of the nineteenth century with varying degrees of success. Midwestern United States_sentence_214

Congress’ regarded "actual settlers" as those who gained title to land, settled on it, and then improved upon it by building a house, clearing the ground, and planting crops – the key point being that they had first gained the title to that land. Midwestern United States_sentence_215

Richard Young, a senator from Illinois and supporter of squatters, sought to expand the definition of an actual settler to include those who were not farmers (e.g. doctors, blacksmiths, and merchants) and proposed that they also be allowed to cheaply obtain land from the government. Midwestern United States_sentence_216

A number of means facilitated the legal settlement of the territories in the Midwest: land speculation, federal public land auctions, bounty land grants in lieu of pay to military veterans, and, later, preemption rights for squatters. Midwestern United States_sentence_217

Ultimately, as they shed the image of "lawless banditti" and fashioned themselves into pioneers, squatters were increasingly able to purchase the lands on which they had settled for the minimum price thanks to various preemption acts and laws passed throughout the 1810s-1840s. Midwestern United States_sentence_218

Native American wars Midwestern United States_section_17

Main article: American Indian Wars Midwestern United States_sentence_219

In 1791, General Arthur St. Clair became commander of the United States Army and led a punitive expedition with two Regular Army regiments and some militia. Midwestern United States_sentence_220

Near modern-day Fort Recovery, his force advanced to the location of Native American settlements near the headwaters of the Wabash River, but on November 4 they were routed in battle by a tribal confederation led by Miami Chief Little Turtle and Shawnee chief Blue Jacket. Midwestern United States_sentence_221

More than 600 soldiers and scores of women and children were killed in the battle, which has since borne the name "St. Midwestern United States_sentence_222 Clair's Defeat". Midwestern United States_sentence_223

It remains the greatest defeat of a U.S. Army by Native Americans. Midwestern United States_sentence_224

The British demanded a neutral Native American state at the peace conference that ended the War of 1812, but failed to gain any of it because they had lost control of the region in the Battle of Lake Erie and the Battle of the Thames in 1813, where Tecumseh was killed. Midwestern United States_sentence_225

The British then abandoned the Native Americans south of the lakes. Midwestern United States_sentence_226

The Native Americans were major losers in the War of 1812. Midwestern United States_sentence_227

Apart from the short Black Hawk War of 1832, the days of Native American warfare east of the Mississippi River had ended. Midwestern United States_sentence_228

Lewis and Clark Midwestern United States_section_18

Main article: Lewis and Clark Expedition Midwestern United States_sentence_229

In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned the Lewis and Clark expedition that took place between May 1804 and September 1806. Midwestern United States_sentence_230

Launching from Camp Dubois in Illinois, the goal was to explore the Louisiana Purchase, and establish trade and U.S. sovereignty over the native peoples along the Missouri River. Midwestern United States_sentence_231

The Lewis and Clark Expedition established relations with more than two dozen indigenous nations west of the Missouri River. Midwestern United States_sentence_232

The Expedition returned east to St. Midwestern United States_sentence_233 Louis in the spring of 1806. Midwestern United States_sentence_234

Yankees and ethnocultural politics Midwestern United States_section_19

Main article: Indiana Territory Midwestern United States_sentence_235

Yankee settlers from New England started arriving in Ohio before 1800, and spread throughout the northern half of the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_236

Most of them started as farmers, but later the larger proportion moved to towns and cities as entrepreneurs, businessmen, and urban professionals. Midwestern United States_sentence_237

Since its beginnings in the 1830s, Chicago has grown to dominate the Midwestern metropolis landscape for over a century. Midwestern United States_sentence_238

Historian John Bunker has examined the worldview of the Yankee settlers in the Midwest: Midwestern United States_sentence_239

Midwestern politics pitted Yankees against the German Catholics and Lutherans, who were often led by the Irish Catholics. Midwestern United States_sentence_240

These large groups, Buenker argues: Midwestern United States_sentence_241

Development of transportation Midwestern United States_section_20

Waterways Midwestern United States_section_21

Three waterways have been important to the development of the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_242

The first and foremost was the Ohio River, which flowed into the Mississippi River. Midwestern United States_sentence_243

Development of the region was halted until 1795 by Spain's control of the southern part of the Mississippi and its refusal to allow the shipment of American crops down the river and into the Atlantic Ocean. Midwestern United States_sentence_244

The second waterway is the network of routes within the Great Lakes. Midwestern United States_sentence_245

The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 completed an all-water shipping route, more direct than the Mississippi, to New York and the seaport of New York City. Midwestern United States_sentence_246

In 1848, The Illinois and Michigan Canal breached the continental divide spanning the Chicago Portage and linking the waters of the Great Lakes with those of the Mississippi Valley and the Gulf of Mexico. Midwestern United States_sentence_247

Lakeport and river cities grew up to handle these new shipping routes. Midwestern United States_sentence_248

During the Industrial Revolution, the lakes became a conduit for iron ore from the Mesabi Range of Minnesota to steel mills in the Mid-Atlantic States. Midwestern United States_sentence_249

The Saint Lawrence Seaway, completed in 1959, opened the Midwest to the Atlantic Ocean. Midwestern United States_sentence_250

The third waterway, the Missouri River, extended water travel from the Mississippi almost to the Rocky Mountains. Midwestern United States_sentence_251

In the 1870s and 1880s, the Mississippi River inspired two classic books—Life on the Mississippi and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn—written by native Missourian Samuel Clemens, who used the pseudonym Mark Twain. Midwestern United States_sentence_252

His stories became staples of Midwestern lore. Midwestern United States_sentence_253

Twain's hometown of Hannibal, Missouri, is a tourist attraction offering a glimpse into the Midwest of his time. Midwestern United States_sentence_254

Inland canals in Ohio and Indiana constituted another important waterway, which connected with Great Lakes and Ohio River traffic. Midwestern United States_sentence_255

The commodities that the Midwest funneled into the Erie Canal down the Ohio River contributed to the wealth of New York City, which overtook Boston and Philadelphia. Midwestern United States_sentence_256

Railroads and the automobile Midwestern United States_section_22

During the mid-19th century, the region got its first railroads, and the railroad junction in Chicago became the world's largest. Midwestern United States_sentence_257

During the century, Chicago became the nation's railroad center. Midwestern United States_sentence_258

By 1910, over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals. Midwestern United States_sentence_259

Even today, a century after Henry Ford, six Class I railroads meet in Chicago. Midwestern United States_sentence_260

In the period from 1890 to 1930, many Midwestern cities were connected by electric interurban railroads, similar to streetcars. Midwestern United States_sentence_261

The Midwest had more interurbans than any other region. Midwestern United States_sentence_262

In 1916, Ohio led all states with 2,798 miles (4,503 km), Indiana followed with 1,825 miles (2,937 km). Midwestern United States_sentence_263

These two states alone had almost a third of the country's interurban trackage. Midwestern United States_sentence_264

The nation's largest interurban junction was in Indianapolis. Midwestern United States_sentence_265

During the 1900s (decade), the city's 38 percent growth in population was attributed largely to the interurban. Midwestern United States_sentence_266

Competition with automobiles and buses undermined the interurban and other railroad passenger business. Midwestern United States_sentence_267

By 1900, Detroit was the world center of the auto industry, and soon practically every city within 200 miles was producing auto parts that fed into its giant factories. Midwestern United States_sentence_268

In 1903, Henry Ford founded the Ford Motor Company. Midwestern United States_sentence_269

Ford's manufacturing—and those of automotive pioneers William C. Durant, the Dodge brothers, Packard, and Walter Chrysler—established Detroit's status in the early 20th century as the world's automotive capital. Midwestern United States_sentence_270

The proliferation of businesses created a synergy that also encouraged truck manufacturers such as Rapid and Grabowsky. Midwestern United States_sentence_271

The growth of the auto industry was reflected by changes in businesses throughout the Midwest and nation, with the development of garages to service vehicles and gas stations, as well as factories for parts and tires. Midwestern United States_sentence_272

Today, greater Detroit remains home to General Motors, Chrysler, and the Ford Motor Company. Midwestern United States_sentence_273

American Civil War Midwestern United States_section_23

Main article: American Civil War Midwestern United States_sentence_274

Slavery prohibition and the Underground Railroad Midwestern United States_section_24

The Northwest Ordinance region, comprising the heart of the Midwest, was the first large region of the United States that prohibited slavery (the Northeastern United States emancipated slaves in the 1830s). Midwestern United States_sentence_275

The regional southern boundary was the Ohio River, the border of freedom and slavery in American history and literature (see Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe and Beloved by Toni Morrison). Midwestern United States_sentence_276

The Midwest, particularly Ohio, provided the primary routes for the Underground Railroad, whereby Midwesterners assisted slaves to freedom from their crossing of the Ohio River through their departure on Lake Erie to Canada. Midwestern United States_sentence_277

Created in the early 19th century, the Underground Railroad was at its height between 1850 and 1860. Midwestern United States_sentence_278

One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the Underground Railroad. Midwestern United States_sentence_279

The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes, transportation, and safe houses and assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers. Midwestern United States_sentence_280

Individuals were often organized in small, independent groups; this helped to maintain secrecy because individuals knew some connecting "stations" along the route, but knew few details of their immediate area. Midwestern United States_sentence_281

Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. Midwestern United States_sentence_282

Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they usually traveled on foot or by wagon. Midwestern United States_sentence_283

The region was shaped by the relative absence of slavery (except for Missouri), pioneer settlement, education in one-room free public schools, democratic notions brought by American Revolutionary War veterans, Protestant faiths and experimentation, and agricultural wealth transported on the Ohio River riverboats, flatboats, canal boats, and railroads. Midwestern United States_sentence_284

Bleeding Kansas Midwestern United States_section_25

Main article: Bleeding Kansas Midwestern United States_sentence_285

The first violent conflicts leading up to the Civil War occurred between two neighboring Midwestern states, Kansas and Missouri, involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of Missouri roughly between 1854 and 1858. Midwestern United States_sentence_286

At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free state or slave state. Midwestern United States_sentence_287

As such, Bleeding Kansas was a proxy war between Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery. Midwestern United States_sentence_288

The term "Bleeding Kansas" was coined by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune; the events it encompasses directly presaged the Civil War. Midwestern United States_sentence_289

Setting in motion the events later known as "Bleeding Kansas" was the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Midwestern United States_sentence_290

The Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands that would help settlement in them, repealed the Missouri Compromise, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine through popular sovereignty whether to allow slavery within their boundaries. Midwestern United States_sentence_291

It was hoped the Act would ease relations between the North and the South, because the South could expand slavery to new territories, but the North still had the right to abolish slavery in its states. Midwestern United States_sentence_292

Instead, opponents denounced the law as a concession to the slave power of the South. Midwestern United States_sentence_293

The new Republican Party, born in the Midwest (Ripon, Wisconsin, 1854) and created in opposition to the Act, aimed to stop the expansion of slavery, and soon emerged as the dominant force throughout the North. Midwestern United States_sentence_294

An ostensibly democratic idea, popular sovereignty stated that the inhabitants of each territory or state should decide whether it would be a free or slave state; however, this resulted in immigration en masse to Kansas by activists from both sides. Midwestern United States_sentence_295

At one point, Kansas had two separate governments, each with its own constitution, although only one was federally recognized. Midwestern United States_sentence_296

On January 29, 1861, Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state, less than three months before the Battle of Fort Sumter officially began the Civil War. Midwestern United States_sentence_297

The calm in Kansas was shattered in May 1856 by two events that are often regarded as the opening shots of the Civil War. Midwestern United States_sentence_298

On May 21, the Free Soil town of Lawrence, Kansas, was sacked by an armed pro‐slavery force from Missouri. Midwestern United States_sentence_299

A few days later, the Sacking of Lawrence led abolitionist John Brown and six of his followers to execute five men along the Pottawatomie Creek in Franklin County, Kansas, in retaliation. Midwestern United States_sentence_300

The so-called "Border War" lasted for another four months, from May through October, between armed bands of pro‐slavery and Free Soil men. Midwestern United States_sentence_301

The U.S. Army had two garrisons in Kansas, the First Cavalry Regiment at Fort Leavenworth and the Second Dragoons and Sixth Infantry at Fort Riley. Midwestern United States_sentence_302

The skirmishes endured until a new governor, John W. Geary, managed to prevail upon the Missourians to return home in late 1856. Midwestern United States_sentence_303

A fragile peace followed, but violent outbreaks continued intermittently for several more years. Midwestern United States_sentence_304

National reaction to the events in Kansas demonstrated how deeply divided the country had become. Midwestern United States_sentence_305

The Border Ruffians were widely applauded in the South, even though their actions had cost the lives of numerous people. Midwestern United States_sentence_306

In the North, the murders committed by Brown and his followers were ignored by most, and lauded by a few. Midwestern United States_sentence_307

The civil conflict in Kansas was a product of the political fight over slavery. Midwestern United States_sentence_308

Federal troops were not used to decide a political question, but they were used by successive territorial governors to pacify the territory so that the political question of slavery in Kansas could finally be decided by peaceful, legal, and political means. Midwestern United States_sentence_309

The election of Abraham Lincoln in November 1860 was the final trigger for secession by the Southern states. Midwestern United States_sentence_310

Efforts at compromise, including the "Corwin Amendment" and the Crittenden Compromise, failed. Midwestern United States_sentence_311

Southern leaders feared that Lincoln would stop the expansion of slavery and put it on a course toward extinction. Midwestern United States_sentence_312

The U.S. federal government was supported by 20 mostly-Northern free states in which slavery already had been abolished, and by five slave states that became known as the border states. Midwestern United States_sentence_313

All of the Midwestern states but one, Missouri, banned slavery. Midwestern United States_sentence_314

Though most battles were fought in the South, skirmishes between Kansas and Missouri continued until culmination with the Lawrence Massacre on August 21, 1863. Midwestern United States_sentence_315

Also known as Quantrill's Raid, the massacre was a rebel guerrilla attack by Quantrill's Raiders, led by William Clarke Quantrill, on pro-Union Lawrence, Kansas. Midwestern United States_sentence_316

Quantrill's band of 448 Missouri guerrillas raided and plundered Lawrence, killing more than 150 and burning all the business buildings and most of the dwellings. Midwestern United States_sentence_317

Pursued by federal troops, the band escaped to Missouri. Midwestern United States_sentence_318

Lawrence was targeted because of the town's long-time support of abolition and its reputation as a center for Redlegs and Jayhawkers, which were free-state militia and vigilante groups known for attacking and families in Missouri's pro-slavery western counties. Midwestern United States_sentence_319

Immigration and industrialization Midwestern United States_section_26

Main articles: Immigrants to the United States and Industrialization Midwestern United States_sentence_320

By the time of the American Civil War, European immigrants bypassed the East Coast of the United States to settle directly in the interior: German immigrants to Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, and Missouri; Irish immigrants to port cities on the Great Lakes, like Cleveland and Chicago; Danes, Czechs, Swedes, and Norwegians to Iowa, Nebraska, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Dakotas; and Finns to Upper Michigan and northern/central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Midwestern United States_sentence_321

Poles, Hungarians, and Jews settled in Midwestern cities. Midwestern United States_sentence_322

The U.S. was predominantly rural at the time of the Civil War. Midwestern United States_sentence_323

The Midwest was no exception, dotted with small farms all across the region. Midwestern United States_sentence_324

The late 19th century saw industrialization, immigration, and urbanization that fed the Industrial Revolution, and the heart of industrial domination and innovation was in the Great Lakes states of the Midwest, which only began its slow decline by the late 20th century. Midwestern United States_sentence_325

A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. Midwestern United States_sentence_326

Manufacturing and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. Midwestern United States_sentence_327

In addition to manufacturing, printing, publishing, and food processing also play major roles in the Midwest's largest economy. Midwestern United States_sentence_328

Chicago was the base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald, and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation for Midwestern and global industry. Midwestern United States_sentence_329

Meanwhile, John D. Rockefeller, creator of the Standard Oil Company, made his billions in Cleveland. Midwestern United States_sentence_330

At one point during the late 19th century, Cleveland was home to more than 50% of the world's millionaires, many living on the famous Millionaire's Row on Euclid Avenue. Midwestern United States_sentence_331

In the 20th century, African American migration from the Southern United States into the Midwestern states changed Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Detroit, Omaha, Minneapolis, and many other cities in the Midwest, as factories and schools enticed families by the thousands to new opportunities. Midwestern United States_sentence_332

Chicago alone gained hundreds of thousands of black citizens from the Great Migration and the Second Great Migration. Midwestern United States_sentence_333

The Gateway Arch monument in St. Louis, clad in stainless steel and built in the form of a flattened catenary arch, is the tallest man-made monument in the United States, and the world's tallest arch. Midwestern United States_sentence_334

Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of the Gateway Arch National Park, which was known as the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial until 2018, and has become an internationally famous symbol of St. Louis and the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_335

German Americans Midwestern United States_section_27

Main article: German American Midwestern United States_sentence_336

Midwestern United States_table_general_1

German Immigration to the United States (by decade 1820–2004)Midwestern United States_header_cell_1_0_0
DecadeMidwestern United States_header_cell_1_1_0 Number of

ImmigrantsMidwestern United States_header_cell_1_1_1

DecadeMidwestern United States_header_cell_1_1_2 Number of

ImmigrantsMidwestern United States_header_cell_1_1_3

1820–1840Midwestern United States_cell_1_2_0 160,335Midwestern United States_cell_1_2_1 1921–1930Midwestern United States_cell_1_2_2 412,202Midwestern United States_cell_1_2_3
1841–1850Midwestern United States_cell_1_3_0 434,626Midwestern United States_cell_1_3_1 1931–1940Midwestern United States_cell_1_3_2 114,058Midwestern United States_cell_1_3_3
1851–1860Midwestern United States_cell_1_4_0 951,667Midwestern United States_cell_1_4_1 1941–1950Midwestern United States_cell_1_4_2 226,578Midwestern United States_cell_1_4_3
1861–1870Midwestern United States_cell_1_5_0 787,468Midwestern United States_cell_1_5_1 1951–1960Midwestern United States_cell_1_5_2 477,765Midwestern United States_cell_1_5_3
1871–1880Midwestern United States_cell_1_6_0 718,182Midwestern United States_cell_1_6_1 1961–1970Midwestern United States_cell_1_6_2 190,796Midwestern United States_cell_1_6_3
1881–1890Midwestern United States_cell_1_7_0 1,452,970Midwestern United States_cell_1_7_1 1971–1980Midwestern United States_cell_1_7_2 74,414Midwestern United States_cell_1_7_3
1891–1900Midwestern United States_cell_1_8_0 505,152Midwestern United States_cell_1_8_1 1981–1990Midwestern United States_cell_1_8_2 91,961Midwestern United States_cell_1_8_3
1901–1910Midwestern United States_cell_1_9_0 341,498Midwestern United States_cell_1_9_1 1991–2000Midwestern United States_cell_1_9_2 92,606Midwestern United States_cell_1_9_3
1911–1920Midwestern United States_cell_1_10_0 143,945Midwestern United States_cell_1_10_1 2001–2004Midwestern United States_cell_1_10_2 61,253Midwestern United States_cell_1_10_3
Total: 7,237,594Midwestern United States_header_cell_1_11_0

As the Midwest opened up to settlement via waterways and rail in the mid-1800s, Germans began to settle there in large numbers. Midwestern United States_sentence_337

The largest flow of German immigration to America occurred between 1820 and World War I, during which time nearly six million Germans immigrated to the United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_338

From 1840 to 1880, they were the largest group of immigrants. Midwestern United States_sentence_339

The Midwestern cities of Milwaukee, Cincinnati, St. Midwestern United States_sentence_340 Louis, and Chicago were favored destinations of German immigrants. Midwestern United States_sentence_341

By 1900, the populations of the cities of Cleveland, Milwaukee, Hoboken, and Cincinnati were all more than 40 percent German American. Midwestern United States_sentence_342

Dubuque and Davenport, Iowa, had even larger proportions; in Omaha, Nebraska, the proportion of German Americans was 57 percent in 1910. Midwestern United States_sentence_343

In many other cities of the Midwest, such as Fort Wayne, Indiana, German Americans were at least 30 percent of the population. Midwestern United States_sentence_344

Many concentrations acquired distinctive names suggesting their heritage, such as the "Over-the-Rhine" district in Cincinnati and "German Village" in Columbus, Ohio. Midwestern United States_sentence_345

A favorite destination was Milwaukee, known as "the German Athens". Midwestern United States_sentence_346

Radical Germans trained in politics in the old country dominated the city's Socialists. Midwestern United States_sentence_347

Skilled workers dominated many crafts, while entrepreneurs created the brewing industry; the most famous brands included Pabst, Schlitz, Miller, and Blatz. Midwestern United States_sentence_348

While half of German immigrants settled in cities, the other half established farms in the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_349

From Ohio to the Plains states, a heavy presence persists in rural areas into the 21st century. Midwestern United States_sentence_350

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, German Americans showed a high interest in becoming farmers, and keeping their children and grandchildren on the land. Midwestern United States_sentence_351

Western railroads, with large land grants available to attract farmers, set up agencies in Hamburg and other German cities, promising cheap transportation, and sales of farmland on easy terms. Midwestern United States_sentence_352

For example, the Santa Fe Railroad hired its own commissioner for immigration, and sold over 300,000 acres (1,200 km) to German-speaking farmers. Midwestern United States_sentence_353

Economy Midwestern United States_section_28

Farming and agriculture Midwestern United States_section_29

Further information: Corn Belt and Wheat production in the United States Midwestern United States_sentence_354

Agriculture is one of the biggest drivers of local economies in the Midwest, accounting for billions of dollars worth of exports and thousands of jobs. Midwestern United States_sentence_355

The area consists of some of the richest farming land in the world. Midwestern United States_sentence_356

The region's fertile soil combined with the steel plow has made it possible for farmers to produce abundant harvests of grain and cereal crops, including corn, wheat, soybeans, oats, and barley, to become known today as the nation's "breadbasket". Midwestern United States_sentence_357

Former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, a pioneer of hybrid seeds, declared in 1956 that the Corn Belt developed the "most productive agricultural civilization the world has ever seen". Midwestern United States_sentence_358

Today, the U.S. produces 40 percent of the world crop. Midwestern United States_sentence_359

The very dense soil of the Midwest plagued the first settlers who were using wooden plows, which were more suitable for loose forest soil. Midwestern United States_sentence_360

On the prairie, the plows bounced around and the soil stuck to them. Midwestern United States_sentence_361

This problem was solved in 1837 by an Illinois blacksmith named John Deere who developed a steel moldboard plow that was stronger and cut the roots, making the fertile soils of the prairie ready for farming. Midwestern United States_sentence_362

Farms spread from the colonies westward along with the settlers. Midwestern United States_sentence_363

In cooler regions, wheat was often the crop of choice when lands were newly settled, leading to a "wheat frontier" that moved westward over the course of years. Midwestern United States_sentence_364

Also very common in the antebellum Midwest was farming corn while raising hogs, complementing each other especially since it was difficult to get grain to market before the canals and railroads. Midwestern United States_sentence_365

After the "wheat frontier" had passed through an area, more diversified farms including dairy and beef cattle generally took its place. Midwestern United States_sentence_366

The introduction and broad adoption of scientific agriculture since the mid-19th century contributed to economic growth in the United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_367

This development was facilitated by the Morrill Act and the Hatch Act of 1887 which established in each state a land-grant university (with a mission to teach and study agriculture) and a federally funded system of agricultural experiment stations and cooperative extension networks which place extension agents in each state. Midwestern United States_sentence_368

Iowa State University became the nation's first designated land-grant institution when the Iowa Legislature accepted the provisions of the 1862 Morrill Act on September 11, 1862, making Iowa the first state in the nation to do so. Midwestern United States_sentence_369

Soybeans were not widely cultivated in the United States until the early 1930s, and by 1942, the U.S. became the world's largest soybean producer, partially because of World War II and the "need for domestic sources of fats, oils, and meal". Midwestern United States_sentence_370

Between 1930 and 1942, the United States' share of world soybean production skyrocketed from 3 percent to 46.5 percent, largely as a result of increase in the Midwest, and by 1969, it had risen to 76 percent. Midwestern United States_sentence_371

Iowa and Illinois rank first and second in the nation in soybean production. Midwestern United States_sentence_372

In 2012, Iowa produced 14.5 percent, and Illinois produced 13.3 percent of the nation's soybeans. Midwestern United States_sentence_373

The tallgrass prairie has been converted into one of the most intensive crop producing areas in North America. Midwestern United States_sentence_374

Less than one tenth of one percent (<0.09%) of the original landcover of the tallgrass prairie biome remains. Midwestern United States_sentence_375

States formerly with landcover in native tallgrass prairie such as Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Nebraska, and Missouri have become valued for their highly productive soils and are included in the Corn Belt. Midwestern United States_sentence_376

As an example of this land use intensity, Illinois and Iowa rank 49th and 50th out of 50 states in total uncultivated land remaining. Midwestern United States_sentence_377

The Corn Belt is a region of the Midwest where corn has, since the 1850s, been the predominant crop, replacing the native tall grasses. Midwestern United States_sentence_378

The "Corn Belt" region is defined typically to include Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, southern Michigan, western Ohio, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, southern Minnesota, and parts of Missouri. Midwestern United States_sentence_379

As of 2008, the top four corn-producing states were Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, and Minnesota, together accounting for more than half of the corn grown in the United States. Midwestern United States_sentence_380

The Corn Belt also sometimes is defined to include parts of South Dakota, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Kentucky. Midwestern United States_sentence_381

The region is characterized by relatively level land and deep, fertile soils, high in organic matter. Midwestern United States_sentence_382

Iowa produces the largest corn crop of any state. Midwestern United States_sentence_383

In 2012, Iowa farmers produced 18.3 percent of the nation's corn, while Illinois produced 15.3 percent. Midwestern United States_sentence_384

In 2011, there were 13.7 million harvested acres of corn for grain, producing 2.36 billion bushels, which yielded 172.0 bu/acre, with US$14.5 billion of corn value of production. Midwestern United States_sentence_385

Wheat is produced throughout the Midwest and is the principal cereal grain in the country. Midwestern United States_sentence_386

The U.S. is ranked third in production volume of wheat, with almost 58 million tons produced in the 2012–2013 growing season, behind only China and India (the combined production of all European Union nations is larger than China) The U.S. ranks first in crop export volume; almost 50 percent of total wheat produced is exported. Midwestern United States_sentence_387

The U.S. Midwestern United States_sentence_388 Department of Agriculture defines eight official classes of wheat: durum wheat, hard red spring wheat, hard red winter wheat, soft red winter wheat, hard white wheat, soft white wheat, unclassed wheat, and mixed wheat. Midwestern United States_sentence_389

Winter wheat accounts for 70 to 80 percent of total production in the U.S., with the largest amounts produced in Kansas (10.8 million tons) and North Dakota (9.8 million tons). Midwestern United States_sentence_390

Of the total wheat produced in the country, 50 percent is exported, valued at US$9 billion. Midwestern United States_sentence_391

Midwestern states also lead the nation in other agricultural commodities, including pork (Iowa), beef and veal (Nebraska), dairy (Wisconsin), and chicken eggs (Iowa). Midwestern United States_sentence_392

Financial Midwestern United States_section_30

Chicago is the largest economic and financial center of the Midwest, and has the third largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—approximately $532 billion, according to 2010 estimates, after the urban agglomerations of New York City and Los Angeles. Midwestern United States_sentence_393

Chicago was named the fourth most important business center in the world in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index. Midwestern United States_sentence_394

The 2017 Global Financial Centres Index ranked Chicago as the fifth most competitive city in the country and twenty-fourth in the world. Midwestern United States_sentence_395

The Chicago Board of Trade (established 1848) listed the first ever standardized "exchange traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts. Midwestern United States_sentence_396

As a world financial center it is home to major financial and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (the "Merc"), which is owned, along with the Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) by Chicago's CME Group. Midwestern United States_sentence_397

The CME Group, in addition, owns the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the Commodities Exchange Inc. (COMEX), and the Dow Jones Indexes., as well as headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (the Seventh District of the Federal Reserve). Midwestern United States_sentence_398

Outside of Chicago, many other Midwest cities are host to financial centers as well. Midwestern United States_sentence_399

Federal Reserve Bank districts are also headquartered at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Midwestern United States_sentence_400

Major United States bank headquarters are located throughout Ohio including Huntington Bancshares in Columbus, Fifth Third Bank in Cincinnati, and KeyCorp in Cleveland. Midwestern United States_sentence_401

Insurance Companies such as Anthem in Indianapolis, Nationwide Insurance in Columbus, American Family Insurance in Madison, Wisconsin, Berkshire Hathaway in Omaha, State Farm Insurance in Bloomington, Illinois, Reinsurance Group of America in Chesterfield, Missouri, Cincinnati Financial Corporation of Cincinnati and Progressive Insurance and Medical Mutual of Ohio in Cleveland also spread throughout the Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_402

Manufacturing Midwestern United States_section_31

Navigable terrain, waterways, and ports spurred an unprecedented construction of transportation infrastructure throughout the region. Midwestern United States_sentence_403

The region is a global leader in advanced manufacturing and research and development, with significant innovations in both production processes and business organization. Midwestern United States_sentence_404

John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil set precedents for centralized pricing, uniform distribution, and controlled product standards through Standard Oil, which started as a consolidated refinery in Cleveland. Midwestern United States_sentence_405

Cyrus McCormick's Reaper and other manufacturers of agricultural machinery consolidated into International Harvester in Chicago. Midwestern United States_sentence_406

Andrew Carnegie's steel production integrated large-scale open-hearth and Bessemer processes into the world's most efficient and profitable mills. Midwestern United States_sentence_407

The largest, most comprehensive monopoly in the world, United States Steel, consolidated steel production throughout the region. Midwestern United States_sentence_408

Many of the world's largest employers began in the Great Lakes region. Midwestern United States_sentence_409

Advantages of accessible waterways, highly developed transportation infrastructure, finance, and a prosperous market base makes the region the global leader in automobile production and a global business location. Midwestern United States_sentence_410

Henry Ford's movable assembly line and integrated production set the model and standard for major car manufactures. Midwestern United States_sentence_411

The Detroit area emerged as the world's automotive center, with facilities throughout the region. Midwestern United States_sentence_412

Akron, Ohio became the global leader in rubber production, driven by the demand for tires. Midwestern United States_sentence_413

Over 200 million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes. Midwestern United States_sentence_414

Culture Midwestern United States_section_32

Religion Midwestern United States_section_33

Like the rest of the United States, the Midwest is predominantly Christian. Midwestern United States_sentence_415

The majority of Midwesterners are Protestants, with rates from 48 percent in Illinois to 63 percent in Iowa. Midwestern United States_sentence_416

However, the Roman Catholic Church is the largest single denomination, varying between 18 percent and 34 percent of the state populations. Midwestern United States_sentence_417

Lutherans are prevalent in the Upper Midwest, especially in Minnesota and the Dakotas with their large Scandinavian and German populations. Midwestern United States_sentence_418

Southern Baptists compose about 15 percent of Missouri's population, but much smaller percentages in other Midwestern states. Midwestern United States_sentence_419

Judaism and Islam are collectively practiced by 2 percent of the population, with higher concentrations in major urban areas. Midwestern United States_sentence_420

35 percent of Midwesterners attend religious services every week, and 69 percent attend at least a few times a year. Midwestern United States_sentence_421

People with no religious affiliation make up 22 percent of the Midwest's population. Midwestern United States_sentence_422

Education Midwestern United States_section_34

Many Midwestern universities, both public and private, are members of the Association of American Universities (AAU), a bi-national organization of leading public and private research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Midwestern United States_sentence_423

Of the 62 members from the U.S. and Canada, 16 are located in the Midwest, including private schools Northwestern University, Case Western Reserve University, the University of Chicago, and Washington University in St. Louis. Midwestern United States_sentence_424

Member public institutions of the AAU include the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Indiana University Bloomington, the University of Iowa, Iowa State University, the University of Kansas, the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, the University of Missouri, the Ohio State University, Purdue University, and the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Midwestern United States_sentence_425

Other notable major research-intensive public universities include the University of Cincinnati, the University of Illinois at Chicago, Western Michigan University, Kansas State University, and the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Midwestern United States_sentence_426

Numerous state university systems have established regional campuses statewide. Midwestern United States_sentence_427

The numerous state teachers colleges were upgraded into state universities after 1945. Midwestern United States_sentence_428

Other notable private institutions include the University of Notre Dame, John Carroll University, Saint Louis University, Loyola University Chicago, DePaul University, Creighton University, Drake University, Marquette University, University of Dayton, and Xavier University. Midwestern United States_sentence_429

Local boosters, usually with a church affiliation, created numerous colleges in the mid-19th century. Midwestern United States_sentence_430

In terms of national rankings, the most prominent today include Carleton College, Denison University, DePauw University, Earlham College, Grinnell College, Hamline University, Kalamazoo College, Kenyon College, Knox College, Macalester College, Lawrence University, Oberlin College, St. Midwestern United States_sentence_431 Olaf College, Mount Union University, Wheaton College, Miami University, and The College of Wooster. Midwestern United States_sentence_432

Music Midwestern United States_section_35

The heavy German immigration played a major role in establishing musical traditions, especially choral and orchestral music. Midwestern United States_sentence_433

Czech and German traditions combined to sponsor the polka. Midwestern United States_sentence_434

The Southern Diaspora of the 20th century saw more than twenty million Southerners move throughout the country, many of whom moved into major Midwestern industrial cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis. Midwestern United States_sentence_435

Along with them, they brought jazz to the Midwest, as well as blues, bluegrass, and rock and roll, with major contributions to jazz, funk, and R&B, and even new subgenres such as the Motown Sound and techno from Detroit or house music from Chicago. Midwestern United States_sentence_436

In the 1920s, South Side Chicago was the base for Jelly Roll Morton (1890–1941). Midwestern United States_sentence_437

Kansas City developed its own jazz style. Midwestern United States_sentence_438

The electrified Chicago blues sound exemplifies the genre, as popularized by record labels Chess and Alligator and portrayed in such films as The Blues Brothers, Godfathers and Sons, and Adventures in Babysitting. Midwestern United States_sentence_439

Rock and roll music was first identified as a new genre in 1951 by Cleveland disc jockey Alan Freed who began playing this music style while popularizing the term "rock and roll" to describe it. Midwestern United States_sentence_440

By the mid-1950s, rock and roll emerged as a defined musical style in the United States, deriving most directly from the rhythm and blues music of the 1940s, which itself developed from earlier blues, boogie woogie, jazz, and swing music, and was also influenced by gospel, country and western, and traditional folk music. Midwestern United States_sentence_441

Freed's contribution in identifying rock as a new genre helped establish the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located in Cleveland. Midwestern United States_sentence_442

Chuck Berry, a Midwesterner from St. Louis, was among the first successful rock and roll artists and influenced many other rock musicians. Midwestern United States_sentence_443

Notable soul and R&B musicians associated with Motown that had their origins in the area include Aretha Franklin, The Supremes, Mary Wells, Four Tops, The Jackson 5, Smokey Robinson & the Miracles, Stevie Wonder, The Marvelettes, The Temptations, and Martha and the Vandellas. Midwestern United States_sentence_444

These artists achieved their greatest success in the 1960s and 1970s. Midwestern United States_sentence_445

In the 1970s and 1980s, native Midwestern musicians such as John Mellencamp and Bob Seger found great success with a style of rock music that came to be known as heartland rock, which were characterized by lyrical themes that focused on and appealed to the Midwestern working class. Midwestern United States_sentence_446

Other successful Midwestern rock artists emerged during this time, including Cheap Trick, REO Speedwagon, Steve Miller, Styx, and Kansas.. Midwestern United States_sentence_447

In the 1990s, the Chicago-based band The Smashing Pumpkins emerged, and went on to become one of the most successful alternative rock artists of the decade. Midwestern United States_sentence_448

Also in the 1990s, the Midwest was at the center of the emerging Midwest emo movement, with bands like The Get Up Kids (Missouri), Cursive (Nebraska), and Cap'n Jazz (Illinois) blending earlier hard-core punk sounds with a more melodic indie rock sentiment. Midwestern United States_sentence_449

This hybrid of styles came to be known as Midwest emo. Midwestern United States_sentence_450

In the late 1990s, Eminem and Kid Rock emerged from the Detroit area. Midwestern United States_sentence_451

Eminem went on to become one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed rappers of all time. Midwestern United States_sentence_452

Meanwhile, Kid Rock successfully mixed elements of rap, hard rock, heavy metal, country rock, and pop in forming his own unique sound. Midwestern United States_sentence_453

Both artists are known for celebrating their Detroit roots. Midwestern United States_sentence_454

House Music and Techno both had their roots in Chicago and Detroit respectively in the mid-to-late 1980s. Midwestern United States_sentence_455

House music producers such as Frankie Knuckles and Marshall Jefferson recorded early house music records at Chicago's Trax Records while in Detroit, techno pioneers Juan Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson created a sound that, while ignored mostly in America, became quite popular in Europe. Midwestern United States_sentence_456

Numerous classical composers live and have lived in midwestern states, including Easley Blackwood, Kenneth Gaburo, Salvatore Martirano, and Ralph Shapey (Illinois); Glenn Miller and Meredith Willson (Iowa); Leslie Bassett, William Bolcom, Michael Daugherty, and David Gillingham (Michigan); Donald Erb (Ohio); Dominick Argento and Stephen Paulus (Minnesota). Midwestern United States_sentence_457

Also notable is Peter Schickele, born in Iowa and partially raised in North Dakota, best known for his classical music parodies attributed to his alter ego of P. Midwestern United States_sentence_458 D. Q. Bach. Midwestern United States_sentence_459

Sports Midwestern United States_section_36

Professional sports leagues such as the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA), National Hockey League (NHL), Major League Soccer (MLS), and National Women's Soccer League (NWSL), have team franchises in following Midwestern cities: Midwestern United States_sentence_460

Midwestern United States_unordered_list_2

Successful teams include the St. Midwestern United States_sentence_461 Louis Cardinals (11 World Series titles), Cincinnati Reds (5 World Series titles), Chicago Bulls (6 NBA titles), the Detroit Pistons (3 NBA titles), the Minnesota Lynx (4 WNBA titles), the Green Bay Packers (4 Super Bowl titles, 13 total NFL championships), the Chicago Bears (1 Super Bowl title, 9 total NFL championships), the Cleveland Browns (4 AAFC championships, 4 NFL championships), the Detroit Red Wings (11 Stanley Cup titles), the Detroit Tigers (4 World Series titles), and the Chicago Blackhawks (6 Stanley Cup titles). Midwestern United States_sentence_462

In NCAA college sports, the Big Ten Conference and the Big 12 Conference feature the largest concentration of top Midwestern Division I football and men's and women's basketball teams in the region, including the Illinois Fighting Illini, Indiana Hoosiers, Iowa Hawkeyes, Iowa State Cyclones, Kansas Jayhawks, Kansas State Wildcats, Michigan Wolverines, Michigan State Spartans, Minnesota Golden Gophers, Nebraska Cornhuskers, Northwestern Wildcats, Ohio State Buckeyes, Purdue Boilermakers, and the Wisconsin Badgers. Midwestern United States_sentence_463

Other notable Midwestern college sports teams include the Akron Zips, Ball State Cardinals, Butler Bulldogs, Cincinnati Bearcats, Creighton Bluejays, Dayton Flyers, Indiana State Sycamores, Kent State Golden Flashes, Marquette Golden Eagles, Miami RedHawks, Milwaukee Panthers, Missouri Tigers, Missouri State Bears, Northern Illinois Huskies, North Dakota State Bison, Notre Dame Fighting Irish, Ohio Bobcats, South Dakota State Jackrabbits, Toledo Rockets, Western Michigan Broncos, Wichita State Shockers, and Xavier Musketeers. Midwestern United States_sentence_464

Of this second group of schools, Butler, Dayton, Indiana State, Missouri State, North Dakota State, and South Dakota State do not play top-level college football (all playing in the second-tier Division I FCS), and Creighton, Marquette, Milwaukee, Wichita State and Xavier do not sponsor football at all. Midwestern United States_sentence_465

The Milwaukee Mile hosted its first automobile race in 1903, and is one of the oldest tracks in the world, though as of 2019 is presently inactive. Midwestern United States_sentence_466

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway, opened in 1909, is a prestigious auto racing track which annually hosts the internationally famous Indianapolis 500-Mile Race (part of the IndyCar series), the Brickyard 400 (NASCAR), and the IndyCar Grand Prix (IndyCar series). Midwestern United States_sentence_467

The Road America and Mid-Ohio road courses opened in the 1950s and 1960s respectively. Midwestern United States_sentence_468

Other motorsport venues in the Midwest are Indianapolis Raceway Park (home of the NHRA U.S. Nationals, Michigan International Speedway, Chicagoland Speedway, Kansas Speedway, Gateway International Raceway, and the Iowa Speedway. Midwestern United States_sentence_469

The Kentucky Speedway is just outside the officially defined Midwest, but is linked with the region because the track is located in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Midwestern United States_sentence_470

Notable professional golf tournaments in the Midwest include the Memorial Tournament, BMW Championship and John Deere Classic. Midwestern United States_sentence_471

Cultural overlap Midwestern United States_section_37

Linguistic characteristics Midwestern United States_section_38

Main articles: Inland Northern American English, North Central American English, Yooper dialect, and Midland American English Midwestern United States_sentence_472

Health Midwestern United States_section_39

The rate of potentially preventable hospital discharges in the Midwestern United States fell from 2005 to 2011 for overall conditions, acute conditions, and chronic conditions. Midwestern United States_sentence_473

Population centers Midwestern United States_section_40

Major metropolitan areas Midwestern United States_section_41

State population Midwestern United States_section_42

Midwestern United States_table_general_2

StateMidwestern United States_header_cell_2_0_0 2017 EstimateMidwestern United States_header_cell_2_0_1 2010 CensusMidwestern United States_header_cell_2_0_2 ChangeMidwestern United States_header_cell_2_0_3 AreaMidwestern United States_header_cell_2_0_4 DensityMidwestern United States_header_cell_2_0_5
IowaMidwestern United States_cell_2_1_0 3,145,711Midwestern United States_cell_2_1_1 3,046,355Midwestern United States_cell_2_1_2 +3.26%Midwestern United States_cell_2_1_3 55,857.09 sq mi (144,669.2 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_1_4 56/sq mi (22/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_1_5
KansasMidwestern United States_cell_2_2_0 2,913,123Midwestern United States_cell_2_2_1 2,853,118Midwestern United States_cell_2_2_2 +2.10%Midwestern United States_cell_2_2_3 81,758.65 sq mi (211,753.9 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_2_4 36/sq mi (14/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_2_5
MissouriMidwestern United States_cell_2_3_0 6,113,532Midwestern United States_cell_2_3_1 5,988,927Midwestern United States_cell_2_3_2 +2.08%Midwestern United States_cell_2_3_3 68,741.47 sq mi (178,039.6 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_3_4 89/sq mi (34/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_3_5
NebraskaMidwestern United States_cell_2_4_0 1,920,076Midwestern United States_cell_2_4_1 1,826,341Midwestern United States_cell_2_4_2 +5.13%Midwestern United States_cell_2_4_3 76,824.11 sq mi (198,973.5 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_4_4 25/sq mi (10/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_4_5
North DakotaMidwestern United States_cell_2_5_0 755,393Midwestern United States_cell_2_5_1 672,591Midwestern United States_cell_2_5_2 +12.31%Midwestern United States_cell_2_5_3 69,000.74 sq mi (178,711.1 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_5_4 11/sq mi (4/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_5_5
South DakotaMidwestern United States_cell_2_6_0 869,666Midwestern United States_cell_2_6_1 814,180Midwestern United States_cell_2_6_2 +6.81%Midwestern United States_cell_2_6_3 75,810.94 sq mi (196,349.4 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_6_4 11/sq mi (4/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_6_5
PlainsMidwestern United States_cell_2_7_0 15,717,501Midwestern United States_cell_2_7_1 15,201,512Midwestern United States_cell_2_7_2 +3.39%Midwestern United States_cell_2_7_3 427,993.00 sq mi (1,108,496.8 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_7_4 37/sq mi (14/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_7_5
IllinoisMidwestern United States_cell_2_8_0 12,802,023Midwestern United States_cell_2_8_1 12,830,632Midwestern United States_cell_2_8_2 −0.22%Midwestern United States_cell_2_8_3 55,518.89 sq mi (143,793.3 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_8_4 231/sq mi (89/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_8_5
IndianaMidwestern United States_cell_2_9_0 6,666,818Midwestern United States_cell_2_9_1 6,483,802Midwestern United States_cell_2_9_2 +2.82%Midwestern United States_cell_2_9_3 35,826.08 sq mi (92,789.1 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_9_4 186/sq mi (72/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_9_5
MichiganMidwestern United States_cell_2_10_0 9,962,311Midwestern United States_cell_2_10_1 9,883,640Midwestern United States_cell_2_10_2 +0.80%Midwestern United States_cell_2_10_3 56,538.86 sq mi (146,435.0 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_10_4 176/sq mi (68/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_10_5
MinnesotaMidwestern United States_cell_2_11_0 5,576,606Midwestern United States_cell_2_11_1 5,303,925Midwestern United States_cell_2_11_2 +5.14%Midwestern United States_cell_2_11_3 79,626.68 sq mi (206,232.2 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_11_4 70/sq mi (27/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_11_5
OhioMidwestern United States_cell_2_12_0 11,658,609Midwestern United States_cell_2_12_1 11,536,504Midwestern United States_cell_2_12_2 +1.06%Midwestern United States_cell_2_12_3 40,860.66 sq mi (105,828.6 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_12_4 285/sq mi (110/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_12_5
WisconsinMidwestern United States_cell_2_13_0 5,795,483Midwestern United States_cell_2_13_1 5,686,986Midwestern United States_cell_2_13_2 +1.91%Midwestern United States_cell_2_13_3 54,157.76 sq mi (140,268.0 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_13_4 107/sq mi (41/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_13_5
Great LakesMidwestern United States_cell_2_14_0 52,461,850Midwestern United States_cell_2_14_1 51,725,489Midwestern United States_cell_2_14_2 +1.42%Midwestern United States_cell_2_14_3 322,528.93 sq mi (835,346.1 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_14_4 163/sq mi (63/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_14_5
TotalMidwestern United States_cell_2_15_0 68,179,351Midwestern United States_cell_2_15_1 66,927,001Midwestern United States_cell_2_15_2 +1.87%Midwestern United States_cell_2_15_3 750,521.93 sq mi (1,943,842.9 km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_15_4 91/sq mi (35/km)Midwestern United States_cell_2_15_5

Politics Midwestern United States_section_43

Historical Midwestern United States_section_44

The Midwest has been an important region in national elections, with highly contested elections in closely divided states often deciding the national result. Midwestern United States_sentence_474

In 1860–1920, both parties often selected either their president or vice president from the region. Midwestern United States_sentence_475

One of the two major political parties in the United States, the Republican Party, originated in the Midwest in the 1850s; Ripon, Wisconsin had the first local meeting while Jackson, Michigan had the state county meeting of the new party. Midwestern United States_sentence_476

Its membership included many Yankees who had settled the upper Midwest. Midwestern United States_sentence_477

The party opposed the expansion of slavery and stressed the Protestant ideals of thrift, a hard work ethic, self-reliance, democratic decision making, and religious tolerance. Midwestern United States_sentence_478

In the early 1890s, the wheat-growing regions were strongholds of the short-lived Populist movement in the Plains states. Midwestern United States_sentence_479

Starting in the 1890s, the middle class urban Progressive movement became influential in the region (as it was in other regions), with Wisconsin a major center. Midwestern United States_sentence_480

Under the La Follettes Wisconsin fought against the GOP bosses and for efficiency, modernization, and the use of experts to solve social, economic, and political problems. Midwestern United States_sentence_481

Theodore Roosevelt's 1912 Progressive Party had the best showing in this region; carrying the states of Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota. Midwestern United States_sentence_482

In 1924, La Follette, Sr.'s 1924 Progressive Party did well in the region, but only carried his home base of Wisconsin. Midwestern United States_sentence_483

The Midwest—especially the areas west of Chicago—has always been a stronghold of isolationism, a belief that America should not involve itself in foreign entanglements. Midwestern United States_sentence_484

This position was largely based on the many German American and Swedish-American communities. Midwestern United States_sentence_485

Isolationist leaders included the La Follettes, Ohio's Robert A. Taft, and Colonel Robert McCormick, publisher of the Chicago Tribune. Midwestern United States_sentence_486

Recent trends Midwestern United States_section_45

Historiography Midwestern United States_section_46

Midwestern United States_unordered_list_3

  • Bradley, Mark Philip, ed. "H-Diplo ROUNDTABLE XXI-51" (H-Diplo 2020)Midwestern United States_item_3_26
  • Brown, David S. Beyond the Frontier: The Midwestern Voice in American Historical Writing (2009)Midwestern United States_item_3_27
  • Good, David F. "American History through a Midwestern Lens". Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 38.2 (2012): 435+Midwestern United States_item_3_28
  • Lauck, Jon K. The Lost Region: Toward a Revival of Midwestern History (University of Iowa Press; 2013) 166 pages; criticizes the neglect of the Midwest in contemporary historiography and argues for a revival of attentionMidwestern United States_item_3_29
  • Lauck, Jon K. "Trump and The Midwest: The 2016 Presidential Election and The Avenues of Midwestern Historiography." Studies in Midwestern History 3.1 (2017): 1-24.Midwestern United States_item_3_30

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midwestern United States.