Millet

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For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). Millet_sentence_0

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millet_sentence_1

Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries. Millet_sentence_2

The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millet_sentence_3

Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. Millet_sentence_4

The most widely grown millet is pearl millet, which is an important crop in India and parts of Africa. Millet_sentence_5

Finger millet, proso millet, and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Millet_sentence_6

Millets may have been consumed by humans for about 7,000 years and potentially had "a pivotal role in the rise of multi-crop agriculture and settled farming societies." Millet_sentence_7

Description Millet_section_0

Generally, millets are small-grained, annual, warm-weather cereals belonging to the grass family. Millet_sentence_8

They are highly tolerant of drought and other extreme weather conditions and have a similar nutrient content to other major cereals. Millet_sentence_9

Millet species Millet_section_1

The different species of millets are not necessarily closely related. Millet_sentence_10

All are members of the family Poaceae (the grasses) but can belong to different tribes or even subfamilies. Millet_sentence_11

The most commonly cultivated millets are in bold and marked with an asterisk (*). Millet_sentence_12

Eragrostideae tribe in the subfamily Chloridoideae: Millet_sentence_13

Millet_unordered_list_0

Paniceae tribe in the subfamily Panicoideae: Millet_sentence_14

Millet_unordered_list_1

Andropogoneae tribe also in the subfamily Panicoideae: Millet_sentence_15

Millet_unordered_list_2

  • *Sorghum bicolor: Sorghum; usually considered a separate cereal, but sometimes known as great milletMillet_item_2_21
  • Coix lacryma-jobi: Job's tears, also known as adlay milletMillet_item_2_22

History Millet_section_2

The various species called millet were initially domesticated in different parts of the world most notably East Asia, South Asia, West Africa, and East Africa. Millet_sentence_16

However, the domesticated varieties have often spread well beyond their initial area. Millet_sentence_17

Specialized archaeologists called palaeoethnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice, especially in northern China and Korea. Millet_sentence_18

Millets also formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Millet_sentence_19

Domestication in East Asia Millet_section_3

Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica) were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China. Millet_sentence_20

Some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan (north), where proso millet husk phytoliths and biomolecular components have been identified around 10,300–8,700 years ago in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses, pottery, and stone tools related to millet cultivation. Millet_sentence_21

Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 8,700 years ago. Millet_sentence_22

The oldest evidence of noodles in China were made from these two varieties of millet in a 4,000-year-old earthenware bowl containing well-preserved noodles found at the Lajia archaeological site in north China. Millet_sentence_23

Palaeoethnobotanists have found evidence of the cultivation of millet in the Korean Peninsula dating to the Middle Jeulmun pottery period (around 3500–2000 BCE). Millet_sentence_24

Millet continued to be an important element in the intensive, multicropping agriculture of the Mumun pottery period (about 1500–300 BCE) in Korea. Millet_sentence_25

Millets and their wild ancestors, such as barnyard grass and panic grass, were also cultivated in Japan during the Jōmon period some time after 4000 BCE. Millet_sentence_26

Chinese myths attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, a legendary Emperor of China, and Hou Ji, whose name means Lord Millet. Millet_sentence_27

Domestication in the Indian Subcontinent Millet_section_4

Little millet (Panicum sumatrense) is believed to have been domesticated around 5000 before present in India subcontinent and Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) around 3700 before present, also in Indian subcontinent. Millet_sentence_28

Various millets have been mentioned in some of the Yajurveda texts, identifying foxtail millet (priyaṅgu), Barnyard millet (aṇu) and black finger millet (śyāmāka), indicating that millet cultivation was happening around 1200 BCE in India. Millet_sentence_29

Domestication in West Africa Millet_section_5

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was definitely domesticated in Africa by 3500 before present, though 8000 before present is thought likely. Millet_sentence_30

Early evidence includes finds at Birimi in West Africa with the earliest at Dhar Tichitt in Mauritania. Millet_sentence_31

Pearl millet was domesticated in the Sahel region of West Africa, where its wild ancestors are found. Millet_sentence_32

Evidence for the cultivation of pearl millet in Mali dates back to 2500 BCE, and pearl millet is found in the Indian subcontinent by 2300 BCE. Millet_sentence_33

Domestication in East Africa Millet_section_6

Finger millet is originally native to the highlands of East Africa and was domesticated before the third millennium BCE. Millet_sentence_34

Its cultivation had spread to South India by 1800 BCE. Millet_sentence_35

Spreading Millet_section_7

The cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought, and this has been suggested to have aided its spread. Millet_sentence_36

Asian varieties of millet made their way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BCE. Millet_sentence_37

Millet was growing wild in Greece as early as 3000 BCE, and bulk storage containers for millet have been found from the Late Bronze Age in Macedonia and northern Greece. Millet_sentence_38

Hesiod describes that "the beards grow round the millet, which men sow in summer." Millet_sentence_39

And millet is listed along with wheat in the third century BCE by Theophrastus in his "Enquiry into Plants". Millet_sentence_40

Research Millet_section_8

Research on millets is carried out by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research in Telangana, India, and by the USDA-ARS at Tifton, Georgia, United States. Millet_sentence_41

Cultivation Millet_section_9

Pearl millet is one of the two major crops in the semiarid, impoverished, less fertile agriculture regions of Africa and southeast Asia. Millet_sentence_42

Millets are not only adapted to poor, droughty, and infertile soils, but they are also more reliable under these conditions than most other grain crops. Millet_sentence_43

This has, in part, made millet production popular, particularly in countries surrounding the Sahara in western Africa. Millet_sentence_44

Millets, however, do respond to high fertility and moisture. Millet_sentence_45

On a per-hectare basis, millet grain production can be 2–4 times higher with use of irrigation and soil supplements. Millet_sentence_46

Improved breeds of millet improve their disease resistance and can significantly enhance farm yield productivity. Millet_sentence_47

There has been cooperation between poor countries to improve millet yields. Millet_sentence_48

For example, 'Okashana 1', a variety developed in India from a natural-growing millet variety in Burkina Faso, doubled yields. Millet_sentence_49

This breed was selected for trials in Zimbabwe. Millet_sentence_50

From there it was taken to Namibia, where it was released in 1990 and enthusiastically adopted by farmers. Millet_sentence_51

'Okashana 1' became the most popular variety in Namibia, the only non-Sahelian country where pearl millet—locally known as mahangu—is the dominant food staple for consumers. Millet_sentence_52

'Okashana 1' was then introduced to Chad. Millet_sentence_53

The breed has significantly enhanced yields in Mauritania and Benin. Millet_sentence_54

Production Millet_section_10

Millet_table_general_0

Millet production – 2016Millet_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMillet_header_cell_0_1_0 Production (millions of tonnes)Millet_header_cell_0_1_1
IndiaMillet_cell_0_2_0 10.3Millet_cell_0_2_1
NigerMillet_cell_0_3_0 3.9Millet_cell_0_3_1
ChinaMillet_cell_0_4_0 2.0Millet_cell_0_4_1
MaliMillet_cell_0_5_0 1.8Millet_cell_0_5_1
NigeriaMillet_cell_0_6_0 1.5Millet_cell_0_6_1
Burkina FasoMillet_cell_0_7_0 1.1Millet_cell_0_7_1
WorldMillet_cell_0_8_0 28.4Millet_cell_0_8_1
Source: FAOSTAT of the United NationsMillet_cell_0_9_0

In 2016, global production of millet was 28.4 million tonnes, led by India with 36% of the world total (table). Millet_sentence_55

Niger also had significant production. Millet_sentence_56

Alcoholic beverages Millet_section_11

In India, various alcoholic beverages are produced from millets. Millet_sentence_57

Millet is also the base ingredient for the distilled liquor rakshi. Millet_sentence_58

As a food source Millet_section_12

Millets are major food sources in arid and semiarid regions of the world, and feature in the traditional cuisine of many others. Millet_sentence_59

In western India, sorghum (called jowar, jola, jonnalu, jwaarie, or jondhahlaa in Gujarati, Kannada, Telugu, Hindi and Marathi languages, respectively; mutthaari, kora, or panjappullu in Malayalam; or cholam in Tamil) has been commonly used with millet flour (called jowari in western India) for hundreds of years to make the local staple, hand-rolled (that is, made without a rolling pin) flat bread (rotla in Gujarati, bhakri in Marathi, or roti in other languages). Millet_sentence_60

Another cereal grain popularly used in rural areas and by poor people to consume as a staple in the form of roti. Millet_sentence_61

Other millets such as ragi (finger millet) in Karnataka, naachanie in Maharashtra, or kezhvaragu in Tamil, "ragulu" in Telugu, with the popular ragi rotti and Ragi mudde is a popular meal in Karnataka. Millet_sentence_62

Ragi, as it is popularly known, is dark in color like rye, but rougher in texture. Millet_sentence_63

Millet porridge is a traditional food in Russian, German, and Chinese сuisines. Millet_sentence_64

In Russia, it is eaten sweet (with milk and sugar added at the end of the cooking process) or savoury with meat or vegetable stews. Millet_sentence_65

In China, it is eaten without milk or sugar, frequently with beans, sweet potato, and/or various types of squash. Millet_sentence_66

In Germany, it is also eaten sweet, boiled in water with apples added during the boiling process and honey added during the cooling process. Millet_sentence_67

Millet is also the main ingredient in a Vietnamese sweet snack called bánh đa kê. Millet_sentence_68

It contains a layer of smashed millet and mungbean topped with sliced dried coconut meat wrapped in a crunchy rice cake. Millet_sentence_69

It is a specialty of Hanoi. Millet_sentence_70

Per capita consumption of millets as food varies in different parts of the world, with consumption being the highest in Western Africa. Millet_sentence_71

In the Sahel region, millet is estimated to account for about 35 percent of total cereal food consumption in Burkina Faso, Chad and the Gambia. Millet_sentence_72

In Mali and Senegal, millets constitute roughly 40 percent of total cereal food consumption per capita, while in Niger and arid Namibia it is over 65 percent (see mahangu). Millet_sentence_73

Other countries in Africa where millets are a significant food source include Ethiopia, Nigeria and Uganda. Millet_sentence_74

Millet is also an important food item for the population living in the drier parts of many other countries, especially in eastern and central Africa, and in the northern coastal countries of western Africa. Millet_sentence_75

In developing countries outside Africa, millet has local significance as a food in parts of some countries, such as China, India, Burma and North Korea. Millet_sentence_76

The use of millets as food fell between the 1970s and the 2000s, both in urban and rural areas, as developing countries such as India have experienced rapid economic growth and witnessed a significant increase in per capita consumption of other cereals. Millet_sentence_77

People affected by gluten-related disorders, such as coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, who need a gluten-free diet, can replace gluten-containing cereals in their diets with millet. Millet_sentence_78

Nevertheless, while millet does not contain gluten, its grains and flour may be contaminated with gluten-containing cereals. Millet_sentence_79

It is a common ingredient in seeded bread. Millet_sentence_80

Millets are also used as bird and animal feed. Millet_sentence_81

Grazing millet Millet_section_13

In addition to being used for seed, millet is also used as a grazing forage crop. Millet_sentence_82

Instead of letting the plant reach maturity, it can be grazed by stock and is commonly used for sheep and cattle. Millet_sentence_83

Millet is a C4 plant, which means that it has good water-use efficiency and utilizes high temperature and is therefore a summer crop. Millet_sentence_84

A C4 plant uses a different enzyme in photosynthesis from C3 plants, and this is why it improves water efficiency. Millet_sentence_85

In southern Australia millet is used as a summer quality pasture, utilizing warm temperatures and summer storms. Millet_sentence_86

Millet is frost-sensitive and is sown after the frost period, once soil temperature has stabilised at 14 °C or higher. Millet_sentence_87

It is sown at a shallow depth. Millet_sentence_88

Millet grows rapidly and can be grazed 5–7 weeks after sowing, when it is 20–30 cm high. Millet_sentence_89

The highest feed value is from the young green leaf and shoots. Millet_sentence_90

The plant can quickly come to head, so it must be managed accordingly because as the plant matures, the value and palatability of feed reduces. Millet_sentence_91

The Japanese millets (Echinochloa esculenta) are considered the best for grazing and in particular Shirohie, a new variety of Japanese millet, is the best suited variety for grazing. Millet_sentence_92

This is due to a number of factors: it gives better regrowth and is later to mature compared to other Japanese millets; it is cheap – cost of seed is $2–$3 per kg, and sowing rates are around 10 kg per hectare for dryland production; it is quick to establish, can be grazed early, and is suitable for both sheep and cattle. Millet_sentence_93

Compared to forage sorghum, which is grown as an alternative grazing forage, animals gain weight faster on millet, and it has better hay or silage potential, although it produces less dry matter. Millet_sentence_94

Lambs do better on millet compared to sorghum. Millet_sentence_95

Millet does not contain prussic acid, which can be in sorghum. Millet_sentence_96

Prussic acid poisons animals by inhibiting oxygen utilisation by the cells and is transported in the blood around the body — ultimately the animal will die from asphyxia. Millet_sentence_97

There is no need for additional feed supplements such as Sulphur or salt blocks with millet. Millet_sentence_98

The rapid growth of millet as a grazing crop allows flexibility in its use. Millet_sentence_99

Farmers can wait until sufficient late spring / summer moisture is present and then make use of it. Millet_sentence_100

It is ideally suited to irrigation where livestock finishing is required. Millet_sentence_101

Nutrition Millet_section_14

Millet_table_infobox_1

Millet, raw (Panicum miliaceum)Millet_table_caption_1
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)Millet_header_cell_1_0_0
EnergyMillet_header_cell_1_1_0 1,582 kJ (378 kcal)Millet_cell_1_1_1
CarbohydratesMillet_header_cell_1_2_0 72.8 gMillet_cell_1_2_1
Dietary fiberMillet_header_cell_1_3_0 8.5 gMillet_cell_1_3_1
FatMillet_header_cell_1_4_0 4.3gMillet_cell_1_4_1
SaturatedMillet_header_cell_1_5_0 0.7 gMillet_cell_1_5_1
MonounsaturatedMillet_header_cell_1_6_0 0.8 gMillet_cell_1_6_1
Polyunsaturatedomega‑3omega‑6Millet_header_cell_1_7_0 2.1 g0.1 g2.0 gMillet_cell_1_7_1
ProteinMillet_header_cell_1_8_0 11.0 gMillet_cell_1_8_1
VitaminsMillet_header_cell_1_9_0 Quantity %DVMillet_cell_1_9_1
Riboflavin (B2)Millet_header_cell_1_10_0 24% 0.29 mgMillet_cell_1_10_1
Niacin (B3)Millet_header_cell_1_11_0 31% 4.72 mgMillet_cell_1_11_1
Pantothenic acid (B5)Millet_header_cell_1_12_0 17% 0.85 mgMillet_cell_1_12_1
Vitamin B6Millet_header_cell_1_13_0 29% 0.38 mgMillet_cell_1_13_1
Folate (B9)Millet_header_cell_1_14_0 21% 85 μgMillet_cell_1_14_1
Vitamin CMillet_header_cell_1_15_0 2% 1.6 mgMillet_cell_1_15_1
Vitamin KMillet_header_cell_1_16_0 1% 0.9 μgMillet_cell_1_16_1
MineralsMillet_header_cell_1_17_0 Quantity %DVMillet_cell_1_17_1
CalciumMillet_header_cell_1_18_0 1% 8 mgMillet_cell_1_18_1
IronMillet_header_cell_1_19_0 23% 3.0 mgMillet_cell_1_19_1
MagnesiumMillet_header_cell_1_20_0 32% 114 mgMillet_cell_1_20_1
ManganeseMillet_header_cell_1_21_0 76% 1.6 mgMillet_cell_1_21_1
PhosphorusMillet_header_cell_1_22_0 41% 285 mgMillet_cell_1_22_1
PotassiumMillet_header_cell_1_23_0 4% 195 mgMillet_cell_1_23_1
SodiumMillet_header_cell_1_24_0 0% 5 mgMillet_cell_1_24_1
ZincMillet_header_cell_1_25_0 18% 1.7 mgMillet_cell_1_25_1
Other constituentsMillet_header_cell_1_26_0 QuantityMillet_cell_1_26_1
WaterMillet_header_cell_1_27_0 8.7 gMillet_cell_1_27_1
CopperMillet_header_cell_1_28_0 0.8 mgMillet_cell_1_28_1
SeleniumMillet_header_cell_1_29_0 2.7 µgMillet_cell_1_29_1

A 100-gram (3 ⁄2-ounce) reference serving of raw millet (Panicum miliaceum or proso millet) provides 1,580 kilojoules (378 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals, especially manganese at 76% DV (USDA nutrient table). Millet_sentence_102

Raw millet is 9% water, 73% carbohydrates, 4% fat and 11% protein (table). Millet_sentence_103

Comparison with other major staple foods Millet_section_15

The following table shows the nutrient content of millet compared to major staple foods in a raw form. Millet_sentence_104

Raw forms, however, are not edible and cannot be fully digested. Millet_sentence_105

These must be prepared and cooked as appropriate for human consumption. Millet_sentence_106

In processed and cooked form, the relative nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these grains is remarkably different from that of raw forms reported in this table. Millet_sentence_107

The nutritional value in the cooked form depends on the cooking method. Millet_sentence_108

Millet_table_general_2

Nutrient profile comparison of proso millet with other food staplesMillet_table_caption_2
Component
(per 100 g portion, raw grain)Millet_header_cell_2_0_0
CassavaMillet_header_cell_2_0_1 WheatMillet_header_cell_2_0_2 RiceMillet_header_cell_2_0_3 MaizeMillet_header_cell_2_0_4 Sorghum
milletMillet_header_cell_2_0_5
Proso
milletMillet_header_cell_2_0_6
Kodo
milletMillet_header_cell_2_0_7
water (g)Millet_cell_2_1_0 60Millet_cell_2_1_1 13.1Millet_cell_2_1_2 12Millet_cell_2_1_3 76Millet_cell_2_1_4 9.2Millet_cell_2_1_5 8.7Millet_cell_2_1_6 Millet_cell_2_1_7
energy (kJ)Millet_cell_2_2_0 667Millet_cell_2_2_1 1368Millet_cell_2_2_2 1527Millet_cell_2_2_3 360Millet_cell_2_2_4 1418Millet_cell_2_2_5 1582Millet_cell_2_2_6 1462Millet_cell_2_2_7
protein (g)Millet_cell_2_3_0 1.4Millet_cell_2_3_1 12.6Millet_cell_2_3_2 7Millet_cell_2_3_3 3Millet_cell_2_3_4 11.3Millet_cell_2_3_5 11Millet_cell_2_3_6 9.94Millet_cell_2_3_7
fat (g)Millet_cell_2_4_0 0.3Millet_cell_2_4_1 1.5Millet_cell_2_4_2 1Millet_cell_2_4_3 1Millet_cell_2_4_4 3.3Millet_cell_2_4_5 4.2Millet_cell_2_4_6 3.03Millet_cell_2_4_7
carbohydrates (g)Millet_cell_2_5_0 38Millet_cell_2_5_1 71.2Millet_cell_2_5_2 79Millet_cell_2_5_3 19Millet_cell_2_5_4 75Millet_cell_2_5_5 73Millet_cell_2_5_6 63.82Millet_cell_2_5_7
fiber (g)Millet_cell_2_6_0 1.8Millet_cell_2_6_1 1.2Millet_cell_2_6_2 1Millet_cell_2_6_3 3Millet_cell_2_6_4 6.3Millet_cell_2_6_5 8.5Millet_cell_2_6_6 8.2Millet_cell_2_6_7
sugars (g)Millet_cell_2_7_0 1.7Millet_cell_2_7_1 0.4Millet_cell_2_7_2 >0.1Millet_cell_2_7_3 3Millet_cell_2_7_4 1.9Millet_cell_2_7_5 Millet_cell_2_7_6 Millet_cell_2_7_7
iron (mg)Millet_cell_2_8_0 0.27Millet_cell_2_8_1 3.2Millet_cell_2_8_2 0.8Millet_cell_2_8_3 0.5Millet_cell_2_8_4 4.4Millet_cell_2_8_5 3Millet_cell_2_8_6 3.17Millet_cell_2_8_7
manganese (mg)Millet_cell_2_9_0 0.4Millet_cell_2_9_1 3.9Millet_cell_2_9_2 1.1Millet_cell_2_9_3 0.2Millet_cell_2_9_4 <0.1Millet_cell_2_9_5 1.6Millet_cell_2_9_6 Millet_cell_2_9_7
calcium (mg)Millet_cell_2_10_0 16Millet_cell_2_10_1 29Millet_cell_2_10_2 28Millet_cell_2_10_3 2Millet_cell_2_10_4 28Millet_cell_2_10_5 8Millet_cell_2_10_6 32.33Millet_cell_2_10_7
magnesium (mg)Millet_cell_2_11_0 21Millet_cell_2_11_1 126Millet_cell_2_11_2 25Millet_cell_2_11_3 37Millet_cell_2_11_4 <120Millet_cell_2_11_5 114Millet_cell_2_11_6 Millet_cell_2_11_7
phosphorus (mg)Millet_cell_2_12_0 27Millet_cell_2_12_1 288Millet_cell_2_12_2 115Millet_cell_2_12_3 89Millet_cell_2_12_4 287Millet_cell_2_12_5 285Millet_cell_2_12_6 300Millet_cell_2_12_7
potassium (mg)Millet_cell_2_13_0 271Millet_cell_2_13_1 363Millet_cell_2_13_2 115Millet_cell_2_13_3 270Millet_cell_2_13_4 350Millet_cell_2_13_5 195Millet_cell_2_13_6 Millet_cell_2_13_7
zinc (mg)Millet_cell_2_14_0 0.3Millet_cell_2_14_1 2.6Millet_cell_2_14_2 1.1Millet_cell_2_14_3 0.5Millet_cell_2_14_4 <1Millet_cell_2_14_5 1.7Millet_cell_2_14_6 32.7Millet_cell_2_14_7
pantothenic acid (mg)Millet_cell_2_15_0 0.1Millet_cell_2_15_1 0.9Millet_cell_2_15_2 1.0Millet_cell_2_15_3 0.7Millet_cell_2_15_4 <0.9Millet_cell_2_15_5 0.8Millet_cell_2_15_6 Millet_cell_2_15_7
vitB6 (mg)Millet_cell_2_16_0 0.1Millet_cell_2_16_1 0.3Millet_cell_2_16_2 0.2Millet_cell_2_16_3 0.1Millet_cell_2_16_4 <0.3Millet_cell_2_16_5 0.4Millet_cell_2_16_6 Millet_cell_2_16_7
folate (µg)Millet_cell_2_17_0 27Millet_cell_2_17_1 38Millet_cell_2_17_2 8Millet_cell_2_17_3 42Millet_cell_2_17_4 <25Millet_cell_2_17_5 85Millet_cell_2_17_6 Millet_cell_2_17_7
thiamin (mg)Millet_cell_2_18_0 0.1Millet_cell_2_18_1 0.38Millet_cell_2_18_2 0.1Millet_cell_2_18_3 0.2Millet_cell_2_18_4 0.2Millet_cell_2_18_5 0.4Millet_cell_2_18_6 0.15Millet_cell_2_18_7
riboflavin (mg)Millet_cell_2_19_0 <0.1Millet_cell_2_19_1 0.1Millet_cell_2_19_2 >0.1Millet_cell_2_19_3 0.1Millet_cell_2_19_4 0.1Millet_cell_2_19_5 0.3Millet_cell_2_19_6 2.0Millet_cell_2_19_7
niacin (mg)Millet_cell_2_20_0 0.9Millet_cell_2_20_1 5.5Millet_cell_2_20_2 1.6Millet_cell_2_20_3 1.8Millet_cell_2_20_4 2.9Millet_cell_2_20_5 Millet_cell_2_20_6 0.09Millet_cell_2_20_7

Millet_table_general_3

Nutrient content of various raw millets with comparison to quinoa, teff, fonio, rice and wheatMillet_table_caption_3
Crop / nutrientMillet_header_cell_3_0_0 Protein (g)Millet_header_cell_3_0_1 Fiber (g)Millet_header_cell_3_0_2 Minerals (g)Millet_header_cell_3_0_3 Iron (mg)Millet_header_cell_3_0_4 Calcium (mg)Millet_header_cell_3_0_5
SorghumMillet_cell_3_1_0 10Millet_cell_3_1_1 4Millet_cell_3_1_2 1.6Millet_cell_3_1_3 2.6Millet_cell_3_1_4 54Millet_cell_3_1_5
Pearl milletMillet_cell_3_2_0 10.6Millet_cell_3_2_1 1.3Millet_cell_3_2_2 2.3Millet_cell_3_2_3 16.9Millet_cell_3_2_4 38Millet_cell_3_2_5
Finger milletMillet_cell_3_3_0 7.3Millet_cell_3_3_1 3.6Millet_cell_3_3_2 2.7Millet_cell_3_3_3 3.9Millet_cell_3_3_4 344Millet_cell_3_3_5
Foxtail milletMillet_cell_3_4_0 12.3Millet_cell_3_4_1 8Millet_cell_3_4_2 3.3Millet_cell_3_4_3 2.8Millet_cell_3_4_4 31Millet_cell_3_4_5
Proso milletMillet_cell_3_5_0 12.5Millet_cell_3_5_1 2.2Millet_cell_3_5_2 1.9Millet_cell_3_5_3 0.8Millet_cell_3_5_4 14Millet_cell_3_5_5
Kodo milletMillet_cell_3_6_0 8.3Millet_cell_3_6_1 9Millet_cell_3_6_2 2.6Millet_cell_3_6_3 0.5Millet_cell_3_6_4 27Millet_cell_3_6_5
Little milletMillet_cell_3_7_0 7.7Millet_cell_3_7_1 7.6Millet_cell_3_7_2 1.5Millet_cell_3_7_3 9.3Millet_cell_3_7_4 17Millet_cell_3_7_5
Barnyard milletMillet_cell_3_8_0 11.2Millet_cell_3_8_1 10.1Millet_cell_3_8_2 4.4Millet_cell_3_8_3 15.2Millet_cell_3_8_4 11Millet_cell_3_8_5
Brown top milletMillet_cell_3_9_0 11.5Millet_cell_3_9_1 12.5Millet_cell_3_9_2 4.2Millet_cell_3_9_3 0.65Millet_cell_3_9_4 0.01Millet_cell_3_9_5
QuinoaMillet_cell_3_10_0 14.1Millet_cell_3_10_1 7Millet_cell_3_10_2 *Millet_cell_3_10_3 4.6Millet_cell_3_10_4 47Millet_cell_3_10_5
TeffMillet_cell_3_11_0 13Millet_cell_3_11_1 8Millet_cell_3_11_2 0.85Millet_cell_3_11_3 7.6Millet_cell_3_11_4 180Millet_cell_3_11_5
FonioMillet_cell_3_12_0 11Millet_cell_3_12_1 11.3Millet_cell_3_12_2 5.31Millet_cell_3_12_3 84.8Millet_cell_3_12_4 18Millet_cell_3_12_5
RiceMillet_cell_3_13_0 6.8Millet_cell_3_13_1 0.2Millet_cell_3_13_2 0.6Millet_cell_3_13_3 0.7Millet_cell_3_13_4 10Millet_cell_3_13_5
WheatMillet_cell_3_14_0 11.8Millet_cell_3_14_1 1.2Millet_cell_3_14_2 1.5Millet_cell_3_14_3 5.3Millet_cell_3_14_4 41Millet_cell_3_14_5

See also Millet_section_16

Millet_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millet.