Minneapolis

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This article is about the city in Minnesota. Minneapolis_sentence_0

For other uses, see Minneapolis (disambiguation). Minneapolis_sentence_1

Minneapolis_table_infobox_0

Minneapolis, MinnesotaMinneapolis_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMinneapolis_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesMinneapolis_cell_0_1_1
StateMinneapolis_header_cell_0_2_0 MinnesotaMinneapolis_cell_0_2_1
CountyMinneapolis_header_cell_0_3_0 HennepinMinneapolis_cell_0_3_1
IncorporatedMinneapolis_header_cell_0_4_0 1867Minneapolis_cell_0_4_1
Founded byMinneapolis_header_cell_0_5_0 John H. Stevens and Franklin SteeleMinneapolis_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentMinneapolis_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeMinneapolis_header_cell_0_7_0 Weak mayor–councilMinneapolis_cell_0_7_1
BodyMinneapolis_header_cell_0_8_0 Minneapolis City CouncilMinneapolis_cell_0_8_1
MayorMinneapolis_header_cell_0_9_0 Jacob Frey (DFL)Minneapolis_cell_0_9_1
Council PresidentMinneapolis_header_cell_0_10_0 Lisa Bender (DFL)Minneapolis_cell_0_10_1
AreaMinneapolis_header_cell_0_11_0
CityMinneapolis_header_cell_0_12_0 57.49 sq mi (148.89 km)Minneapolis_cell_0_12_1
LandMinneapolis_header_cell_0_13_0 54.00 sq mi (139.86 km)Minneapolis_cell_0_13_1
WaterMinneapolis_header_cell_0_14_0 3.49 sq mi (9.03 km)Minneapolis_cell_0_14_1
ElevationMinneapolis_header_cell_0_15_0 830 ft (264 m)Minneapolis_cell_0_15_1
Population (2010)Minneapolis_header_cell_0_16_0
CityMinneapolis_header_cell_0_17_0 382,578Minneapolis_cell_0_17_1
Estimate (2019)Minneapolis_header_cell_0_18_0 429,606Minneapolis_cell_0_18_1
RankMinneapolis_header_cell_0_19_0 US: 46th

MN: 1stMinneapolis_cell_0_19_1

DensityMinneapolis_header_cell_0_20_0 7,955.67/sq mi (3,071.72/km)Minneapolis_cell_0_20_1
MetroMinneapolis_header_cell_0_21_0 3,629,190 (US: 16th)Minneapolis_cell_0_21_1
CSAMinneapolis_header_cell_0_22_0 4,014,593 (US: 16th)Minneapolis_cell_0_22_1
Demonym(s)Minneapolis_header_cell_0_23_0 MinneapolitanMinneapolis_cell_0_23_1
Time zoneMinneapolis_header_cell_0_24_0 UTC–6 (CST)Minneapolis_cell_0_24_1
Summer (DST)Minneapolis_header_cell_0_25_0 UTC–5 (CDT)Minneapolis_cell_0_25_1
ZIP CodesMinneapolis_header_cell_0_26_0 55401–55488 (range includes some ZIP Codes for Minneapolis suburbs)Minneapolis_cell_0_26_1
Area code(s)Minneapolis_header_cell_0_27_0 612Minneapolis_cell_0_27_1
FIPS codeMinneapolis_header_cell_0_28_0 27-43000Minneapolis_cell_0_28_1
Major airportMinneapolis_header_cell_0_29_0 Minneapolis–Saint Paul International AirportMinneapolis_cell_0_29_1
InterstatesMinneapolis_header_cell_0_30_0 Interstate_94_in_Minnesota Interstate_35_in_Minnesota Interstate_394_in_Minnesota Interstate_35W_in_MinnesotaMinneapolis_cell_0_30_1
US RoutesMinneapolis_header_cell_0_31_0 US_Route_52_in_Minnesota US_Route_12_in_MinnesotaMinneapolis_cell_0_31_1
Public transportationMinneapolis_header_cell_0_32_0 Metro TransitMinneapolis_cell_0_32_1
WebsiteMinneapolis_header_cell_0_33_0 Q36091#P856Minneapolis_cell_0_33_1

Minneapolis (/ˌmɪniˈæpəlɪs/ (listen)) is the largest and most-populous city in the US state of Minnesota and the seat of Hennepin County. Minneapolis_sentence_2

As of 2019, Minneapolis has an estimated population of 429,606. Minneapolis_sentence_3

It is the 46th-largest city in the US, the 8th-largest in the Midwestern United States, and the second-most densely populated large city in the region behind Chicago. Minneapolis_sentence_4

Minneapolis and its neighbor Saint Paul make up the Twin Cities and with their surrounding suburbs contain about 3.64 million people, making it the third-largest economic and population center in the Midwest and the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_5

Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital. Minneapolis_sentence_6

The city is abundantly rich in water, with thirteen lakes, wetlands, the Mississippi River, creeks and waterfalls; many connected by parkways in the Chain of Lakes and the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway. Minneapolis_sentence_7

The city has one of the best park systems in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_8

Minneapolis was once the world's flour milling capital and a hub for timber. Minneapolis_sentence_9

The city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Chicago and Seattle, as well as the largest urban population area between the two cities. Minneapolis_sentence_10

Minneapolis is home to five Fortune 500 companies, and the Twin Cities are the fifth-largest hub of major corporate headquarters in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_11

Anchoring strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Minneapolis_sentence_12

Reflecting the region's status as a center of folk, funk, and alternative rock music, the city was the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis_sentence_13

Hip-hop and rap scenes produced artists such as Lizzo, Brother Ali, Atmosphere, and Dessa. Minneapolis_sentence_14

Minneapolis is often ranked as one of the best cities in the US for biking. Minneapolis_sentence_15

Etymology Minneapolis_section_0

The city's Dakota name is Bdeóta Othúŋwe ('Many Lakes City'). Minneapolis_sentence_16

Before incorporation, it was called All Saints, Lowell, Addiesville or Adasville, Winona, Brooklyn, and Albion. Minneapolis_sentence_17

The city's first schoolmaster, Charles Hoag was searching for indigenous syllables, when he stumbled on "Indianapolis". Minneapolis_sentence_18

He proposed "Minnehapolis," with a silent h, combining the Dakota word for "waterfall", Mníȟaȟa, and the Greek word for "city", polis. Minneapolis_sentence_19

Newspaperman George Bowman and Daniel Payne dropped the h, leaving out the hah, to create Minneapolis, meaning 'city of the falls'. Minneapolis_sentence_20

History Minneapolis_section_1

Main article: History of Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_21

Dakota natives, city founded Minneapolis_section_2

The Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. Minneapolis_sentence_22

Gradually, more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans. Minneapolis_sentence_23

By the Treaty of Paris following the Revolutionary War, British land east of the Mississippi River became part of the United States. Minneapolis_sentence_24

In the early 19th century, the US acquired land to the west of the river from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Minneapolis_sentence_25

Fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the US Army at the southern edge of present-day Minneapolis and also bordering Saint Paul as the US military's most remote outpost, to direct Indian trade away from the French and English to the US, and to prevent the Dakota and Ojibwe in the north from fighting each other. Minneapolis_sentence_26

The fort attracted traders, settlers and merchants, spurring growth. Minneapolis_sentence_27

Agents of the St. Peters Indian Agency built at the fort enforced US policy of assimilating Native Americans into European-American society, asking them to give up hunting for subsistence and to learn to plow for cultivation. Minneapolis_sentence_28

The US government pressed the Dakota to sell their land which was ceded in a succession of treaties. Minneapolis_sentence_29

The US reneged on the treaties during the Civil War, resulting in hunger, war, internment, and exile of the Dakota from Minnesota. Minneapolis_sentence_30

Outwitting the fort's commandant, Franklin Steele laid his claim on the east bank of Saint Anthony Falls, and John H. Stevens built his home on the west bank. Minneapolis_sentence_31

The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis_sentence_32

Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867 and later joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis_sentence_33

Waterpower; lumber and flour milling Minneapolis_section_3

Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry. Minneapolis_sentence_34

Forests in northern Minnesota encouraged a lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. Minneapolis_sentence_35

By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood. Minneapolis_sentence_36

Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s. Minneapolis_sentence_37

The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the city's thirty-four flour mills. Minneapolis_sentence_38

Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B.C., but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen." Minneapolis_sentence_39

A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to truly revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour very quickly. Minneapolis_sentence_40

Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some say they were acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Minneapolis_sentence_41

Charles A. Pillsbury and the C.A. Minneapolis_sentence_42 Pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. Minneapolis_sentence_43

The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable ($0.50 profit per barrel in 1871 increased to $4.50 in 1874), and Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Minneapolis_sentence_44

Not until later did consumers discover the value in the bran (which contains wheat's vitamins, minerals and fiber) that "...Minneapolis flour millers routinely dumped" into the Mississippi. Minneapolis_sentence_45

After 1883, a Minneapolis miller virtually started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Minneapolis_sentence_46

Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists, especially at the University of Minnesota. Minneapolis_sentence_47

Those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. Minneapolis_sentence_48

At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for twelve million loaves of bread each day; by 1900, 14 percent of America's grain was milled in Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_49

Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four million barrels of flour a year to the United Kingdom. Minneapolis_sentence_50

When exports reached their peak in 1900, about one third of all flour milled in Minneapolis was shipped overseas. Minneapolis_sentence_51

Social tensions Minneapolis_section_4

Known initially as a kindly physician, mayor Doc Ames made his brother police chief, ran the city into corruption, and tried to leave town in 1902. Minneapolis_sentence_52

Muckraker Lincoln Steffens published "The Shame of Minneapolis" in 1903, elevating Ames's story to national news. Minneapolis_sentence_53

The gangster Kid Cann was famous for bribery and intimidation from the 1920s until the 1940s. Minneapolis_sentence_54

The city made changes to rectify discrimination as early as 1886 when Martha Ripley founded Maternity Hospital for both married and unmarried mothers. Minneapolis_sentence_55

Different forms of bigotry played roles during the first half of the 20th century. Minneapolis_sentence_56

In 1910, a Minneapolis developer wrote restrictive covenants based on race and ethnicity into his deeds. Minneapolis_sentence_57

Copied by other developers, the practice prevented minorities from owning or leasing certain properties. Minneapolis_sentence_58

Though such language was prohibited by state law in 1953 and by the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968, restrictive covenants against minorities remained in many Minneapolis deeds as recently as 2017. Minneapolis_sentence_59

The Ku Klux Klan succeeded by entering family life, but effectively was a force in the city only from 1921 until 1923. Minneapolis_sentence_60

After Minnesota passed a eugenics law in 1925, the proprietors of Eitel Hospital sterilized about one thousand people at the Faribault State Hospital. Minneapolis_sentence_61

From the end of World War I until 1950, Minneapolis was a corrosive site of anti-semitism. Minneapolis_sentence_62

A hate group called the Silver Legion of America held meetings in the city around 1936 to 1938. Minneapolis_sentence_63

Answering bigotry against Jewish doctors, Mount Sinai Hospital opened in 1948 as the first hospital in the community to accept members of minority races and religions on its medical staff. Minneapolis_sentence_64

When the country's fortunes turned during the Great Depression, the violent Teamsters Strike of 1934 resulted in laws acknowledging workers' rights. Minneapolis_sentence_65

A lifelong civil rights activist and union supporter, mayor Hubert Humphrey helped the city establish fair employment practices and a human relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities by 1946. Minneapolis_sentence_66

In the 1950s, less than 2 percent of the population was nonwhite. Minneapolis_sentence_67

Bottled-up anger in the black population was released in two disturbances on Plymouth Avenue in 1966–1967 when turmoil occurred across the US. Minneapolis_sentence_68

A new Urban Coalition was able to reach a peaceful outcome but ultimately failed to solve black poverty and unemployment, and a law and order candidate became mayor. Minneapolis_sentence_69

Minneapolis contended with white supremacy, participated in desegregation and the civil rights movement, and in 1968 was the birthplace of the American Indian Movement. Minneapolis_sentence_70

Between 1958 and 1963, as part of urban renewal, the city razed roughly 40 percent of downtown, destroying the Gateway District and many buildings with remarkable architecture, including the Metropolitan Building. Minneapolis_sentence_71

Efforts to save the building failed but are credited with sparking interest in historic preservation in the state. Minneapolis_sentence_72

Main articles: Killing of George Floyd and George Floyd protests Minneapolis_sentence_73

On May 25, 2020, Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin was seen on video kneeling on George Floyd's neck for eight minutes, resulting in his death. Minneapolis_sentence_74

This incident sparked national unrest, riots, and mass protests. Minneapolis_sentence_75

The Twin Cities experienced prolonged unrest in 2020 as part of an ongoing culture war focusing on racial issues. Minneapolis_sentence_76

Geography and climate Minneapolis_section_5

Main articles: Climate of Minnesota, Climate of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, and Geography of Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_77

The history and economic growth of Minneapolis are tied to water, the city's defining physical characteristic. Minneapolis_sentence_78

Long periods of glaciation and interglacial melt carved several riverbeds through what is now Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_79

During the last glacial period around ten thousand years ago, ice buried in these ancient river channels melted, resulting in basins that would fill with water to become the lakes of Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_80

The glacial River Warren, fed by the meltwater of Lake Agassiz, created a large waterfall in what is now Saint Paul that eroded upriver to the confluence of the Mississippi River, where it left a 75-foot (23 m) drop that became Saint Anthony Falls, which in turn eroded up the Mississippi about 8 miles (13 km) to its present location; Minnehaha Falls also developed during this period. Minneapolis_sentence_81

Lying on an artesian aquifer and flat terrain, Minneapolis has a total area of 58.4 square miles (151.3 km) and of this 6 percent is water. Minneapolis_sentence_82

Water supply is managed by four watershed districts that correspond to the Mississippi and the city's three creeks. Minneapolis_sentence_83

Twelve lakes, three large ponds, and five unnamed wetlands are within Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_84

The city's lowest elevation of 686 feet (209 m) is near where Minnehaha Creek meets the Mississippi River. Minneapolis_sentence_85

A spot at 974 feet (297 m) in or near Waite Park in Northeast Minneapolis is corroborated by Google Earth as the highest ground. Minneapolis_sentence_86

Neighborhoods Minneapolis_section_6

Main article: Neighborhoods of Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_87

Minneapolis is divided into eleven communities, each containing several neighborhoods, of which there are eighty-three. Minneapolis_sentence_88

In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Minneapolis_sentence_89

Some areas are known by nicknames of business associations. Minneapolis_sentence_90

In 2018, the Minneapolis City Council voted to end single-family zoning citywide. Minneapolis_sentence_91

At the time, 70 percent of residential land was zoned for detached single-family homes, however many of those areas had "nonconforming" buildings with more housing units. Minneapolis_sentence_92

City leaders sought to increase the supply of housing so that more neighborhoods would be affordable, and decrease the effects that single family zoning had caused on racial disparites and segregation. Minneapolis_sentence_93

The Brookings Institution called it "a relatively rare example of success for the YIMBY agenda." Minneapolis_sentence_94

Cityscape Minneapolis_section_7

Climate Minneapolis_section_8

Minneapolis experiences a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa in the Köppen climate classification), typical of southern parts of the Upper Midwest, and is situated in USDA plant hardiness zone 4b, with small enclaves of Minneapolis classified as being zone 5a. Minneapolis_sentence_95

Minneapolis has cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers. Minneapolis_sentence_96

As is typical in a continental climate, the difference between average temperatures in the coldest winter month and the warmest summer month is great: 60.1 °F (33.4 °C). Minneapolis_sentence_97

According to the NOAA, the annual average for sunshine duration is 58%. Minneapolis_sentence_98

Minneapolis experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. Minneapolis_sentence_99

The highest recorded temperature was 108 °F (42 °C) in July 1936 while the lowest was −41 °F (−41 °C) in January 1888. Minneapolis_sentence_100

The snowiest winter on record was 1983–84, when 98.6 inches (250 cm) of snow fell, and the least snowy winter was 1890–91, when only 11.1 inches (28 cm) fell. Minneapolis_sentence_101

Demographics Minneapolis_section_9

Main article: Demographics of Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_102

Minneapolis_table_general_1

Racial compositionMinneapolis_header_cell_1_0_0 2019Minneapolis_header_cell_1_0_1 2010Minneapolis_header_cell_1_0_2 1990Minneapolis_header_cell_1_0_3 1970Minneapolis_header_cell_1_0_4 1950Minneapolis_header_cell_1_0_5
WhiteMinneapolis_cell_1_1_0 63.8%Minneapolis_cell_1_1_1 63.8%Minneapolis_cell_1_1_2 78.4%Minneapolis_cell_1_1_3 93.6%Minneapolis_cell_1_1_4 98.4%Minneapolis_cell_1_1_5
—Non-HispanicMinneapolis_cell_1_2_0 59.8%Minneapolis_cell_1_2_1 60.3%Minneapolis_cell_1_2_2 77.5%Minneapolis_cell_1_2_3 92.8%Minneapolis_cell_1_2_4 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_2_5
Black or African AmericanMinneapolis_cell_1_3_0 19.4%Minneapolis_cell_1_3_1 18.6%Minneapolis_cell_1_3_2 13%Minneapolis_cell_1_3_3 4.4%Minneapolis_cell_1_3_4 1.3%Minneapolis_cell_1_3_5
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Minneapolis_cell_1_4_0 9.6%Minneapolis_cell_1_4_1 10.5%Minneapolis_cell_1_4_2 2.1%Minneapolis_cell_1_4_3 0.9%Minneapolis_cell_1_4_4 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_4_5
AsianMinneapolis_cell_1_5_0 6.1%Minneapolis_cell_1_5_1 5.6%Minneapolis_cell_1_5_2 4.3%Minneapolis_cell_1_5_3 0.4%Minneapolis_cell_1_5_4 0.2%Minneapolis_cell_1_5_5
Other raceMinneapolis_cell_1_6_0 4.7%Minneapolis_cell_1_6_1 5.6%Minneapolis_cell_1_6_2 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_6_3 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_6_4 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_6_5
Two or more racesMinneapolis_cell_1_7_0 4.6%Minneapolis_cell_1_7_1 4.4%Minneapolis_cell_1_7_2 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_7_3 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_7_4 n/aMinneapolis_cell_1_7_5

Dakota tribes, mostly the Mdewakanton, were permanent settlers near their sacred site St. Anthony Falls. Minneapolis_sentence_103

New settlers arrived during the 1850s and 1860s from New England, New York, Bohemia and Canada, and, during the mid-1860s, immigrants from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark began to call Minneapolis home. Minneapolis_sentence_104

Migrant workers from Mexico and Latin America interspersed. Minneapolis_sentence_105

Other immigrants came from Germany, Poland, Italy, and Greece. Minneapolis_sentence_106

Central European immigrants settled in the Northeast neighborhood, which is still diverse and known for its Czech and Polish cultural heritage. Minneapolis_sentence_107

Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia began arriving in the 1880s and settled primarily on the north side before moving in large numbers to the western suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s. Minneapolis_sentence_108

Asians came from China, the Philippines, Japan, and Korea. Minneapolis_sentence_109

Two groups came for a short while during US government relocations: Japanese during the 1940s, and Native Americans during the 1950s. Minneapolis_sentence_110

From 1970 onward, Asians arrived from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand. Minneapolis_sentence_111

After the Rust Belt economy declined during the early 1980s, Minnesota's black population nearly tripled in less than two decades, a large fraction hailing from cities such as Chicago and Gary, Indiana. Minneapolis_sentence_112

Beginning in the 1990s, a sizable Latino population arrived, along with immigrants from the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia. Minneapolis_sentence_113

In 2015, Brookings characterized Minneapolis as a re-emerging immigrant gateway with about 10 percent foreign-born residents. Minneapolis_sentence_114

As of 2019, African Americans make up about one fifth of the city's population. Minneapolis_sentence_115

The US Census Bureau estimates the population of Minneapolis to be 429,606 as of 2019, a 12.3 percent increase since the 2010 census. Minneapolis_sentence_116

The population grew until 1950, when the census peaked at 521,718, and then declined until about 1990 as people moved to the suburbs. Minneapolis_sentence_117

As of 2015, Minneapolis had 4 percent adult LGBT residents, roughly the same as the national average. Minneapolis_sentence_118

Along with about 88 of 500 cities, Human Rights Campaign gave Minneapolis its highest possible score in 2019. Minneapolis_sentence_119

Racial and ethnic minorities in the city lag behind white counterparts in education, with 15 percent of blacks and 13 percent of Hispanics holding bachelor's degrees compared to 42 percent of the white population. Minneapolis_sentence_120

The standard of living is rising, with incomes among the highest in the Midwest, however, median household income among minorities is below that of whites by over $17,000. Minneapolis_sentence_121

As of 2015, the poverty rate gap between blacks and whites was the highest in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_122

Religion Minneapolis_section_10

The Dakota people, the original inhabitants of the area where Minneapolis now stands, believed in the Great Spirit and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious. Minneapolis_sentence_123

More than 50 denominations and religions are established with a Christian majority. Minneapolis_sentence_124

Those who arrived from New England were for the most part Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists. Minneapolis_sentence_125

The oldest continuously used church in the city, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation. Minneapolis_sentence_126

The first Jewish congregation in Minneapolis was formed in 1878 as Shaarai Tov, and built Temple Israel in 1928. Minneapolis_sentence_127

St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887, opened a missionary school, and created the first Russian Orthodox seminary in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_128

Edwin Hawley Hewitt designed both St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral and Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church just south of downtown. Minneapolis_sentence_129

The first basilica in the US, and co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, the Basilica of Saint Mary was named by Pope Pius XI in 1926. Minneapolis_sentence_130

The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association was headquartered in Minneapolis from the late 1940s into the early 2000s. Minneapolis_sentence_131

Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye met while attending the Pentecostal North Central University and began a television ministry that by the 1980s reached 13.5 million households. Minneapolis_sentence_132

As of 2012, Mount Olivet Lutheran Church in southwest Minneapolis was the nation's second-largest Lutheran congregation, with about 6,000 attendees. Minneapolis_sentence_133

Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood, designed by Eliel Saarinen with an education building by his son Eero Saarinen, is a National Historic Landmark. Minneapolis_sentence_134

During the 1950s, members of the Nation of Islam created a temple in north Minneapolis, and the first Muslim mosque was built in 1967. Minneapolis_sentence_135

In 1972 a relief agency resettled the first Shi'a Muslim family from Uganda. Minneapolis_sentence_136

By 2004, between 20,000 and 30,000 Somali Muslims made the city their home. Minneapolis_sentence_137

The city has about 20 Buddhist and meditation centers. Minneapolis_sentence_138

Atheists For Human Rights has its headquarters in the Shingle Creek neighborhood in a geodesic dome. Minneapolis_sentence_139

Minneapolis has a body of Ordo Templi Orientis. Minneapolis_sentence_140

The first Hindu temple in the city was built in 1978, and North America's largest, the Hindu Temple of Minnesota, is in Maple Grove. Minneapolis_sentence_141

Economy Minneapolis_section_11

See also: Economy of Minnesota Minneapolis_sentence_142

The Minneapolis–St. Minneapolis_sentence_143 Paul area is the third largest economic center in the Midwest, behind Chicago and Detroit. Minneapolis_sentence_144

During the city's formative years, millers had to pay cash for wheat during the growing season and then hold it until it was needed for flour. Minneapolis_sentence_145

This required large amounts of capital, which stimulated the local banking industry and made Minneapolis a major financial center. Minneapolis_sentence_146

The economy of Minneapolis today is based in commerce, finance, rail and trucking services, health care, and industry. Minneapolis_sentence_147

Smaller components are in publishing, milling, food processing, graphic arts, insurance, education, and high technology. Minneapolis_sentence_148

The Twin Cities metropolitan area has the fifth highest concentration of major corporate headquarters in the country, with five Fortune 500 corporations headquartered within the city limits of Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_149

Foreign companies with US offices in Minneapolis include Accenture, Bellisio Foods (now part of Charoen Pokphand Foods), Canadian Pacific, Coloplast, RBC and Voya Financial. Minneapolis_sentence_150

In its 2018 survey for expatriate executives, The Economist ranked Minneapolis the third-most expensive city in North America and 26th in the world. Minneapolis_sentence_151

The Twin Cities contribute 63.8% of the gross state product of Minnesota. Minneapolis_sentence_152

Measured by gross metropolitan product per resident ($62,054), as of 2015, Minneapolis is the fifteenth richest city in the US The area's $199.6 billion gross metropolitan product and its per capita personal income ranked thirteenth in the US in 2011. Minneapolis_sentence_153

The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan. Minneapolis_sentence_154

The smallest of the twelve regional banks in the Federal Reserve System, it operates a nationwide payments system, oversees member banks and bank holding companies, and serves as a banker for the US Treasury. Minneapolis_sentence_155

The Minneapolis Grain Exchange, founded in 1881, is still located near the riverfront and is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures and options. Minneapolis_sentence_156

Culture Minneapolis_section_12

Visual arts Minneapolis_section_13

Main article: Arts in Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_157

The Walker Art Center, one of the five largest modern art museums in the US, sits atop Lowry Hill, near the downtown area. Minneapolis_sentence_158

The size of the center was doubled with an addition in 2005 by Herzog & de Meuron, and expanded with a 15-acre (6.1 ha) park designed by Michel Desvigne, located across the street from the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden. Minneapolis_sentence_159

Known as Mia since its 100th anniversary, the Minneapolis Institute of Art, designed by McKim, Mead & White in 1915 in south central Minneapolis, is the largest art museum in the city, with 100,000 pieces in its permanent collection. Minneapolis_sentence_160

New wings, designed by Kenzo Tange and Michael Graves, opened in 1974 and 2006, respectively, for contemporary and modern works, as well as more gallery space. Minneapolis_sentence_161

The Weisman Art Museum, designed by Frank Gehry for the University of Minnesota, opened in 1993 and offers free admission. Minneapolis_sentence_162

. Minneapolis_sentence_163

An 2011 addition, also designed by Gehry, doubled the size of the galleries. Minneapolis_sentence_164

The Museum of Russian Art opened in a restored church in 2005 and hosts a collection of 20th-century Russian art as well as special events. Minneapolis_sentence_165

The Northeast Minneapolis Arts District has 400 independent artists, a center at the Northrup-King Building, and recurring annual events. Minneapolis_sentence_166

Theater and performing arts Minneapolis_section_14

Main article: List of theaters in Minnesota Minneapolis_sentence_167

Minneapolis has been a cultural center for theatrical performances since the mid 1800s. Minneapolis_sentence_168

Early theaters included the Pence Opera House, the Academy of Music, the Grand Opera House, the Lyceum, and later the Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1894. Minneapolis_sentence_169

Today Minneapolis is home to dozens of theater companies. Minneapolis_sentence_170

The Guthrie Theater, the area's largest theater company, occupies a three-stage complex overlooking the Mississippi, designed by French architect Jean Nouvel. Minneapolis_sentence_171

The company was founded in 1963 by Sir Tyrone Guthrie as a prototype alternative to Broadway, and it produces a wide variety of shows throughout the year. Minneapolis_sentence_172

Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, State, and Pantages Theatres vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue, which are now used for concerts and plays. Minneapolis_sentence_173

A fourth renovated theater, the former Shubert, joined with the Hennepin Center for the Arts to become the Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts, home to more than one dozen performing arts groups. Minneapolis_sentence_174

The Minnesota Fringe Festival is held every summer. Minneapolis_sentence_175

Music Minneapolis_section_15

The Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at the city's Orchestra Hall under music director Osmo Vänskä—a critic writing for The New Yorker in 2010 described it as "the greatest orchestra in the world." Minneapolis_sentence_176

The orchestra was nominated in 2013 for its recording of "Sibelius: Symphonies Nos. Minneapolis_sentence_177

2 & 5," and it won a Grammy Award in 2014 for "Sibelius: Symphonies Nos 1 & 4." Minneapolis_sentence_178

According to DownBeat, for 25 years the Dakota Jazz Club has been one of the world's best jazz venues. Minneapolis_sentence_179

Newer, Crooners in northeast Minneapolis also won world's best in 2020. Minneapolis_sentence_180

Singer and multi-instrumentalist Prince was born in Minneapolis and lived in the area most of his life. Minneapolis_sentence_181

After Jimmy Jam and his 11-piece Mind & Matter broke through discrimination that had created a race barrier downtown, Prince reached a global multiracial audience with his combination of indecency and religion. Minneapolis_sentence_182

An authentic musical prodigy enriched by a music program at The Way Community Center, Prince learned to operate a Polymoog at Sound 80 for his first album that became a sonic element of the Minneapolis sound. Minneapolis_sentence_183

With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records, Prince helped make First Avenue and the 7th Street Entry prominent venues for both artists and audiences. Minneapolis_sentence_184

Hüsker Dü and The Replacements were pivotal in the US alternative rock boom during the 1980s. Minneapolis_sentence_185

Their respective frontmen Bob Mould and Paul Westerberg developed successful solo careers. Minneapolis_sentence_186

The MN Spoken Word Association and independent hip hop label Rhymesayers Entertainment have garnered attention for rap, hip hop and spoken word. Minneapolis_sentence_187

Underground Minnesota hip hop acts such as Atmosphere and Manny Phesto comment about the city and Minnesota in song lyrics. Minneapolis_sentence_188

Tom Waits released two songs about the city, "Christmas Card from a Hooker in Minneapolis" (Blue Valentine, 1978) and "9th & Hennepin" (Rain Dogs, 1985), and Lucinda Williams recorded "Minneapolis" (World Without Tears, 2003). Minneapolis_sentence_189

In 2008, the century-old MacPhail Center for Music opened a new facility designed by James Dayton. Minneapolis_sentence_190

Electronic dance music artists include Woody McBride, Freddy Fresh and DVS1. Minneapolis_sentence_191

Minneapolis is home to three opera companies: Minnesota Opera, Mill City Summer Opera and Really Spicy Opera. Minneapolis_sentence_192

Literature Minneapolis_section_16

Minneapolis is the fourth-most literate city in the US as of 2018, and hosted the founding of Open Book which consists of the Loft Literary Center, the Minnesota Center for Book Arts and Milkweed Editions, a large independent nonprofit literary publisher. Minneapolis_sentence_193

Publishers located in Minneapolis include Coffee House Press and the University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis_sentence_194

Charity Minneapolis_section_17

Philanthropy and charitable giving are part of the community. Minneapolis_sentence_195

According to AmeriCorps in 2017, Utah is the most generous state but Minneapolis–Saint Paul ranked first among cities with 46.3% of the population volunteering. Minneapolis_sentence_196

The Minneapolis Foundation invests and administers over 1,000 charitable funds. Minneapolis_sentence_197

Alight helps 2.5 million refugees and displaced persons each year in Asili-Democratic Republic of Congo, Jordan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Thailand and Uganda. Minneapolis_sentence_198

In 2011, Target Corporation was listed 42nd in a list of the best 100 corporate citizens in CR magazine for corporate responsibility officers. Minneapolis_sentence_199

Catholic Charities USA is one of the largest providers of social services locally. Minneapolis_sentence_200

Cuisine Minneapolis_section_18

See also: Cuisine of the Midwestern United States § Minneapolis and Saint Paul Minneapolis_sentence_201

The non-profit Appetite for Change (AFC) administers 10 gardens, sells produce at the West Broadway Farmers Market in summertime, supplies its restaurants, and gives away boxes of fresh produce. Minneapolis_sentence_202

AFC's goal is to improve the local diet against the influx of fast-food stores. Minneapolis_sentence_203

West Broadway Avenue was a cultural epicenter during the early 20th century but by the 1950s, flight to the suburbs began, and streetcars closed down. Minneapolis_sentence_204

One of the largest urban food deserts in the US was in North Minneapolis, where, as of mid-2017, 70,000 people had only two grocery stores. Minneapolis_sentence_205

Wirth Co-op since opened in 2017 but closed within a year. Minneapolis_sentence_206

North Market opened in 2017. Minneapolis_sentence_207

As of 2019, Minneapolis-based chefs have won James Beard Foundation Awards: Ann Kim, chef at Young Joni, Pizza Lola and Hello Pizza, won in 2019. Minneapolis_sentence_208

Founder of the Sioux Chef, Sean Sherman won two James Beard prizes in 2019 — the leadership award and best cookbook. Minneapolis_sentence_209

Steve Hoffman won the James Beard distinguished writing award for "What Is Northern Food?." Minneapolis_sentence_210

Other winners were 2008 rising star chef Gavin Kaysen who won again in 2018 at Spoon & Stable; Alexander Roberts at Restaurant Alma; and Isaac Becker at 112 Eatery. Minneapolis_sentence_211

Also in venues that have closed, Tim McKee won at La Belle Vie, and Paul Berglund at Bachelor Farmer. Minneapolis_sentence_212

Andrew Zimmern won in 2010, 2013 and 2017 for Outstanding Personality/Host on Bizarre Foods with Andrew Zimmern and for his television program On Location in 2012. Minneapolis_sentence_213

When thirteen chefs and restaurants were nominated for James Beard awards in 2017, The Wall Street Journal named Minneapolis one of the ten best places to visit in the world. Minneapolis_sentence_214

Julia Moskin, in The New York Times, and Bon Appétit wrote about New Nordic cuisine and the Scandinavian heritage of Minneapolis in 2012. Minneapolis_sentence_215

East African cuisine arrived with a wave of Somali immigration which started in the 1990s. Minneapolis_sentence_216

As of 2019, chefs and bakers at eight of nine Kim Bartmann Minneapolis restaurants used heritage grains from Sunrise Four Mill. Minneapolis_sentence_217

In 2018, Food & Wine named Spoon and Stable one of the 40 most important restaurants of the past 40 years. Minneapolis_sentence_218

Young Joni was selected one of the GQ top ten new restaurants and one of Eater's twelve best new restaurants of 2017. Minneapolis_sentence_219

Esquire put Hai Hai on its list of America's best restaurants in 2018. Minneapolis_sentence_220

Racial conflicts Minneapolis_section_19

One author described racial disparities as the most significant challenge facing Minneapolis in the first decades of the 21st century, claiming that the city's Indigenous population and people of color had fared worse than the city's white population for many measures of well being, such as health outcomes, academic achievement, income, and home ownership. Minneapolis_sentence_221

Several other commentators and observers have also written about historic racism and socioeconomic disparities in the city. Minneapolis_sentence_222

Sports Minneapolis_section_20

Main articles: Sports in Minneapolis–Saint Paul and Sports in Minnesota Minneapolis_sentence_223

Minneapolis_table_general_2

Professional sports teams in MinneapolisMinneapolis_table_caption_2
TeamMinneapolis_header_cell_2_0_0 SportMinneapolis_header_cell_2_0_1 LeagueMinneapolis_header_cell_2_0_2 SinceMinneapolis_header_cell_2_0_3 Venue (capacity)Minneapolis_header_cell_2_0_4 ChampionshipsMinneapolis_header_cell_2_0_5
Minnesota LynxMinneapolis_cell_2_1_0 BasketballMinneapolis_cell_2_1_1 Women's National Basketball AssociationMinneapolis_cell_2_1_2 1999Minneapolis_cell_2_1_3 Target Center (18,798)Minneapolis_cell_2_1_4 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017Minneapolis_cell_2_1_5
Minnesota TimberwolvesMinneapolis_cell_2_2_0 BasketballMinneapolis_cell_2_2_1 National Basketball AssociationMinneapolis_cell_2_2_2 1989Minneapolis_cell_2_2_3 Target Center (18,798)Minneapolis_cell_2_2_4 Minneapolis_cell_2_2_5
Minnesota TwinsMinneapolis_cell_2_3_0 BaseballMinneapolis_cell_2_3_1 Major League BaseballMinneapolis_cell_2_3_2 1961Minneapolis_cell_2_3_3 Target Field (39,500)Minneapolis_cell_2_3_4 1987, 1991Minneapolis_cell_2_3_5
Minnesota VikingsMinneapolis_cell_2_4_0 American FootballMinneapolis_cell_2_4_1 National Football LeagueMinneapolis_cell_2_4_2 1961Minneapolis_cell_2_4_3 U.S. Bank Stadium (66,655)Minneapolis_cell_2_4_4 1969 (NFL)Minneapolis_cell_2_4_5

Minneapolis is home to four professional sports teams. Minneapolis_sentence_224

The Minnesota Vikings football team and the Minnesota Twins baseball team have played in the state since 1961. Minneapolis_sentence_225

The Vikings were an NFL expansion team, and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota. Minneapolis_sentence_226

The Twins won the World Series in 1987 and 1991 and have played at Target Field since 2010. Minneapolis_sentence_227

The Vikings played in the Super Bowl following the 1969, 1973, 1974, and 1976 seasons, losing all four games. Minneapolis_sentence_228

The Minnesota Timberwolves brought NBA basketball back to Minneapolis in 1989, followed by the Minnesota Lynx in 1999. Minneapolis_sentence_229

Both basketball teams play in the Target Center. Minneapolis_sentence_230

In recent years, the Lynx have been the most successful sports team in the city and a dominant force in the WNBA, reaching the WNBA Finals in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 and winning in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017. Minneapolis_sentence_231

The 1,750,000-square-foot (163,000 m) U.S. Minneapolis_sentence_232 Bank Stadium was built for the Vikings for about $1.122 billion, with $348 million coming from the state of Minnesota and $150 million coming from the city of Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_233

Called "Minnesota's biggest-ever public works project," the stadium opened in 2016 with 66,000 seats, expandable to 70,000 for the 2018 Super Bowl. Minneapolis_sentence_234

U.S. Bank Stadium also hosts indoor running and rollerblading nights, as well as concerts and events. Minneapolis_sentence_235

Major sporting events hosted by the city include baseball All-Star Games, World Series, Super Bowls, NCAA Division 1 men's and women's basketball Final Four, the AMA Motocross Championship, the X Games and the WNBA All-Star Game. Minneapolis_sentence_236

The Gophers women's ice hockey team is a six-time NCAA champion and seven-time national champion winning in 2000, 2004, 2005, 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016. Minneapolis_sentence_237

The Minnesota Wild of the NHL play in Saint Paul at the Xcel Energy Center. Minneapolis_sentence_238

The MLS soccer team Minnesota United FC play at Allianz Field in Saint Paul. Minneapolis_sentence_239

In other sports, six golf courses are located within city limits. Minneapolis_sentence_240

While living in Minneapolis, Scott and Brennan Olson founded (and later sold) Rollerblade, the company that popularized the sport of inline skating. Minneapolis_sentence_241

Parks and recreation Minneapolis_section_21

Main article: Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board Minneapolis_sentence_242

The Minneapolis park system has been called the best-designed, best-financed, and best-maintained in America. Minneapolis_sentence_243

More than a century after they were designed, in its 2020 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that Minneapolis had the best park system among the 100 most populous US cities. Minneapolis_sentence_244

The parks are governed and operated by the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board, an independent park district. Minneapolis_sentence_245

Foresight, donations and effort by community leaders enabled Horace Cleveland to create his finest landscape architecture, preserving geographical landmarks and linking them with boulevards and parkways. Minneapolis_sentence_246

The city's Chain of Lakes, consisting of seven lakes and Minnehaha Creek, is connected by bike, running, and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. Minneapolis_sentence_247

A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians runs parallel along the 52 miles (84 km) route of the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway. Minneapolis_sentence_248

Theodore Wirth is credited with developing the parks system. Minneapolis_sentence_249

His goal was to establish a park within walking distance of every child in the city. Minneapolis_sentence_250

Today, 16.6% of the city is parks and there are 770 square feet (72 m) of parkland for each resident. Minneapolis_sentence_251

Parks are interlinked in many places and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers. Minneapolis_sentence_252

The country's oldest public wildflower garden, the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary, is located within Theodore Wirth Park. Minneapolis_sentence_253

Wirth Park is shared with Golden Valley and is about 90% the size of Central Park in New York City. Minneapolis_sentence_254

Site of the 53-foot (16 m) Minnehaha Falls, Minnehaha Park is one of the city's oldest and most popular parks, receiving over 500,000 visitors each year. Minneapolis_sentence_255

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow named Hiawatha's wife Minnehaha for the Minneapolis waterfall in The Song of Hiawatha, a bestselling and often-parodied 19th century poem. Minneapolis_sentence_256

The five-mile, hiking-only Winchell Trail along the Mississippi River, with its gorge views and access, offers a rustic hiking experience. Minneapolis_sentence_257

The Twin Cities Marathon run in Minneapolis and Saint Paul every October draws 250,000 spectators. Minneapolis_sentence_258

The 26.2-mile (42.2 km) race is a Boston and USA Olympic Trials qualifier. Minneapolis_sentence_259

The organizers sponsor three more races: a Kids Marathon, a 1-mile (1.6 km), and a 10-mile (16 km). Minneapolis_sentence_260

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) ranked Minneapolis and its metropolitan area the nation's first, second, or third "fittest city" every year from 2008 to 2016, and first from 2011 to 2013. Minneapolis_sentence_261

The ACSM American Fitness Index ranks the city third in 2020. Minneapolis_sentence_262

Government Minneapolis_section_22

Main articles: Minneapolis City Council and Law and government of Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_263

Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party. Minneapolis_sentence_264

The Minneapolis City Council holds the most power and represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. Minneapolis_sentence_265

The city adopted instant-runoff voting in 2006, first using it in the 2009 elections. Minneapolis_sentence_266

The council has 12 DFL members and one from the Green Party. Minneapolis_sentence_267

Election issues in 2013 included funding for a new Vikings stadium over which some incumbents lost their positions. Minneapolis_sentence_268

Jacob Frey of the DFL was elected mayor of Minneapolis in 2017. Minneapolis_sentence_269

The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Minneapolis_sentence_270

Parks, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits. Minneapolis_sentence_271

Elected in 2013, Lisa Bender serves as president of the City Council and does not plan to seek reelection. Minneapolis_sentence_272

In December 2020, the city worked through input from hundreds of residents, an upturn in the crime rate, COVID-19, and the threat of a mayoral veto, to reach agreement on a 2021 budget. Minneapolis_sentence_273

The $1.5 billion compromise maintained the number of police officers, set aside $8 million for community safety measures, cut funding in all major city departments, and included a 5.75 percent property tax increase. Minneapolis_sentence_274

At the federal level, Minneapolis proper sits within Minnesota's 5th congressional district, which has been represented since 2018 by Democrat Ilhan Omar, one of the first two practicing Muslim women and the first Somali-American in Congress. Minneapolis_sentence_275

Both of Minnesota's US Senators, Amy Klobuchar and Tina Smith, were elected or appointed while living in Minneapolis and are also Democrats. Minneapolis_sentence_276

The Republican Party of Minnesota in 2014 moved its state headquarters from Saint Paul to the Seward neighborhood of Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_277

The City Council passed a resolution in 2015 making fossil fuel divestment city policy, joining seventeen cities worldwide in the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance. Minneapolis_sentence_278

The city's climate plan is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 80 percent by 2050. Minneapolis_sentence_279

Police Minneapolis_section_23

Early Minneapolis experienced a period of corruption in local government and crime was common until an economic downturn in the mid-1900s. Minneapolis_sentence_280

Since 1950 the population decreased and much of downtown was lost to urban renewal and highway construction. Minneapolis_sentence_281

The result was a "moribund and peaceful" environment until the 1990s. Minneapolis_sentence_282

Minneapolis has an ordinance that directs local law enforcement officers not to 'take any law enforcement action' for the sole purpose of finding undocumented immigrants, nor ask an individual about his or her immigration status. Minneapolis_sentence_283

From 2006 to 2012, under chief Tim Dolan, the crime rate steadily dropped, and the police benefited from new video and gunfire locator resources, although Dolan was criticized for expensive city settlements for police misconduct. Minneapolis_sentence_284

While violent crime dropped (from 6,374 in 2006 to 3,720 in 2011), homicides rose by 105% and rape was at the highest rate among large cities. Minneapolis_sentence_285

U.S. Minneapolis_sentence_286 News & World Report said in 2011 that Minneapolis tied with Cleveland, Ohio as the 10th most dangerous city in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_287

Killings of citizens — most often Black — by police have dominated the city's news for a decade. Minneapolis_sentence_288

In 2010, a Minneapolis police officer pressed his knee into the back of David Smith who was in handcuffs and died a week later. Minneapolis_sentence_289

In the $3 million settlement police agreed to do new training on positional asphyxiation however it is unclear as of 2020 if that training takes place. Minneapolis_sentence_290

Mayor Betsy Hodges underwent severe criticism after the police shooting of Jamar Clark who died in 2015. Minneapolis_sentence_291

Philando Castile was shot by a police officer in neighboring Falcon Heights in 2016. Minneapolis_sentence_292

Facing new criticism when an Australian woman was murdered by a police officer in July 2017, the resignation of chief Janeé Harteau was secured, and 28-year veteran Medaria Arradondo was appointed chief of police. Minneapolis_sentence_293

After George Floyd was killed in 2020, the city and many entities distanced themselves from the Minneapolis Police Department (MPD). Minneapolis_sentence_294

President of the Police Officers Federation of Minneapolis since 2015, Bob Kroll characterized Floyd as a violent criminal. Minneapolis_sentence_295

Kroll called the protests against his killing a terrorist movement, which brought calls for his resignation from labor groups and former police chief Harteau. Minneapolis_sentence_296

Minneapolis City Council president Lisa Bender announced that the city should dismantle its police department and replace it with a "transformative new model of public safety." Minneapolis_sentence_297

Two days later, on June 7, a veto-proof majority of the city council pledged to begin the process of dismantling the MPD. Minneapolis_sentence_298

But after review the Charter Commission formally rejected the proposal. Minneapolis_sentence_299

In December, the City Council voted unanimously to move $8 million from the police to mental health crisis teams, dispatcher training, and to report handling, in addition to an earlier $14 million move proposed by Frey. Minneapolis_sentence_300

More narrowly, they voted 7-6 to maintain the level of police staffing at 888 for the next year. Minneapolis_sentence_301

After the summer of 2020, the department lost 166 officers either to retirement or to temporary leave, many with PTSD, and a crime wave resulted in more than 500 shootings. Minneapolis_sentence_302

In November, narrowly aligning with Arradondo and Frey, the council had voted 7–6 to pay for additional policing support from Hennepin County Sheriff deputies and Metro Transit police. Minneapolis_sentence_303

Education Minneapolis_section_24

Main articles: Hennepin County Library, Minneapolis Public Schools, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, and University of Minnesota Minneapolis_sentence_304

Primary and secondary education Minneapolis_section_25

Minneapolis Public Schools enroll over 35,000 students in public primary and secondary schools. Minneapolis_sentence_305

The district administers about one hundred public schools including forty-five elementary schools, seven middle schools, seven high schools, eight special education schools, eight alternative schools, nineteen contract alternative schools, and five charter schools. Minneapolis_sentence_306

With authority granted by the state legislature, the school board makes policy, selects the superintendent, and oversees the district's budget, curriculum, personnel, and facilities. Minneapolis_sentence_307

In 2017, the graduation rate was 66 percent. Minneapolis_sentence_308

Students speak over one hundred different languages at home and most school communications are printed in English, Hmong, Spanish, and Somali. Minneapolis_sentence_309

Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute. Minneapolis_sentence_310

Besides public schools, the city is home to more than twenty private schools and academies and about twenty additional charter schools. Minneapolis_sentence_311

Colleges and universities Minneapolis_section_26

Minneapolis's collegiate scene is dominated by the main campus of the University of Minnesota where more than 50,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attend twenty colleges, schools, and institutes. Minneapolis_sentence_312

The graduate school programs with exceptional national rankings in 2020 (top five) were health care management, nursing: midwifery, pharmacy and clinical psychology. Minneapolis_sentence_313

Augsburg University, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and North Central University are private four-year colleges. Minneapolis_sentence_314

Over the past 15 years, Augsburg actively sought new students among immigrants to Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_315

In fall 2019, 65 percent of its first-year students were persons of color, and, reversing a state-wide trend, Augsburg enrollment was up 11 percent compared to 2014. Minneapolis_sentence_316

Minneapolis Community and Technical College and the private Dunwoody College of Technology provide career training. Minneapolis_sentence_317

St. Minneapolis_sentence_318 Mary's University of Minnesota has a Twin Cities campus for its graduate and professional programs. Minneapolis_sentence_319

Two large principally online universities, Capella University and Walden University, are both headquartered in the city. Minneapolis_sentence_320

The public four-year Metropolitan State University and the private four-year University of St. Thomas are among postsecondary institutions based elsewhere with additional campuses in Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_321

Libraries Minneapolis_section_27

The Hennepin County Library system began to operate the city's public libraries in 2008. Minneapolis_sentence_322

The Minneapolis Public Library, founded by T. Minneapolis_sentence_323 B. Walker in 1885, faced a severe budget shortfall for 2007, and was forced to temporarily close three of its neighborhood libraries. Minneapolis_sentence_324

The new downtown Central Library designed by César Pelli opened in 2006. Minneapolis_sentence_325

Ten special collections hold over 25,000 books and resources for researchers, including the Minneapolis Collection and the Minneapolis Photo Collection. Minneapolis_sentence_326

About 845,000 people have free library cards.. Minneapolis_sentence_327

Media Minneapolis_section_28

Five major newspapers are published in Minneapolis: Star Tribune, Finance and Commerce, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, the university's The Minnesota Daily, and MinnPost.com. Minneapolis_sentence_328

Located in the North Loop, MSP Communications publishes Mpls.St.Paul and Twin Cities Business magazines. Minneapolis_sentence_329

Other publications are Minnesota Monthly and the Southwest Journal. Minneapolis_sentence_330

Minneapolis has a mix of radio stations and healthy listener support for public radio. Minneapolis_sentence_331

In the commercial market three radio broadcasting companies iHeartMedia (formerly Clear Channel), Entercom, and Cumulus Media operate the majority of the radio stations in the market. Minneapolis_sentence_332

Listeners support three Minnesota Public Radio non-profit stations and two community non-profit stations, the Minneapolis Public Schools and the University of Minnesota each operate a station, and religious organizations run four stations. Minneapolis_sentence_333

The city's first television was broadcast in 1948 by the Saint Paul station and ABC affiliate KSTP-TV 5, an NBC affiliate at the time. Minneapolis_sentence_334

The first to broadcast in color was WCCO-TV 4, the CBS owned-and-operated station which is located in downtown Minneapolis. Minneapolis_sentence_335

WCCO-TV, FOX affiliate KMSP-TV 9 and MyNetworkTV affiliate WFTC 29 operate as owned-and-operated stations of their affiliated networks. Minneapolis_sentence_336

The city and suburbs are also home to independently owned affiliates of NBC (KARE 11), PBS (KTCA-TV/KTCI-TV 2), The CW (WUCW 23) and one independent station (KSTC-TV 45). Minneapolis_sentence_337

Infrastructure Minneapolis_section_29

Transportation Minneapolis_section_30

Main articles: Transportation in Minnesota and Metro (Minnesota) Minneapolis_sentence_338

Minneapolis has two light rail lines and one commuter rail line. Minneapolis_sentence_339

The Metro Blue Line connects the Mall of America and Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport in Bloomington to downtown, running mostly at surface level with some sections elevated or in a tunnel. Minneapolis_sentence_340

The Metro Green Line opened in 2014 and shares stations with the Blue Line in downtown Minneapolis, and then at the Downtown East station, travels east through the University of Minnesota, and then along University Avenue into downtown Saint Paul. Minneapolis_sentence_341

An extension of the Green Line will connect downtown Minneapolis with the southwestern suburb of Eden Prairie. Minneapolis_sentence_342

Completion is expected sometime in 2023. Minneapolis_sentence_343

A northwest LRT is planned along Bottineau Boulevard (Blue Line extension) from downtown to Brooklyn Park. Minneapolis_sentence_344

The 40-mile Northstar Commuter rail, opened in 2009, runs from Big Lake through the northern suburbs and terminates at the multi-modal transit station at Target Field using existing railroad tracks. Minneapolis_sentence_345

Public transit ridership in the Twin Cities was 91.6 million in 2019, a 3 percent decline over the previous year which is part of a national trend in lower local bus ridership. Minneapolis_sentence_346

Ridership on the Metro system remained steady or grew slightly. Minneapolis_sentence_347

Ranked among the best, Bicycling named Minneapolis the 4th best bicycling city in 2018. Minneapolis_sentence_348

Off-street facilities include the Grand Rounds, Midtown Greenway, Little Earth Trail, Hiawatha LRT Trail, Kenilworth Trail, and Cedar Lake Trail. Minneapolis_sentence_349

Bicycle sharing provider Nice Ride Minnesota planned expanded capacity in 2019. Minneapolis_sentence_350

Walk Score rated Minneapolis as having the 13th highest Walk Score and the highest Bike Score among cities with more than 200,000 people in the US. Minneapolis_sentence_351

The Minneapolis Skyway System, 9.5 miles (15.3 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways, link eighty city blocks downtown with second floor restaurants and retailers open weekdays. Minneapolis_sentence_352

Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) sits on 3,400 acres (1,400 ha) on the southeast border of the city between interstate 494 and state highways 5, 77, and 62. Minneapolis_sentence_353

The airport serves international, domestic, charter and regional carriers and is home base for Sun Country Airlines. Minneapolis_sentence_354

It is also the third-largest hub for Delta Air Lines, who operate more flights out of MSP than any other airline. Minneapolis_sentence_355

For terminals serving 25 to 40 million passengers, MSP was named the world's best airport for customer experience in North America in 2020 for the fourth consecutive year. Minneapolis_sentence_356

Forbes named MSP the No. Minneapolis_sentence_357

2 Best Airport in North America, behind Detroit in 2019. Minneapolis_sentence_358

Health and utilities Minneapolis_section_31

Minneapolis has eight hospitals, four ranked among America's best by U.S. News & World Report in 2020-21 — Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Children's Hospitals and Clinics, University of Minnesota Medical Center, and University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. Minneapolis_sentence_359

Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Shriners Hospitals for Children and Phillips Eye Institute also serve the city. Minneapolis_sentence_360

The Mayo Clinic in Rochester is a 75-minute drive away. Minneapolis_sentence_361

Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Hospital, where by 1957, more than two hundred patients had survived open-heart operations, many of them children. Minneapolis_sentence_362

Working with surgeon C. Minneapolis_sentence_363 Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time. Minneapolis_sentence_364

Hennepin Healthcare opened in 1887 as City Hospital, and also has been known as Minneapolis General Hospital, Hennepin County General Hospital, and HCMC. Minneapolis_sentence_365

A public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center, the Hennepin Healthcare safety net counted 643,739 clinic visits and 111,307 emergency and urgent care visits in 2019. Minneapolis_sentence_366

Ambassadors of the Minneapolis Downtown Improvement District (DID) work on 120 blocks of downtown to improve its cleanliness, friendliness and acceptability of behavior. Minneapolis_sentence_367

They are employees of Block by Block, a company in Nashville, Tennessee that serves forty-six US cities. Minneapolis_sentence_368

Xcel Energy supplies electricity, CenterPoint Energy supplies gas, CenturyLink provides landline telephone service, and Comcast provides cable service. Minneapolis_sentence_369

The city treats and distributes water and charges a monthly solid waste fee for trash removal. Minneapolis_sentence_370

After each significant snowfall, called a snow emergency, the Minneapolis Public Works Street Division plows over 1,000 mi (1,610 km) of streets and 400 mi (640 km) of alleys—counting both sides, the distance between Minneapolis and Seattle and back. Minneapolis_sentence_371

Ordinances govern parking on the plowing routes during these emergencies as well as snow shoveling. Minneapolis_sentence_372

Notable people Minneapolis_section_32

Main article: List of people from Minneapolis Minneapolis_sentence_373

Twin towns – sister cities Minneapolis_section_33

Minneapolis' sister cities are: Minneapolis_sentence_374

See also Minneapolis_section_34

Minneapolis_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minneapolis.