Missouri

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This article is about the State of Missouri. Missouri_sentence_0

For the river, see Missouri River. Missouri_sentence_1

For other uses, see Missouri (disambiguation). Missouri_sentence_2

Missouri_table_infobox_0

MissouriMissouri_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryMissouri_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesMissouri_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodMissouri_header_cell_0_2_0 Missouri TerritoryMissouri_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionMissouri_header_cell_0_3_0 August 11, 1821 (24th)Missouri_cell_0_3_1
CapitalMissouri_header_cell_0_4_0 Jefferson CityMissouri_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityMissouri_header_cell_0_5_0 Kansas CityMissouri_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroMissouri_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater St. LouisMissouri_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentMissouri_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorMissouri_header_cell_0_8_0 Mike Parson (R)Missouri_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorMissouri_header_cell_0_9_0 Mike Kehoe (R)Missouri_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureMissouri_header_cell_0_10_0 Missouri General AssemblyMissouri_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseMissouri_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateMissouri_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseMissouri_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesMissouri_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryMissouri_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of MissouriMissouri_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsMissouri_header_cell_0_14_0 Roy Blunt (R)

Josh Hawley (R)Missouri_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationMissouri_header_cell_0_15_0 6 Republicans
2 Democrats (list)Missouri_cell_0_15_1
AreaMissouri_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalMissouri_header_cell_0_17_0 69,715 sq mi (180,560 km)Missouri_cell_0_17_1
LandMissouri_header_cell_0_18_0 68,886 sq mi (179,015 km)Missouri_cell_0_18_1
Area rankMissouri_header_cell_0_19_0 21stMissouri_cell_0_19_1
DimensionsMissouri_header_cell_0_20_0
LengthMissouri_header_cell_0_21_0 300 mi (480 km)Missouri_cell_0_21_1
WidthMissouri_header_cell_0_22_0 241 mi (390 km)Missouri_cell_0_22_1
ElevationMissouri_header_cell_0_23_0 800 ft (244 m)Missouri_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevation (Taum Sauk Mountain)Missouri_header_cell_0_24_0 1,773 ft (540 m)Missouri_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevation (St. Francis River at Arkansas border)Missouri_header_cell_0_25_0 230 ft (70 m)Missouri_cell_0_25_1
Population (2019)Missouri_header_cell_0_26_0
TotalMissouri_header_cell_0_27_0 6,137,428Missouri_cell_0_27_1
RankMissouri_header_cell_0_28_0 18thMissouri_cell_0_28_1
DensityMissouri_header_cell_0_29_0 87.1/sq mi (33.7/km)Missouri_cell_0_29_1
Density rankMissouri_header_cell_0_30_0 30thMissouri_cell_0_30_1
Median household incomeMissouri_header_cell_0_31_0 $53,578Missouri_cell_0_31_1
Income rankMissouri_header_cell_0_32_0 37thMissouri_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)Missouri_header_cell_0_33_0 MissourianMissouri_cell_0_33_1
LanguageMissouri_header_cell_0_34_0
Official languageMissouri_header_cell_0_35_0 EnglishMissouri_cell_0_35_1
Spoken languageMissouri_header_cell_0_36_0 Missouri_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneMissouri_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Missouri_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Missouri_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Missouri_cell_0_38_1
USPS abbreviationMissouri_header_cell_0_39_0 MOMissouri_cell_0_39_1
ISO 3166 codeMissouri_header_cell_0_40_0 US-MOMissouri_cell_0_40_1
Traditional abbreviationMissouri_header_cell_0_41_0 Mo.Missouri_cell_0_41_1
LatitudeMissouri_header_cell_0_42_0 36° 0′ N to 40° 37′ NMissouri_cell_0_42_1
LongitudeMissouri_header_cell_0_43_0 89° 6′ W to 95° 46′ WMissouri_cell_0_43_1
WebsiteMissouri_header_cell_0_44_0 Missouri_cell_0_44_1

Missouri_table_infobox_1

Missouri state symbolsMissouri_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaMissouri_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianMissouri_header_cell_1_2_0 American bullfrogMissouri_cell_1_2_1
BirdMissouri_header_cell_1_3_0 Eastern bluebirdMissouri_cell_1_3_1
FishMissouri_header_cell_1_4_0 Channel catfishMissouri_cell_1_4_1
FlowerMissouri_header_cell_1_5_0 White hawthornMissouri_cell_1_5_1
GrassMissouri_header_cell_1_6_0 Big bluestemMissouri_cell_1_6_1
Horse breedMissouri_header_cell_1_7_0 Missouri Fox TrotterMissouri_cell_1_7_1
InsectMissouri_header_cell_1_8_0 Western honey beeMissouri_cell_1_8_1
MammalMissouri_header_cell_1_9_0 Missouri MuleMissouri_cell_1_9_1
TreeMissouri_header_cell_1_10_0 Flowering DogwoodMissouri_cell_1_10_1
Inanimate insigniaMissouri_header_cell_1_11_0
DanceMissouri_header_cell_1_12_0 Square danceMissouri_cell_1_12_1
DinosaurMissouri_header_cell_1_13_0 Hypsibema missouriensisMissouri_cell_1_13_1
FoodMissouri_header_cell_1_14_0 Dessert: Ice creamMissouri_cell_1_14_1
FossilMissouri_header_cell_1_15_0 CrinoidMissouri_cell_1_15_1
GemstoneMissouri_header_cell_1_16_0 BerylMissouri_cell_1_16_1
InstrumentMissouri_header_cell_1_17_0 FiddleMissouri_cell_1_17_1
MineralMissouri_header_cell_1_18_0 GalenaMissouri_cell_1_18_1
RockMissouri_header_cell_1_19_0 MozarkiteMissouri_cell_1_19_1
SoilMissouri_header_cell_1_20_0 MenfroMissouri_cell_1_20_1
SongMissouri_header_cell_1_21_0 Missouri WaltzMissouri_cell_1_21_1
OtherMissouri_header_cell_1_22_0 Paw-paw (fruit tree)Missouri_cell_1_22_1
State route markerMissouri_header_cell_1_23_0
State quarterMissouri_header_cell_1_24_0

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. Missouri_sentence_3

With more than six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the country. Missouri_sentence_4

The largest urban areas are St. Missouri_sentence_5 Louis, Kansas City, Springfield and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City. Missouri_sentence_6

The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. Missouri_sentence_7

Missouri is bordered by eight states (tied for the most with Tennessee): Iowa to the north, Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee (via the Mississippi River) to the east, Arkansas to the south and Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska to the west. Missouri_sentence_8

In the south are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals and recreation. Missouri_sentence_9

The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Missouri_sentence_10

Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years. Missouri_sentence_11

The Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 14th century. Missouri_sentence_12

When European explorers arrived in the 17th century, they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations. Missouri_sentence_13

The French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founding Ste. Missouri_sentence_14 Genevieve in 1735 and St. Missouri_sentence_15 Louis in 1764. Missouri_sentence_16

After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Missouri_sentence_17

Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory. Missouri_sentence_18

Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Missouri_sentence_19

Many from Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Missouri_sentence_20

Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri_sentence_21

Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. Missouri_sentence_22

The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail and California Trail all began in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_23

As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. Missouri_sentence_24

After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Missouri_sentence_25

Today the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_26

Missouri's culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States. Missouri_sentence_27

The musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz and St. Louis blues developed in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_28

The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue and lesser-known St. Missouri_sentence_29 Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri_sentence_30

Missouri is also a major center of beer brewing; Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri_sentence_31

Missouri wine is produced in the Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks. Missouri_sentence_32

Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Missouri_sentence_33

Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake and Branson. Missouri_sentence_34

Well-known Missourians include Chuck Berry, Sheryl Crow, Walt Disney, Edwin Hubble, Nelly, Brad Pitt, Harry S. Truman, and Mark Twain. Missouri_sentence_35

Some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, Centene Corporation, and O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri_sentence_36

Well known universities in Missouri include the University of Missouri, St. Missouri_sentence_37 Louis University, and Washington University in St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_38

Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State", but its most famous nickname is the "Show Me State". Missouri_sentence_39

Etymology and pronunciation Missouri_section_0

The state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. Missouri_sentence_40

It is said they were called the ouemessourita (wimihsoorita), meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers. Missouri_sentence_41

This appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People." Missouri_sentence_42

This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River usually got their translations during that time fairly accurate, often giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue(s). Missouri_sentence_43

Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself. Missouri_sentence_44

This is not entirely likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" (Mah-yah soo-nee) Most likely, though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. Missouri_sentence_45

The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations even among its present-day natives, the two most common being /mɪˈzɜːri/ (listen) miz-UR-ee and /mɪˈzɜːrə/ (listen) miz-UR-ə. Missouri_sentence_46

Further pronunciations also exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the medial consonant as either /z/ or /s/; the vowel in the second syllable as either /ɜːr/ or /ʊər/; and the third syllable as /i/ (phonetically i (listen), ɪ (listen) or ɪ̈ (listen)) or /ə/. Missouri_sentence_47

Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English. Missouri_sentence_48

In British received pronunciation, the preferred variant is /mɪˈzʊəri/ miz-OOR-ee, with /mɪˈsʊəri/ mis-OOR-ee being a possible alternative. Missouri_sentence_49

The linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be clearly defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise. Missouri_sentence_50

Politicians often employ multiple pronunciations, even during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Missouri_sentence_51

In informal contexts respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are occasionally used to distinguish pronunciations phonetically. Missouri_sentence_52

Nicknames Missouri_section_1

There is no official state nickname. Missouri_sentence_53

However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State", which appears on its license plates. Missouri_sentence_54

This phrase has several origins. Missouri_sentence_55

One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. Missouri_sentence_56

I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." Missouri_sentence_57

This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced." Missouri_sentence_58

However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was already in use before the 1890s. Missouri_sentence_59

Another one states that it is a reference to Missouri miners who were taken to Leadville, Colorado to replace striking workers. Missouri_sentence_60

Since the new men were unfamiliar with the mining methods, they required frequent instruction. Missouri_sentence_61

Other nicknames for Missouri include "The Lead State", "The Bullion State", "The Ozark State", "The Mother of the West", "The Iron Mountain State", and "Pennsylvania of the West". Missouri_sentence_62

It is also known as the "Cave State" because there are more than 7,300 recorded caves in the state (second to Tennessee). Missouri_sentence_63

Perry County is the county with the largest number of caves and the single longest cave. Missouri_sentence_64

The official state motto is Latin: "Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esto", which means "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law." Missouri_sentence_65

History Missouri_section_2

Geography Missouri_section_3

Main article: Geography of Missouri Missouri_sentence_66

Missouri is landlocked and borders eight different states as does its neighbor, Tennessee. Missouri_sentence_67

No state in the U.S. touches more than eight. Missouri_sentence_68

Missouri is bounded by Iowa on the north; by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee across the Mississippi River on the east; on the south by Arkansas; and by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (the last across the Missouri River) on the west. Missouri_sentence_69

Whereas the northern and southern boundaries are straight lines, the Missouri Bootheel extends south between the St. Missouri_sentence_70 Francis and the Mississippi rivers. Missouri_sentence_71

The two largest rivers are the Mississippi (which defines the eastern boundary of the state) and the Missouri River (which flows from west to east through the state) essentially connecting the two largest metros of Kansas City and St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_72

Although today it is usually considered part of the Midwest, Missouri was historically seen by many as a border state, chiefly because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as a slave state before the Civil War, balanced by the influence of St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_73

The counties that made up "Little Dixie" were those along the Missouri River in the center of the state, settled by Southern migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves. Missouri_sentence_74

In 2005, Missouri received 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks and other recreational areas totaling 101,000 acres (410 km), giving it $7.41 million in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating expenditures. Missouri_sentence_75

Topography Missouri_section_4

North of, and in some cases just south of, the Missouri River lie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Missouri_sentence_76

Here, rolling hills remain from the glaciation that once extended from the Canadian Shield to the Missouri River. Missouri_sentence_77

Missouri has many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers. Missouri_sentence_78

Southern Missouri rises to the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian igneous St. Missouri_sentence_79 Francois Mountains. Missouri_sentence_80

This region also hosts karst topography characterized by high limestone content with the formation of sinkholes and caves. Missouri_sentence_81

The southeastern part of the state is known as the Missouri Bootheel region, which is part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. Missouri_sentence_82

This region is the lowest, flattest, warmest, and wettest part of the state. Missouri_sentence_83

It is also among the poorest, as the economy there is mostly agricultural. Missouri_sentence_84

It is also the most fertile, with cotton and rice crops predominant. Missouri_sentence_85

The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811 and 1812. Missouri_sentence_86

Climate Missouri_section_5

Main article: Climate of Missouri Missouri_sentence_87

Missouri generally has a humid continental climate with cool, and sometimes cold, winters and hot, humid, and wet summers. Missouri_sentence_88

In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate becomes humid subtropical. Missouri_sentence_89

Located in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extreme temperatures. Missouri_sentence_90

Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. Missouri_sentence_91

Missouri's highest recorded temperature is 118 °F (48 °C) at Warsaw and Union on July 14, 1954, while the lowest recorded temperature is −40 °F (−40 °C) also at Warsaw on February 13, 1905. Missouri_sentence_92

Located in Tornado Alley, Missouri also receives extreme weather in the form of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. Missouri_sentence_93

On May 22, 2011, a massive EF-5 tornado, killed 158 people and destroyed roughly one-third of the city of Joplin. Missouri_sentence_94

The tornado caused an estimated $1–3 billion in damages, killed 159 people, and injured more than a thousand. Missouri_sentence_95

It was the first EF5 to hit the state since 1957 and the deadliest in the U.S. since 1947, making it the seventh deadliest tornado in American history and 27th deadliest in the world. Missouri_sentence_96

St. Missouri_sentence_97 Louis and its suburbs also have a history of experiencing particularly severe tornadoes, the most recent memorable one being an EF4 that damaged Lambert-St. Louis International Airport on April 22, 2011. Missouri_sentence_98

One of the worst tornadoes in American history struck St. Louis on May 27, 1896, killing at least 255 and causing $10 million in damage (equivalent to $3.9 billion in 2009 or $4.65 billion in today's dollars). Missouri_sentence_99

Missouri_table_general_2

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Missouri cities in °F (°C).Missouri_cell_2_0_0
CityMissouri_header_cell_2_1_0 Avg.Missouri_header_cell_2_1_1 JanMissouri_header_cell_2_1_2 FebMissouri_header_cell_2_1_3 MarMissouri_header_cell_2_1_4 AprMissouri_header_cell_2_1_5 MayMissouri_header_cell_2_1_6 JunMissouri_header_cell_2_1_7 JulMissouri_header_cell_2_1_8 AugMissouri_header_cell_2_1_9 SepMissouri_header_cell_2_1_10 OctMissouri_header_cell_2_1_11 NovMissouri_header_cell_2_1_12 DecMissouri_header_cell_2_1_13 YearMissouri_header_cell_2_1_14 Missouri_header_cell_2_1_15
ColumbiaMissouri_cell_2_2_0 HighMissouri_cell_2_2_1 37

(3)Missouri_cell_2_2_2

44

(7)Missouri_cell_2_2_3

55

(13)Missouri_cell_2_2_4

66

(19)Missouri_cell_2_2_5

75

(24)Missouri_cell_2_2_6

84

(29)Missouri_cell_2_2_7

89

(32)Missouri_cell_2_2_8

87

(31)Missouri_cell_2_2_9

79

(26)Missouri_cell_2_2_10

68

(20)Missouri_cell_2_2_11

53

(12)Missouri_cell_2_2_12

42

(6)Missouri_cell_2_2_13

65.0

(18.3)Missouri_cell_2_2_14

Missouri_cell_2_2_15
ColumbiaMissouri_cell_2_3_0 LowMissouri_cell_2_3_1 18

(−8)Missouri_cell_2_3_2

23

(−5)Missouri_cell_2_3_3

33

(1)Missouri_cell_2_3_4

43

(6)Missouri_cell_2_3_5

53

(12)Missouri_cell_2_3_6

62

(17)Missouri_cell_2_3_7

66

(19)Missouri_cell_2_3_8

64

(18)Missouri_cell_2_3_9

55

(13)Missouri_cell_2_3_10

44

(7)Missouri_cell_2_3_11

33

(1)Missouri_cell_2_3_12

22

(−6)Missouri_cell_2_3_13

43.0

(6.1)Missouri_cell_2_3_14

Missouri_cell_2_3_15
Kansas CityMissouri_cell_2_4_0 HighMissouri_cell_2_4_1 36

(2)Missouri_cell_2_4_2

43

(6)Missouri_cell_2_4_3

54

(12)Missouri_cell_2_4_4

65

(18)Missouri_cell_2_4_5

75

(24)Missouri_cell_2_4_6

84

(29)Missouri_cell_2_4_7

89

(32)Missouri_cell_2_4_8

87

(31)Missouri_cell_2_4_9

79

(26)Missouri_cell_2_4_10

68

(20)Missouri_cell_2_4_11

52

(11)Missouri_cell_2_4_12

40

(4)Missouri_cell_2_4_13

64.4

(18.0)Missouri_cell_2_4_14

Missouri_cell_2_4_15
Kansas CityMissouri_cell_2_5_0 LowMissouri_cell_2_5_1 18

(−8)Missouri_cell_2_5_2

23

(−5)Missouri_cell_2_5_3

33

(1)Missouri_cell_2_5_4

44

(7)Missouri_cell_2_5_5

54

(12)Missouri_cell_2_5_6

63

(17)Missouri_cell_2_5_7

68

(20)Missouri_cell_2_5_8

66

(19)Missouri_cell_2_5_9

57

(14)Missouri_cell_2_5_10

46

(8)Missouri_cell_2_5_11

33

(1)Missouri_cell_2_5_12

22

(−6)Missouri_cell_2_5_13

44.0

(6.7)Missouri_cell_2_5_14

Missouri_cell_2_5_15
SpringfieldMissouri_cell_2_6_0 HighMissouri_cell_2_6_1 42

(6)Missouri_cell_2_6_2

48

(9)Missouri_cell_2_6_3

58

(14)Missouri_cell_2_6_4

68

(20)Missouri_cell_2_6_5

76

(24)Missouri_cell_2_6_6

85

(29)Missouri_cell_2_6_7

90

(32)Missouri_cell_2_6_8

90

(32)Missouri_cell_2_6_9

81

(27)Missouri_cell_2_6_10

71

(22)Missouri_cell_2_6_11

56

(13)Missouri_cell_2_6_12

46

(8)Missouri_cell_2_6_13

67.6

(19.8)Missouri_cell_2_6_14

Missouri_cell_2_6_15
SpringfieldMissouri_cell_2_7_0 LowMissouri_cell_2_7_1 22

(−6)Missouri_cell_2_7_2

26

(−3)Missouri_cell_2_7_3

35

(2)Missouri_cell_2_7_4

44

(7)Missouri_cell_2_7_5

53

(12)Missouri_cell_2_7_6

62

(17)Missouri_cell_2_7_7

67

(19)Missouri_cell_2_7_8

66

(19)Missouri_cell_2_7_9

57

(14)Missouri_cell_2_7_10

46

(8)Missouri_cell_2_7_11

35

(2)Missouri_cell_2_7_12

26

(−3)Missouri_cell_2_7_13

45.0

(7.2)Missouri_cell_2_7_14

Missouri_cell_2_7_15
St. LouisMissouri_cell_2_8_0 HighMissouri_cell_2_8_1 40

(4)Missouri_cell_2_8_2

45

(7)Missouri_cell_2_8_3

56

(13)Missouri_cell_2_8_4

67

(19)Missouri_cell_2_8_5

76

(24)Missouri_cell_2_8_6

85

(29)Missouri_cell_2_8_7

89

(32)Missouri_cell_2_8_8

88

(31)Missouri_cell_2_8_9

80

(27)Missouri_cell_2_8_10

69

(21)Missouri_cell_2_8_11

56

(13)Missouri_cell_2_8_12

43

(6)Missouri_cell_2_8_13

66.2

(19.0)Missouri_cell_2_8_14

Missouri_cell_2_8_15
St. LouisMissouri_cell_2_9_0 LowMissouri_cell_2_9_1 24

(−4)Missouri_cell_2_9_2

28

(−2)Missouri_cell_2_9_3

37

(3)Missouri_cell_2_9_4

47

(8)Missouri_cell_2_9_5

57

(14)Missouri_cell_2_9_6

67

(19)Missouri_cell_2_9_7

71

(22)Missouri_cell_2_9_8

69

(21)Missouri_cell_2_9_9

61

(16)Missouri_cell_2_9_10

49

(9)Missouri_cell_2_9_11

38

(3)Missouri_cell_2_9_12

27

(−3)Missouri_cell_2_9_13

48.0

(8.9)Missouri_cell_2_9_14

Missouri_cell_2_9_15
Source:Missouri_cell_2_10_0

Wildlife Missouri_section_6

Main article: Wildlife of Missouri Missouri_sentence_100

Missouri is home to diverse flora and fauna, including several endemic species.There is a large amount of fresh water present due to the Mississippi River, Missouri River, Table Rock Lake and Lake of the Ozarks, with numerous smaller tributary rivers, streams, and lakes. Missouri_sentence_101

North of the Missouri River, the state is primarily rolling hills of the Great Plains, whereas south of the Missouri River, the state is dominated by the Oak-Hickory Central U.S. hardwood forest. Missouri_sentence_102

Forests Missouri_section_7

Recreational and commercial uses of public forests including grazing, logging and mining increased after World War II. Missouri_sentence_103

Fishermen, hikers, campers and others started lobbying to protect areas of the forest that had a "wilderness character". Missouri_sentence_104

During the 1930s and 1940s Aldo Leopold, Arthur Carhart and Bob Marshall developed a "wilderness" policy for the Forest Service. Missouri_sentence_105

Their efforts bore fruit with The Wilderness Act of 1964 which designated wilderness areas "where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by men, where man himself is a visitor and does not remain". Missouri_sentence_106

This included second growth public forests like the Mark Twain National Forest. Missouri_sentence_107

Demographics Missouri_section_8

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Missouri was 6,137,428 on July 1, 2019, a 2.48% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Missouri_sentence_108

Missouri had a population of 5,988,927, according to the 2010 Census; an increase of 137,525 (2.3 percent) since the year 2010. Missouri_sentence_109

From 2010 to 2018, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Missouri_sentence_110

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Missouri_sentence_111

More than half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas—St. Missouri_sentence_112 Louis and Kansas City. Missouri_sentence_113

The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state. Missouri_sentence_114

In 2011, the racial composition of the state was: Missouri_sentence_115

Missouri_unordered_list_0

In 2011, 3.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). Missouri_sentence_116

Missouri_table_general_3

Missouri racial breakdown of populationMissouri_table_caption_3
Racial compositionMissouri_header_cell_3_0_0 1990Missouri_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Missouri_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Missouri_header_cell_3_0_3
WhiteMissouri_cell_3_1_0 87.7%Missouri_cell_3_1_1 84.9%Missouri_cell_3_1_2 82.8%Missouri_cell_3_1_3
BlackMissouri_cell_3_2_0 10.7%Missouri_cell_3_2_1 11.3%Missouri_cell_3_2_2 11.6%Missouri_cell_3_2_3
AsianMissouri_cell_3_3_0 0.8%Missouri_cell_3_3_1 1.1%Missouri_cell_3_3_2 1.6%Missouri_cell_3_3_3
NativeMissouri_cell_3_4_0 0.4%Missouri_cell_3_4_1 0.4%Missouri_cell_3_4_2 0.5%Missouri_cell_3_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderMissouri_cell_3_5_0

Missouri_cell_3_5_1 0.1%Missouri_cell_3_5_2 0.1%Missouri_cell_3_5_3
Other raceMissouri_cell_3_6_0 0.4%Missouri_cell_3_6_1 0.8%Missouri_cell_3_6_2 1.3%Missouri_cell_3_6_3
Two or more racesMissouri_cell_3_7_0 Missouri_cell_3_7_1 1.5%Missouri_cell_3_7_2 2.1%Missouri_cell_3_7_3

The U.S. Census of 2010 found that the population center of the United States is in Texas County, while the 2000 Census found the mean population center to be in Phelps County. Missouri_sentence_117

The center of population of Missouri is in Osage County, in the city of Westphalia. Missouri_sentence_118

In 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population). Missouri_sentence_119

The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (27.4 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5 percent) and French (3.7 percent). Missouri_sentence_120

German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. Missouri_sentence_121

African Americans are a substantial part of the population in St. Louis (56.6% of African Americans in the state lived in St. Missouri_sentence_122 Louis or St. Missouri_sentence_123 Louis County as of the 2010 census), Kansas City, Boone County and in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the Missouri River Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri_sentence_124

Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the Mississippi River Valley south of St. Louis (see Missouri French). Missouri_sentence_125

Kansas City is home to large and growing immigrant communities from Latin America esp. Missouri_sentence_126

Mexico and Colombia, Africa (i.e. Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria), and Southeast Asia including China and the Philippines; and Europe like the former Yugoslavia (see Bosnian American). Missouri_sentence_127

A notable Cherokee Indian population exists in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_128

In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent 65 or older. Missouri_sentence_129

Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. Missouri_sentence_130

81.3 percent of Missouri residents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. Missouri_sentence_131

3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home. Missouri_sentence_132

In 2010, there were 2,349,955 households in Missouri, with 2.45 people per household. Missouri_sentence_133

The home ownership rate was 70.0 percent, and the median value of an owner-occupied housing unit was $137,700. Missouri_sentence_134

The median household income for 2010 was $46,262, or $24,724 per capita. Missouri_sentence_135

There were 14.0 percent (1,018,118) of Missourians living below the poverty line in 2010. Missouri_sentence_136

The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes. Missouri_sentence_137

Birth data Missouri_section_9

In 2011, 28.1% of Missouri's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Missouri_sentence_138

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Missouri_sentence_139

Missouri_table_general_4

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherMissouri_table_caption_4
RaceMissouri_header_cell_4_0_0 2013Missouri_header_cell_4_0_1 2014Missouri_header_cell_4_0_2 2015Missouri_header_cell_4_0_3 2016Missouri_header_cell_4_0_4 2017Missouri_header_cell_4_0_5 2018Missouri_header_cell_4_0_6
White:Missouri_cell_4_1_0 61,097 (81.1%)Missouri_cell_4_1_1 60,968 (80.9%)Missouri_cell_4_1_2 60,913 (81.1%)Missouri_cell_4_1_3 ...Missouri_cell_4_1_4 ...Missouri_cell_4_1_5 ...Missouri_cell_4_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteMissouri_cell_4_2_0 57,361 (76.2%)Missouri_cell_4_2_1 57,150 (75.8%)Missouri_cell_4_2_2 57,092 (76.1%)Missouri_cell_4_2_3 55,455 (74.2%)Missouri_cell_4_2_4 53,800 (73.7%)Missouri_cell_4_2_5 53,697 (73.3%)Missouri_cell_4_2_6
BlackMissouri_cell_4_3_0 11,722 (15.6%)Missouri_cell_4_3_1 11,783 (15.6%)Missouri_cell_4_3_2 11,660 (15.5%)Missouri_cell_4_3_3 10,445 (14.0%)Missouri_cell_4_3_4 10,495 (14.4%)Missouri_cell_4_3_5 10,589 (14.4%)Missouri_cell_4_3_6
AsianMissouri_cell_4_4_0 2,075 (2.8%)Missouri_cell_4_4_1 2,186 (2.9%)Missouri_cell_4_4_2 2,129 (2.8%)Missouri_cell_4_4_3 1,852 (2.5%)Missouri_cell_4_4_4 1,773 (2.4%)Missouri_cell_4_4_5 1,698 (2.3%)Missouri_cell_4_4_6
Pacific IslanderMissouri_cell_4_5_0 ...Missouri_cell_4_5_1 ...Missouri_cell_4_5_2 ...Missouri_cell_4_5_3 199 (0.3%)Missouri_cell_4_5_4 183 (0.3%)Missouri_cell_4_5_5 199 (0.3%)Missouri_cell_4_5_6
American IndianMissouri_cell_4_6_0 402 (0.5%)Missouri_cell_4_6_1 423 (0.6%)Missouri_cell_4_6_2 359 (0.5%)Missouri_cell_4_6_3 156 (0.2%)Missouri_cell_4_6_4 167 (0.2%)Missouri_cell_4_6_5 140 (0.2%)Missouri_cell_4_6_6
Hispanic (of any race)Missouri_cell_4_7_0 3,931 (5.2%)Missouri_cell_4_7_1 3,959 (5.3%)Missouri_cell_4_7_2 4,042 (5.4%)Missouri_cell_4_7_3 4,136 (5.5%)Missouri_cell_4_7_4 4,156 (5.7%)Missouri_cell_4_7_5 4,409 (6.0%)Missouri_cell_4_7_6
Total MissouriMissouri_cell_4_8_0 75,296 (100%)Missouri_cell_4_8_1 75,360 (100%)Missouri_cell_4_8_2 75,061 (100%)Missouri_cell_4_8_3 74,705 (100%)Missouri_cell_4_8_4 73,034 (100%)Missouri_cell_4_8_5 73,269 (100%)Missouri_cell_4_8_6

Missouri_unordered_list_1

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Missouri_item_1_7

Language Missouri_section_10

The vast majority of people in Missouri speak English. Missouri_sentence_140

Approximately 5.1% of the population reported speaking a language other than English at home. Missouri_sentence_141

The Spanish language is spoken in small Latino communities in the St. Louis and Kansas City Metro areas. Missouri_sentence_142

Missouri is home to an endangered dialect of the French language known as Missouri French. Missouri_sentence_143

Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves Créoles, are descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area then known as the Illinois Country beginning in the late 17th century. Missouri_sentence_144

It developed in isolation from French speakers in Canada and Louisiana, becoming quite distinct from the varieties of Canadian French and Louisiana Creole French. Missouri_sentence_145

Once widely spoken throughout the area, Missouri French is now nearly extinct, with only a few elderly speakers able to use it. Missouri_sentence_146

Religion Missouri_section_11

According to a Pew Research study conducted in 2014, 80% of Missourians identify with a religion. Missouri_sentence_147

77% affiliate with Christianity and its various denominations, and the other 3% are adherents of non-Christian religions. Missouri_sentence_148

The remaining 20% have no religion, with 2% specifically identifying as atheists and 3% identifying as agnostics (the other 15% do not identify as "anything in particular"). Missouri_sentence_149

The religious demographics of Missouri are as follows: Missouri_sentence_150

Missouri_unordered_list_2

  • Christian 77%Missouri_item_2_8
    • Protestant 58%Missouri_item_2_9
      • Evangelical Protestant 36%Missouri_item_2_10
      • Mainline Protestant 16%Missouri_item_2_11
      • Historically Black Protestant 6%Missouri_item_2_12
    • Catholic 16%Missouri_item_2_13
    • Mormon 1%Missouri_item_2_14
    • Orthodox Christian <1%Missouri_item_2_15
    • Jehovah's Witness <1%Missouri_item_2_16
    • Other Christian <1%Missouri_item_2_17
  • Non-Christian Religions 3%Missouri_item_2_18
    • Jewish <1%Missouri_item_2_19
    • Muslim <1%Missouri_item_2_20
    • Buddhist 1%Missouri_item_2_21
    • Hindu <1%Missouri_item_2_22
    • Other World Religions <1%Missouri_item_2_23
  • Unaffiliated (No religion) 20%Missouri_item_2_24
    • Atheist 2%Missouri_item_2_25
    • Agnostic 3%Missouri_item_2_26
    • Nothing in particular 15%Missouri_item_2_27
  • Don't know <1%Missouri_item_2_28

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 749,685; the Roman Catholic Church with 724,315; and the United Methodist Church with 226,409. Missouri_sentence_151

Among the other denominations there are approximately 93,000 Mormons in 253 congregations, 25,000 Jewish adherents in 21 synagogues, 12,000 Muslims in 39 masjids, 7,000 Buddhists in 34 temples, 20,000 Hindus in 17 temples, 2,500 Unitarians in nine congregations, 2,000 of the Baháʼí Faith in 17 temples, five Sikh temples, a Zoroastrian temple, a Jain temple and an uncounted number of neopagans. Missouri_sentence_152

Several religious organizations have headquarters in Missouri, including the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, which has its headquarters in Kirkwood, as well as the United Pentecostal Church International in Hazelwood, both outside St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_153

Independence, near Kansas City, is the headquarters for the Community of Christ (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) and the group Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Missouri_sentence_154

This area and other parts of Missouri are also of significant religious and historical importance to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which maintains several sites and visitors centers. Missouri_sentence_155

Springfield is the headquarters of the Assemblies of God USA and the Baptist Bible Fellowship International. Missouri_sentence_156

The General Association of General Baptists has its headquarters in Poplar Bluff. Missouri_sentence_157

The Unity Church is headquartered in Unity Village. Missouri_sentence_158

Hindu Temple of St. Louis is the largest Hindu Temple in Missouri, serving more than 14,000 Hindus. Missouri_sentence_159

Economy Missouri_section_12

See also: Missouri locations by per capita income Missouri_sentence_160

Missouri_unordered_list_3

  • Total employment in 2016: 2,494,720Missouri_item_3_29
  • Total Number of employer establishments in 2016: 160,912Missouri_item_3_30

The U.S. Missouri_sentence_161 Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis estimated Missouri's 2016 gross state product at $299.1 billion, ranking 22nd among U.S. states. Missouri_sentence_162

Per capita personal income in 2006 was $32,705, ranking 26th in the nation. Missouri_sentence_163

Major industries include aerospace, transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, printing/publishing, electrical equipment, light manufacturing, financial services and beer. Missouri_sentence_164

The agriculture products of the state are beef, soybeans, pork, dairy products, hay, corn, poultry, sorghum, cotton, rice, and eggs. Missouri_sentence_165

Missouri is ranked 6th in the nation for the production of hogs and 7th for cattle. Missouri_sentence_166

Missouri is ranked in the top five states in the nation for production of soy beans, and it is ranked fourth in the nation for the production of rice. Missouri_sentence_167

In 2001, there were 108,000 farms, the second-largest number in any state after Texas. Missouri_sentence_168

Missouri actively promotes its rapidly growing wine industry. Missouri_sentence_169

According to the Missouri Partnership, Missouri's agriculture industry contributes $33 billion in GDP to Missouri's economy, and generates $88 billion in sales and more than 378,000 jobs. Missouri_sentence_170

Missouri has vast quantities of limestone. Missouri_sentence_171

Other resources mined are lead, coal, and crushed stone. Missouri_sentence_172

Missouri produces the most lead of all the states. Missouri_sentence_173

Most of the lead mines are in the central eastern portion of the state. Missouri_sentence_174

Missouri also ranks first or near first in the production of lime, a key ingredient in Portland cement. Missouri_sentence_175

Missouri also has a growing science, agricultural technology and biotechnology field. Missouri_sentence_176

Monsanto, one of the largest biotech companies in America, is based in St. Missouri_sentence_177 Louis. Missouri_sentence_178

Tourism, services and wholesale/retail trade follow manufacturing in importance. Missouri_sentence_179

Tourism benefits from the many rivers, lakes, caves, parks, etc. throughout the state. Missouri_sentence_180

In addition to a network of state parks, Missouri is home to the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways National Park. Missouri_sentence_181

A much-visited show cave is Meramec Caverns in Stanton, Missouri. Missouri_sentence_182

Missouri is the only state in the Union to have two Federal Reserve Banks: one in Kansas City (serving western Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Colorado, northern New Mexico, and Wyoming) and one in St. Louis (serving eastern Missouri, southern Illinois, southern Indiana, western Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and all of Arkansas). Missouri_sentence_183

The state's seasonally adjusted unemployment rate in April 2017 was 3.9 percent. Missouri_sentence_184

In 2017, Missouri became a right-to-work state, but in August 2018, Missouri voters rejected a right-to-work law with 67% to 33%. Missouri_sentence_185

Taxation Missouri_section_13

Personal income is taxed in ten different earning brackets, ranging from 1.5% to 6.0%. Missouri_sentence_186

Missouri's sales tax rate for most items is 4.225% with some additional local levies. Missouri_sentence_187

More than 2,500 Missouri local governments rely on property taxes levied on real property (real estate) and personal property. Missouri_sentence_188

Most personal property is exempt, except for motorized vehicles. Missouri_sentence_189

Exempt real estate includes property owned by governments and property used as nonprofit cemeteries, exclusively for religious worship, for schools and colleges and for purely charitable purposes. Missouri_sentence_190

There is no inheritance tax and limited Missouri estate tax related to federal estate tax collection. Missouri_sentence_191

In 2017, the Tax Foundation rated Missouri as having the 5th-best corporate tax index, and the 15th-best overall tax climate. Missouri_sentence_192

Missouri's corporate income tax rate is 6.25%; however, 50% of federal income tax payments may be deducted before computing taxable income, leading to an effective rate of 5.2%. Missouri_sentence_193

Energy Missouri_section_14

In 2012, Missouri had roughly 22,000 MW of installed electricity generation capacity. Missouri_sentence_194

In 2011, 82% of Missouri's electricity was generated by coal. Missouri_sentence_195

Ten percent was generated from the state's only nuclear power plant, the Callaway Plant in Callaway County, northeast of Jefferson City. Missouri_sentence_196

Five percent was generated by natural gas. Missouri_sentence_197

One percent was generated by hydroelectric sources, such as the dams for Truman Lake and Lake of the Ozarks. Missouri_sentence_198

Missouri has a small but growing amount of wind and solar power—wind capacity increased from 309 MW in 2009 to 459 MW in 2011, while photovoltaics have increased from 0.2 MW to 1.3 MW over the same period. Missouri_sentence_199

As of 2016, Missouri's solar installations had reached 141 MW. Missouri_sentence_200

Oil wells in Missouri produced 120,000 barrels of crude oil in fiscal 2012. Missouri_sentence_201

There are no oil refineries in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_202

Transportation Missouri_section_15

Airports Missouri_section_16

Missouri has two major airport hubs: St. Missouri_sentence_203 Louis Lambert International Airport and Kansas City International Airport. Missouri_sentence_204

Southern Missouri has the Springfield–Branson National Airport (SGF) with multiple non-stop destinations. Missouri_sentence_205

Residents of Mid-Missouri use Columbia Regional Airport (COU) to fly to Chicago (ORD), Dallas (DFW) or Denver (DEN). Missouri_sentence_206

Rail Missouri_section_17

See also: Missouri rail network Missouri_sentence_207

Two of the nation's three busiest rail centers are in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_208

Kansas City is a major railroad hub for BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway, and Union Pacific Railroad, and every class 1 railroad serves Missouri. Missouri_sentence_209

Kansas City is the second largest freight rail center in the US (but is first in the amount of tonnage handled). Missouri_sentence_210

Like Kansas City, St. Louis is a major destination for train freight. Missouri_sentence_211

Springfield remains an operational hub for BNSF Railway. Missouri_sentence_212

Amtrak passenger trains serve Kansas City, La Plata, Jefferson City, St. Missouri_sentence_213 Louis, Lee's Summit, Independence, Warrensburg, Hermann, Washington, Kirkwood, Sedalia, and Poplar Bluff. Missouri_sentence_214

A proposed high-speed rail route in Missouri as part of the Chicago Hub Network has received $31 million in funding. Missouri_sentence_215

The only urban light rail/subway system operating in Missouri is MetroLink, which connects the city of St. Louis with suburbs in Illinois and St. Louis County. Missouri_sentence_216

It is one of the largest systems (by track mileage) in the United States. Missouri_sentence_217

The KC Streetcar in downtown Kansas City opened in May 2016. Missouri_sentence_218

The Gateway Multimodal Transportation Center in St. Louis is the largest active multi-use transportation center in the state. Missouri_sentence_219

It is in downtown St. Louis, next to the historic Union Station complex. Missouri_sentence_220

It serves as a hub center/station for MetroLink, the MetroBus regional bus system, Greyhound, Amtrak, and taxi services. Missouri_sentence_221

The proposed Missouri Hyperloop would connect St. Louis, Kansas City, and Columbia, reducing travel times to around a half hour. Missouri_sentence_222

Bus Missouri_section_18

Many cities have regular fixed-route systems, and many rural counties have rural public transit services. Missouri_sentence_223

Greyhound and Trailways provide inter-city bus service in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_224

Megabus serves St. Louis, but discontinued service to Columbia and Kansas City in 2015. Missouri_sentence_225

Rivers Missouri_section_19

The Mississippi River and Missouri River are commercially navigable over their entire lengths in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_226

The Missouri was channelized through dredging and jettys and the Mississippi was given a series of locks and dams to avoid rocks and deepen the river. Missouri_sentence_227

St. Louis is a major destination for barge traffic on the Mississippi. Missouri_sentence_228

Roads Missouri_section_20

Main articles: Missouri State Highway System, List of Interstate Highways in Missouri, List of U.S. Missouri_sentence_229 Routes in Missouri, List of state highways in Missouri, and Missouri supplemental route Missouri_sentence_230

Following the passage of Amendment 3 in late 2004, the Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) began its Smoother, Safer, Sooner road-building program with a goal of bringing 2,200 miles (3,500 km) of highways up to good condition by December 2007. Missouri_sentence_231

From 2006 to 2011 traffic deaths have decreased annually from 1,257 in 2005, to 1,096 in 2006, to 992 in 2007, to 960 in 2008, to 878 in 2009, to 821 in 2010, to 786 in 2011. Missouri_sentence_232

Law and government Missouri_section_21

Main articles: Law and government of Missouri and List of Governors of Missouri Missouri_sentence_233

The current Constitution of Missouri, the fourth constitution for the state, was adopted in 1945. Missouri_sentence_234

It provides for three branches of government: the legislative, judicial, and executive branches. Missouri_sentence_235

The legislative branch consists of two bodies: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Missouri_sentence_236

These bodies comprise the Missouri General Assembly. Missouri_sentence_237

The House of Representatives has 163 members who are apportioned based on the last decennial census. Missouri_sentence_238

The Senate consists of 34 members from districts of approximately equal populations. Missouri_sentence_239

The judicial department comprises the Supreme Court of Missouri, which has seven judges, the Missouri Court of Appeals (an intermediate appellate court divided into three districts), sitting in Kansas City, St. Louis, and Springfield, and 45 Circuit Courts which function as local trial courts. Missouri_sentence_240

The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Missouri and includes five other statewide elected offices. Missouri_sentence_241

Following the death of State Auditor Tom Schweich in 2015, only one of Missouri's statewide elected offices is held by a Democrat Nicole Galloway. Missouri_sentence_242

Harry S Truman (1884–1972), the 33rd President of the United States (Democrat, 1945–1953), was born in Lamar. Missouri_sentence_243

He was a judge in Jackson County and then represented the state in the United States Senate for ten years, before being elected vice-president in 1944. Missouri_sentence_244

He lived in Independence after retiring as President in 1953. Missouri_sentence_245

Former status as a political bellwether Missouri_section_22

Main article: Missouri bellwether Missouri_sentence_246

Further information: Political party strength in Missouri Missouri_sentence_247

Missouri was widely regarded as a bellwether in American politics, often making it a swing state. Missouri_sentence_248

The state had a longer stretch of supporting the winning presidential candidate than any other state, having voted with the nation in every election from 1904 to 2004 with a single exception: 1956, when Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson of neighboring Illinois lost the election despite carrying Missouri. Missouri_sentence_249

However, in recent years, areas of the state outside Kansas City, St. Louis, and Columbia have shifted heavily to the right, and so the state is no longer considered a bellwether by most analysts. Missouri_sentence_250

Missouri twice voted against Democrat Barack Obama, who won in 2008 and 2012. Missouri_sentence_251

Missouri voted for Romney by nearly 10% in 2012, and voted for Trump by nearly 18% in 2016. Missouri_sentence_252

On October 24, 2012, there were 4,190,936 registered voters. Missouri_sentence_253

At the state level, both Democratic Senator Claire McCaskill and Democratic Governor Jay Nixon were re-elected. Missouri_sentence_254

On November 8, 2016, there were 4,223,787 registered voters, with 2,811,549 voting (66.6%). Missouri_sentence_255

Laissez-faire alcohol and tobacco laws Missouri_section_23

Main articles: Alcohol laws of Missouri and List of smoking bans in the United States § Missouri Missouri_sentence_256

Missouri has been known for its population's generally "stalwart, conservative, noncredulous" attitude toward regulatory regimes, which is one of the origins of the state's unofficial nickname, the "Show-Me State". Missouri_sentence_257

As a result, and combined with the fact that Missouri is one of America's leading alcohol states, regulation of alcohol and tobacco in Missouri is among the most laissez-faire in America. Missouri_sentence_258

For 2013, the annual "Freedom in the 50 States" study prepared by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University ranked Missouri as #3 in America for alcohol freedom and #1 for tobacco freedom (#7 for freedom overall). Missouri_sentence_259

The study notes that Missouri's "alcohol regime is one of the least restrictive in the United States, with no blue laws and taxes well below average", and that "Missouri ranks best in the nation on tobacco freedom". Missouri_sentence_260

Missouri law makes it "an improper employment practice" for an employer to refuse to hire, to fire, or otherwise to disadvantage any person because that person lawfully uses alcohol and/or tobacco products when he or she is not at work. Missouri_sentence_261

With a large German immigrant population and the development of a brewing industry, Missouri always has had among the most permissive alcohol laws in the United States. Missouri_sentence_262

It never enacted statewide prohibition. Missouri_sentence_263

Missouri voters rejected prohibition in three separate referenda in 1910, 1912, and 1918. Missouri_sentence_264

Alcohol regulation did not begin in Missouri until 1934. Missouri_sentence_265

Today, alcohol laws are controlled by the state government, and local jurisdictions are prohibited from going beyond those state laws. Missouri_sentence_266

Missouri has no statewide open container law or prohibition on drinking in public, no alcohol-related blue laws, no local option, no precise locations for selling liquor by the package (allowing even drug stores and gas stations to sell any kind of liquor), and no differentiation of laws based on alcohol percentage. Missouri_sentence_267

State law protects persons from arrest or criminal penalty for public intoxication. Missouri_sentence_268

Missouri law expressly prohibits any jurisdiction from going dry. Missouri_sentence_269

Missouri law also expressly allows parents and guardians to serve alcohol to their children. Missouri_sentence_270

The Power & Light District in Kansas City is one of the few places in the United States where a state law explicitly allows persons over 21 to possess and consume open containers of alcohol in the street (as long as the beverage is in a plastic cup). Missouri_sentence_271

As for tobacco (as of July 2016), Missouri has the lowest cigarette excise taxes in the United States, at 17 cents per pack, and the state electorate voted in 2002, 2006, 2012, and twice in 2016 to keep it that way. Missouri_sentence_272

In 2007, Forbes named Missouri's largest metropolitan area, St. Missouri_sentence_273 Louis, America's "best city for smokers". Missouri_sentence_274

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2008 Missouri had the fourth highest percentage of adult smokers among U.S states, at 24.5%. Missouri_sentence_275

Although Missouri's minimum age for purchase and distribution of tobacco products is 18, tobacco products can be distributed to persons under 18 by family members on private property. Missouri_sentence_276

No statewide smoking ban ever has been seriously entertained before the Missouri General Assembly, and in October 2008, a statewide survey by the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services found that only 27.5% of Missourians support a statewide ban on smoking in all bars and restaurants. Missouri_sentence_277

Missouri state law permits restaurants seating less than 50 people, bars, bowling alleys, and billiard parlors to decide their own smoking policies, without limitation. Missouri_sentence_278

Missouri Cannabis Laws Missouri_section_24

See also: Cannabis in Missouri Missouri_sentence_279

In 2014, a Republican-lead legislature and Democratic governor Jay Nixon enacted a series of laws to partially decriminalize possession of cannabis by making first time possession of up to 10 grams no longer punishable with jail time and legalizing CBD oil. Missouri_sentence_280

In November 2018, 66% of voters approved a constitutional amendment that established a right to medical marijuana and a system for licensing, regulating, and taxing medical marijuana. Missouri_sentence_281

Counties Missouri_section_25

See also: List of counties in Missouri Missouri_sentence_282

Missouri has 114 counties and one independent city, St. Louis, which is Missouri's most densely populated—5,140 people per square mile. Missouri_sentence_283

The largest counties by population are St. Missouri_sentence_284 Louis (996,726), Jackson (698,895), and St. Missouri_sentence_285 Charles (395,504). Missouri_sentence_286

Worth County is the smallest (2,057). Missouri_sentence_287

The largest counties by size are Texas (1,179 square miles) and Shannon (1,004). Missouri_sentence_288

Worth County is the smallest (266). Missouri_sentence_289

Cities and towns Missouri_section_26

See also: List of cities in Missouri and List of towns and villages in Missouri Missouri_sentence_290

Jefferson City is the capital city of Missouri, while the state's five largest cities are Kansas City, St. Louis, Springfield, Columbia, and Independence. Missouri_sentence_291

St. Louis is the principal city of the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, composed of 17 counties and the independent city of St. Louis; eight of its counties are in Illinois. Missouri_sentence_292

As of 2019 St. Louis was the 21st-largest metropolitan area in the nation with 2.91 million people. Missouri_sentence_293

However, if ranked using Combined Statistical Area, it is 20th-largest with 2.91 million people in 2019. Missouri_sentence_294

Some of the major cities making up the St. Louis metro area in Missouri are O'Fallon, St. Missouri_sentence_295 Charles, St. Missouri_sentence_296 Peters, Florissant, Chesterfield, Wentzville, Wildwood, University City, and Ballwin. Missouri_sentence_297

Kansas City is Missouri's largest city and the principal city of the fourteen-county Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area, including five counties in the state of Kansas. Missouri_sentence_298

As of 2019, it was the 31st-largest metropolitan area in the U.S., with 2.16 million people. Missouri_sentence_299

In the Combined Statistical Area in 2019, it ranked 27th with 2.51 million. Missouri_sentence_300

Some of the other major cities comprising the Kansas City metro area in Missouri include Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue Springs, Liberty, Raytown, Gladstone, and Grandview. Missouri_sentence_301

Springfield is Missouri's third-largest city and the principal city of the Springfield-Branson Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 549,423 and includes seven counties in southwestern Missouri. Missouri_sentence_302

Branson is a major tourist attraction in the Ozarks of southwestern Missouri. Missouri_sentence_303

Some of the other major cities comprising the Springfield-Branson metro area include Nixa, Ozark, and Republic. Missouri_sentence_304

Education Missouri_section_27

Culture Missouri_section_28

Music Missouri_section_29

Many well-known musicians were born or have lived in Missouri. Missouri_sentence_305

These include guitarist and rock pioneer Chuck Berry, singer and actress Josephine Baker, "Queen of Rock" Tina Turner, pop singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow, Michael McDonald of the Doobie Brothers, and rappers Nelly, Chingy and Akon, all of whom are either current or former residents of St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_306

Country singers from Missouri include Perryville native Chris Janson, New Franklin native Sara Evans, Cantwell native Ferlin Husky, West Plains native Porter Wagoner, Tyler Farr of Garden City, and Mora native Leroy Van Dyke, along with bluegrass musician Rhonda Vincent, a native of Greentop. Missouri_sentence_307

Rapper Eminem was born in St. Joseph and also lived in Savannah and Kansas City. Missouri_sentence_308

Ragtime composer Scott Joplin lived in St. Louis and Sedalia. Missouri_sentence_309

Jazz saxophonist Charlie Parker lived in Kansas City. Missouri_sentence_310

Rock and Roll singer Steve Walsh of the group Kansas was born in St. Louis and grew up in St. Joseph. Missouri_sentence_311

The Kansas City Symphony and the St. Missouri_sentence_312 Louis Symphony Orchestra are the state's major orchestras. Missouri_sentence_313

The latter is the nation's second-oldest symphony orchestra and achieved prominence in recent years under conductor Leonard Slatkin. Missouri_sentence_314

Branson is well known for its music theaters, most of which bear the name of a star performer or musical group. Missouri_sentence_315

Literature Missouri_section_30

Missouri is the native state of Mark Twain. Missouri_sentence_316

His novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn are set in his boyhood hometown of Hannibal. Missouri_sentence_317

Authors Kate Chopin, T. Missouri_sentence_318 S. Eliot and Tennessee Williams were from St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_319

Kansas City-born writer William Least Heat-Moon resides in Rocheport. Missouri_sentence_320

He is best known for Blue Highways, a chronicle of his travels to small towns across America, which was on The New York Times Bestseller list for 42 weeks in 1982–1983. Missouri_sentence_321

Novelist Daniel Woodrell, known for depicting life in the Missouri Ozarks, was born in Springfield and lives in West Plains. Missouri_sentence_322

Film Missouri_section_31

Filmmaker, animator, and businessman Walt Disney spent part of his childhood in the Linn County town of Marceline before settling in Kansas City. Missouri_sentence_323

Disney began his artistic career in Kansas City, where he founded the Laugh-O-Gram Studio. Missouri_sentence_324

Several film versions of Mark Twain's novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn have been made. Missouri_sentence_325

Meet Me in St. Louis, a musical involving the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, starred Judy Garland. Missouri_sentence_326

Part of the 1983 road movie National Lampoon's Vacation was shot on location in Missouri, for the Griswolds' trip from Chicago to Los Angeles. Missouri_sentence_327

The Thanksgiving holiday film Planes, Trains, and Automobiles was partially shot at Lambert–St. Missouri_sentence_328 Louis International Airport. Missouri_sentence_329

White Palace was filmed in St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_330

The award-winning 2010 film Winter's Bone was shot in the Ozarks of Missouri. Missouri_sentence_331

Up in the Air starring George Clooney was filmed in St. Louis. Missouri_sentence_332

John Carpenter's Escape from New York was filmed in St. Louis during the early 1980s due to the large number of abandoned buildings in the city. Missouri_sentence_333

The 1973 movie Paper Moon, which starred Ryan and Tatum O'Neal, was partly filmed in St. Joseph. Missouri_sentence_334

Most of HBO's film Truman (1995) was filmed in Kansas City, Independence, and the surrounding area; Gary Sinise won an Emmy for his portrayal of Harry Truman in the film. Missouri_sentence_335

Ride With the Devil (1999), starring Jewel and Tobey Maguire, was filmed in the countryside of Jackson County (where the historic events of the film actually took place). Missouri_sentence_336

Gone Girl, a 2014 film starring Ben Affleck, Rosamund Pike, Neil Patrick Harris, and Tyler Perry, was filmed in Cape Girardeau. Missouri_sentence_337

Sports Missouri_section_32

Main article: Sport in Missouri Missouri_sentence_338

Missouri hosted the 1904 Summer Olympics at St. Missouri_sentence_339 Louis, the first time the games were hosted in the United States. Missouri_sentence_340

Professional major league teams: Missouri_sentence_341

Missouri_unordered_list_4

Former professional major league teams: Missouri_sentence_342

Missouri_unordered_list_5

See also Missouri_section_33

Missouri_unordered_list_6


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri.