"Monotheist" redirects here.
For the death metal band, see Monotheist (band).
For the album by Celtic Frost, see Monotheist (album).
Monotheism is the belief in one god.
A distinction may be made between exclusive monotheism, and both inclusive monotheism and pluriform (panentheistic) monotheism which, while recognising various distinct gods, postulate some underlying unity.
Monotheism is distinguished from henotheism, a religious system in which the believer worships one god without denying that others may worship different gods with equal validity, and monolatrism, the recognition of the existence of many gods but with the consistent worship of only one deity.
The term monolatry was perhaps first used by Julius Wellhausen.
The broader definition of monotheism characterizes the traditions of Bábism, the Baháʼí Faith, Balinese Hinduism, Cao Dai (Caodaiism), Cheondoism (Cheondogyo), Christianity, Deism, Druze faith, Eckankar, Hindu sects such as Shaivism and Vaishnavism, Islam, Judaism, Mandaeism, Rastafari, Seicho no Ie, Sikhism, Tengrism (Tangrism), Tenrikyo (Tenriism), Yazidism, and Zoroastrianism, and elements of pre-monotheistic thought are found in early religions such as Atenism, ancient Chinese religion, and Yahwism.
The English term was first used by Henry More (1614–1687).
Further information: Abrahamic religions
While all adherents of the Abrahamic religions consider themselves to be monotheists, some in Judaism do not consider Christianity to be a pure form of monotheism (due to the Christian doctrine of the Trinity), classifying it as shituf.
Islam likewise does not recognize modern-day Christianity as monotheistic, primarily due to the Christian doctrine of Trinity, which Islam categorizes as shirk and argues was a corruption of the beliefs actually held by Jesus.
Christians, on the other hand, argue that the doctrine of the Trinity is a valid expression of monotheism, citing that the Trinity does not consist of three separate deities, but rather the three persons, who exist consubstantially (as one substance) within a single Godhead.
Main article: God in Judaism
Judaism is traditionally considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions in the world, although it is also believed that the earliest Israelites (pre-7th century BCE) were polytheistic, evolved into henotheistic and later monolatristic, rather than monotheistic.
God in later Judaism was strictly monotheistic, an absolute one, indivisible, and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence.
The Babylonian Talmud references other, "foreign gods" as non-existent entities to whom humans mistakenly ascribe reality and power.
Some in Judaism and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism.
Judaism uses the term shituf to refer to the worship of God in a manner which Judaism deems to be neither purely monotheistic (though still permissible for non-Jews) nor polytheistic (which would be prohibited).
In Ancient Israel
The oldest books of the Hebrew Bible reflect this competition, as in the books of Hosea and Nahum, whose authors lament the "apostasy" of the people of Israel, threatening them with the wrath of God if they do not give up their polytheistic cults.
As time progressed, the henotheistic cult of Yahweh grew increasingly militant in its opposition to the worship of other gods.
After the fall of Judah and the beginning of the Babylonian captivity, a small circle of priests and scribes gathered around the exiled royal court, where they first developed the concept of Yahweh as the sole God of the world.
Main article: Shema Yisrael
The first verse encapsulates the monotheistic essence of Judaism: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one" (Hebrew: שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד), found in , sometimes alternatively translated as "The LORD is our God, the LORD alone".
It is traditional for Jews to say the Shema as their last words, and for parents to teach their children to say it before they go to sleep at night.
Among early Christians there was considerable debate over the nature of the Godhead, with some denying the incarnation but not the deity of Jesus (Docetism) and others later calling for an Arian conception of God.
The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea (in present-day Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical council of bishops of the Roman Empire, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed.
With the creation of the creed, a precedent was established for subsequent general ecumenical councils of bishops (synods) to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy— the intent being to define a common creed for the Church and address heretical ideas.
One purpose of the council was to resolve disagreements in Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was of the same substance as God the Father or merely of similar substance.
All but two bishops took the first position; while Arius' argument failed.
Christian orthodox traditions (Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and most Protestants) follow this decision, which was reaffirmed in 381 at the First Council of Constantinople and reached its full development through the work of the Cappadocian Fathers.
These three are described as being "of the same substance" (ὁμοούσιος).
Christians overwhelmingly assert that monotheism is central to the Christian faith, as the Nicene Creed (and others), which gives the orthodox Christian definition of the Trinity, begins: "I believe in one God".
According to Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study and practice, the Christian community concluded "that God must exist as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at the end of the 4th century.
Most modern Christians believe the Godhead is triune, meaning that the three persons of the Trinity are in one union in which each person is also wholly God.
These Christians also do not believe that one of the three divine figures is God alone and the other two are not but that all three are mysteriously God and one.
Some Christian faiths, such as Mormonism, argue that the Godhead is in fact three separate individuals which include God the Father, His Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost.
Each individual having a distinct purpose in the grand existence of human kind.
Furthermore, Mormons believe that before the Council of Nicaea, the predominant belief among many early Christians was that the Godhead was three separate individuals.
In support of this view, they cite early Christian examples of belief in subordinationism.
Unitarianism is a theological movement, named for its understanding of God as one person, in direct contrast to Trinitarianism.
Allāh exists without place and the Quran states that "No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.
Islam emerged in the 7th century CE in the context of both Christianity and Judaism, with some thematic elements similar to Gnosticism.
The assertion of Islam is that the message of God had been corrupted, distorted or lost over time and the Quran was sent to Muhammad in order to correct the lost message of the Tawrat (Torah), Injil (Gospel) and Zabur.
The Quran asserts the existence of a single and absolute truth that transcends the world; a unique and indivisible being who is independent of the creation.
God is a universal god rather than a local, tribal or parochial one; an absolute who integrates all affirmative values and brooks no evil.
Ash'ari theology, which dominated Sunni Islam from the tenth to the nineteenth century, insists on ultimate divine transcendence and holds that divine unity is not accessible to human reason.
Ash'arism teaches that human knowledge regarding it is limited to what has been revealed through the prophets, and on such paradoxes as God's creation of evil, revelation had to accept bila kayfa (without [asking] how).
Tawhid constitutes the foremost article of the Muslim profession of faith, "There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.
To attribute divinity to a created entity is the only unpardonable sin mentioned in the Quran.
The entirety of the Islamic teaching rests on the principle of tawhid.
For if there were two omnipotent beings, the first would either have power over the second (meaning the second is not omnipotent) or not (meaning the first is not omnipotent); thus implying that there could only be one omnipotent being.
As they traditionally profess a concept of monotheism with a singular person as God, Judaism and Islam reject the Christian idea of monotheism.
Judaism uses the term Shituf to refer to non-monotheistic ways of worshiping God.
Main article: Mandaeism
The Mandaean God is named as Hayyi Rabbi meaning The Great Life or The Great Living God.
The name 'Mandaean' is said to come from the Aramaic manda meaning "knowledge", as does Greek gnosis.
Within the Middle East, but outside of their community, the Mandaeans are more commonly known as the Ṣubba (singular: Ṣubbī) or Sabians.
The term Ṣubba is derived from the Aramaic root related to baptism, the neo-Mandaic is Ṣabi.
Main article: God in the Baháʼí Faith
Human primitive understanding of God is achieved through his revelations via his divine intermediary Manifestations.
In the Baháʼí faith, such Christian doctrines as the Trinity are seen as compromising the Baháʼí view that God is single and has no equal.
And the very existence of the Baháʼí Faith is a challenge to the Islamic doctrine of the finality of Muhammad's revelation.
God in the Baháʼí Faith communicates to humanity through divine intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God.
These Manifestations establish religion in the world.
It is through these divine intermediaries that humans can approach God, and through them God brings divine revelation and law.
The Oneness of God is one of the core teachings of the Baháʼí Faith.
The obligatory prayers in the Baháʼí Faith involve explicit monotheistic testimony.
God is the imperishable, uncreated being who is the source of all existence.
Although transcendent and inaccessible directly, his image is reflected in his creation.
The purpose of creation is for the created to have the capacity to know and love its creator.
God communicates his will and purpose to humanity through intermediaries, known as Manifestations of God, who are the prophets and messengers that have founded religions from prehistoric times up to the present day.
It developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
It lacks any centralised authority and there is much heterogeneity among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas.
Rastafari refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible, as "Rastalogy".
Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah—who partially resides within each individual.
The former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, is given central importance.
Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah on Earth and as the Second Coming of Christ.
Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual.
Main article: Atenism
To emphasise the change, Aten's name was written in the cartouche form normally reserved for Pharaohs, an innovation of Atenism.
This religious reformation appears to coincide with the proclamation of a Sed festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to reinforce the Pharaoh's divine powers of kingship.
Traditionally held in the thirtieth year of the Pharaoh's reign, this possibly was a festival in honour of Amenhotep III, who some Egyptologists think had a coregency with his son Amenhotep IV of two to twelve years.
Evidence of this appears on three of the boundary stelae used to mark the boundaries of this new capital.
At this time, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten (Agreeable to Aten) as evidence of his new worship.
The date given for the event has been estimated to fall around January 2 of that year.
In Year 7 of his reign (1346/1344 BCE), the capital was moved from Thebes to Akhetaten (near modern Amarna), though construction of the city seems to have continued for two more years.
In shifting his court from the traditional ceremonial centres Akhenaten was signalling a dramatic transformation in the focus of religious and political power.
The move separated the Pharaoh and his court from the influence of the priesthood and from the traditional centres of worship, but his decree had deeper religious significance too—taken in conjunction with his name change, it is possible that the move to Amarna was also meant as a signal of Akhenaten's symbolic death and rebirth.
It may also have coincided with the death of his father and the end of the coregency.
In addition to constructing a new capital in honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak and one at Thebes, close to the old temple of Amun.
In Year 9 (1344/1342 BCE), Akhenaten declared a more radical version of his new religion, declaring Aten not merely the supreme god of the Egyptian pantheon, but the only God of Egypt, with himself as the sole intermediary between the Aten and the Egyptian people.
Key features of Atenism included a ban on idols and other images of the Aten, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten.
Akhenaten made it however clear that the image of the Aten only represented the god, but that the god transcended creation and so could not be fully understood or represented.
Aten was addressed by Akhenaten in prayers, such as the Great Hymn to the Aten: "O Sole God beside whom there is none".
The details of Atenist theology are still unclear.
The exclusion of all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition, but scholars see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from worshiping any but Aten.
Akhenaten associated Aten with Ra and put forward the eminence of Aten as the renewal of the kingship of Ra.
Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic.
The orthodox faith system held by most dynasties of China since at least the Shang Dynasty (1766 BCE) until the modern period centered on the worship of Shangdi (literally "Above Sovereign", generally translated as "God") or Heaven as an omnipotent force.
From the writings of Confucius in the Analects, it is known Confucius believed that Heaven cannot be deceived, Heaven guides people's lives and maintains a personal relationship with them, and that Heaven gives tasks for people to fulfill in order to teach them of virtues and morality.
However, this faith system was not truly monotheistic since other lesser gods and spirits, which varied with locality, were also worshiped along with Shangdi.
Still, later variants such as Mohism (470 BCE–c.391 BCE) approached true monotheism, teaching that the function of lesser gods and ancestral spirits is merely to carry out the will of Shangdi, akin to the angels in Abrahamic religions which in turn counts as only one god.
In Mozi's Will of Heaven (天志), he writes:
Worship of Shangdi and Heaven in ancient China includes the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers.
The ruler of China in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Shangdi, usually by slaughtering a completely healthy bull as sacrifice.
Although its popularity gradually diminished after the advent of Taoism and Buddhism, among other religions, its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in later religions in China, including terminology used by early Christians in China.
Despite the rising of non-theistic and pantheistic spirituality contributed by Taoism and Buddhism, Shangdi was still praised up until the end of the Qing Dynasty as the last ruler of the Qing declared himself son of heaven.
Indigenous African religions
The deceased ancestors of the Himba and Herero are subservient to him, acting as intermediaries.
The Igbo people practice a form of monotheism called Odinani.
Odinani has monotheistic and panentheistic attributes, having a single God as the source of all things.
Although a pantheon of spirits exists, these are lesser spirits prevalent in Odinani expressly serving as elements of Chineke (or Chukwu), the supreme being or high god.
However this religion was mostly replaced with the Abrahamic religions.
Main article: Proto-Indo-European religion
A number of words derived from the name of this supreme deity are used in various Indo-European languages to denote a monotheistic God.
Nonetheless, in spite of this, Proto-Indo-European religion itself was not monotheistic.
In western Eurasia, the ancient traditions of the Slavic religion contained elements of monotheism.
In the sixth century AD, the Byzantine chronicler Procopius recorded that the Slavs "acknowledge that one god, creator of lightning, is the only lord of all: to him do they sacrifice an ox and all sacrificial animals."
See also: Hindu denominations
As an old religion, Hinduism inherits religious concepts spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism, and atheism among others; and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed.
Hindu views are broad and range from monism, through pantheism and panentheism (alternatively called monistic theism by some scholars) to monotheism and even atheism.
Hinduism cannot be said to be purely polytheistic.
Hindu religious leaders have repeatedly stressed that while God's forms are many and the ways to communicate with him are many, God is one.
Rig Veda 1.164.46,
- Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān,
- ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ
- "They call him Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, Agni, and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garuda.
- To what is One, sages give many a title they call it Agni, Yama, Mātariśvan." (trans. Griffith)
Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the Nimbarka Sampradaya and followers of Swaminarayan and Vallabha consider Krishna to be the source of all avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself, or to be the same as Narayana.
As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan.
When Krishna is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, the Vallabha Sampradaya, and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself.
This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous statement of the Bhagavatam" (1.3.28).
It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of the God of Vaishnavism, who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism.
The Rig Veda discusses monotheistic thought, as do the Atharva Veda and Yajur Veda: "Devas are always looking to the supreme abode of Vishnu" (tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti sṻrayaḥ Rig Veda 1.22.20)
"The One Truth, sages know by many names" (Rig Veda 1.164.46)
"When at first the unborn sprung into being, He won His own dominion beyond which nothing higher has been in existence" (Atharva Veda 10.7.31)
"There is none to compare with Him.
There is no parallel to Him, whose glory, verily, is great."
(Yajur Veda 32.3)
The number of auspicious qualities of God are countless, with the following six qualities (bhaga) being the most important:
- Jñāna (omniscience), defined as the power to know about all beings simultaneously
- Aishvarya (sovereignty, derived from the word Ishvara), which consists in unchallenged rule over all
- Shakti (energy), or power, which is the capacity to make the impossible possible
- Bala (strength), which is the capacity to support everything by will and without any fatigue
- Vīrya (vigor), which indicates the power to retain immateriality as the supreme being in spite of being the material cause of mutable creations
- Tejas (splendor), which expresses His self-sufficiency and the capacity to overpower everything by His spiritual effulgence
In the Shaivite tradition, the Shri Rudram (Sanskrit श्रि रुद्रम्), to which the Chamakam (चमकम्) is added by scriptural tradition, is a Hindu stotra dedicated to Rudra (an epithet of Shiva), taken from the Yajurveda (TS 4.5, 4.7).
Shri Rudram is also known as Sri Rudraprasna, Śatarudrīya, and Rudradhyaya.
The Nyaya school of Hinduism has made several arguments regarding a monotheistic view.
The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a god can only be one.
In the Nyaya Kusumanjali, this is discussed against the proposition of the Mimamsa school that let us assume there were many demigods (devas) and sages (rishis) in the beginning, who wrote the Vedas and created the world.
Nyaya says that:
In other words, Nyaya says that the polytheist would have to give elaborate proofs for the existence and origin of his several celestial spirits, none of which would be logical, and that it is more logical to assume one eternal, omniscient god.
Main article: Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism proclaims an evolution through time from dualism to monotheism.
Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion, although Zoroastrianism is often regarded as dualistic, duotheistic or bitheistic, for its belief in the hypostatis of the ultimately good Ahura Mazda (creative spirit) and the ultimately evil Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit).
Zoroastrianism was once one of the largest religions on Earth, as the official religion of the Persian Empire.
By some scholars, the Zoroastrians ("Parsis" or "Zartoshtis") are credited with being some of the first monotheists and having had influence on other world religions.
Gathered statistics shows the number of adherents at as many as 3.5 million, with adherents living in many regions, including South Asia.
Main article: Sikhism
Sikhi is a monotheistic and a revealed religion.
God is present (sarav viāpak) in all of creation.
God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart".
Sikhi devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment, as its rigorous application permits the existence of communication between God and human beings.
Sikhism is a monotheistic faith that arose in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Sikhs believe in one, timeless, omnipresent, supreme creator.
- Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
- Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat(i)-nām(u) karatā purakh(u) nirabha'u niravair(u) akāla mūrat(i) ajūnī saibhan(g) gur(a) prasād(i).
- One Universal creator God, The supreme Unchangeable Truth, The Creator of the Universe, Beyond Fear, Beyond Hatred, Beyond Death, Beyond Birth, Self-Existent, by Guru's Grace.
The word "ੴ" ("Ik ōaṅkār") has two components.
The first is ੧, the digit "1" in Gurmukhi signifying the singularity of the creator.
Together the word means: "One Universal creator God".
It is often said that the 1430 pages of the Guru Granth Sahib are all expansions on the Mul Mantra.
The Sikh holy scriptures refer to the One God who pervades the whole of space and is the creator of all beings in the universe.
The following quotation from the Guru Granth Sahib highlights this point:
However, there is a strong case for arguing that the Guru Granth Sahib teaches monism due to its non-dualistic tendencies:
Sikhs believe that members of other religions such as Islam, Hinduism and Christianity all worship the same God, and the names Allah, Rahim, Karim, Hari, Raam and Paarbrahm are frequently mentioned in the Sikh holy scriptures.
Ancient Greek religion
Main article: Ancient Greek religion
The surviving fragments of the poems of the classical Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon suggest that he held views very similar to those of modern monotheists.
His poems harshly criticize the traditional notion of anthropomorphic gods, commenting that "...if cattle and horses and lions had hands or could paint with their hands and create works such as men do,... [they] also would depict the gods' shapes and make their bodies of such a sort as the form they themselves have."
Instead, Xenophanes declares that there is "...one god, greatest among gods and humans, like mortals neither in form nor in thought."
Xenophanes's theology appears to have been monist, but not truly monotheistic in the strictest sense.
Although some later philosophers, such as Antisthenes, believed in doctrines similar to those expounded by Xenophanes, his ideas do not appear to have become widely popular.
He does, however, often speak of the gods in the plural form as well.
The Euthyphro dilemma, for example, is formulated as "Is that which is holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods?"
Main article: Hellenistic religion
The development of pure (philosophical) monotheism is a product of the Late Antiquity.
During the 2nd to 3rd centuries, early Christianity was just one of several competing religious movements advocating monotheism.
In the writings of Plotinus, "The One" is described as an inconceivable, transcendent, all-embodying, permanent, eternal, causative entity that permeates throughout all of existence.
A number of oracles of Apollo from Didyma and Clarus, the so-called "theological oracles", dated to the 2nd and 3rd century CE, proclaim that there is only one highest god, of whom the gods of polytheistic religions are mere manifestations or servants.
4th century CE Cyprus had, besides Christianity, an apparently monotheistic cult of Dionysus.
The Hypsistarians were a religious group who believed in a most high god, according to Greek documents.
Later revisions of this Hellenic religion were adjusted towards monotheism as it gained consideration among a wider populace.
The worship of Zeus as the head-god signaled a trend in the direction of monotheism, with less honour paid to the fragmented powers of the lesser gods.
Native American religion
Native American religions may be monotheistic, polytheistic, henotheistic, animistic, or some combination thereof.
Cherokee religion, for example, is monotheist as well as pantheist.
The Great Spirit, called Wakan Tanka among the Sioux, and Gitche Manitou in Algonquian, is a conception of universal spiritual force, or supreme being prevalent among some Native American and First Nation cultures.
Some researchers have interpreted Aztec philosophy as fundamentally monotheistic or panentheistic.
While the populace at large believed in a polytheistic pantheon, Aztec priests and nobles might have come to an interpretation of Teotl as a single universal force with many facets.
There has been criticism to this idea, however, most notably that many assertions of this supposed monotheism might actually come from post-Conquistador bias, imposing an Antiquity pagan model unto the Aztec.
See also: Tengrism
Tengrism or Tangrism (sometimes stylized as Tengriism), occasionally referred to as Tengrianism, is a modern term for a Central Asian religion characterized by features of shamanism, animism, totemism, both polytheism and monotheism, and ancestor worship.
In Irk Bitig, Tengri is mentioned as Türük Tängrisi (God of Turks).
The term is perceived among Turkic peoples as a national religion.
In Chinese and Turco-Mongol traditions, the Supreme God is commonly referred to as the ruler of Heaven, or the Sky Lord granted with omnipotent powers, but it has largely diminished in those regions due to ancestor worship, Taoism's pantheistic views and Buddhism's rejection of a creator God.
On some occasions in the mythology, the Sky Lord as identified as a male has been associated to mate with an Earth Mother, while some traditions kept the omnipotence of the Sky Lord unshared.
New religious movements
- Criticism of monotheism
- Intelligent design
- Unmoved mover
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotheism.