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"Montrealer" redirects here. Montreal_sentence_0

For other uses, see Montreal (disambiguation) and Montrealer (disambiguation). Montreal_sentence_1



Montréal  (French)Montreal_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryMontreal_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaMontreal_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceMontreal_header_cell_0_2_0 QuebecMontreal_cell_0_2_1
RegionMontreal_header_cell_0_3_0 MontrealMontreal_cell_0_3_1
UAMontreal_header_cell_0_4_0 Urban agglomeration of MontrealMontreal_cell_0_4_1
FoundedMontreal_header_cell_0_5_0 May 17, 1642Montreal_cell_0_5_1
IncorporatedMontreal_header_cell_0_6_0 1832Montreal_cell_0_6_1
ConstitutedMontreal_header_cell_0_7_0 January 1, 2002Montreal_cell_0_7_1
BoroughsMontreal_header_cell_0_8_0 ListMontreal_cell_0_8_1
TypeMontreal_header_cell_0_10_0 Montreal City CouncilMontreal_cell_0_10_1
MayorMontreal_header_cell_0_11_0 Valérie PlanteMontreal_cell_0_11_1
Federal ridingMontreal_header_cell_0_12_0 ListMontreal_cell_0_12_1
Prov. ridingMontreal_header_cell_0_13_0 ListMontreal_cell_0_13_1
MPsMontreal_header_cell_0_14_0 List of MPsMontreal_cell_0_14_1
CityMontreal_header_cell_0_16_0 431.50 km (166.60 sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_16_1
LandMontreal_header_cell_0_17_0 365.13 km (140.98 sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_17_1
UrbanMontreal_header_cell_0_18_0 1,293.99 km (499.61 sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_18_1
MetroMontreal_header_cell_0_19_0 4,604.26 km (1,777.71 sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_19_1
Highest elevationMontreal_header_cell_0_20_0 233 m (764 ft)Montreal_cell_0_20_1
Lowest elevationMontreal_header_cell_0_21_0 6 m (20 ft)Montreal_cell_0_21_1
Population (2016)Montreal_header_cell_0_22_0
CityMontreal_header_cell_0_23_0 1,704,694Montreal_cell_0_23_1
DensityMontreal_header_cell_0_24_0 3,889/km (10,070/sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_24_1
UrbanMontreal_header_cell_0_25_0 3,519,595Montreal_cell_0_25_1
Urban densityMontreal_header_cell_0_26_0 2,719/km (7,040/sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_26_1
MetroMontreal_header_cell_0_27_0 4,098,927 (2nd)Montreal_cell_0_27_1
Metro densityMontreal_header_cell_0_28_0 890/km (2,300/sq mi)Montreal_cell_0_28_1
Pop 2011–2016Montreal_header_cell_0_29_0 2.9%Montreal_cell_0_29_1
DwellingsMontreal_header_cell_0_30_0 939,112Montreal_cell_0_30_1
Demonym(s)Montreal_header_cell_0_31_0 Montrealer


Time zoneMontreal_header_cell_0_32_0 UTC−05:00 (EST)Montreal_cell_0_32_1
Summer (DST)Montreal_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Montreal_cell_0_33_1
Postal code(s)Montreal_header_cell_0_34_0 H (except H7 for Laval)Montreal_cell_0_34_1
Area code(s)Montreal_header_cell_0_35_0 514 and 438 and 263Montreal_cell_0_35_1
PoliceMontreal_header_cell_0_36_0 Service de police de la Ville de MontréalMontreal_cell_0_36_1
GDPMontreal_header_cell_0_37_0 US$155.9 billionMontreal_cell_0_37_1
GDP per capitaMontreal_header_cell_0_38_0 US$38,867Montreal_cell_0_38_1
WebsiteMontreal_header_cell_0_39_0 Q340#P856Montreal_cell_0_39_1

Montreal (/ˌmʌntriˈɔːl/ (listen) MUN-tree-AWL; officially Montréal, French: [mɔ̃ʁeal (listen), Mohawk: Tiohtià꞉ke) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Montreal_sentence_2

Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. Montreal_sentence_3

The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which got its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. Montreal_sentence_4

The city is situated 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) south-west of the provincial capital, Quebec City. Montreal_sentence_5

In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,247 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal. Montreal_sentence_6

The broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,247. Montreal_sentence_7

French is the city's official language and in 2016 was the main home language of 49.8% of the population, while English was spoken by 22.8% at home, and 18.3% spoke other languages (multi-language responses were excluded from these figures). Montreal_sentence_8

In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population spoke French at home, compared to 15.3% who spoke English. Montreal_sentence_9

Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal_sentence_10

Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the developed world, after Paris. Montreal_sentence_11

Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s. Montreal_sentence_12

It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, art, culture, tourism, food, fashion, video game development, film, and world affairs. Montreal_sentence_13

Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. Montreal_sentence_14

In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th-most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, and the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal_sentence_15

Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics. Montreal_sentence_16

It is the only Canadian city to have held the quadrennial Summer Olympics. Montreal_sentence_17

In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city. Montreal_sentence_18

As of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. Montreal_sentence_19

It is also home to ice hockey team Montreal Canadiens, the franchise with the most Stanley Cup wins. Montreal_sentence_20

Etymology Montreal_section_0

In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi. Montreal_sentence_21

This name refers to the Lachine Rapids to the island's southwest or Ka-wé-no-te. Montreal_sentence_22

It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". Montreal_sentence_23

In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which served as "the first stopping place" in Ojibwe migration story as related in the seven fires prophecy. Montreal_sentence_24

European settlers from La Flèche in the Loire valley first named their new town, founded in 1642, Ville Marie ("City of Mary"), named for the Virgin Mary. Montreal_sentence_25

Its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. Montreal_sentence_26

According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal, (Mont Royal in modern French, although in 16th-century French the forms réal and royal were used interchangeably); Cartier's 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, refers to le mont Royal. Montreal_sentence_27

One possibility, noted by the government of Canada on its website concerning Canadian place names, speculates that the name as it is currently written originated when an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real; the Commission de toponymie du Québec has dismissed this idea as a misconception. Montreal_sentence_28

History Montreal_section_1

Main article: History of Montreal Montreal_sentence_29

See also: Timeline of Montreal history Montreal_sentence_30

Pre-European contact Montreal_section_2

Archaeological evidence in the region indicate that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. Montreal_sentence_31

By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Montreal_sentence_32

Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages. Montreal_sentence_33

The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee (then based in present-day New York), established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Montreal_sentence_34

Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century. Montreal_sentence_35

The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Montreal_sentence_36

Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have effectively been removed. Montreal_sentence_37

Early European settlement (1600–1760) Montreal_section_3

In 1603, French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. Montreal_sentence_38

This is believed to be due to outmigration, epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. Montreal_sentence_39

In 1611, Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal on a site initially named La Place Royale. Montreal_sentence_40

At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. Montreal_sentence_41

On his 1616 map, Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary who was seeking the viceroyship of New France. Montreal_sentence_42

In 1639, Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Montreal_sentence_43

Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, then age 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury. Montreal_sentence_44

The colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec and arrived on the island the following year. Montreal_sentence_45

On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal island, with Maisonneuve as its first governor. Montreal_sentence_46

The settlement included a chapel and a hospital, under the command of Jeanne Mance. Montreal_sentence_47

By 1643, Ville-Marie had already been attacked by Iroquois raids. Montreal_sentence_48

In the spring of 1651, the Iroquois attacks became so frequent and so violent that Ville-Marie thought its end had come. Montreal_sentence_49

Maisonneuve made all the settlers take refuge in the fort. Montreal_sentence_50

By 1652, the colony at Montreal had been so reduced that he was forced to return to France to raise 100 volunteers to go with him to the colony the following year. Montreal_sentence_51

If the effort had failed, Montreal was to be abandoned and the survivors re-located downriver to Quebec City. Montreal_sentence_52

Before these 100 arrived in the fall of 1653, the population of Montreal was barely 50 people. Montreal_sentence_53

By 1685, Ville-Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. Montreal_sentence_54

Ville-Marie became a centre for the fur trade and a base for further exploration. Montreal_sentence_55

In 1689, the English-allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France. Montreal_sentence_56

By the early 18th century, the Sulpician Order was established there. Montreal_sentence_57

To encourage French settlement, it wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville-Marie. Montreal_sentence_58

It had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. Montreal_sentence_59

The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. Montreal_sentence_60

This became Kanesatake. Montreal_sentence_61

In 1745, several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known as Akwesasne. Montreal_sentence_62

All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. Montreal_sentence_63

The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when Montreal fell to a British offensive during the Seven Years' War. Montreal_sentence_64

The colony then surrendered to Great Britain. Montreal_sentence_65

Ville-Marie was the name for the settlement that appeared in all official documents until 1705, when Montreal appeared for the first time, although people referred to the "Island of Montreal" long before then. Montreal_sentence_66

American occupation (1775–1776) Montreal_section_4

As part of the American Revolution, the invasion of Quebec resulted after Benedict Arnold captured Fort Ticonderoga in present-day upstate New York in May 1775 as a launching point to Arnold's invasion of Quebec in September. Montreal_sentence_67

While Arnold approached the Plains of Abraham, Montreal fell to American forces led by Richard Montgomery on November 13, 1775, after it was abandoned by Guy Carleton. Montreal_sentence_68

After Arnold withdrew from Quebec City to Pointe-aux-Trembles on November 19, Montgomery's forces left Montreal on December 1 and arrived there on December 3 to plot to attack Quebec City, with Montgomery leaving David Wooster in charge of the city. Montreal_sentence_69

Montgomery was killed in the failed attack and Arnold, who had taken command, sent Brigadier General Moses Hazen to inform Wooster of the defeat. Montreal_sentence_70

Wooster left Hazen in command on March 20, 1776, as he left to replace Arnold in leading further attacks on Quebec City. Montreal_sentence_71

On April 19, Arnold arrived in Montreal to take over command from Hazen, who remained as his second-in-command. Montreal_sentence_72

Hazen sent Colonel Timothy Bedel to form a garrison of 390 men 40 miles upriver in a garrison at Les Cèdres, Quebec, to defend Montreal against the British army. Montreal_sentence_73

In the Battle of the Cedars, Bedel's lieutenant Isaac Butterfield surrendered to George Forster. Montreal_sentence_74

Forster advanced to Fort Senneville on May 23. Montreal_sentence_75

By May 24, Arnold was entrenched in Montreal's borough of Lachine. Montreal_sentence_76

Forster initially approached Lachine, then withdrew to Quinze-Chênes. Montreal_sentence_77

Arnold's forces then abandoned Lachine to chase Forster. Montreal_sentence_78

The Americans burned Senneville on May 26. Montreal_sentence_79

After Arnold crossed the Ottawa River in pursuit of Forster, Forster's cannons repelled Arnold's forces. Montreal_sentence_80

Forster negotiated a prisoner exchange with Henry Sherburne and Isaac Butterfield, resulting in a May 27 boating of their deputy Lieutenant Park being returned to the Americans. Montreal_sentence_81

Arnold and Forster negotiated further and more American prisoners were returned to Arnold at Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, ("Fort Anne") on May 30 (delayed two days by wind). Montreal_sentence_82

Arnold eventually withdrew his forces back to the New York fort of Ticonderoga by the summer. Montreal_sentence_83

On June 15, Arnold's messenger approaching Sorel spotted Carleton returning with a fleet of ships and notified him. Montreal_sentence_84

Arnold's forces abandoned Montreal (attempting to burn it down in the process) prior to the June 17 arrival of Carleton's fleet. Montreal_sentence_85

The Americans did not return British prisoners in exchange, as previously agreed, due to accusations of abuse, with Congress repudiating the agreement at the protest of George Washington. Montreal_sentence_86

Arnold blamed Colonel Timothy Bedel for the defeat, removing him and Lieutenant Butterfield from command and sending them to Sorel for court-martial. Montreal_sentence_87

The retreat of the American army delayed their court martial until August 1, 1776, when they were convicted and cashiered at Ticonderoga. Montreal_sentence_88

Bedel was given a new commission by Congress in October 1777 after Arnold was assigned to defend Rhode Island in July 1777. Montreal_sentence_89

Modern history as city (1832–present) Montreal_section_5

Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832. Montreal_sentence_90

The opening of the Lachine Canal permitted ships to bypass the unnavigable Lachine Rapids, while the construction of the Victoria Bridge established Montreal as a major railway hub. Montreal_sentence_91

The leaders of Montreal's business community had started to build their homes in the Golden Square Mile (~2.6 km) from about 1850. Montreal_sentence_92

By 1860, it was the largest municipality in British North America and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada. Montreal_sentence_93

In the 19th century, maintaining Montreal's drinking water became increasingly difficult with the rapid increase in population. Montreal_sentence_94

A majority of the drinking water was still coming from the city's harbour, which was busy and heavily trafficked, leading to the deterioration of the water within. Montreal_sentence_95

In the mid 1840s, the City of Montreal installed a water system that would pump water from the St. Lawrence and into cisterns. Montreal_sentence_96

The cisterns would then be transported to the desired location. Montreal_sentence_97

This was not the first water system of its type in Montreal, as there had been one in private ownership since 1801. Montreal_sentence_98

In the middle of the 19th century, water distribution was carried out by "fontainiers". Montreal_sentence_99

The fountainiers would open and close water valves outside of buildings, as directed, all over the city. Montreal_sentence_100

As they lacked modern plumbing systems it was impossible to connect all buildings at once and it also acted as a conservation method. Montreal_sentence_101

However, the population was not finished rising — it rose from 58,000 in 1852 to 267,000 by 1901. Montreal_sentence_102

Montreal was the capital of the Province of Canada from 1844 to 1849, but lost its status when a Tory mob burnt down the Parliament building to protest the passage of the Rebellion Losses Bill. Montreal_sentence_103

Thereafter, the capital rotated between Quebec City and Toronto until in 1857, Queen Victoria herself established Ottawa as the capital due to strategic reasons. Montreal_sentence_104

The reasons were twofold. Montreal_sentence_105

First, because it was located more in the interior of the Province of Canada, it was less susceptible to attack from the United States. Montreal_sentence_106

Second, and perhaps more importantly, because it lay on the border between French and English Canada, Ottawa was seen as a compromise between Montreal, Toronto, Kingston and Quebec City, which were all vying to become the young nation's official capital. Montreal_sentence_107

Ottawa retained the status as capital of Canada when the Province of Canada joined with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Montreal_sentence_108

An internment camp was set up at Immigration Hall in Montreal from August 1914 to November 1918. Montreal_sentence_109

After World War I, the prohibition movement in the United States led to Montreal becoming a destination for Americans looking for alcohol. Montreal_sentence_110

Unemployment remained high in the city and was exacerbated by the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. Montreal_sentence_111

During World War II, Mayor Camillien Houde protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to disobey the federal government's registry of all men and women. Montreal_sentence_112

The federal government, part of the Allied forces, was furious over Houde's stand and held him in a prison camp until 1944. Montreal_sentence_113

That year, the government decided to institute conscription to expand the armed forces and fight the Axis powers. Montreal_sentence_114

(See Conscription Crisis of 1944.) Montreal_sentence_115

Montreal was the official residence of the Luxembourg royal family in exile during World War II. Montreal_sentence_116

By 1951, Montreal's population had surpassed one million. Montreal_sentence_117

However, Toronto's growth had begun challenging Montreal's status as the economic capital of Canada. Montreal_sentence_118

Indeed, the volume of stocks traded at the Toronto Stock Exchange had already surpassed that traded at the Montreal Stock Exchange in the 1940s. Montreal_sentence_119

The Saint Lawrence Seaway opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal. Montreal_sentence_120

In time, this development led to the end of the city's economic dominance as businesses moved to other areas. Montreal_sentence_121

During the 1960s, there was continued growth as Canada's tallest skyscrapers, new expressways and the subway system known as the Montreal Metro were finished during this time. Montreal_sentence_122

Montreal also held the World's Fair of 1967, better known as Expo67. Montreal_sentence_123

The 1970s ushered in a period of wide-ranging social and political changes, stemming largely from the concerns of the French-speaking majority about the conservation of their culture and language, given the traditional predominance of the English Canadian minority in the business arena. Montreal_sentence_124

The October Crisis and the 1976 election of the Parti Québécois, which supported sovereign status for Quebec, resulted in the departure of many businesses and people from the city. Montreal_sentence_125

In 1976, Montreal hosted the Summer Olympics. Montreal_sentence_126

While the event brought the city international prestige and attention, the Olympic Stadium built for the event resulted in massive debt for the city. Montreal_sentence_127

During the 1980s and early 1990s, Montreal experienced a slower rate of economic growth than many other major Canadian cities. Montreal_sentence_128

Montreal was the site of the 1989 École Polytechnique massacre, one of Canada's worst mass shooting, where 25-year-old Marc Lépine shot and killed 14 people, all of them women, and wounding 14 other people before shooting himself at École Polytechnique. Montreal_sentence_129

Montreal was merged with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on January 1, 2002, creating a unified city encompassing the entire island. Montreal_sentence_130

There was substantial resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly English suburbs by the Parti Québécois. Montreal_sentence_131

As expected, this move proved unpopular and several mergers were later rescinded. Montreal_sentence_132

Several former municipalities, totalling 13% of the population of the island, voted to leave the unified city in separate referendums in June 2004. Montreal_sentence_133

The demerger took place on January 1, 2006, leaving 15 municipalities on the island, including Montreal. Montreal_sentence_134

Demerged municipalities remain affiliated with the city through an agglomeration council that collects taxes from them to pay for numerous shared services. Montreal_sentence_135

The 2002 mergers were not the first in the city's history. Montreal_sentence_136

Montreal annexed 27 other cities, towns and villages beginning with Hochelaga in 1883, with the last prior to 2002 being Pointe-aux-Trembles in 1982. Montreal_sentence_137

The 21st century has brought with it a revival of the city's economic and cultural landscape. Montreal_sentence_138

The construction of new residential skyscrapers, two super-hospitals (the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal and McGill University Health Centre), the creation of the Quartier des Spectacles, reconstruction of the Turcot Interchange, reconfiguration of the Decarie and Dorval interchanges, construction of the new Réseau électrique métropolitain, gentrification of Griffintown, subway line extensions and the purchase of new subway cars, the complete revitalization and expansion of Trudeau International Airport, the completion of Quebec Autoroute 30, the reconstruction of the Champlain Bridge and the construction of a new toll bridge to Laval are helping Montreal continue to grow. Montreal_sentence_139

Geography Montreal_section_6

Main article: Geography of Montreal Montreal_sentence_140

Montreal is in the southwest of the province of Quebec. Montreal_sentence_141

The city covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. Montreal_sentence_142

The port of Montreal lies at one end of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the river gateway that stretches from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic. Montreal_sentence_143

Montreal is defined by its location between the Saint Lawrence river to its south and the Rivière des Prairies to its north. Montreal_sentence_144

The city is named after the most prominent geographical feature on the island, a three-head hill called Mount Royal, topped at 232 m (761 ft) above sea level. Montreal_sentence_145

Montreal is at the centre of the Montreal Metropolitan Community, and is bordered by the city of Laval to the north; Longueuil, Saint-Lambert, Brossard, and other municipalities to the south; Repentigny to the east and the West Island municipalities to the west. Montreal_sentence_146

The anglophone enclaves of Westmount, Montreal West, Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc, the Town of Mount Royal and the francophone enclave Montreal East are all surrounded by Montreal. Montreal_sentence_147

Climate Montreal_section_7

Montreal is classified as a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb) in the Montréal-Trudeau airport and a hot-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfa) at McGill University. Montreal_sentence_148

Summers are warm to hot and humid with a daily maximum average of 26 to 27 °C (79 to 81 °F) in July; temperatures in excess of 30 °C (86 °F) are common. Montreal_sentence_149

Conversely, cold fronts can bring crisp, drier and windy weather in the early and later parts of summer. Montreal_sentence_150

Winter brings cold, snowy, windy, and, at times, icy weather, with a daily average ranging from −10.5 to −9 °C (13.1 to 15.8 °F) in January. Montreal_sentence_151

However, some winter days rise above freezing, allowing for rain on an average of 4 days in January and February each. Montreal_sentence_152

Usually, snow covering some or all bare ground lasts on average from the first or second week of December until the last week of March. Montreal_sentence_153

While the air temperature does not fall below −30 °C (−22 °F) every year, the wind chill often makes the temperature feel this low to exposed skin. Montreal_sentence_154

Spring and fall are pleasantly mild but prone to drastic temperature changes; spring even more so than fall. Montreal_sentence_155

Late season heat waves as well as "Indian summers" are possible. Montreal_sentence_156

Early and late season snow storms can occur in November and March, and more rarely in April. Montreal_sentence_157

Montreal is generally snow free from late April to late October. Montreal_sentence_158

However, snow can fall in early to mid-October as well as early to mid-May on rare occasions. Montreal_sentence_159

The lowest temperature in Environment Canada's books was −37.8 °C (−36 °F) on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature was 37.6 °C (99.7 °F) on August 1, 1975, both at Dorval International Airport. Montreal_sentence_160

Before modern weather record keeping (which dates back to 1871 for McGill), a minimum temperature almost 5 degrees lower was recorded at 7 a.m. on January 10, 1859, where it registered at −42 °C (−44 °F). Montreal_sentence_161

Annual precipitation is around 1,000 mm (39 in), including an average of about 210 cm (83 in) of snowfall, which occurs from November through March. Montreal_sentence_162

Thunderstorms are common in the period beginning in late spring through summer to early fall; additionally, tropical storms or their remnants can cause heavy rains and gales. Montreal_sentence_163

Montreal averages 2,050 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest season, though slightly wetter than the others in terms of total precipitation—mostly from thunderstorms. Montreal_sentence_164

Architecture Montreal_section_8

Main article: Architecture of Montreal Montreal_sentence_165

For over a century and a half, Montreal was the industrial and financial centre of Canada. Montreal_sentence_166

This legacy has left a variety of buildings including factories, elevators, warehouses, mills, and refineries, that today provide an invaluable insight into the city's history, especially in the downtown area and the Old Port area. Montreal_sentence_167

There are 50 National Historic Sites of Canada, more than any other city. Montreal_sentence_168

Some of the city's earliest still-standing buildings date back to the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Montreal_sentence_169

Although most are clustered around the Old Montreal area, such as the Sulpician Seminary adjacent to Notre Dame Basilica that dates back to 1687, and Château Ramezay, which was built in 1705, examples of early colonial architecture are dotted throughout the city. Montreal_sentence_170

Situated in Lachine, the Le Ber-Le Moyne House is the oldest complete building in the city, built between 1669 and 1671. Montreal_sentence_171

In Point St. Charles visitors can see the Maison Saint-Gabriel, which can trace its history back to 1698. Montreal_sentence_172

There are many historic buildings in Old Montreal in their original form: Notre Dame of Montreal Basilica, Bonsecours Market, and the 19th‑century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on St. Montreal_sentence_173 James Street (French: Rue Saint Jacques). Montreal_sentence_174

Montreal's earliest buildings are characterized by their uniquely French influence and grey stone construction. Montreal_sentence_175

Saint Joseph's Oratory, completed in 1967, Ernest Cormier's Art Deco Université de Montréal main building, the landmark Place Ville Marie office tower, the controversial Olympic Stadium and surrounding structures, are but a few notable examples of the city's 20th-century architecture. Montreal_sentence_176

Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs. Montreal_sentence_177

Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including Buckminster Fuller's geodesic dome U.S. Pavilion, now the Montreal Biosphere, and Moshe Safdie's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex. Montreal_sentence_178

The Montreal Metro has public artwork by some of the biggest names in Quebec culture. Montreal_sentence_179

In 2006 Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design, only one of three design capitals of the world (the others being Berlin and Buenos Aires). Montreal_sentence_180

This distinguished title recognizes Montreal's design community. Montreal_sentence_181

Since 2005 the city has been home for the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda); the International Design Alliance (IDA). Montreal_sentence_182

The Underground City (officially RESO) is an important tourist attraction. Montreal_sentence_183

It is the set of interconnected shopping complexes (both above and below ground). Montreal_sentence_184

This impressive network connects pedestrian thoroughfares to universities, as well as hotels, restaurants, bistros, subway stations and more, in and around downtown with 32 km (20 mi) of tunnels over 12 km (4.6 sq mi) of the most densely populated part of Montreal. Montreal_sentence_185

Neighbourhoods Montreal_section_9

Main article: List of neighbourhoods in Montreal Montreal_sentence_186

See also: Boroughs of Montreal Montreal_sentence_187

The city is composed of 19 large boroughs, subdivided into neighbourhoods. Montreal_sentence_188

The boroughs are: Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace, The Plateau Mount Royal, Outremont and Ville Marie in the centre; Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension in the east; Anjou, Montréal-Nord, Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles and Saint-Leonard in the northeast; Ahuntsic-Cartierville, L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève, Pierrefonds-Roxboro and Saint-Laurent in the northwest; and Lachine, LaSalle, The South West and Verdun in the south. Montreal_sentence_189

Many of these boroughs were independent cities that were forced to be merged with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 Municipal Reorganization of Montreal. Montreal_sentence_190

The borough with the most neighbourhoods is Ville Marie, which includes downtown, the historical district of Old Montreal, Chinatown, the Gay Village, the Latin Quarter, the gentrified Quartier international and Cité Multimédia as well as the Quartier des Spectacles which is under development. Montreal_sentence_191

Other neighbourhoods of interest in the borough include the affluent Golden Square Mile neighbourhood at the foot of Mount Royal and the Shaughnessy Village/Concordia U area home to thousands of students at Concordia University. Montreal_sentence_192

The borough also comprises most of Mount Royal Park, Saint Helen's Island, and Notre-Dame Island. Montreal_sentence_193

The Plateau Mount Royal borough was a working class francophone area. Montreal_sentence_194

The largest neighbourhood is the Plateau (not to be confused with the whole borough), which is undergoing considerable gentrification, and a 2001 study deemed it as Canada's most creative neighbourhood because artists comprise 8% of its labour force. Montreal_sentence_195

The neighbourhood of Mile End in the northwestern part of the borough has been a very multicultural area of the city, and features two of Montreal's well-known bagel establishments, St-Viateur Bagel and Fairmount Bagel. Montreal_sentence_196

The McGill Ghetto is in the extreme southwestern portion of the borough, its name being derived from the fact that it is home to thousands of McGill University students and faculty members. Montreal_sentence_197

The South West borough was home to much of the city's industry during the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century. Montreal_sentence_198

The borough included Goose Village and is home to the traditionally working-class Irish neighbourhoods of Griffintown and Point Saint Charles as well as the low-income neighbourhoods of Saint Henri and Little Burgundy. Montreal_sentence_199

Other notable neighbourhoods include the multicultural areas of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Côte-des-Neiges in the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace borough, and Little Italy in the borough of Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, home of the Olympic Stadium in the borough of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve. Montreal_sentence_200

Old Montreal Montreal_section_10

Main article: Old Montreal Montreal_sentence_201

Old Montreal is a historic area southeast of downtown containing many attractions such as the Old Port of Montreal, Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal City Hall, the Bonsecours Market, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, and the Montreal Science Centre. Montreal_sentence_202

Architecture and cobbled streets in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored and are frequented by horse-drawn buggies carrying tourists. Montreal_sentence_203

Old Montreal is accessible from the downtown core via the underground city and is served by several STM bus routes and Metro stations, ferries to the South Shore and a network of bicycle paths. Montreal_sentence_204

The riverside area adjacent to Old Montreal is known as the Old Port. Montreal_sentence_205

The Old Port was the site of the Port of Montreal, but its shipping operations have been moved to a larger site downstream, leaving the former location as a recreational and historical area maintained by Parks Canada. Montreal_sentence_206

The new Port of Montreal is Canada's largest container port and the largest inland port on Earth. Montreal_sentence_207

Mount Royal Montreal_section_11

Main article: Mount Royal Montreal_sentence_208

The mountain is the site of Mount Royal Park, one of Montreal's largest greenspaces. Montreal_sentence_209

The park, most of which is wooded, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York's Central Park, and was inaugurated in 1876. Montreal_sentence_210

The park contains two belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a chalet overlooking Downtown Montreal. Montreal_sentence_211

Other features of the park are Beaver Lake, a small man-made lake, a short ski slope, a sculpture garden, Smith House, an interpretive centre, and a well-known monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier. Montreal_sentence_212

The park hosts athletic, tourist and cultural activities. Montreal_sentence_213

The mountain is home to two major cemeteries, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges (founded in 1854) and Mount Royal (1852). Montreal_sentence_214

Mount Royal Cemetery is a 165 acres (67 ha) terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont. Montreal_sentence_215

Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is much larger, predominantly French-Canadian and officially Catholic. Montreal_sentence_216

More than 900,000 people are buried there. Montreal_sentence_217

Mount Royal Cemetery contains more than 162,000 graves and is the final resting place for a number of notable Canadians. Montreal_sentence_218

It includes a veterans section with several soldiers who were awarded the British Empire's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. Montreal_sentence_219

In 1901 the Mount Royal Cemetery Company established the first crematorium in Canada. Montreal_sentence_220

The first cross on the mountain was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfilment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood. Montreal_sentence_221

Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4 m-high (103 ft) illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the John the Baptist Society and now owned by the city. Montreal_sentence_222

It was converted to fibre optic light in 1992. Montreal_sentence_223

The new system can turn the lights red, blue, or purple, the last of which is used as a sign of mourning between the death of the Pope and the election of the next. Montreal_sentence_224

Demographics Montreal_section_12

Main article: Demographics of Montreal Montreal_sentence_225

According to Statistics Canada, at the 2016 Canadian census the city had 1,704,694 inhabitants. Montreal_sentence_226

A total of 4,098,927 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2016 census, up from 3,934,078 at the 2011 census (within 2011 CMA boundaries), which is a population growth of 4.19% from 2011 to 2016. Montreal_sentence_227

In 2015, the Greater Montreal population was estimated at 4,060,700. Montreal_sentence_228

According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities. Montreal_sentence_229

In the 2016 census, children under 14 years of age (691,345) constituted 16.9%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (671,690) numbered 16.4% of the total population of the CMA. Montreal_sentence_230

People of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. Montreal_sentence_231

The largest reported European ethnicities in the 2006 census were French 23%, Italians 10%, Irish 5%, English 4%, Scottish 3%, and Spanish 2%. Montreal_sentence_232

Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group, up from 5.2% in 1981. Montreal_sentence_233

Visible minorities comprised 34.2% of the population in the 2016 census. Montreal_sentence_234

The five most numerous visible minorities are Black Canadians (10.3%), Arab Canadians, mainly Lebanese Canadians (7.3%), Latin Americans (4.1%), South Asian Canadian (3.3%), and Chinese Canadians (3.3%). Montreal_sentence_235

Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginals, who are non-white in colour". Montreal_sentence_236

In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language. Montreal_sentence_237

The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are allophones, speaking languages including Italian (3.5%), Arabic (3.1%), Spanish (2.6%), Creole (1.3%), Chinese (1.2%), Greek (1.2%), Portuguese (0.8%), Berber language (0.8%), Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian (0.7%). Montreal_sentence_238

In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents. Montreal_sentence_239


Canada Census Mother Tongue – Montreal, QuebecMontreal_header_cell_1_0_0
CensusMontreal_header_cell_1_1_0 Montreal_cell_1_1_1 TotalMontreal_header_cell_1_1_2 Montreal_cell_1_1_3 FrenchMontreal_header_cell_1_1_4 Montreal_cell_1_1_7 EnglishMontreal_header_cell_1_1_8 Montreal_cell_1_1_11 French and EnglishMontreal_header_cell_1_1_12 Montreal_cell_1_1_15 OtherMontreal_header_cell_1_1_16
YearMontreal_header_cell_1_2_0 Montreal_cell_1_2_1 ResponsesMontreal_header_cell_1_2_2 Montreal_cell_1_2_3 CountMontreal_header_cell_1_2_4 TrendMontreal_header_cell_1_2_5 Pop %Montreal_header_cell_1_2_6 Montreal_cell_1_2_7 CountMontreal_header_cell_1_2_8 TrendMontreal_header_cell_1_2_9 Pop %Montreal_header_cell_1_2_10 Montreal_cell_1_2_11 CountMontreal_header_cell_1_2_12 TrendMontreal_header_cell_1_2_13 Pop %Montreal_header_cell_1_2_14 Montreal_cell_1_2_15 CountMontreal_header_cell_1_2_16 TrendMontreal_header_cell_1_2_17 Pop %Montreal_header_cell_1_2_18
2016Montreal_cell_1_3_0 Montreal_cell_1_3_1 1,680,910Montreal_cell_1_3_2 Montreal_cell_1_3_3 833,280Montreal_cell_1_3_4 1.75%Montreal_cell_1_3_5 49.57%Montreal_cell_1_3_6 Montreal_cell_1_3_7 208,140Montreal_cell_1_3_8 0.93%Montreal_cell_1_3_9 12.38%Montreal_cell_1_3_10 Montreal_cell_1_3_11 20,705Montreal_cell_1_3_12 18.79%Montreal_cell_1_3_13 1.27%Montreal_cell_1_3_14 Montreal_cell_1_3_15 559,035Montreal_cell_1_3_16 4.19%Montreal_cell_1_3_17 34.34%Montreal_cell_1_3_18
2011Montreal_cell_1_4_0 Montreal_cell_1_4_1 1,627,945Montreal_cell_1_4_2 Montreal_cell_1_4_3 818,970Montreal_cell_1_4_4 1.86%Montreal_cell_1_4_5 50.3%Montreal_cell_1_4_6 Montreal_cell_1_4_7 206,210Montreal_cell_1_4_8 3.1%Montreal_cell_1_4_9 12.67%Montreal_cell_1_4_10 Montreal_cell_1_4_11 17,430Montreal_cell_1_4_12 44.58%Montreal_cell_1_4_13 1.07%Montreal_cell_1_4_14 Montreal_cell_1_4_15 536,560Montreal_cell_1_4_16 1.93%Montreal_cell_1_4_17 32.30%Montreal_cell_1_4_18
2006Montreal_cell_1_5_0 Montreal_cell_1_5_1 1,593,725Montreal_cell_1_5_2 Montreal_cell_1_5_3 834,520Montreal_cell_1_5_4 4.45%Montreal_cell_1_5_5 52.36%Montreal_cell_1_5_6 Montreal_cell_1_5_7 200,000Montreal_cell_1_5_8 2.92%Montreal_cell_1_5_9 12.5%Montreal_cell_1_5_10 Montreal_cell_1_5_11 12,055Montreal_cell_1_5_12 28.27%Montreal_cell_1_5_13 0.75%Montreal_cell_1_5_14 Montreal_cell_1_5_15 547,150Montreal_cell_1_5_16 13.01%Montreal_cell_1_5_17 34.33%Montreal_cell_1_5_18
2001Montreal_cell_1_6_0 Montreal_cell_1_6_1 1,608,024Montreal_cell_1_6_2 Montreal_cell_1_6_3 873,564Montreal_cell_1_6_4 2.07%Montreal_cell_1_6_5 54.32%Montreal_cell_1_6_6 Montreal_cell_1_6_7 206,025Montreal_cell_1_6_8 4.21%Montreal_cell_1_6_9 12.81%Montreal_cell_1_6_10 Montreal_cell_1_6_11 16,807Montreal_cell_1_6_12 14.02%Montreal_cell_1_6_13 1.04%Montreal_cell_1_6_14 Montreal_cell_1_6_15 484,165Montreal_cell_1_6_16 13.72%Montreal_cell_1_6_17 30.1%Montreal_cell_1_6_18
1996Montreal_cell_1_7_0 Montreal_cell_1_7_1 1,569,437Montreal_cell_1_7_2 Montreal_cell_1_7_3 855,780Montreal_cell_1_7_4 n/aMontreal_cell_1_7_5 54.53%Montreal_cell_1_7_6 Montreal_cell_1_7_7 215,100Montreal_cell_1_7_8 n/aMontreal_cell_1_7_9 13.7%Montreal_cell_1_7_10 Montreal_cell_1_7_11 14,740Montreal_cell_1_7_12 n/aMontreal_cell_1_7_13 0.94%Montreal_cell_1_7_14 Montreal_cell_1_7_15 425,725Montreal_cell_1_7_16 n/aMontreal_cell_1_7_17 27.12%Montreal_cell_1_7_18

The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada. Montreal_sentence_240

Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Montreal_sentence_241

Some 65.8% of the total population is Christian, largely Roman Catholic (52.8%), primarily because of descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Montreal_sentence_242

Protestants which include Anglican Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 5.90%, with a further 3.7% consisting mostly of Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. Montreal_sentence_243

There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes. Montreal_sentence_244

Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 154,540 members, the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada at 9.6%. Montreal_sentence_245

The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 90,780. Montreal_sentence_246

In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority, or a substantial part of the population. Montreal_sentence_247

As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480. Montreal_sentence_248

Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec. Montreal_sentence_249

Economy Montreal_section_13

Main article: Economy of Montreal Montreal_sentence_250

Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP and the largest in Quebec. Montreal_sentence_251

In 2014, Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for CA$118.7 billion of Quebec's CA$340.7 billion GDP. Montreal_sentence_252

The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange. Montreal_sentence_253

In recent decades, the city was widely seen as weaker than that of Toronto and other major Canadian cities, but it has recently experienced a revival. Montreal_sentence_254

Industries include aerospace, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. Montreal_sentence_255

The service sector is also strong and includes civil, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. Montreal_sentence_256

In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs. Montreal_sentence_257

The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually. Montreal_sentence_258

As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a transshipment point for grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. Montreal_sentence_259

For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway, and was home to the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1995. Montreal_sentence_260

The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal. Montreal_sentence_261

Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World Anti-Doping Agency (an Olympic body); the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World); the International Air Transport Association (IATA), IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC), as well as some other international organizations in various fields. Montreal_sentence_262

Montreal is a centre of film and television production. Montreal_sentence_263

The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Award-winning documentary producer National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Montreal_sentence_264

Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations. Montreal_sentence_265

The city is also home to many recognized cultural, film and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags, Montreal International Jazz Festival, Montreal World Film Festival, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. Montreal_sentence_266

It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil. Montreal_sentence_267

Montreal is also a global hub for artificial intelligence research with many companies involved in this sector, such as Facebook AI Research (FAIR), Microsoft Research, Google Brain, DeepMind, Samsung Research and Thales Group (cortAIx). Montreal_sentence_268

The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since 1997, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal. Montreal_sentence_269

Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as EA, Eidos Interactive, BioWare, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labor, and tax credits offered to the corporations. Montreal_sentence_270

Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio. Montreal_sentence_271

Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. Montreal_sentence_272

The studio will create 300 jobs. Montreal_sentence_273

Montreal plays an important role in the finance industry. Montreal_sentence_274

The sector employs approximately 100,000 people in the Greater Montreal Area. Montreal_sentence_275

As of March 2018, Montreal is ranked in the 12th position in the Global Financial Centres Index, a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres around the world. Montreal_sentence_276

The city is home to the Montreal Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in Canada and the only financial derivatives exchange in the country. Montreal_sentence_277

The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. Montreal_sentence_278

While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. Montreal_sentence_279

The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada. Montreal_sentence_280

The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an institutional investor managing assets totalling $248 billion CAD, has its main business office in Montreal. Montreal_sentence_281

Many foreign subsidiaries operating in the financial sector also have offices in Montreal, including HSBC, Aon, Société Générale, BNP Paribas and AXA. Montreal_sentence_282

Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan, Bombardier Inc., Canadian National Railway, CGI Group, Air Canada, Air Transat, CAE, Saputo, Cirque du Soleil, Stingray Group, Quebecor, Ultramar, Kruger Inc., Jean Coutu Group, Uniprix, Proxim, Domtar, Le Château, Power Corporation, Cellcom Communications, Bell Canada. Montreal_sentence_283

Standard Life, Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson, Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin, MEGA Brands, Aeroplan, Agropur, Metro Inc., Laurentian Bank of Canada, National Bank of Canada, Transat A.T., Via Rail, GardaWorld, Novacam Technologies, SOLABS, Dollarama, Rona and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. Montreal_sentence_284

The Montreal Oil Refining Centre is the largest refining centre in Canada, with companies like Petro-Canada, Ultramar, Gulf Oil, Petromont, Ashland Canada, Parachem Petrochemical, Coastal Petrochemical, Interquisa (Cepsa) Petrochemical, Nova Chemicals, and more. Montreal_sentence_285

Shell decided to close the refining centre in 2010, throwing hundreds out of work and causing an increased dependence on foreign refineries for eastern Canada. Montreal_sentence_286

Culture Montreal_section_14

Main article: Culture of Montreal Montreal_sentence_287

Montreal was referred to as "Canada's Cultural Capital" by Monocle magazine. Montreal_sentence_288

The city is Canada's centre for French-language television productions, radio, theatre, film, multimedia, and print publishing. Montreal_sentence_289

Montreal's many cultural communities have given it a distinct local culture. Montreal_sentence_290

As a North American city, Montreal shares many cultural characteristics with the rest of the continent. Montreal_sentence_291

It has a tradition of producing both jazz and rock music. Montreal_sentence_292

The city has also produced much talent in the fields of visual arts, theatre, music, and dance. Montreal_sentence_293

Yet, being at the confluence of the French and the English traditions, Montreal has developed a unique and distinguished cultural face. Montreal_sentence_294

Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the vibrancy of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by cultural and social events, including its more than 100 annual festivals, the largest being the Montreal International Jazz Festival which is the largest jazz festival in the world. Montreal_sentence_295

Other popular events include the Just for Laughs (largest comedy festival in the world), Montreal World Film Festival, Les FrancoFolies de Montréal, Nuits d'Afrique, Pop Montreal, Divers/Cité, Fierté Montréal and the Montreal Fireworks Festival, and many smaller festivals. Montreal_sentence_296

A cultural heart of classical art and the venue for many summer festivals, the Place des Arts is a complex of different concert and theatre halls surrounding a large square in the eastern portion of downtown. Montreal_sentence_297

Place des Arts has the headquarters of one of the world's foremost orchestras, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. Montreal_sentence_298

The Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand Montréal and the chamber orchestra I Musici de Montréal are two other well-regarded Montreal orchestras. Montreal_sentence_299

Also performing at Place des Arts are the Opéra de Montréal and the city's chief ballet company Les Grands Ballets Canadiens. Montreal_sentence_300

Internationally recognized avant-garde dance troupes such as Compagnie Marie Chouinard, La La La Human Steps, O Vertigo, and the Fondation Jean-Pierre Perreault have toured the world and worked with international popular artists on videos and concerts. Montreal_sentence_301

The unique choreography of these troupes has paved the way for the success of the world-renowned Cirque du Soleil. Montreal_sentence_302

Nicknamed la ville aux cent clochers (the city of a hundred steeples), Montreal is renowned for its churches. Montreal_sentence_303

As Mark Twain noted, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window." Montreal_sentence_304

The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, the aforementioned Notre-Dame Basilica, St Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Montreal_sentence_305

The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the second largest copper dome in the world, after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. Montreal_sentence_306

Sports Montreal_section_15

Main article: Sports in Montreal Montreal_sentence_307

The most popular sport is ice hockey. Montreal_sentence_308

The professional hockey team, the Montreal Canadiens, is one of the Original Six teams of the National Hockey League (NHL), and has won an NHL-record 24 Stanley Cup championships. Montreal_sentence_309

The Canadiens' most recent Stanley Cup victory came in 1993. Montreal_sentence_310

They have major rivalries with the Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins, both of which are also Original Six hockey teams, and with the Ottawa Senators, the closest team geographically. Montreal_sentence_311

The Canadiens have played at the Bell Centre since 1996. Montreal_sentence_312

Prior to that they played at the Montreal Forum. Montreal_sentence_313

The Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League (CFL) play at Molson Stadium on the campus of McGill University for their regular-season games. Montreal_sentence_314

Late season and playoff games are played at the much larger, enclosed Olympic Stadium, which also played host to the 2008 Grey Cup. Montreal_sentence_315

The Alouettes have won the Grey Cup seven times, most recently in 2010. Montreal_sentence_316

The Alouettes has had two periods on hiatus. Montreal_sentence_317

During the second one, the Montreal Machine played in the World League of American Football in 1991 and 1992. Montreal_sentence_318

The McGill Redmen, Concordia Stingers, and Université de Montréal Carabins play in the CIS university football league. Montreal_sentence_319

Montreal has a storied baseball history. Montreal_sentence_320

The city was the home of the minor-league Montreal Royals of the International League until 1960. Montreal_sentence_321

In 1946 Jackie Robinson broke the baseball colour barrier with the Royals in an emotionally difficult year; Robinson was forever grateful for the local fans' fervent support. Montreal_sentence_322

Major League Baseball came to town in the form of the Montreal Expos in 1969. Montreal_sentence_323

They played their games at Jarry Park until moving into Olympic Stadium in 1977. Montreal_sentence_324

After 36 years in Montreal, the team relocated to Washington, D.C. in 2005 and re-branded themselves as the Washington Nationals. Montreal_sentence_325

Discussions about MLB returning to Montreal remain active. Montreal_sentence_326

The Montreal Impact are the city's professional soccer team. Montreal_sentence_327

They play at a soccer-specific stadium called Saputo Stadium. Montreal_sentence_328

They joined North America's biggest soccer league, Major League Soccer in 2012. Montreal_sentence_329

The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium, and the venue hosted Montreal games in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Montreal_sentence_330

Montreal is the site of a high-profile auto racing event each year: the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One (F1) racing. Montreal_sentence_331

This race takes place on the famous Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Île Notre-Dame. Montreal_sentence_332

In 2009, the race was dropped from the Formula One calendar, to the chagrin of some fans, but the Canadian Grand Prix returned to the Formula 1 calendar in 2010. Montreal_sentence_333

The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve also hosted a round of the Champ Car World Series from 2002 to 2007, and was home to the NAPA Auto Parts 200, a NASCAR Nationwide Series race, and the Montréal 200, a Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series race. Montreal_sentence_334

Uniprix Stadium, built in 1993 on the site of Jarry Park, is used for the Rogers Cup men's and women's tennis tournaments. Montreal_sentence_335

The men's tournament is a Masters 1000 event on the ATP Tour, and the women's tournament is a Premier tournament on the WTA Tour. Montreal_sentence_336

The men's and women's tournaments alternate between Montreal and Toronto every year. Montreal_sentence_337

Montreal was the host of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. Montreal_sentence_338

The stadium cost $1.5 billion; with interest that figure ballooned to nearly $3 billion, and was only paid off in December 2006. Montreal_sentence_339

Montreal also hosted the first ever World Outgames in the summer of 2006, attracting over 16,000 participants engaged in 35 sporting activities. Montreal_sentence_340

Montreal was the host city for the 17th unicycling world championship and convention (UNICON) in August 2014. Montreal_sentence_341

Montreal and the National Basketball Association (NBA) have been in early discussions for an expansion franchise located in the city. Montreal_sentence_342


Active professional sports teams in MontrealMontreal_table_caption_2
ClubMontreal_header_cell_2_0_0 LeagueMontreal_header_cell_2_0_1 SportMontreal_header_cell_2_0_2 VenueMontreal_header_cell_2_0_3 EstablishedMontreal_header_cell_2_0_4 ChampionshipsMontreal_header_cell_2_0_5
Montreal CanadiensMontreal_header_cell_2_1_0 NHLMontreal_cell_2_1_1 Ice hockeyMontreal_cell_2_1_2 Bell CentreMontreal_cell_2_1_3 1909Montreal_cell_2_1_4 24Montreal_cell_2_1_5
Montreal AlouettesMontreal_header_cell_2_2_0 CFLMontreal_cell_2_2_1 Canadian footballMontreal_cell_2_2_2 Percival Molson Memorial Stadium

Olympic StadiumMontreal_cell_2_2_3

1946Montreal_cell_2_2_4 7Montreal_cell_2_2_5
Montreal ImpactMontreal_header_cell_2_3_0 MLSMontreal_cell_2_3_1 SoccerMontreal_cell_2_3_2 Saputo StadiumMontreal_cell_2_3_3 2012Montreal_cell_2_3_4 0Montreal_cell_2_3_5

Media Montreal_section_16

Main article: Media in Montreal Montreal_sentence_343

Montreal is Canada's second-largest media market, and the centre of francophone Canada's media industry. Montreal_sentence_344

There are four over-the-air English-language television stations: CBMT-DT (CBC Television), CFCF-DT (CTV), CKMI-DT (Global) and CJNT-DT (Citytv). Montreal_sentence_345

There are also five over-the-air French-language television stations: CBFT-DT (Ici Radio-Canada), CFTM-DT (TVA), CFJP-DT (V), CIVM-DT (Télé-Québec), and CFTU-DT (Canal Savoir). Montreal_sentence_346

Montreal has three daily newspapers, the English-language Montreal Gazette and the French-language Le Journal de Montréal, and Le Devoir; another French-language daily, La Presse, became an online daily in 2018. Montreal_sentence_347

There are two free French dailies, Métro and 24 Heures. Montreal_sentence_348

Montreal has numerous weekly tabloids and community newspapers serving various neighbourhoods, ethnic groups and schools. Montreal_sentence_349

Government Montreal_section_17

Main articles: Montreal City Council and Mayor of Montreal Montreal_sentence_350

The head of the city government in Montreal is the mayor, who is first among equals in the city council. Montreal_sentence_351

The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city, although much power is centralized in the executive committee. Montreal_sentence_352

The council consists of 65 members from all boroughs. Montreal_sentence_353

The council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. Montreal_sentence_354

The council is required to supervise, standardize or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils. Montreal_sentence_355

Reporting directly to the council, the executive committee exercises decision-making powers similar to those of the cabinet in a parliamentary system and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted to the council for approval. Montreal_sentence_356

The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. Montreal_sentence_357

It may also be assigned further powers by the city council. Montreal_sentence_358

Standing committees are the prime instruments for public consultation. Montreal_sentence_359

They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. Montreal_sentence_360

They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. Montreal_sentence_361

A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. Montreal_sentence_362

All meetings include a public question period. Montreal_sentence_363

The standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. Montreal_sentence_364

In addition, the City Council may decide to create special committees at any time. Montreal_sentence_365

Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. Montreal_sentence_366

The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee. Montreal_sentence_367

The city is only one component of the larger Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal, CMM), which is in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection and waste management, etc., across the metropolitan area. Montreal_sentence_368

The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. Montreal_sentence_369

The CMM covers 4,360 km (1,680 sq mi), with 3.6 million inhabitants in 2006. Montreal_sentence_370

Montreal is the seat of the judicial district of Montreal, which includes the city and the other communities on the island. Montreal_sentence_371

Crime Montreal_section_18

The overall crime rate in Montreal has declined, with a few notable exceptions, with murders at the lowest rate since 1972 (23 murders in 2016). Montreal_sentence_372

Sex crimes have increased 14.5 percent between 2015 and 2016 and fraud cases have increased by 13 percent over the same period. Montreal_sentence_373

The major criminal organizations active in Montreal are the Rizzuto crime family, Hells Angels and West End Gang. Montreal_sentence_374

Education Montreal_section_19

Main article: Education in Montreal Montreal_sentence_375

The education system in Quebec is different from other systems in North America. Montreal_sentence_376

Between high school (which ends at grade 11) and university students must go through an additional school called CEGEP. Montreal_sentence_377

CEGEPs offer pre-university (2-years) and technical (3-years) programs. Montreal_sentence_378

In Montreal, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English. Montreal_sentence_379

French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Centre de services scolaire de Montréal (CSDM), Centre de services scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys and the Centre de services scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île. Montreal_sentence_380

English-language elementary and secondary public schools on Montreal Island are operated by the English Montreal School Board and the Lester B. Pearson School Board. Montreal_sentence_381

With four universities, seven other degree-awarding institutions, and 12 CEGEPs in an 8 km (5.0 mi) radius, Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America (4.38 students per 100 residents, followed by Boston at 4.37 students per 100 residents). Montreal_sentence_382

Higher education (English) Montreal_section_20


  • McGill University is one of Canada's leading post-secondary institutions, and widely regarded as a world-class institution. In 2015, McGill was ranked as the top University in Canada for the eleventh consecutive year by Macleans, and as the best University in Canada; 24th best University in the world, by the QS World University Rankings.Montreal_item_0_0
  • Concordia University was created from the merger of Sir George Williams University and Loyola College in 1974. The university has been ranked as one of the most comprehensive universities in Canada by Macleans.Montreal_item_0_1

Higher education (French) Montreal_section_21


Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's south shore. Montreal_sentence_383

Also, l'Institut de pastorale des Dominicains is Montreal's university centre of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. Montreal_sentence_384

The Faculté de théologie évangélique is Nova Scotia's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering both a Bachelor and a Master program in theology Montreal_sentence_385

Transportation Montreal_section_22

Main article: Transportation in Montreal Montreal_sentence_386

Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion. Montreal_sentence_387

Commuting traffic from the cities and towns in the West Island (such as Dollard-des-Ormeaux and Pointe-Claire) is compounded by commuters entering the city that use twenty-four road crossings from numerous off-island suburbs on the North and South Shores. Montreal_sentence_388

The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. Montreal_sentence_389

There are presently four road bridges (including two of the country's busiest) along with one bridge-tunnel, two railway bridges, and a Metro line. Montreal_sentence_390

The far narrower Rivière des Prairies to the city's north, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by nine road bridges (seven to the city of Laval and two that span directly to the north shore) and a Metro line. Montreal_sentence_391

The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), A-15 (aka the Decarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), A-20, A-25, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), A-520 and A-720 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Montreal_sentence_392

Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour. Montreal_sentence_393

However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. Montreal_sentence_394

One such example is the extension of Quebec Autoroute 30 on Montreal's south shore, which will serve as a bypass. Montreal_sentence_395

Société de transport de Montréal Montreal_section_23

Main articles: Société de transport de Montréal and Montreal Metro Montreal_sentence_396

Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. Montreal_sentence_397

The subway and bus system are operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM, Montreal Transit Society). Montreal_sentence_398

The STM bus network consists of 203 daytime and 23 nighttime routes. Montreal_sentence_399

STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010. Montreal_sentence_400

It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses. Montreal_sentence_401

The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. Montreal_sentence_402

It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize. Montreal_sentence_403

The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines. Montreal_sentence_404

It is Canada's busiest subway system in total daily passenger usage, serving 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010). Montreal_sentence_405

Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most. Montreal_sentence_406

The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. Montreal_sentence_407

The Metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, and in 2007 was extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations. Montreal_sentence_408

The metro has recently been modernizing its trains, purchasing new Azur models with inter-connected wagons. Montreal_sentence_409

Air Montreal_section_24

Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Montreal_sentence_410

Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as Dorval Airport) in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada and Air Transat. Montreal_sentence_411

To the north of the city is Montreal Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services. Montreal_sentence_412

In 2018, Trudeau was the third busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and aircraft movements, handling 19.42 million passengers, and 240,159 aircraft movements. Montreal_sentence_413

With 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport. Montreal_sentence_414

It is one of Air Canada's major hubs and operates on average approximately 2,400 flights per week between Montreal and 155 destinations, spread on five continents. Montreal_sentence_415

Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. Montreal_sentence_416

It is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more. Montreal_sentence_417

Rail Montreal_section_25

Montreal-based Via Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Montreal_sentence_418

Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its Adirondack daily to New York. Montreal_sentence_419

All intercity trains and most commuter trains operate out of Central Station. Montreal_sentence_420

Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, was founded here in 1881. Montreal_sentence_421

Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street until 1995. Montreal_sentence_422

With the Port of Montreal kept open year-round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the railway's eastern and intermodal freight terminus. Montreal_sentence_423

CPR connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, the Central Maine and Quebec Railway to Halifax, and CN Rail. Montreal_sentence_424

The CPR's flagship train, The Canadian, ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but all passenger services have since been transferred to Via Rail Canada. Montreal_sentence_425

Since 1990, The Canadian has terminated in Toronto. Montreal_sentence_426

Montreal-based Canadian National Railways (CN) was formed in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. Montreal_sentence_427

It was formed from the Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada. Montreal_sentence_428

Like the CPR, CN has divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via Rail Canada. Montreal_sentence_429

CN's flagship train, the Super Continental, ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver and subsequently became a Via train in the late 1970s. Montreal_sentence_430

It was eliminated in 1990 in favour of rerouting The Canadian. Montreal_sentence_431

The commuter rail system is managed and operated by Exo, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal with six lines. Montreal_sentence_432

It carried an average of 79,000 daily passengers in 2014, making it the seventh busiest in North America following New York, Chicago, Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, and Mexico City. Montreal_sentence_433

On 22 April 2016 the forthcoming automated rapid transit system, the Réseau express métropolitain, was unveiled. Montreal_sentence_434

Groundbreaking occurred 12 April 2018, and construction of the 67-kilometre-long (42 mi) network – consisting of three branches, 26 stations, and the conversion of the region's busiest commuter railway – commenced the following month. Montreal_sentence_435

To be opened in three phases as of 2021, the REM will be completed by mid-2023, becoming the fourth largest automated rapid transit network after the Dubai Metro, the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit, and the Vancouver SkyTrain. Montreal_sentence_436

Most of it will be financed by pension fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. Montreal_sentence_437

Notable people Montreal_section_26

Main article: List of people from Montreal Montreal_sentence_438

International relations Montreal_section_27

Sister cities Montreal_section_28

Friendship cities Montreal_section_29


  • Paris, France – 2006Montreal_item_2_7

See also Montreal_section_30


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