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This article is about the capital city of Russia. Moscow_sentence_0

For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). Moscow_sentence_1

"Moskva" redirects here. Moscow_sentence_2

For other uses, see Moskva (disambiguation). Moscow_sentence_3


CountryMoscow_header_cell_0_1_0 RussiaMoscow_cell_0_1_1
Federal districtMoscow_header_cell_0_2_0 CentralMoscow_cell_0_2_1
Economic regionMoscow_header_cell_0_3_0 CentralMoscow_cell_0_3_1
EstablishedMoscow_header_cell_0_4_0 1147Moscow_cell_0_4_1
BodyMoscow_header_cell_0_6_0 City DumaMoscow_cell_0_6_1
MayorMoscow_header_cell_0_7_0 Sergey SobyaninMoscow_cell_0_7_1
TotalMoscow_header_cell_0_9_0 2,511 km (970 sq mi)Moscow_cell_0_9_1
Area rankMoscow_header_cell_0_10_0 83rdMoscow_cell_0_10_1
Estimate (2018)Moscow_header_cell_0_12_0 12,506,468Moscow_cell_0_12_1
RankMoscow_header_cell_0_13_0 1stMoscow_cell_0_13_1
Time zoneMoscow_header_cell_0_14_0 UTC+3 (MSK Q649?uselang=en#P421)Moscow_cell_0_14_1
ISO 3166 codeMoscow_header_cell_0_15_0 RU-MOWMoscow_cell_0_15_1
License platesMoscow_header_cell_0_16_0 77, 177, 777; 97, 197, 797; 99, 199, 799Moscow_cell_0_16_1
OKTMO IDMoscow_header_cell_0_17_0 45000000Moscow_cell_0_17_1
Official languagesMoscow_header_cell_0_18_0 RussianMoscow_cell_0_18_1
WebsiteMoscow_header_cell_0_19_0 Moscow_cell_0_19_1

Moscow (/ˈmɒskoʊ/, /ˈmɒskaʊ/; Russian: Москва, tr. Moscow_sentence_4

Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva (listen)) is the capital and largest city of Russia. Moscow_sentence_5

The city stands on the Moskva River in Central Russia, with a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits, while over 17 million residents in the urban area, and over 20 million residents in the Moscow Metropolitan Area. Moscow_sentence_6

The city covers an area of 2,511 square kilometres (970 sq mi), while the urban area covers 5,891 square kilometres (2,275 sq mi), and the metropolitan area covers over 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi). Moscow_sentence_7

Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the largest city entirely within Europe, the largest urban area in Europe, the largest metropolitan area in Europe, and also the largest city by land area on the European continent. Moscow_sentence_8

Originally established in 1147, Moscow grew to become a prosperous and powerful city that served as the capital of the Grand Duchy that bears its namesake. Moscow_sentence_9

When the Grand Duchy of Moscow evolved into the Tsardom of Russia, Moscow still remained as the political and economic center for most of the Tsardom's history. Moscow_sentence_10

When the Tsardom was reformed into the Russian Empire, the capital was moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg, diminishing the influence of the city. Moscow_sentence_11

The capital was then moved back to Moscow following the Russian Revolution and the city was brought back as the political centre of the Russian SFSR and the Soviet Union. Moscow_sentence_12

When the Soviet Union dissolved, Moscow remained as the capital city of the contemporary and newly established Russian Federation. Moscow_sentence_13

As the northernmost and coldest megacity in the world, and with a history that dates over eight centuries, Moscow is governed as a federal city that serves as the political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia and Eastern Europe. Moscow_sentence_14

As an alpha world city, Moscow has one of the world's largest urban economies, and is one of the most expensive cities in the world. Moscow_sentence_15

The city is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world, and is one of Europe's most visited cities. Moscow_sentence_16

Moscow is home to the third-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, and has the highest number of billionaires of any city in Europe. Moscow_sentence_17

The Moscow International Business Center is one of largest financial centres of Europe and the world, and features some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers. Moscow_sentence_18

Muscovites enjoy public digital services more than anywhere else in Europe, and the best e-government services in the world. Moscow_sentence_19

Moscow is also home to the tallest free-standing structure in Europe, the Ostankino Tower, and was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, and one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Moscow_sentence_20

As the historic core of Russia, Moscow serves as the home of numerous Russian artists, scientists, and sports figures due to the presence of its various museums, academic and political institutions and theatres. Moscow_sentence_21

The city is home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and is well known for its display of Russian architecture, particularly its historic Red Square, and buildings such as the Saint Basil's Cathedral and the Moscow Kremlin, of which the latter serves as the seat of power of the Government of Russia. Moscow_sentence_22

Moscow is home to many Russian companies in numerous industries, and is served by a comprehensive transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, a tram system, a monorail system, the largest trolleybus fleet in Europe, the largest fleet of carsharing vehicles in the world, and most notably the Moscow Metro, the busiest metro system in Europe, and one of the largest rapid transit systems in the world. Moscow_sentence_23

The city has over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, making it one of the greenest cities in Europe and the world. Moscow_sentence_24

Etymology Moscow_section_0

The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. Moscow_sentence_25

There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Moscow_sentence_26

Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several pre-Slavic tribes which originally inhabited the area, called the river supposedly Mustajoki, in English: Black river. Moscow_sentence_27

It has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term. Moscow_sentence_28

The most linguistically well grounded and widely accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh. Moscow_sentence_29

Its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". Moscow_sentence_30

In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia, Ukraine and North Macedonia. Moscow_sentence_31

There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa. Moscow_sentence_32

The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic . Moscow_sentence_33

As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ (accusative case), Москви, Moskvi (locative case), Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě (genitive case). Moscow_sentence_34

From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, which is a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic . Moscow_sentence_35

However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, Muskav, etc. Moscow_sentence_36

In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, later it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. Moscow_sentence_37

From it as well came English Muscovy and muscovite. Moscow_sentence_38

Various other theories (of Celtic, Iranian, Caucasic origins), having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists. Moscow_sentence_39

Other names Moscow_section_1

Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), the Whitestone One (Белокаменная), the First Throne (Первопрестольная), the Forty Soroks (Сорок Сороков) ("sorok" meaning both "forty, a great many" and "a district or parish" in Old Russian). Moscow_sentence_40

Moscow is also one of the twelve Hero Cities. Moscow_sentence_41

The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" (moskvich) for male or "москвичка" (moskvichka) for female, rendered in English as Muscovite. Moscow_sentence_42

The name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK" (МСК in Russian). Moscow_sentence_43

History Moscow_section_2

Main articles: History of Moscow and Timeline of Moscow Moscow_sentence_44

Prehistory Moscow_section_3

Archaeological digs show that the site of today's Moscow and the surrounding area have been inhabited since time immemorial. Moscow_sentence_45

Among the earliest finds are relics of the Lyalovo culture, which experts assign to the Neolithic period, the last phase of the Stone Age. Moscow_sentence_46

They confirm that the first inhabitants of the area were hunters and gatherers. Moscow_sentence_47

Around 950 AD, two Slavic tribes, Vyatichi and Krivichi, settled here. Moscow_sentence_48

Possibly the Vyatichi formed the core of Moscow's indigenous population. Moscow_sentence_49

Early history (1147–1283) Moscow_section_4

Further information: Kievan Rus' and Vladimir-Suzdal Moscow_sentence_50

The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a meeting place of Yuri Dolgoruky and Sviatoslav Olgovich. Moscow_sentence_51

At the time it was a minor town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. Moscow_sentence_52

The chronicle says, "Come, my brother, to Moskov" (Original - Приди ко мне, брате, во Москов) Moscow_sentence_53

In 1156, Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky fortified the town with a timber fence and a moat. Moscow_sentence_54

In the course of the Mongol invasion of Rus, the Mongols under Batu Khan burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants. Moscow_sentence_55

The timber fort na Moskvě "on the Moscow River" was inherited by Daniel, the youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, in the 1260s, at the time considered the least valuable of his father's possessions. Moscow_sentence_56

Daniel was still a child at the time, and the big fort was governed by tiuns (deputies), appointed by Daniel's paternal uncle, Yaroslav of Tver. Moscow_sentence_57

Daniel came of age in the 1270s and became involved in the power struggles of the principality with lasting success, siding with his brother Dmitry in his bid for the rule of Novgorod. Moscow_sentence_58

From 1283 he acted as the ruler of an independent principality alongside Dmitry, who became Grand Duke of Vladimir. Moscow_sentence_59

Daniel has been credited with founding the first Moscow monasteries, dedicated to the Lord's Epiphany and to Saint Daniel. Moscow_sentence_60

Grand Duchy (1283–1547) Moscow_section_5

Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow Moscow_sentence_61

Daniel ruled Moscow as Grand Duke until 1303 and established it as a prosperous city that would eclipse its parent principality of Vladimir by the 1320s. Moscow_sentence_62

On the right bank of the Moskva River, at a distance of five miles (8.0 kilometres) from the Kremlin, not later than in 1282, Daniel founded the first monastery with the wooden church of St. Daniel-Stylite, which is now the Danilov Monastery. Moscow_sentence_63

Daniel died in 1303, at the age of 42. Moscow_sentence_64

Before his death, he became a monk and, according to his will, was buried in the cemetery of the St. Daniel Monastery. Moscow_sentence_65

Moscow was quite stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large number of refugees from across Russia. Moscow_sentence_66

The Rurikids maintained large landholdings by practicing primogeniture, whereby all land was passed to the eldest sons, rather than dividing it up among all sons. Moscow_sentence_67

By 1304, Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir. Moscow_sentence_68

Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers, making Moscow the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal. Moscow_sentence_69

By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. Moscow_sentence_70

While the Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. Moscow_sentence_71

In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo. Moscow_sentence_72

Afterwards, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. Moscow_sentence_73

In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control, and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts of many other lands. Moscow_sentence_74

In 1462 Ivan III, (1440–1505) became Grand Prince of Moscow (then part of the medieval Muscovy state). Moscow_sentence_75

He began fighting the Tatars, enlarged the territory of Muscovy, and enriched his capital city. Moscow_sentence_76

By 1500 it had a population of 100,000 and was one of the largest cities in the world. Moscow_sentence_77

He conquered the far larger principality of Novgorod to the north, which had been allied to the hostile Lithuanians. Moscow_sentence_78

Thus he enlarged the territory sevenfold, from 430,000 to 2,800,000 square kilometres (170,000 to 1,080,000 square miles). Moscow_sentence_79

He took control of the ancient "Novgorod Chronicle" and made it a propaganda vehicle for his regime. Moscow_sentence_80

The original Moscow Kremlin was built in the 14th century. Moscow_sentence_81

It was reconstructed by Ivan, who in the 1480s invited architects from Renaissance Italy, such as Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marco Ruffo who designed the new palace for the prince. Moscow_sentence_82

The Kremlin walls as they now appear are those designed by Solarius, completed in 1495. Moscow_sentence_83

The Kremlin's Great Bell Tower was built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600. Moscow_sentence_84

A trading settlement, or posad, grew up to the east of the Kremlin, in the area known as Zaradye (Зарядье). Moscow_sentence_85

In the time of Ivan III, the Red Square, originally named the Hollow Field (Полое поле) appeared. Moscow_sentence_86

In 1508–1516, the Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin (Novy) arranged for the construction of a moat in front of the eastern wall, which would connect the Moskva and Neglinnaya and be filled in with water from Neglinnaya. Moscow_sentence_87

This moat, known as the Alevizov moat and having a length of 541 metres (1,775 feet), width of 36 metres (118 feet), and a depth of 9.5 to 13 metres (31–43 feet) was lined with limestone and, in 1533, fenced on both sides with low, four-metre-thick (13-foot) cogged-brick walls. Moscow_sentence_88

Tsardom (1547–1721) Moscow_section_6

Further information: Tsardom of Russia Moscow_sentence_89

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the three circular defences were built: Kitay-gorod (Китай-город), the White City (Белый город) and the Earthen City (Земляной город). Moscow_sentence_90

However, in 1547, two fires destroyed much of the town, and in 1571 the Crimean Tatars captured Moscow, burning everything except the Kremlin. Moscow_sentence_91

The annals record that only 30,000 of 200,000 inhabitants survived. Moscow_sentence_92

The Crimean Tatars attacked again in 1591, but this time was held back by new defence walls, built between 1584 and 1591 by a craftsman named Fyodor Kon. Moscow_sentence_93

In 1592, an outer earth rampart with 50 towers was erected around the city, including an area on the right bank of the Moscow River. Moscow_sentence_94

As an outermost line of defence, a chain of strongly fortified monasteries was established beyond the ramparts to the south and east, principally the Novodevichy Convent and Donskoy, Danilov, Simonov, Novospasskiy, and Andronikov monasteries, most of which now house museums. Moscow_sentence_95

From its ramparts, the city became poetically known as Bielokamennaya, the "White-Walled". Moscow_sentence_96

The limits of the city as marked by the ramparts built in 1592 are now marked by the Garden Ring. Moscow_sentence_97

Three square gates existed on the eastern side of the Kremlin wall, which in the 17th century, were known as Konstantino-Eleninsky, Spassky, Nikolsky (owing their names to the icons of Constantine and Helen, the Saviour and St. Nicholas that hung over them). Moscow_sentence_98

The last two were directly opposite the Red Square, while the Konstantino-Elenensky gate was located behind Saint Basil's Cathedral. Moscow_sentence_99

The Russian famine of 1601–03 killed perhaps 100,000 in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_100

From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne. Moscow_sentence_101

In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants, besieged the Kremlin, and expelled them. Moscow_sentence_102

In 1613, the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. Moscow_sentence_103

The 17th century was rich in popular risings, such as the liberation of Moscow from the Polish–Lithuanian invaders (1612), the Salt Riot (1648), the Copper Riot (1662), and the Moscow Uprising of 1682. Moscow_sentence_104

During the first half of the 17th century, the population of Moscow doubled from roughly 100,000 to 200,000. Moscow_sentence_105

It expanded beyond its ramparts in the later 17th century. Moscow_sentence_106

It is estimated, that in the middle of the 17th century, 20% of Moscow suburb's inhabitants were from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, practically all of them being driven from their homeland to Moscow by Muscovite invaders. Moscow_sentence_107

By 1682, there were 692 households established north of the ramparts, by Ukrainians and Belarusians abducted from their hometowns in the course of the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667). Moscow_sentence_108

These new outskirts of the city came to be known as the Meshchanskaya sloboda, after Ruthenian meshchane "town people". Moscow_sentence_109

The term meshchane (мещане) acquired pejorative connotations in 18th-century Russia and today means "petty bourgeois" or "narrow-minded philistine". Moscow_sentence_110

The entire city of the late 17th century, including the slobodas that grew up outside the city ramparts, are contained within what is today Moscow's Central Administrative Okrug. Moscow_sentence_111

Numerous disasters befell the city. Moscow_sentence_112

The plague epidemics ravaged Moscow in 1570–1571, 1592 and 1654–1656. Moscow_sentence_113

The plague killed upwards of 80% of the people in 1654–55. Moscow_sentence_114

Fires burned out much of the wooden city in 1626 and 1648. Moscow_sentence_115

In 1712 Peter the Great moved his government to the newly built Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast. Moscow_sentence_116

Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital, except for a brief period from 1728 to 1732 under the influence of the Supreme Privy Council. Moscow_sentence_117

Empire (1721–1917) Moscow_section_7

Main article: Moscow Governorate Moscow_sentence_118

Further information: Russian Empire Moscow_sentence_119

After losing the status as the capital of the empire, the population of Moscow at first decreased, from 200,000 in the 17th century to 130,000 in 1750. Moscow_sentence_120

But after 1750, the population grew more than tenfold over the remaining duration of the Russian Empire, reaching 1.8 million by 1915. Moscow_sentence_121

The 1770–1772 Russian plague killed up to 100,000 people in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_122

By 1700, the building of cobbled roads had begun. Moscow_sentence_123

In November 1730, the permanent street light was introduced, and by 1867 many streets had a gaslight. Moscow_sentence_124

In 1883, near the Prechistinskiye Gates, arc lamps were installed. Moscow_sentence_125

In 1741 Moscow was surrounded by a barricade 25 miles (40 kilometres) long, the Kamer-Kollezhskiy barrier, with 16 gates at which customs tolls were collected. Moscow_sentence_126

Its line is traced today by a number of streets called val (“ramparts”). Moscow_sentence_127

Between 1781 and 1804 the Mytischinskiy water-pipe (the first in Russia) was built. Moscow_sentence_128

In 1813, following the destruction of much of the city during the French occupation, a Commission for the Construction of the City of Moscow was established. Moscow_sentence_129

It launched a great program of rebuilding, including a partial replanning of the city-centre. Moscow_sentence_130

Among many buildings constructed or reconstructed at this time was the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armoury, the Moscow University, the Moscow Manege (Riding School), and the Bolshoi Theatre. Moscow_sentence_131

In 1903 the Moskvoretskaya water-supply was completed. Moscow_sentence_132

In the early 19th century, the Arch of Konstantino-Elenensky gate was paved with bricks, but the Spassky Gate was the main front gate of the Kremlin and used for royal entrances. Moscow_sentence_133

From this gate, wooden and (following the 17th-century improvements) stone bridges stretched across the moat. Moscow_sentence_134

Books were sold on this bridge and stone platforms were built nearby for guns – "raskats". Moscow_sentence_135

The Tsar Cannon was located on the platform of the Lobnoye mesto. Moscow_sentence_136

The road connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg, now the M10 highway, was completed in 1746, its Moscow end following the old Tver road, which had existed since the 16th century. Moscow_sentence_137

It became known as Peterburskoye Schosse after it was paved in the 1780s. Moscow_sentence_138

Petrovsky Palace was built in 1776–1780 by Matvey Kazakov. Moscow_sentence_139

When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, the Moscovites were evacuated. Moscow_sentence_140

It is suspected that the Moscow fire was principally the effect of Russian sabotage. Moscow_sentence_141

Napoleon's Grande Armée was forced to retreat and was nearly annihilated by the devastating Russian winter and sporadic attacks by Russian military forces. Moscow_sentence_142

As many as 400,000 of Napoleon's soldiers died during this time. Moscow_sentence_143

Moscow State University was established in 1755. Moscow_sentence_144

Its main building was reconstructed after the 1812 fire by Domenico Giliardi. Moscow_sentence_145

The Moskovskiye Vedomosti newspaper appeared from 1756, originally in weekly intervals, and from 1859 as a daily newspaper. Moscow_sentence_146

The Arbat Street had been in existence since at least the 15th century, but it was developed into a prestigious area during the 18th century. Moscow_sentence_147

It was destroyed in the fire of 1812 and was rebuilt completely in the early 19th century. Moscow_sentence_148

In the 1830s, general Alexander Bashilov planned the first regular grid of city streets north from Petrovsky Palace. Moscow_sentence_149

Khodynka field south of the highway was used for military training. Moscow_sentence_150

Smolensky Rail station (forerunner of present-day Belorussky Rail Terminal) was inaugurated in 1870. Moscow_sentence_151

Sokolniki Park, in the 18th century the home of the tsar's falconers well outside Moscow, became contiguous with the expanding city in the later 19th century and was developed into a public municipal park in 1878. Moscow_sentence_152

The suburban Savyolovsky Rail Terminal was built in 1902. Moscow_sentence_153

In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor. Moscow_sentence_154

When Catherine II came to power in 1762, the city's filth and the smell of sewage was depicted by observers as a symptom of disorderly life styles of lower-class Russians recently arrived from the farms. Moscow_sentence_155

Elites called for improving sanitation, which became part of Catherine's plans for increasing control over social life. Moscow_sentence_156

National political and military successes from 1812 through 1855 calmed the critics and validated efforts to produce a more enlightened and stable society. Moscow_sentence_157

There was less talk about the smell and the poor conditions of public health. Moscow_sentence_158

However, in the wake of Russia's failures in the Crimean War in 1855–56, confidence in the ability of the state to maintain order in the slums eroded, and demands for improved public health put filth back on the agenda. Moscow_sentence_159

Soviet period (1917–1991) Moscow_section_8

Further information: Moscow Bolshevik Uprising and Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Moscow_sentence_160


External videoMoscow_header_cell_1_0_0

Following the success of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Vladimir Lenin, fearing possible foreign invasion, moved the capital from Petrograd to Moscow on March 12, 1918. Moscow_sentence_161

The Kremlin once again became the seat of power and the political centre of the new state. Moscow_sentence_162

With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation of cultural heritage was broken. Moscow_sentence_163

Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. Moscow_sentence_164

A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. Moscow_sentence_165

In 1937 several letters were written to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to rename Moscow to "Stalindar" or "Stalinodar", one from an elderly pensioner whose dream was to "live in Stalinodar" and had selected the name to represent the "gift" (dar) of the genius of Stalin. Moscow_sentence_166

Stalin rejected this suggestion, and after it was suggested again to him by Nikolai Yezhov, he was "outraged", saying "What do I need this for?". Moscow_sentence_167

This was following Stalin banning the renaming of places in his name in 1936. Moscow_sentence_168

During the World War II, the Soviet State Committee of Defence and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_169

In 1941, 16 divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), 25 battalions (18,000 people) and 4 engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. Moscow_sentence_170

Between October 1941 and January 1942, the German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. Moscow_sentence_171

Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be in a state of siege. Moscow_sentence_172

Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defences, while the city was bombarded from the air. Moscow_sentence_173

On May 1, 1944, a medal "For the defence of Moscow" and in 1947 another medal "In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow" was instituted. Moscow_sentence_174

Both German and Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates. Moscow_sentence_175

Total casualties between September 30, 1941, and January 7, 1942, are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army. Moscow_sentence_176

During the postwar years, there was a serious housing crisis, solved by the invention of high-rise apartments. Moscow_sentence_177

There are over 11,000 of these standardised and prefabricated apartment blocks, housing the majority of Moscow's population, making it by far the city with the most high-rise buildings. Moscow_sentence_178

Apartments were built and partly furnished in the factory before being raised and stacked into tall columns. Moscow_sentence_179

The popular Soviet-era comic film Irony of Fate parodies this construction method. Moscow_sentence_180

The city of Zelenograd was built in 1958 at 37 kilometres (23 miles) from the city centre to the north-west, along with the Leningradskoye Shosse, and incorporated as one of Moscow's administrative okrugs. Moscow_sentence_181

Moscow State University moved to its campus on Sparrow Hills in 1953. Moscow_sentence_182

In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. Moscow_sentence_183

By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Moscow_sentence_184

Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished. Moscow_sentence_185

On May 8, 1965, due to the actual 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II, Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City. Moscow_sentence_186

In 1980 it hosted the Summer Olympic Games. Moscow_sentence_187

The MKAD (ring road) was opened in 1961. Moscow_sentence_188

It had four lanes running 109 kilometres (68 miles) along the city borders. Moscow_sentence_189

The MKAD marked the administrative boundaries of the city of Moscow until the 1980s when outlying suburbs beyond the ring road began to be incorporated. Moscow_sentence_190

In 1980, it hosted the Summer Olympic Games, which were boycotted by the United States and several other Western countries due to the Soviet Union's involvement in Afghanistan in late 1979. Moscow_sentence_191

In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt by conservative communists opposed to the liberal reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. Moscow_sentence_192

Recent history (1991–present) Moscow_section_9

When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow remained the capital of the Russian SFSR (on December 25, 1991, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation). Moscow_sentence_193

Since then, a market economy has emerged in Moscow, producing an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles. Moscow_sentence_194

The city has continued to grow during the 1990s to 2000s, its population rising from below nine to above ten million. Moscow_sentence_195

Mason and Nigmatullina argue that Soviet-era urban-growth controls (before 1991) produced controlled and sustainable metropolitan development, typified by the greenbelt built in 1935. Moscow_sentence_196

Since then, however, there has been a dramatic growth of low-density suburban sprawl, created by heavy demand for single-family dwellings as opposed to crowded apartments. Moscow_sentence_197

In 1995–1997 the MKAD ring road was widened from the initial four to ten lanes. Moscow_sentence_198

In December 2002 Bulvar Dmitriya Donskogo became the first Moscow Metro station that opened beyond the limits of MKAD. Moscow_sentence_199

The Third Ring Road, intermediate between the early 19th-century Garden Ring and the Soviet-era outer ring road, was completed in 2004. Moscow_sentence_200

The greenbelt is becoming more and more fragmented, and satellite cities are appearing at the fringe. Moscow_sentence_201

Summer dachas are being converted into year-round residences, and with the proliferation of automobiles there is heavy traffic congestion. Moscow_sentence_202

Multiple old churches and other examples of architectural heritage that had been demolished during the Stalin era have been restored, such as the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. Moscow_sentence_203

In 2010s Moscow's Administration has launched some long duration projects like the Moja Ulitsa (in English: My Street) urban redevelopment program or the Residency renovation one. Moscow_sentence_204

By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers (421 to 970 sq mi), resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area; it also gained an additional population of 233,000 people. Moscow_sentence_205

Geography Moscow_section_10

Location Moscow_section_11

Moscow is situated on the banks of the Moskva River, which flows for just over 500 km (311 mi) through the East European Plain in central Russia. Moscow_sentence_206

49 bridges span the river and its canals within the city's limits. Moscow_sentence_207

The elevation of Moscow at the All-Russia Exhibition Center (VVC), where the leading Moscow weather station is situated, is 156 metres (512 feet). Moscow_sentence_208

Teplostanskaya highland is the city's highest point at 255 metres (837 feet). Moscow_sentence_209

The width of Moscow city (not limiting MKAD) from west to east is 39.7 km (24.7 mi), and the length from north to south is 51.8 km (32.2 mi). Moscow_sentence_210

Time Moscow_section_12

Main article: Moscow Time Moscow_sentence_211

Moscow serves as the reference point for the time zone used in most of European Russia, Belarus and the Republic of Crimea. Moscow_sentence_212

The areas operate in what is referred to in international standards as Moscow Standard Time (MSK, МСК), which is 3 hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+3. Moscow_sentence_213

Daylight saving time is no longer observed. Moscow_sentence_214

According to the geographical longitude the average solar noon in Moscow occurs at 12:30. Moscow_sentence_215

Climate Moscow_section_13

Main article: Climate of Moscow Moscow_sentence_216

Moscow has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with long, cold (although average by Russian standards) winters usually lasting from mid-November to the end of March, and warm summers. Moscow_sentence_217

More extreme continental climates at the same latitude- such as parts of Eastern Canada or Siberia- have much colder winters, suggesting that there is still significant moderation from the Atlantic Ocean. Moscow_sentence_218

Weather can fluctuate widely with temperatures ranging from −25 °C (−13 °F) in the city and −30 °C (−22 °F) in suburbs to above 5 °C (41 °F) in the winter, and from 10 to 35 °C (50 to 95 °F) in the summer. Moscow_sentence_219

Typical high temperatures in the warm months of June, July and August are around a comfortable 20 to 26 °C (68 to 79 °F), but during heat waves (which can occur between May and September), daytime high temperatures often exceed 30 °C (86 °F), sometimes for a week or two at a time. Moscow_sentence_220

In the winter, average temperatures normally drop to approximately −10 °C (14 °F), though almost every winter there are periods of warmth with day temperatures rising above 0 °C (32 °F), and periods of cooling with night temperatures falling below −30 °C (−22 °F). Moscow_sentence_221

These periods usually last about a week or two. Moscow_sentence_222

The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.2 °C (100.8 °F) at the VVC weather station and 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) in the center of Moscow and Domodedovo airport on July 29, 2010 during the unusual 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. Moscow_sentence_223

Record high temperatures were recorded for January, March, April, May, July, August, November, and December in 2007–2014. Moscow_sentence_224

The average July temperature from 1981 to 2010 is 19.2 °C (66.6 °F). Moscow_sentence_225

The lowest ever recorded temperature was −42.1 °C (−43.8 °F) in January 1940. Moscow_sentence_226

Snow, which is present for about five months a year, often begins to fall mid October, while snow cover lies in November and melts at the beginning of April. Moscow_sentence_227

On average Moscow has 1731 hours of sunshine per year, varying from a low of 8% in December to 52% from May to August. Moscow_sentence_228

This large annual variation is due to convective cloud formation. Moscow_sentence_229

In the winter, moist air from the Atlantic condenses in the cold continental interior, resulting in very overcast conditions. Moscow_sentence_230

However, this same continental influence results in considerably sunnier summers than oceanic cities of similar latitude such as Edinburgh. Moscow_sentence_231

Between 2004 and 2010, the average was between 1800 and 2000 hours with a tendency to more sunshine in summer months, up to a record 411 hours in July 2014, 79% of possible sunshine. Moscow_sentence_232

December 2017 was the darkest month in Moscow since records began, with only six minutes of sunlight. Moscow_sentence_233

Temperatures in the centre of Moscow are often significantly higher than in the outskirts and nearby suburbs, especially in winter. Moscow_sentence_234

For example, if the average February temperature in the north-east of Moscow is −6.7 °C (19.9 °F), in the suburbs it is about −9 °C (16 °F). Moscow_sentence_235

The temperature difference between the centre of Moscow and nearby areas of Moscow Oblast can sometimes be more than 10 °C (18 °F) on frosty winter nights. Moscow_sentence_236

Climate change Moscow_section_14

Below is the 1961–1990 normals table. Moscow_sentence_237

The annual temperature rose from 5.0 °C (41.0 °F) to 5.8 °C (42.4 °F) in the new 1981–2010 normals. Moscow_sentence_238

In 2019, the average annual temperature reached a record high of 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) Moscow_sentence_239

Recent changes in Moscow's regional climate, since it is in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, are often cited by climate scientists as evidence of global warming, though by definition, climate change is global, not regional. Moscow_sentence_240

During the summer, extreme heat is often observed in the city (2001, 2002, 2003, 2010, 2011). Moscow_sentence_241

Along with a southern part of Central Russia, after recent years of hot summer seasons, the climate of the city gets hot-summer classification trends. Moscow_sentence_242

Winter also became significantly milder: for example, the average January temperature in the early 1900s was −12.0 °C (10.4 °F), while now it is about −7.0 °C (19.4 °F). Moscow_sentence_243

At the end of January–February it is often colder, with frosts reaching −30.0 °C (−22.0 °F) a few nights per year (2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013). Moscow_sentence_244

The last decade was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations of Moscow. Moscow_sentence_245

Temperature changes in the city are depicted in the table below: Moscow_sentence_246

Demographics Moscow_section_15

Population Moscow_section_16

See also: Ethnic groups in Moscow Moscow_sentence_247

According to the results of the 2010 Census, the population of Moscow was 11,503,501; up from 10,382,754 recorded in the 2002 Census. Moscow_sentence_248

At the time of the official 2010 Census, the ethnic makeup of the city's population whose ethnicity was known (10,835,092 people) was: Moscow_sentence_249


  • Russian: 9,930,410 (91.65%)Moscow_item_0_0
  • Ukrainian: 154,104 (1.42%)Moscow_item_0_1
  • Tatar: 149,043 (1.38%)Moscow_item_0_2
  • Armenian: 106,466 (0.98%)Moscow_item_0_3
  • Azerbaijani: 57,123 (0.5%)Moscow_item_0_4
  • Jewish: 53,145 (0.5%)Moscow_item_0_5
  • Belarusian: 39,225 (0.4%)Moscow_item_0_6
  • Georgian: 38,934 (0.4%)Moscow_item_0_7
  • Uzbek: 35,595 (0.3%)Moscow_item_0_8
  • Tajik: 27,280 (0.2%)Moscow_item_0_9
  • Moldovan: 21,699 (0.2%)Moscow_item_0_10
  • Kyrgyz: 18,736 (0.2%)Moscow_item_0_11
  • Mordvin: 17,095 (0.2%)Moscow_item_0_12
  • Chechen: 14,524 (0.1%)Moscow_item_0_13
  • Chuvash: 14,313 (0.1%)Moscow_item_0_14
  • Ossetian: 11,311 (0.1%)Moscow_item_0_15
  • Others: 164,825 (1.6%)Moscow_item_0_16
  • 668,409 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.Moscow_item_0_17

The official population of Moscow is based on those holding "permanent residency". Moscow_sentence_250

According to Russia's Federal Migration Service, Moscow holds 1.8 million official "guests" who have temporary residency on the basis of visas or other documentation, giving a legal population of 13.3 million. Moscow_sentence_251

The number of Illegal immigrants, the vast majority originating from Central Asia, is estimated to be an additional 1 million people, giving a total population of about 14.3 million. Moscow_sentence_252

Total fertility rate: Moscow_sentence_253


  • 2010 - 1.25Moscow_item_1_18
  • 2014 - 1.34Moscow_item_1_19
  • 2015 - 1.41Moscow_item_1_20
  • 2016 - 1.46Moscow_item_1_21
  • 2017 - 1.38Moscow_item_1_22
  • 2018 - 1.41Moscow_item_1_23
  • 2019 - 1.50Moscow_item_1_24
    • Births (2016): 145,252 (11.8 per 1000)Moscow_item_1_25
    • Deaths (2016): 123,623 (10.0 per 1000)Moscow_item_1_26

Religion Moscow_section_17

Christianity is the predominant religion in the city, of which the Russian Orthodox Church is the most popular. Moscow_sentence_254

Moscow is Russia's capital of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which has been the country's traditional religion and was deemed a part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997. Moscow_sentence_255

Other religions practiced in Moscow include Armenian Apostolicism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Catholicism, Islam, Judaism, Yazidism, Old Believers, Protestantism, and Rodnovery. Moscow_sentence_256

The Patriarch of Moscow serves as the head of the church and resides in the Danilov Monastery. Moscow_sentence_257

Moscow was called the "city of 40 times 40 churches"—"город сорока сороков церквей"—prior to 1917. Moscow_sentence_258

In 1918 the Bolshevik government declared Russia a secular state, which in practice meant that religion was repressed and society was to become atheistic. Moscow_sentence_259

During the period of 1920-1930s a great number of churches in Moscow were demolished, including historical Chudov Monastery in the Kremlin, dating from the 14th century, Kazansky Cathedral on the Red Square, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, constructed in the 19th century in memory of a victory over Napoleon's army in 1812, and many more. Moscow_sentence_260

This continued even after the Second World War, in 1940-1970s, when persecutions against religion in the Soviet Union became less severe. Moscow_sentence_261

Most of the surviving churches and monasteries were closed and then used as clubs, offices, factories or even warehouses. Moscow_sentence_262

Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 many of the destroyed churches have been restored and traditional religions are once again gaining popularity. Moscow_sentence_263

Among the churches reconstructed in the 1990s is an impressive new Cathedral of Christ the Savior that once more has become a landmark. Moscow_sentence_264

It was built on the site of the old demolished cathedral, where there had been a huge open swimming-pool until 1994. Moscow_sentence_265

The Moscow mufti council claimed that Muslims numbered around 1.5 million of 10.5 million of the city's population in 2010. Moscow_sentence_266

There are four mosques in the city. Moscow_sentence_267

Moscow Cathedral Mosque has been built at the site of the former one. Moscow_sentence_268

It was officially inaugurated on September 23, 2015. Moscow_sentence_269

The new mosque has the capacity of ten thousand worshippers. Moscow_sentence_270

President of Russia Vladimir Putin, President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of the State of Palestine Mahmoud Abbas and local Muslim leaders participated in the inauguration ceremony of this mosque. Moscow_sentence_271

Cityscape Moscow_section_18

Architecture Moscow_section_19

Moscow's architecture is world-renowned. Moscow_sentence_272

Moscow is the site of Saint Basil's Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. Moscow_sentence_273

The first Kremlin was built in the middle of the 12th century. Moscow_sentence_274

Medieval Moscow's design was of concentric walls and intersecting radial thoroughfares. Moscow_sentence_275

This layout, as well as Moscow's rivers, helped shape Moscow's design in subsequent centuries. Moscow_sentence_276

The Kremlin was rebuilt in the 15th century. Moscow_sentence_277

Its towers and some of its churches were built by Italian architects, lending the city some of the aurae of the renaissance. Moscow_sentence_278

From the end of the 15th century, the city was embellished by masonry structures such as monasteries, palaces, walls, towers, and churches. Moscow_sentence_279

The city's appearance had not changed much by the 18th century. Moscow_sentence_280

Houses were made of pine and spruce logs, with shingled roofs plastered with sod or covered by birch bark. Moscow_sentence_281

The rebuilding of Moscow in the second half of the 18th century was necessitated not only by constant fires but also the needs of the nobility. Moscow_sentence_282

Much of the wooden city was replaced by buildings in the classical style. Moscow_sentence_283

For much of its architectural history, Moscow was dominated by Orthodox churches. Moscow_sentence_284

However, the overall appearance of the city changed drastically during Soviet times, especially as a result of Joseph Stalin's large-scale effort to "modernize" Moscow. Moscow_sentence_285

Stalin's plans for the city included a network of broad avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide, which, while greatly simplifying movement through the city, were constructed at the expense of a great number of historical buildings and districts. Moscow_sentence_286

Among the many casualties of Stalin's demolitions was the Sukharev Tower, a longtime city landmark, as well as mansions and commercial buildings The city's newfound status as the capital of a deeply secular nation, made religiously significant buildings especially vulnerable to demolition. Moscow_sentence_287

Many of the city's churches, which in most cases were some of Moscow's oldest and most prominent buildings, were destroyed; some notable examples include the Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. Moscow_sentence_288

During the 1990s, both were rebuilt. Moscow_sentence_289

Many smaller churches, however, were lost. Moscow_sentence_290

While the later Stalinist period was characterized by the curtailing of creativity and architectural innovation, the earlier post-revolutionary years saw a plethora of radical new buildings created in the city. Moscow_sentence_291

Especially notable were the constructivist architects associated with VKHUTEMAS, responsible for such landmarks as Lenin's Mausoleum. Moscow_sentence_292

Another prominent architect was Vladimir Shukhov, famous for Shukhov Tower, just one of many hyperboloid towers designed by Shukhov. Moscow_sentence_293

It was built between 1919 and 1922 as a transmission tower for a Russian broadcasting company. Moscow_sentence_294

Shukhov also left a lasting legacy to the Constructivist architecture of early Soviet Russia. Moscow_sentence_295

He designed spacious elongated shop galleries, most notably the GUM department store on Red Square, bridged with innovative metal-and-glass vaults. Moscow_sentence_296

Perhaps the most recognizable contributions of the Stalinist period are the so-called Seven Sisters, seven massive skyscrapers scattered throughout the city at about an equal distance from the Kremlin. Moscow_sentence_297

A defining feature of Moscow's skyline, their imposing form was allegedly inspired by the Manhattan Municipal Building in New York City, and their style—with intricate exteriors and a large central spire—has been described as Stalinist Gothic architecture. Moscow_sentence_298

All seven towers can be seen from most high points in the city; they are among the tallest constructions in central Moscow apart from the Ostankino Tower, which, when it was completed in 1967, was the highest free-standing land structure in the world and today remains the world's seventy-second tallest, ranking among buildings such as the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, Taipei 101 in Taiwan and the CN Tower in Toronto. Moscow_sentence_299

The Soviet goal of providing housing for every family, and the rapid growth of Moscow's population, led to the construction of large, monotonous housing blocks. Moscow_sentence_300

Most of these date from the post-Stalin era and the styles are often named after the leader then in power (Brezhnev, Khrushchev, etc.). Moscow_sentence_301

They are usually badly maintained. Moscow_sentence_302

Although the city still has some five-story apartment buildings constructed before the mid-1960s, more recent apartment buildings are usually at least nine floors tall, and have elevators. Moscow_sentence_303

It is estimated that Moscow has over twice as many elevators as New York City and four times as many as Chicago. Moscow_sentence_304

Moslift, one of the city's major elevator operating companies, has about 1500 elevator mechanics on call, to release residents trapped in elevators. Moscow_sentence_305

Stalinist-era buildings, mostly found in the central part of the city, are massive and usually ornamented with Socialist realism motifs that imitate classical themes. Moscow_sentence_306

However, small churches—almost always Eastern Orthodox– found across the city provide glimpses of its past. Moscow_sentence_307

The Old Arbat Street, a tourist street that was once the heart of a bohemian area, preserves most of its buildings from prior to the 20th century. Moscow_sentence_308

Many buildings found off the main streets of the inner city (behind the Stalinist façades of Tverskaya Street, for example) are also examples of bourgeois architecture typical of Tsarist times. Moscow_sentence_309

Ostankino Palace, Kuskovo, Uzkoye and other large estates just outside Moscow originally belong to nobles from the Tsarist era, and some convents, and monasteries, both inside and outside the city, are open to Muscovites and tourists. Moscow_sentence_310

Attempts are being made to restore many of the city's best-kept examples of pre-Soviet architecture. Moscow_sentence_311

These restored structures are easily spotted by their bright new colors and spotless façades. Moscow_sentence_312

There are a few examples of notable, early Soviet avant-garde work too, such as the house of the architect Konstantin Melnikov in the Arbat area. Moscow_sentence_313

Many of these restorations were criticized for alleged disrespect of historical authenticity. Moscow_sentence_314

Facadism is also widely practiced. Moscow_sentence_315

Later examples of interesting Soviet architecture are usually marked by their impressive size and the semi-Modernist styles employed, such as with the Novy Arbat project, familiarly known as "false teeth of Moscow" and notorious for the wide-scale disruption of a historic area in central Moscow involved in the project. Moscow_sentence_316

Plaques on house exteriors will inform passers-by that a well-known personality once lived there. Moscow_sentence_317

Frequently, the plaques are dedicated to Soviet celebrities not well known outside (or often, like with decorated generals and revolutionaries, now both inside) of Russia. Moscow_sentence_318

There are also many "museum houses" of famous Russian writers, composers, and artists in the city. Moscow_sentence_319

Moscow's skyline is quickly modernizing, with several new towers under construction. Moscow_sentence_320

In recent years, the city administration has been widely criticized for heavy destruction that has affected many historical buildings. Moscow_sentence_321

As much as a third of historic Moscow has been destroyed in the past few years to make space for luxury apartments and hotels. Moscow_sentence_322

Other historical buildings, including such landmarks as the 1930 Moskva hotel and the 1913 department store Voyentorg, have been razed and reconstructed anew, with the inevitable loss of historical value. Moscow_sentence_323

Critics blame the government for not enforcing conservation laws: in the last 12 years more than 50 buildings with monument status were torn down, several of those dating back to the 17th century. Moscow_sentence_324

Some critics also wonder if the money used for the reconstruction of razed buildings could not be used for the renovation of decaying structures, which include many works by architect Konstantin Melnikov and Mayakovskaya metro station. Moscow_sentence_325

Some organizations, such as Moscow Architecture Preservation Society and Save Europe's Heritage, are trying to draw the international public attention to these problems. Moscow_sentence_326

Parks and landmarks Moscow_section_20

See also: List of Moscow tourist attractions Moscow_sentence_327

There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow, including four botanical gardens. Moscow_sentence_328

There are 450 square kilometres (170 sq mi) of green zones besides 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi) of forests. Moscow_sentence_329

Moscow is a very green city, if compared to other cities of comparable size in Western Europe and North America; this is partly due to a history of having green "yards" with trees and grass, between residential buildings. Moscow_sentence_330

There are on average 27 square meters (290 sq ft) of parks per person in Moscow compared with 6 for Paris, 7.5 in London and 8.6 in New York. Moscow_sentence_331

Gorky Park (officially the Central Park of Culture and Rest named after Maxim Gorky), was founded in 1928. Moscow_sentence_332

The main part (689,000 square metres or 170 acres) along the Moskva river contains estrades, children's attractions (including the Observation Wheel water ponds with boats and water bicycles), dancing, tennis courts and other sports facilities. Moscow_sentence_333

It borders the Neskuchny Garden (408,000 square metres or 101 acres), the oldest park in Moscow and a former imperial residence, created as a result of the integration of three estates in the 18th century. Moscow_sentence_334

The Garden features the Green Theater, one of the largest open amphitheaters in Europe, able to hold up to 15 thousand people. Moscow_sentence_335

Several parks include a section known as a "Park of Culture and Rest", sometimes alongside a much wilder area (this includes parks such as Izmaylovsky, Fili and Sokolniki). Moscow_sentence_336

Some parks are designated as Forest Parks (lesopark). Moscow_sentence_337

Izmaylovsky Park, created in 1931, is one of the largest urban parks in the world along with Richmond Park in London. Moscow_sentence_338

Its area of 15.34 square kilometres (5.92 sq mi) is six times greater than that of Central Park in New York. Moscow_sentence_339

Sokolniki Park, named after the falcon hunting that occurred there in the past, is one of the oldest parks in Moscow and has an area of 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi). Moscow_sentence_340

A central circle with a large fountain is surrounded by birch, maple and elm tree alleys. Moscow_sentence_341

A labyrinth composed of green paths lies beyond the park's ponds. Moscow_sentence_342

Losiny Ostrov National Park ("Elk Island" National Park), with a total area of more than 116 square kilometres (45 sq mi), borders Sokolniki Park and was Russia's first national park. Moscow_sentence_343

It is quite wild, and is also known as the "city taiga" – elk can be seen there. Moscow_sentence_344

Tsytsin Main Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, founded in 1945 is the largest in Europe. Moscow_sentence_345

It covers the territory of 3.61 square kilometres (1.39 sq mi) bordering the All-Russia Exhibition Center and contains a live exhibition of more than 20 thousand species of plants from around the world, as well as a lab for scientific research. Moscow_sentence_346

It contains a rosarium with 20 thousand rose bushes, a dendrarium, and an oak forest, with the average age of trees exceeding 100 years. Moscow_sentence_347

There is a greenhouse taking up more than 5,000 square metres (53,820 square feet) of land. Moscow_sentence_348

The All-Russian Exhibition Center (Всероссийский выставочный центр), formerly known as the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (VSKhV) and later Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy (VDNKh), though officially named a "permanent trade show", is one of the most prominent examples of Stalinist-era monumental architecture. Moscow_sentence_349

Among the large spans of a recreational park, areas are scores of elaborate pavilions, each representing either a branch of Soviet industry and science or a USSR republic. Moscow_sentence_350

Even though during the 1990s it was, and for some part still is, misused as a gigantic shopping center (most of the pavilions are rented out for small businesses), it still retains the bulk of its architectural landmarks, including two monumental fountains (Stone Flower and Friendship of Nations) and a 360 degrees panoramic cinema. Moscow_sentence_351

In 2014 the park returned to the name Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy, and in the same year huge renovation works had been started. Moscow_sentence_352

Lilac Park, founded in 1958, has a permanent sculpture display and a large rosarium. Moscow_sentence_353

Moscow has always been a popular destination for tourists. Moscow_sentence_354

Some of the more famous attractions include the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site, Moscow Kremlin and Red Square, which was built between the 14th and 17th centuries. Moscow_sentence_355

The Church of the Ascension at Kolomenskoye, which dates from 1532, is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site and another popular attraction. Moscow_sentence_356

Near the new Tretyakov Gallery there is a sculpture garden, Museon, often called "the graveyard of fallen monuments" that displays statues of the former Soviet Union that were removed from their place after its dissolution. Moscow_sentence_357

Other attractions include the Moscow Zoo, a zoological garden in two sections (the valleys of two streams) linked by a bridge, with nearly a thousand species and more than 6,500 specimens. Moscow_sentence_358

Each year, the zoo attracts more than 1.2 million visitors. Moscow_sentence_359

Many of Moscow's parks and landscaped gardens are protected natural environments. Moscow_sentence_360

Moscow rings Moscow_section_21

Moscow's road system is centered roughly on the Kremlin at the heart of the city. Moscow_sentence_361

From there, roads generally span outwards to intersect with a sequence of circular roads ("rings"). Moscow_sentence_362

The first and innermost major ring, Bulvarnoye Koltso (Boulevard Ring), was built at the former location of the 16th-century city wall around what used to be called Bely Gorod (White Town). Moscow_sentence_363

The Bulvarnoye Koltso is technically not a ring; it does not form a complete circle, but instead a horseshoe-like arc that begins at the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and ends at the Yauza River. Moscow_sentence_364

The second primary ring, located outside the bell end of the Boulevard Ring, is the Sadovoye Koltso (Garden Ring). Moscow_sentence_365

Like the Boulevard Ring, the Garden Ring follows the path of a 16th-century wall that used to encompass part of Moscow. Moscow_sentence_366

The Third Ring Road, was completed in 2003 as a high-speed freeway. Moscow_sentence_367

The Fourth Transport Ring, another freeway, was planned, but cancelled in 2011. Moscow_sentence_368

It will be replaced by a system of chordal highways. Moscow_sentence_369

Aside from aforementioned hierarchy, line 5 of Moscow Metro is a circle-shaped looped subway line (hence the name Koltsevaya Liniya, "ring line"), which is located between the Sadovoye Koltso and Third Transport Ring. Moscow_sentence_370

September 10, 2016, Moscow Central Circle renovated railroad (former Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga) was introduced as 14th line of Moscow Metro. Moscow_sentence_371

The railroad itself was in use since 1907, but before the renovation, it was a non-electrified railroad for transit needs of fueled locomotives only. Moscow_sentence_372

Another circle metro line - Big Circle Line (Bolshaya Koltsevaya Liniya) is under construction and will be finished about 2023. Moscow_sentence_373

The outermost ring within Moscow is the Moscow Ring Road (often called MKAD, acronym word for Russian Московская Кольцевая Автомобильная Дорога), which forms the cultural boundary of the city, was established in the 1950s. Moscow_sentence_374

It is to note the method of building the road (usage of ground elevation instead of concrete columns throughout the whole way) formed a wall-like barrier that obstacles building roads under the MKAD highway itself). Moscow_sentence_375

Before 2012 expansion of Moscow, MKAD was considered an approximate border for Moscow boundaries. Moscow_sentence_376

Outside Moscow, some of the roads encompassing the city continue to follow this circular pattern seen inside city limits, with the notable example of two Betonka road, originally made of concrete pads. Moscow_sentence_377

In order to reduce transit traffic on MKAD, the new ring road (called CKAD - Centralnaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga, Central Ring Road) is under construction now. Moscow_sentence_378

Transport rings in Moscow Moscow_section_22


LengthMoscow_header_cell_2_0_0 NameMoscow_header_cell_2_0_1 TypeMoscow_header_cell_2_0_2
9 kmMoscow_cell_2_1_0 Boulevard Ring – Bulvarnoye Koltso (not a full ring)Moscow_cell_2_1_1 RoadMoscow_cell_2_1_2
16 kmMoscow_cell_2_2_0 Garden Ring – Sadovoye Koltso ("B")Moscow_cell_2_2_1 RoadMoscow_cell_2_2_2
19 kmMoscow_cell_2_3_0 Koltsevaya Line (Line 5)Moscow_cell_2_3_1 MetroMoscow_cell_2_3_2
35 kmMoscow_cell_2_4_0 Third Ring Road – Third Transport Ring – Tretye Transportnoye Koltso (TTK)Moscow_cell_2_4_1 RoadMoscow_cell_2_4_2
54 kmMoscow_cell_2_5_0 Little Ring of the Moscow Railway, re-opened as Moscow Central Ring (MCC) – Line 14Moscow_cell_2_5_1 RailwayMoscow_cell_2_5_2
67 kmMoscow_cell_2_6_0 Bolshaya Koltsevaya line – Line 11Moscow_cell_2_6_1 MetroMoscow_cell_2_6_2
109 kmMoscow_cell_2_7_0 Moscow Automobile Ring Road – Moskovskaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga (MKAD)Moscow_cell_2_7_1 RoadMoscow_cell_2_7_2

Culture Moscow_section_23

One of the most notable art museums in Moscow is the Tretyakov Gallery, which was founded by Pavel Tretyakov, a wealthy patron of the arts who donated a large private collection to the city. Moscow_sentence_379

The Tretyakov Gallery is split into two buildings. Moscow_sentence_380

The Old Tretyakov gallery, the original gallery in the Tretyakovskaya area on the south bank of the Moskva River, houses works in the classic Russian tradition. Moscow_sentence_381

The works of famous pre-Revolutionary painters, such as Ilya Repin, as well as the works of early Russian icon painters can be found here. Moscow_sentence_382

Visitors can even see rare originals by early 15th-century iconographer Andrei Rublev. Moscow_sentence_383

The New Tretyakov gallery, created in Soviet times, mainly contains the works of Soviet artists, as well as of a few contemporary paintings, but there is some overlap with the Old Tretyakov Gallery for early 20th-century art. Moscow_sentence_384

The new gallery includes a small reconstruction of Vladimir Tatlin's famous Monument to the Third International and a mixture of other avant-garde works by artists like Kazimir Malevich and Wassily Kandinsky. Moscow_sentence_385

Socialist realism features can also be found within the halls of the New Tretyakov Gallery. Moscow_sentence_386

Another art museum in the city of Moscow is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which was founded by, among others, the father of Marina Tsvetaeva. Moscow_sentence_387

The Pushkin Museum is similar to the British Museum in London in that its halls are a cross-section of exhibits on world civilisations, with many copies of ancient sculptures. Moscow_sentence_388

However, it also hosts paintings from every major Western era; works by Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne, and Pablo Picasso are present in the museum's collection. Moscow_sentence_389

The State Historical Museum of Russia (Государственный Исторический музей) is a museum of Russian history located between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_390

Its exhibitions range from relics of the prehistoric tribes inhabiting present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. Moscow_sentence_391

The total number of objects in the museum's collection numbers is several million. Moscow_sentence_392

The Polytechnical Museum, founded in 1872 is the largest technical museum in Russia, offering a wide array of historical inventions and technological achievements, including humanoid automata from the 18th century and the first Soviet computers. Moscow_sentence_393

Its collection contains more than 160,000 items. Moscow_sentence_394

The Borodino Panorama museum located on Kutuzov Avenue provides an opportunity for visitors to experience being on a battlefield with a 360° diorama. Moscow_sentence_395

It is a part of the large historical memorial commemorating the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812 over Napoleon's army, that includes also the triumphal arch, erected in 1827. Moscow_sentence_396

There is also a military history museum that includes statues, and military hardware. Moscow_sentence_397

Moscow is the heart of the Russian performing arts, including ballet and film, with 68 museums 103 theaters, 132 cinemas and 24 concert halls. Moscow_sentence_398

Among Moscow's theaters and ballet studios is the Bolshoi Theatre and the Malyi Theatre as well as Vakhtangov Theatre and Moscow Art Theatre. Moscow_sentence_399

The Moscow International Performance Arts Center, opened in 2003, also known as Moscow International House of Music, is known for its performances in classical music. Moscow_sentence_400

It has the largest organ in Russia installed in Svetlanov Hall. Moscow_sentence_401

There are also two large circuses in Moscow: Moscow State Circus and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard named after Yuri Nikulin. Moscow_sentence_402

Memorial Museum of Astronautics under the Monument to the Conquerors of Space at the end of Cosmonauts Alley is the central memorial place for the Russian space officials. Moscow_sentence_403

The Mosfilm studio was at the heart of many classic films, as it is responsible for both artistic and mainstream productions. Moscow_sentence_404

However, despite the continued presence and reputation of internationally renowned Russian filmmakers, the once prolific native studios are much quieter. Moscow_sentence_405

Rare and historical films may be seen in the Salut cinema, where films from the Museum of Cinema collection are shown regularly. Moscow_sentence_406

The Shchusev State Museum of Architecture is the national museum of Russian architecture by the name of the architect Alexey Shchusev near the Kremlin area. Moscow_sentence_407

Sports Moscow_section_24

See also: Football in Moscow Moscow_sentence_408

Over 500 Olympic sports champions lived in the city by 2005. Moscow_sentence_409

Moscow is home to 63 stadiums (besides eight football and eleven light athletics maneges), of which Luzhniki Stadium is the largest and the 4th biggest in Europe (it hosted the 1998–99 UEFA Cup, 2007–08 UEFA Champions League finals, the 1980 Summer Olympics, and the 2018 FIFA World Cup with 7 games total, including the final). Moscow_sentence_410

Forty other sport complexes are located within the city, including 24 with artificial ice. Moscow_sentence_411

The Olympic Stadium was the world's first indoor arena for bandy and hosted the Bandy World Championship twice. Moscow_sentence_412

Moscow was again the host of the competition in 2010, this time in Krylatskoye. Moscow_sentence_413

That arena has also hosted the World Speed Skating Championships. Moscow_sentence_414

There are also seven horse racing tracks in Moscow, of which Central Moscow Hippodrome, founded in 1834, is the largest. Moscow_sentence_415

Moscow was the host city of the 1980 Summer Olympics, with the yachting events being held at Tallinn, in present-day Estonia. Moscow_sentence_416

Large sports facilities and the main international airport, Sheremetyevo Terminal 2, were built in preparation for the 1980 Summer Olympics. Moscow_sentence_417

Moscow had made a bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Moscow_sentence_418

However, when final voting commenced on July 6, 2005, Moscow was the first city to be eliminated from further rounds. Moscow_sentence_419

The Games were awarded to London. Moscow_sentence_420

The most titled ice hockey team in the Soviet Union and in the world, HC CSKA Moscow comes from Moscow. Moscow_sentence_421

Other big ice hockey clubs from Moscow are HC Dynamo Moscow, which was the second most titled team in the Soviet Union, and HC Spartak Moscow. Moscow_sentence_422

The most titled Soviet, Russian, and one of the most titled Euroleague clubs, is the basketball club from Moscow PBC CSKA Moscow. Moscow_sentence_423

Moscow hosted the EuroBasket in 1953 and 1965. Moscow_sentence_424

Moscow had more winners at the USSR and Russian Chess Championship than any other city. Moscow_sentence_425

The most titled volleyball team in the Soviet Union and in Europe (CEV Champions League) is VC CSKA Moscow. Moscow_sentence_426

In football, FC Spartak Moscow has won more championship titles in the Russian Premier League than any other team. Moscow_sentence_427

They were second only to FC Dynamo Kyiv in Soviet times. Moscow_sentence_428

PFC CSKA Moscow became the first Russian football team to win a UEFA title, the UEFA Cup (present-day UEFA Europa League). Moscow_sentence_429

FC Lokomotiv Moscow, FC Dynamo Moscow and FC Torpedo Moscow are other professional football teams also based in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_430


  • Moscow_item_2_27
  • Moscow_item_2_28
  • Moscow_item_2_29
  • Moscow_item_2_30

Moscow houses other prominent football, ice hockey, and basketball teams. Moscow_sentence_431

Because sports organisations in the Soviet Union were once highly centralized, two of the best Union-level teams represented defence and law-enforcing agencies: the Armed Forces (CSKA) and the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Dinamo). Moscow_sentence_432

There were army and police teams in most major cities. Moscow_sentence_433

As a result, Spartak, CSKA, and Dinamo were among the best-funded teams in the USSR. Moscow_sentence_434

The Rhythmic Gymnastics Palace after Irina Vilner-Usmanova is located in the Luzniki Olympic Complex. Moscow_sentence_435

The building works started in 2017 and the opening ceremony took place on June 18, 2019. Moscow_sentence_436

The investor of the Palace is the billionaire Alisher Usmanov, husband of the former gymnast and gymnastics coach Irina Viner-Usmanova. Moscow_sentence_437

The total surface of the building is 23,500 m, that include 3 fitness rooms, locker rooms, rooms reserved to referees and coaches, saunas, a canteen and a cafeteria, 2 ball halls, a Medical center, a hall reserved to journalists and a hotel for athletes. Moscow_sentence_438

Because of Moscow's cold local climate, winter sports have a following. Moscow_sentence_439

Many of Moscow's large parks offer marked trails for skiing and frozen ponds for skating. Moscow_sentence_440

Moscow hosts the annual Kremlin Cup, a popular tennis tournament on both the WTA and ATP tours. Moscow_sentence_441

It is one of the ten Tier-I events on the women's tour and a host of Russian players feature every year. Moscow_sentence_442

SC Olimpiyskiy hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, the first and so far the only Eurovision Song Contest arranged in Russia. Moscow_sentence_443

Slava Moscow is a professional rugby club, competing in the national Professional Rugby League. Moscow_sentence_444

Former rugby league heavyweights RC Lokomotiv have entered the same league as of 2011. Moscow_sentence_445

The Luzhniki Stadium also hosted the 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens. Moscow_sentence_446

In bandy, one of the most successful clubs in the world is 20 times Russian League champions Dynamo Moscow. Moscow_sentence_447

They have also won the World Cup thrice and European Cup six times. Moscow_sentence_448

MFK Dinamo Moskva is one of the major futsal clubs in Europe, having won the Futsal Champions League title once. Moscow_sentence_449

When Russia was selected to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the Luzhniki Stadium got an increased capacity, by almost 10,000 new seats, in addition to a further two stadiums that have been built: the Dynamo Stadium, and the Spartak Stadium, although the first one later was dismissed from having World Cup matches. Moscow_sentence_450

Football clubs Moscow_section_25


ClubMoscow_header_cell_3_0_0 FoundedMoscow_header_cell_3_0_1 LeagueMoscow_header_cell_3_0_2 League RankMoscow_header_cell_3_0_3 StadiumMoscow_header_cell_3_0_4
Spartak MoscowMoscow_cell_3_1_0 1922Moscow_cell_3_1_1 Premier LeagueMoscow_cell_3_1_2 1stMoscow_cell_3_1_3 Otkrytiye ArenaMoscow_cell_3_1_4
CSKA MoscowMoscow_cell_3_2_0 1911Moscow_cell_3_2_1 Premier LeagueMoscow_cell_3_2_2 1stMoscow_cell_3_2_3 VEB ArenaMoscow_cell_3_2_4
Lokomotiv MoscowMoscow_cell_3_3_0 1923Moscow_cell_3_3_1 Premier LeagueMoscow_cell_3_3_2 1stMoscow_cell_3_3_3 RZD ArenaMoscow_cell_3_3_4
Dynamo MoscowMoscow_cell_3_4_0 1923Moscow_cell_3_4_1 Premier LeagueMoscow_cell_3_4_2 1stMoscow_cell_3_4_3 VTB ArenaMoscow_cell_3_4_4
Chertanovo MoscowMoscow_cell_3_5_0 1993Moscow_cell_3_5_1 FNLMoscow_cell_3_5_2 2ndMoscow_cell_3_5_3 Arena ChertanovoMoscow_cell_3_5_4
Torpedo MoscowMoscow_cell_3_6_0 1924Moscow_cell_3_6_1 FNLMoscow_cell_3_6_2 2ndMoscow_cell_3_6_3 Eduard Streltsov StadiumMoscow_cell_3_6_4
Kazanka MoscowMoscow_cell_3_7_0 2008Moscow_cell_3_7_1 PFLMoscow_cell_3_7_2 3rdMoscow_cell_3_7_3 Sapsan ArenaMoscow_cell_3_7_4
Veles MoscowMoscow_cell_3_8_0 2016Moscow_cell_3_8_1 PFLMoscow_cell_3_8_2 3rdMoscow_cell_3_8_3 Spartakovets StadiumMoscow_cell_3_8_4
Burevestnik MoscowMoscow_cell_3_9_0 1924Moscow_cell_3_9_1 3rd divisionMoscow_cell_3_9_2 4thMoscow_cell_3_9_3 Iskra StadiumMoscow_cell_3_9_4

Entertainment Moscow_section_26

See also: List of shopping malls in Moscow Moscow_sentence_451

The city is full of clubs, restaurants, and bars. Moscow_sentence_452

Tverskaya Street is also one of the busiest shopping streets in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_453

The adjoining Tretyakovsky Proyezd, also south of Tverskaya Street, in Kitai-gorod, is host to upmarket boutique stores such as Bulgari, Tiffany & Co., Armani, Prada and Bentley. Moscow_sentence_454

Nightlife in Moscow has moved on since Soviet times and today the city has many of the world's largest nightclubs. Moscow_sentence_455

Clubs, bars, creative spaces and restaurants-turned-into-dancefloors are flooding Moscow streets with new openings every year. Moscow_sentence_456

The hottest area is located around the old chocolate factory, where bars, nightclubs, galleries, cafés and restaurants are placed. Moscow_sentence_457

Dream Island is an amusement park in Moscow that opened on February 29, 2020. Moscow_sentence_458

It is the largest indoor theme park in Europe. Moscow_sentence_459

The park covers 300,000 square meters. Moscow_sentence_460

During the construction of the park 150 acres of nature trees unique and rare animals and birds and plants on the peninsula was destroyed. Moscow_sentence_461

The appearance is in the style of a fairytale castle similar to Disneyland. Moscow_sentence_462

The park has 29 unique attractions with many rides, as well as pedestrian malls with fountains and cycle paths. Moscow_sentence_463

The complex includes a landscaped park along with a concert hall, a cinema, a hotel, a children's sailing school, restaurants and shops. Moscow_sentence_464

Authorities Moscow_section_27

Moscow authorities Moscow_section_28

See also: Government of Moscow, Mayor of Moscow, Moscow City Duma, and Charter of the city of Moscow Moscow_sentence_465

According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Moscow is an independent federal subject of the Russian Federation, the so-called city of federal importance. Moscow_sentence_466

The Mayor of Moscow is the leading official in the executive, leading the Government of Moscow, which is the highest organ of executive power. Moscow_sentence_467

The Moscow City Duma is the City Duma (city council or local parliament) and local laws must be approved by it. Moscow_sentence_468

It includes 45 members who are elected for a five-year term on Single-mandate constituency basis. Moscow_sentence_469

From 2006 to 2012, direct elections of the mayor were not held due to changes in the Charter of the city of Moscow, the mayor was appointed by presidential decree. Moscow_sentence_470

The first direct elections from the time of the 2003 vote were to be held after the expiration of the current mayor in 2015, however, in connection with his resignation of his own free will, they took place in September 2013. Moscow_sentence_471

Local administration is carried out through eleven prefectures, uniting the districts of Moscow into administrative districts on a territorial basis, and 125 regional administrations. Moscow_sentence_472

According to the law “On the organization of local self-government in the city of Moscow”, since the beginning of 2003, the executive bodies of local self-government are municipalities, representative bodies are municipal assemblies, whose members are elected in accordance with the Charter of the intracity municipality. Moscow_sentence_473

Federal authorities Moscow_section_29

See also: White House (Moscow) and State Duma Moscow_sentence_474

In Moscow, as in a city endowed with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the legislative, executive and judicial federal authorities of the country are located, with the exception of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, which has been located in Saint Petersburg since 2008. Moscow_sentence_475

The supreme executive authority - the Government of the Russian Federation - is located in the House of the Government of the Russian Federation on in the center of Moscow. Moscow_sentence_476

The State Duma sits on . Moscow_sentence_477

The Federation Council is located in a building on . Moscow_sentence_478

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and the Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation are also located in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_479

In addition, the Moscow Kremlin is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation. Moscow_sentence_480

The president's working residence in the Kremlin is located in the Senate Palace. Moscow_sentence_481

Safety Moscow_section_30

According to the ranking of the safest cities made by The Economist Moscow occupies the 37th position with a score of 68,5 points percent. Moscow_sentence_482

The general level of crime is quite low. Moscow_sentence_483

More than 170,000 surveillance cameras in Moscow are connected to the facial recognition system. Moscow_sentence_484

The authorities recognized the successful two-month experiment with automatic recognition of faces, gender and age of people in real time - and then they deployed the system to the whole city. Moscow_sentence_485

The network of video surveillance unites access video cameras (95% of residential apartment buildings in the capital), cameras in the territory and in buildings of schools and kindergartens, at the MCC stations, stadiums, public transport stops and bus stations, in parks, underground passages. Moscow_sentence_486

The emergency numbers are the same as in all the other regions of Russia: 112 is the Single Emergency Number, 101 is the number of the Fire Service and Ministry of Emergency Situations, 102 is the Police one, 103 is the ambulance one, 104 is the Emergency Gas number. Moscow_sentence_487

Moscow's EMS is the second most efficient one among the world's megacities, as reported by PwC during the presentation of the international study Analysis of EMS Efficiency in Megacities of the World. Moscow_sentence_488

Waste management Moscow_section_31

Waste management has been a sore point in the Russian capital for a long time, as well as in the country in general. Moscow_sentence_489

The most advanced methods of separate collection and recycling of waste were mostly unknown to the citizens of Moscow, as the produced garbage was thrown into a single dumpster, the content later transported outside the capital and deposited in huge waste dumps. Moscow_sentence_490

Moscow couldn't handle its own garbage. Moscow_sentence_491

Every day 9.5 thousand tons of municipal waste were transported from the capital to nearby landfills that have long since outlived their capacity. Moscow_sentence_492

Since 2013, 24 of the Moscow region's 39 landfills have closed. Moscow_sentence_493

Residents of Moscow Oblast had a run in with police while protesting the construction of a garbage dump near Moscow. Moscow_sentence_494

Demonstrators have blocked roads and staged rallies in several towns outside Moscow to protest overfilled garbage collection sites. Moscow_sentence_495

Residents complained of toxic fumes and said the polluted air was harming their children. Moscow_sentence_496

Waste management reform was introduced on January 1, 2020. Moscow_sentence_497

According to the new provisions of the Moscow Duma, there must be two containers in each courtyard: a blue one for plastic, paper, glass and metal and the other one gray, for wet waste. Moscow_sentence_498

The content of the containers must be recycled in special recycling centers. Moscow_sentence_499

Authorities hope it will lead to around 50% of the capital's waste being recycled. Moscow_sentence_500

Administrative divisions Moscow_section_32

Main article: Administrative divisions of Moscow Moscow_sentence_501


Federal city of MoscowMoscow_header_cell_4_0_0 Moscow_cell_4_0_1
City administrative divisionsMoscow_cell_4_1_0 12Moscow_cell_4_1_1
City districtsMoscow_cell_4_2_0 125Moscow_cell_4_2_1
City settlementsMoscow_cell_4_3_0 21Moscow_cell_4_3_1

The entire city of Moscow is headed by one mayor (Sergey Sobyanin). Moscow_sentence_502

The city of Moscow is divided into twelve administrative okrugs and 125 districts. Moscow_sentence_503

The Russian capital's town-planning development began to show as early as the 12th century when the city was founded. Moscow_sentence_504

The central part of Moscow grew by consolidating with suburbs in line with medieval principles of urban development when strong fortress walls would gradually spread along the circle streets of adjacent new settlements. Moscow_sentence_505

The first circular defence walls set the trajectory of Moscow's rings, laying the groundwork for the future planning of the Russian capital. Moscow_sentence_506

The following fortifications served as the city's circular defense boundaries at some point in history: the Kremlin walls, Zemlyanoy Gorod (Earthwork Town), the Kamer-Kollezhsky Rampart, the Garden Ring, and the small railway ring. Moscow_sentence_507

The Moscow Ring Road (MKAD) has been Moscow's boundary since 1960. Moscow_sentence_508

Also in the form of a circle are the main Moscow subway line, the Ring Line, and the so-called Third Automobile Ring, which was completed in 2005. Moscow_sentence_509

Hence, the characteristic radial-circle planning continues to define Moscow's further development. Moscow_sentence_510

However, contemporary Moscow has also engulfed a number of territories outside the MKAD, such as Solntsevo, Butovo, and the town of Zelenograd. Moscow_sentence_511

A part of Moscow Oblast's territory was merged into Moscow on July 1, 2012; as a result, Moscow is no longer fully surrounded by Moscow Oblast and now also has a border with Kaluga Oblast. Moscow_sentence_512

In all, Moscow gained about 1,500 square kilometers (580 sq mi) and 230,000 inhabitants. Moscow_sentence_513

Moscow's Mayor Sergey Sobyanin lauded the expansion that will help Moscow and the neighboring region, a "mega-city" of twenty million people, to develop "harmonically". Moscow_sentence_514

All administrative okrugs and districts have their own coats of arms and flags as well as individual heads of the area. Moscow_sentence_515

In addition to the districts, there are Territorial Units with Special Status. Moscow_sentence_516

These usually include areas with small or no permanent populations. Moscow_sentence_517

Such is the case with the All-Russia Exhibition Centre, the Botanical Garden, large parks, and industrial zones. Moscow_sentence_518

In recent years, some territories have been merged with different districts. Moscow_sentence_519

There are no ethnic-specific regions in Moscow, as in the Chinatowns that exist in some North American and East Asian cities. Moscow_sentence_520

And although districts are not designated by income, as with most cities, those areas that are closer to the city center, metro stations or green zones are considered more prestigious. Moscow_sentence_521

Moscow also hosts some of the government bodies of Moscow Oblast, although the city itself is not a part of the oblast. Moscow_sentence_522

Economy Moscow_section_33

See also: Economy of Russia Moscow_sentence_523

Overview Moscow_section_34

Moscow has one of the largest municipal economies in Europe and it accounts more than one-fifth of Russia's gross domestic product (GDP). Moscow_sentence_524

As of 2017, the nominal GRP in Moscow reached ₽15.7 trillion $270 billion (~$0.7 trillion in Purchasing Power), US$22,000 per capita(~$60,000 per capita in Purchasing Power) Moscow_sentence_525

Moscow has the lowest unemployment rate of all federal subjects of Russia, standing at just 1% in 2010, compared to the national average of 7%. Moscow_sentence_526

The average gross monthly wage in the city is ₽60,000 (US$2,500 in Purchasing Power), which is almost twice the national average of ₽34,000 (US$1,400 in Purchasing Power), and the highest among the federal subjects of Russia. Moscow_sentence_527

Moscow is the financial center of Russia and home to the country's largest banks and many of its largest companies, such as oil giant Rosneft. Moscow_sentence_528

Moscow accounts for 17% of retail sales in Russia and for 13% of all construction activity in the country. Moscow_sentence_529

Since the 1998 Russian financial crisis, business sectors in Moscow have shown exponential rates of growth. Moscow_sentence_530

Many new business centers and office buildings have been built in recent years, but Moscow still experiences shortages in office space. Moscow_sentence_531

As a result, many former industrial and research facilities are being reconstructed to become suitable for office use. Moscow_sentence_532

Overall, economic stability has improved in recent years; nonetheless, crime and corruption still hinder business development. Moscow_sentence_533

The Cherkizovskiy marketplace was the largest marketplace in Europe, with a daily turnover of about thirty million dollars and about ten thousand venders from different countries (including China, Turkey, Azerbaijan and India). Moscow_sentence_534

It was administratively divided into twelve parts and covers a wide sector of the city. Moscow_sentence_535

Since July 2009 it has been closed. Moscow_sentence_536

In 2008, Moscow had 74 billionaires with an average wealth of $5.9 billion, which placed it above New York's 71 billionaires. Moscow_sentence_537

However, as of 2009, there were 27 billionaires in Moscow compared with New York's 55 billionaires. Moscow_sentence_538

Overall, Russia lost 52 billionaires during the recession. Moscow_sentence_539

Topping the list of Russia's billionaires in 2009 is Mikhail Prokhorov with $9.5 billion, ahead of the more famous Roman Abramovich with $8.5 billion, in . Moscow_sentence_540

Prokhorov's holding company, "ОНЭКСИМ" (ONÈKSIM) group, owns huge assets in hydrogen energy, nanotechnology, traditional energy, precious metals sector, while Abramovich, since selling his oil company Sibneft to Russian state-controlled gas giant Gazprom in 2005, has bought up steel and mining assets. Moscow_sentence_541

He also owns Chelsea F.C.. Moscow_sentence_542

Russia's richest woman remains Yelena Baturina, the 50-year-old second wife of Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov. Moscow_sentence_543

Oleg Deripaska, the 1st on this list in 2008 with $28 billion, was only 10th in 2009 with . Moscow_sentence_544

Based on Forbes' 2011 list of the world's billionaires, Moscow is the city with the most billionaires in the world, with 79 from 115 in all of Russia. Moscow_sentence_545

In 2018, Moscow was a host city to 12 games of the FIFA World Cup. Moscow_sentence_546

The tournament served as an additional driver for the city economy, its sports and tourist infrastructure, and for land improvement in the city. Moscow_sentence_547

Industry Moscow_section_35

Primary industries in Moscow include the chemical, metallurgy, food, textile, furniture, energy production, software development and machinery industries. Moscow_sentence_548

The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the leading producers of military and civil helicopters in the world. Moscow_sentence_549

Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center produces various space equipment, including modules for space stations Mir, Salyut and the ISS as well as Proton launch vehicles and military ICBMs. Moscow_sentence_550

Sukhoi, Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Tupolev and Yakovlev aircraft design bureaus also situated in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_551

NPO Energomash, producing the rocket engines for Russian and American space programs, as well as Lavochkin design bureau, which built fighter planes during WWII, but switched to space probes since the Space Race, are in nearby Khimki, an independent city in Moscow Oblast that have largely been enclosed by Moscow from its sides. Moscow_sentence_552

Automobile plants ZiL and AZLK, as well as the Voitovich Rail Vehicle plant, are situated in Moscow and Metrovagonmash metro wagon plant is located just outside the city limits. Moscow_sentence_553

The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad. Moscow_sentence_554

Yuri Gagarin in his trip into space used "Shturmanskie" produced by this factory. Moscow_sentence_555

The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia. Moscow_sentence_556

The Kristall distillery is the oldest distillery in Russia producing vodka types, including "Stolichnaya" while wines are produced at Moscow wine plants, including the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. Moscow_sentence_557

The Moscow Jewelry Factory and the Jewellerprom are producers of jewellery in Russia; Jewellerprom used to produce the exclusive Order of Victory, awarded to those aiding the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II. Moscow_sentence_558

There are other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, as well as microelectronic industries in Zelenograd, including Ruselectronics companies. Moscow_sentence_559

Gazprom, the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and the largest Russian company, has head offices also in Moscow, as well as other oil, gas, and electricity companies. Moscow_sentence_560

Moscow hosts headquarters of the many of telecommunication and technology companies, including 1C, ABBYY, Beeline, Kaspersky Lab, Mail.Ru Group, MegaFon, MTS, Rambler&Co, Rostelecom, Yandex, and Yota. Moscow_sentence_561

Some industry is being transferred out of the city to improve the ecological state of the city. Moscow_sentence_562

Cost of living Moscow_section_36

See also: Hotels in Moscow Moscow_sentence_563

During Soviet times, apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm (some groups, including people's artists, heroes and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honors). Moscow_sentence_564

Private ownership of apartments was limited until the 1990s, when people were permitted to secure property rights to the places they inhabited. Moscow_sentence_565

Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area. Moscow_sentence_566

The price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise. Moscow_sentence_567

Today, one could expect to pay $4,000 on average per square meter (11 sq ft) on the outskirts of the city or US$6,500–$8,000 per square meter in a prestigious district. Moscow_sentence_568

The price sometimes may exceed US$40,000 per square meter in a flat. Moscow_sentence_569

It costs about US$1,200 per month to rent a one-bedroom apartment and about US$1,000 per month for a studio in the center of Moscow. Moscow_sentence_570

A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square metres (320 square feet), a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square metres (480 square feet), and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square metres (750 square feet). Moscow_sentence_571

Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era. Moscow_sentence_572

Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas (country houses) outside the city. Moscow_sentence_573

In 2006, Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees, ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian ruble as well as increasing housing prices within the city. Moscow_sentence_574

Moscow also ranked first in the 2007 edition and 2008 edition of the survey. Moscow_sentence_575

However, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third behind Osaka in second place. Moscow_sentence_576

In 2008, Moscow ranked top on the list of most expensive cities for the third year in a row. Moscow_sentence_577

In 2014, according to Forbes, Moscow was ranked the 9th most expensive city in the world. Moscow_sentence_578

Forbes ranked Moscow the 2nd most expensive city the year prior. Moscow_sentence_579

In 2019 the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living survey put Moscow to 102nd place in the biannual ranking of 133 most expensive cities. Moscow_sentence_580

ECA International's Cost of Living 2019 Survey ranked Moscow #120 among 482 locations worldwide. Moscow_sentence_581

Public utilities Moscow_section_37

Heating Moscow_section_38

Heating of buildings in Moscow, like in other cities in Russia is done using central heating system. Moscow_sentence_582

Before 2004, state unitary enterprises were responsible to produce and supply heat to the clients by the operation of heating stations and heating distribution system of Mosgorteplo, Mosteploenergo and Teploremontnaladka which gave service to the heating substations in the north-eastern part of the city. Moscow_sentence_583

Clients were divided between the various enterprises based on their geographical location. Moscow_sentence_584

A major reform launched in 2004 consolidated the various companies under the umbrella of MIPC which became the municipal heat supplier. Moscow_sentence_585

Its subsidiaries were the newly transformed Joint-stock companies. Moscow_sentence_586

The city's main source of heating is the power station of Mosenergo which was reformed in 2005, when around ten subsidiaries were separated from it. Moscow_sentence_587

One of the newly independent companies was the District Heating Network Company (MTK) (Russian: Московская теплосетевая компания). Moscow_sentence_588

In 2007 the Government of Moscow bought controlling stakes in the company. Moscow_sentence_589

Education Moscow_section_39

Further information: Education in Russia Moscow_sentence_590

There are 1,696 high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges. Moscow_sentence_591

Besides these, there are 222 institutions of higher education, including 60 state universities and the Lomonosov Moscow State University, which was founded in 1755. Moscow_sentence_592

The main university building located in Vorobyovy Gory (Sparrow Hills) is 240 metres (790 ft) tall and when completed, was the tallest building on the continent. Moscow_sentence_593

The university has over 30,000 undergraduate and 7,000 postgraduate students, who have a choice of twenty-nine faculties and 450 departments for study. Moscow_sentence_594

Additionally, approximately 10,000 high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. Moscow_sentence_595

The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia. Moscow_sentence_596

Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11,000 international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to become fluent in the Russian language. Moscow_sentence_597

The I.M. Moscow_sentence_598 Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University named after Ivan Sechenov or formerly known as Moscow Medical Academy (1stMSMU) is a medical university situated in Moscow, Russia. Moscow_sentence_599

It was founded in 1785 as the faculty of the Moscow State University. Moscow_sentence_600

It is a Russian Federal Agency for Health and Social Development. Moscow_sentence_601

It is one of the largest medical universities in Russia and Europe. Moscow_sentence_602

More than 9200 students are enrolled in 115 academic departments. Moscow_sentence_603

It offers courses for post-graduate studies. Moscow_sentence_604

Moscow is one of the financial centers of the Russian Federation and CIS countries and is known for its business schools. Moscow_sentence_605

Among them are the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation; Plekhanov Russian University of Economics; The State University of Management, and the National Research University - Higher School of Economics. Moscow_sentence_606

They offer undergraduate degrees in management, finance, accounting, marketing, real estate, and economic theory, as well as Masters programs and MBAs. Moscow_sentence_607

Most of them have branches in other regions of Russia and countries around the world. Moscow_sentence_608

Bauman Moscow State Technical University, founded in 1830, is located in the center of Moscow and provides 18,000 undergraduate and 1,000 postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering, offering technical degrees. Moscow_sentence_609

Since it opened enrollment to students from outside Russia in 1991, Bauman Moscow State Technical University has increased its number of international students up to two hundred. Moscow_sentence_610

The Moscow Conservatory, founded in 1866, is a prominent music school in Russia whose graduates include Sergey Rachmaninoff, Alexander Scriabin, Aram Khachaturian, Mstislav Rostropovich, and Alfred Schnittke. Moscow_sentence_611

The Gerasimov All-Russian State Institute of Cinematography, abbreviated as VGIK, is the world's oldest educational institution in Cinematography, founded by Vladimir Gardin in 1919. Moscow_sentence_612

Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, and Aleksey Batalov were among its most distinguished professors and Mikhail Vartanov, Sergei Parajanov, Andrei Tarkovsky, Nikita Mikhalkov, Eldar Ryazanov, Alexander Sokurov, Yuriy Norshteyn, Aleksandr Petrov, Vasily Shukshin, Konrad Wolf among graduates. Moscow_sentence_613

Moscow State Institute of International Relations, founded in 1944, remains Russia's best- known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six schools focused on international relations. Moscow_sentence_614

Approximately 4,500 students make up the university's student body and over 700,000 Russian and foreign-language books—of which 20,000 are considered rare—can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. Moscow_sentence_615

Other institutions are the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, also known as Phystech, the Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex, founded in 1988 by Russian eye surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov, the Moscow Aviation Institute, the Moscow Motorway Institute (State Technical University), and the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Moscow_sentence_616

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology has taught numerous Nobel Prize winners, including Pyotr Kapitsa, Nikolay Semyonov, Lev Landau and Alexander Prokhorov, while the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute is known for its research in nuclear physics. Moscow_sentence_617

The highest Russian military school is the Combined Arms Academy of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. Moscow_sentence_618

Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental sciences, in recent years Moscow has seen a growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management. Moscow_sentence_619

Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and introduced new courses or departments. Moscow_sentence_620

Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Moscow_sentence_621

Student exchange programs with numerous countries, specially with the rest of Europe, have also become widespread in Moscow's universities, while schools within the Russian capital also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen. Moscow_sentence_622

Moscow is one of the largest science centers in Russia. Moscow_sentence_623

The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as research and applied science institutions. Moscow_sentence_624

The Kurchatov Institute, Russia's leading research and development institution in the fields of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_625

There are 452 libraries in the city, including 168 for children. Moscow_sentence_626

The Russian State Library, founded in 1862, is the national library of Russia. Moscow_sentence_627

The library is home to over 275 km (171 mi) of shelves and 42 million items, including over 17 million books and serial volumes, 13 million journals, 350,000 music scores and sound records, and 150,000 maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Moscow_sentence_628

Items in 247 languages account for 29% of the collection. Moscow_sentence_629

The State Public Historical Library, founded in 1863, is the largest library specialising in Russian history. Moscow_sentence_630

Its collection contains four million items in 112 languages (including 47 languages of the former USSR), mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry, numismatics, and the history of science. Moscow_sentence_631

In regard to primary and secondary education, in 2011, Clifford J. Levy of The New York Times wrote, "Moscow has some strong public schools, but the system as a whole is dispiriting, in part because it is being corroded by the corruption that is a post-Soviet scourge. Moscow_sentence_632

Parents often pay bribes to get their children admitted to better public schools. Moscow_sentence_633

There are additional payoffs for good grades." Moscow_sentence_634

Transportation Moscow_section_40

Main article: Transportation in Moscow Moscow_sentence_635

Metro Moscow_section_41

Main article: Moscow Metro Moscow_sentence_636

The Moscow Metro system is famous for its art, murals, mosaics, and ornate chandeliers. Moscow_sentence_637

It started operation in 1935 and immediately became the centrepiece of the transportation system. Moscow_sentence_638

More than that it was a Stalinist device to awe and reward the populace, and give them an appreciation of Soviet realist art. Moscow_sentence_639

It became the prototype for future Soviet large-scale technologies. Moscow_sentence_640

Lazar Kaganovich was in charge; he designed the subway so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist civilisation as they rode. Moscow_sentence_641

The artwork of the 13 original stations became nationally and internationally famous. Moscow_sentence_642

For example, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and the physical prowess of the powerful new "Homo Sovieticus." Moscow_sentence_643

(Soviet man). Moscow_sentence_644

The metro was touted as the symbol of the new social order—a sort of Communist cathedral of engineering modernity. Moscow_sentence_645

Soviet workers did the labour and the art work, but the main engineering designs, routes, and construction plans were handled by specialists recruited from the London Underground. Moscow_sentence_646

The Britons called for tunnelling instead of the "cut-and-cover" technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, and designed the routes and the rolling stock. Moscow_sentence_647

The paranoia of Stalin and the NKVD was evident when the secret police arrested numerous British engineers for espionage—that is for gaining an in-depth knowledge of the city's physical layout. Moscow_sentence_648

Engineers for the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company were given a show trial and deported in 1933, ending the role of British business in the USSR. Moscow_sentence_649

Today, the Moscow Metro comprises twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of 203 stations. Moscow_sentence_650

The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance the Park Pobedy station, completed in 2003, at 84 metres (276 ft) underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. Moscow_sentence_651

The Moscow Metro is the busiest metro system in Europe, as well as one of the world's busiest metro systems, serving about ten million passengers daily (300,000,000 people every month). Moscow_sentence_652

Facing serious transportation problems, Moscow has plans for expanding its Metro. Moscow_sentence_653

In 2016, the authorities launched a new circle metro railway that contributed to solving transportation issues, namely daily congestion at Koltsevaya Line. Moscow_sentence_654

Due to treatment of Metro stations as possible canvas for art, characterized by fact workers of Moscow would get to see every day, many Stalin-era metro stations were built in different "custom" designs (where each station's design would be, initially, a massive installation on a certain theme. Moscow_sentence_655

For example, Elektrozavodskaya station was themed solely after nearby lightbulb factory and ceramic ribbed lightbulb sockets); the tradition of "Grand Designs" and, basically, decorating metro stations as single-themed installations, was restored in late 1979. Moscow_sentence_656

Monorail Moscow_section_42

Main article: Moscow Monorail Moscow_sentence_657

The Moscow Metro operates a short monorail line. Moscow_sentence_658

The line connects Timiryazevskaya metro station and Ulitsa Sergeya Eisensteina, passing close to VVTs. Moscow_sentence_659

The line opened in 2004. Moscow_sentence_660

No additional fare is needed (first metro-monorail transfer in 90 minutes does not charge). Moscow_sentence_661

Bus, trolleybus and electric bus Moscow_section_43

Main article: Electric buses in Moscow Moscow_sentence_662

As Metro stations outside the city center are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to 4 kilometres (2.5 mi), a bus network radiates from each station to the surrounding residential zones. Moscow_sentence_663

Moscow has a bus terminal for long-range and intercity passenger buses (Central Bus Terminal) with a daily turnover of about 25 thousand passengers serving about 40% of long-range bus routes in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_664

Every major street in the city is served by at least one bus route. Moscow_sentence_665

Many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybus route and have trolley wires over them. Moscow_sentence_666

With the total line length of almost 600 kilometres (370 miles) of a single wire, 8 depots, 104 routes, and 1740 vehicles, the Moscow trolleybus system was the largest in the world. Moscow_sentence_667

But municipal authority, headed by Sergey Sobyanin, began to destroy trolleybus system in Moscow at 2014 due to corruption and planned replacement of trolleybuses by electrobuses. Moscow_sentence_668

At 2018 Moscow trolleybus system have only 4 depots and dozens of kilometers of unused wires. Moscow_sentence_669

Almost all trolleybus wires inside Garden Ring (Sadovoe Koltso) was cut in 2016–2017 due to the reconstruction of central streets ("Moya Ulitsa"). Moscow_sentence_670

Opened on November 15, 1933, it is also the world's 6th oldest operating trolleybus system. Moscow_sentence_671

In 2018 the vehicle companies Kamaz and GAZ have won the Mosgortrans tender for delivering 200 electric buses and 62 ultra-fast charging stations to the city transport system. Moscow_sentence_672

The manufacturers will be responsible for the quality and reliable operation of the buses and charging stations for the next 15 years. Moscow_sentence_673

The city will be procuring only electric buses as of 2021, replacing the diesel bus fleet gradually. Moscow_sentence_674

Moscow will become the leader amongst the European cities in terms of electric and gas fuel share in public transport by 2019, according to expectations. Moscow_sentence_675

Moscow cable car Moscow_section_44

Main article: Moskva River cable car Moscow_sentence_676

On November 26, 2018, the mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin took part in the ceremony to open the cable car above the Moskva River. Moscow_sentence_677

The cable car will connect the Luzhniki sports complex with Sparrow Hills and Kosygin Street. Moscow_sentence_678

The journey from the well-known viewpoint on Vorobyovy Gory to Luzhniki Stadium will last for five minutes instead of 20 minutes that one would have to spend on the same journey by car. Moscow_sentence_679

The cable car will work every day from 11 a.m. till 11 p.m. Moscow_sentence_680

The cable car is 720 meters long. Moscow_sentence_681

It was built to transport 1,600 passengers per hour in all weathers. Moscow_sentence_682

There 35 closed capsules designed by Porsche Design Studio to transport passengers. Moscow_sentence_683

The booths are equipped with media screens, LED lights, hooks for bikes, skis and snowboards. Moscow_sentence_684

Passengers will also be able to use audio guides in English, German, Chinese and Russian. Moscow_sentence_685

Tram Moscow_section_45

Main article: Trams in Moscow Moscow_sentence_686

Moscow has an extensive tram system, which first opened in 1899. Moscow_sentence_687

The newest line was built in 1984. Moscow_sentence_688

Its daily usage by Muscovites is low, making up for approximately 5% of trips because many vital connections in the network have been withdrawn. Moscow_sentence_689

Trams still remain important in some districts as feeders to Metro stations. Moscow_sentence_690

The trams also provide important cross links between metro lines, for example between Universitet station of Sokolnicheskaya Line (#1 red line) and Profsoyuznaya station of Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line (#6 orange line) or between Voykovskaya and Strogino. Moscow_sentence_691

There are three tram networks in the city: Moscow_sentence_692


  • Krasnopresnenskoye depot network with the westernmost point at Strogino (depot location) and the easternmost point near platform Dmitrovskaya. This network became separated in 1973, but until 1997 it could easily have been reconnected by about one kilometre (0.62 miles) of track and three switches. The network has the highest usage in Moscow and no weak points based on turnover except to-depot lane (passengers serviced by bus) and tram ring at Dmitrovskaya (because now it is neither a normal transfer point nor a repair terminal).Moscow_item_3_31
  • The Apakov depot services the south-western part from the Varshavsky lane – Simferopolsky boulevard in the east to the Universitet station in the west and Boulevard lane at the center. This network is connected only by the four-way Dubininskaya and Kozhevnicheskaya streets. A second connection by Vostochnaya (Eastern) street was withdrawn in 1987 due to fire at Dinamo plant and has not been recovered, and remains lost (Avtozavodsky bridge) at 1992. The network may be serviced anyway by another depot (now route 35, 38).Moscow_item_3_32
  • Main three depot networks with railway gate and tram-repair plant.Moscow_item_3_33

In addition, tram advocates have suggested that the new rapid transit services (metro to City, Butovo light metro, Monorail) would be more effective as at-grade tram lines and that the problems with trams are only due to poor management and operation, not the technical properties of trams. Moscow_sentence_693

New tram models have been developed for the Moscow network despite the lack of expansion. Moscow_sentence_694

Taxi Moscow_section_46

Commercial taxi services and route taxis are in widespread use. Moscow_sentence_695

In the mid-2010s, service platforms such as Yandex.Taxi, Uber and Gett displaced many private drivers and small service providers and were in 2015 servicing more than 50% of all taxi orders in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_696

Railway Moscow_section_47

Several train stations serve the city. Moscow_sentence_697

Moscow's nine rail terminals (or vokzals) are: Moscow_sentence_698


The terminals are located close to the city center, along with the metro ringline 5 or close to it, and connect to a metroline to the centre of town. Moscow_sentence_699

Each station handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia. Moscow_sentence_700

There are many smaller railway stations in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_701

As train tickets are cheap, they are the preferred mode of travel for Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia's second-largest city. Moscow_sentence_702

Moscow is the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which traverses nearly 9,300 kilometres (5,800 mi) of Russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast. Moscow_sentence_703

Suburbs and satellite cities are connected by commuter elektrichka (electric rail) network. Moscow_sentence_704

Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby (up to 140 km or 87 mi) large railway stations. Moscow_sentence_705

During the 2010s, the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway was converted to be used for frequent passenger service; it is fully integrated with Moscow Metro; the passenger service started on September 10, 2016. Moscow_sentence_706

There is a connecting railway line on the North side of the town that connects Belorussky terminal with other railway lines. Moscow_sentence_707

This is used by some suburban trains. Moscow_sentence_708

Moscow Central Circle Moscow_section_48

The Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga formed a ring around the now-downtown Moscow since 1903, but only served as non-electrified, fueled locomotive-only railway prior to reconstruction into MCC in 2010's. Moscow_sentence_709

The Moscow Central Circle is a 54-kilometre-long (34 mi) urban-metro railway orbital line that encircles historical Moscow. Moscow_sentence_710

It was built alongside Little Ring of the Moscow Railway, taking some of its tracks into itself as well. Moscow_sentence_711

M.C.C. Moscow_sentence_712

was opened for passenger use on September 10, 2016. Moscow_sentence_713

MOZD is integrated as "Line 14 of Moscow Metro", and, while using railway-sized trains, can be perceived as "S-train-design circle line". Moscow_sentence_714

The line is operated by the Moscow Government owned company MKZD through the Moscow Metro, with the Federal Government owned Russian Railways selected as the operation subcontractor. Moscow_sentence_715

The track infrastructure and most platforms are owned by Russian Railways, while most station buildings are owned by MKZD. Moscow_sentence_716

However, in S-bahn way, Moscow unified tickets "Ediniiy" and "Troika" are accepted by MCC stations. Moscow_sentence_717

There is one zero-fee interchange for any ticket used on Moscow Metro station less than 90 minutes before entering an MCC station (and vice versa: a passenger of MCC gets 1 free interchange to Moscow Metro within 90 minutes after entering MCC station) Moscow_sentence_718

Moscow Central Diameters Moscow_section_49

Another system, which forms "genuine S-Bahn" as in "suburbia-city-suburbia"-designed railway, is the Moscow Central Diameters, a pass-through railways system, created by constructing bypasses from "vokzals" final stations (e.g. by avoiding the central stations of already existing Moscow Railway, used for both intercity and urban-suburban travel before) and forming a train line across Moscow's centre. Moscow_sentence_719

Out of 5 projected lines, first 2 lines were completed and launched on 2019-11-21 (e.g. November 21, 2019). Moscow_sentence_720

While using the same rails as "regular" suburban trains to vokzals, MCD trains ("Ivolga" model) got distinguishing features (shape; red cabin, different windows, lesser amount of seats; big red "MЦΔ" train logo (informally "ЯИЦА" train logo, due to overlap of letter M and a window: without upper left corner, M letter can be interpreted as ЯИ letters, and Δ letter can be both interpreted as stylized Д or as stylized А)). Moscow_sentence_721

Roads Moscow_section_50

There are over 2.6 million cars in the city daily. Moscow_sentence_722

Recent years have seen growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and lack of parking space to become major problems. Moscow_sentence_723

The Moscow Ring Road (MKAD), along with the Third Transport Ring and the cancelled Fourth Transport Ring, is one of only three freeways that run within Moscow city limits. Moscow_sentence_724

There are several other roadway systems that form concentric circles around the city. Moscow_sentence_725

Air Moscow_section_51

There are five primary commercial airports serving Moscow: Sheremetyevo (SVO), Domodedovo (DME), Vnukovo (VKO), Zhukovsky (ZIA), Ostafyevo (OSF). Moscow_sentence_726

Sheremetyevo International Airport is the most globally connected, handling 60% of all international flights. Moscow_sentence_727

It is also a home to all SkyTeam members, and the main hub for Aeroflot (itself a member of SkyTeam). Moscow_sentence_728

Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput, and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo. Moscow_sentence_729

Most of Star Alliance members use Domodedovo as their international hub. Moscow_sentence_730

Vnukovo International Airport handles flights of Turkish Airlines, Lufthansa, Wizz Air and others. Moscow_sentence_731

Ostafyevo International Airport caters primarily to business aviation. Moscow_sentence_732

Moscow's airports vary in distances from the MKAD beltway: Domodedovo is the farthest at 22 km (14 mi); Vnukovo is 11 km (7 mi); Sheremetyevo is 10 km (6 mi); and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from MKAD. Moscow_sentence_733

There are a number of smaller airports close to Moscow (19 in Moscow Oblast) such as Myachkovo Airport, that are intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters. Moscow_sentence_734

Water Moscow_section_52

Moscow has two passenger terminals, (South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal), on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along the Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment. Moscow_sentence_735

The North River Terminal, built in 1937, is the main hub for long-range river routes. Moscow_sentence_736

There are three freight ports serving Moscow. Moscow_sentence_737

Sharing system Moscow_section_53

See also: Carsharing in Moscow Moscow_sentence_738

Moscow has different vehicle sharing options that are sponsored by the local government. Moscow_sentence_739

There are several car sharing companies which are in charge of providing cars to the population. Moscow_sentence_740

To drive the automobiles, the user has to book them through the app of the owning company. Moscow_sentence_741

In 2018 the mayor Sergey Sobyanin said Moscow's car sharing system has become the biggest in Europe in terms of vehicle fleet. Moscow_sentence_742

Every day about 25,000 people use this service. Moscow_sentence_743

In the end of the same year Moscow carsharing became the second in the world in therms of fleet with 16.5K available vehicles. Moscow_sentence_744

Another sharing system is bike sharing (Velobike) of a fleet formed by 3000 traditional and electrical bicycles. Moscow_sentence_745

The Delisamokat is a new sharing service that provides electrical scooters. Moscow_sentence_746

There are companies that provide different vehicles to the population in proximity to Moscow's big parks. Moscow_sentence_747

Future development Moscow_section_54

In 1992, the Moscow government began planning a projected new part of central Moscow, the Moscow International Business Center, with the goal of creating a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe, that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment. Moscow_sentence_748

Situated in Presnensky District and located at the Third Ring, the Moscow City area is under intense development. Moscow_sentence_749

The construction of the MIBC takes place on the Krasnopresnenskaya embankment. Moscow_sentence_750

The whole project takes up to one square kilometre (250 acres). Moscow_sentence_751

The area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Moscow_sentence_752

Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes. Moscow_sentence_753

The Federation Tower, completed in 2016, is the second-tallest building in Europe. Moscow_sentence_754

It is planned to include a water park and other recreational facilities; business, office, entertainment and residential buildings, a transport network and a new site for the Moscow government. Moscow_sentence_755

The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has been completed, two of which have opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some additional stations were planned. Moscow_sentence_756

A rail shuttle service, directly connecting MIBC with the Sheremetyevo International Airport is also planned. Moscow_sentence_757

Major thoroughfares through MIBC are the Third Ring and Kutuzovsky Prospekt. Moscow_sentence_758

Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line. Moscow_sentence_759

The station Delovoi Tsentr opened in 2005 and was later renamed Vystavochnaya in 2009. Moscow_sentence_760

The branch extended to the Mezhdunarodnaya station in 2006, and all work on the third station, Dorogomilovskaya (between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr), has been postponed. Moscow_sentence_761

There are plans to extend the branch as far as the Savyolovskaya station, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line. Moscow_sentence_762

Media Moscow_section_55

See also: Media of Russia Moscow_sentence_763

Moscow is home to nearly all of Russia's nationwide television networks, radio stations, newspapers, and magazines. Moscow_sentence_764

Newspapers Moscow_section_56

Further information: List of newspapers in Russia Moscow_sentence_765

English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News, which are, respectively, the largest and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. Moscow_sentence_766

Kommersant, Vedomosti and Novaya Gazeta are Russian-language media headquartered in Moscow. Moscow_sentence_767

Kommersant and Vedomosti are among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers. Moscow_sentence_768

TV and radio Moscow_section_57

See also: Television in Russia Moscow_sentence_769

Other media in Moscow include the Echo of Moscow, the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV, one of the first privately owned Russian television stations. Moscow_sentence_770

The total number of radio stations in Moscow in the FM band is near 50. Moscow_sentence_771

Moscow television networks: Moscow_sentence_772

Moscow radio stations: Moscow_sentence_773

Notable people Moscow_section_58

Further information: :Category:People from Moscow Moscow_sentence_774

Main article: List of people from Moscow Moscow_sentence_775


  • Moscow_item_5_43
  • Moscow_item_5_44
  • Moscow_item_5_45
  • Moscow_item_5_46

International relations Moscow_section_59

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Moscow_sentence_776

Twin towns – sister cities Moscow_section_60

Moscow is twinned with: Moscow_sentence_777

Cooperation agreements Moscow_section_61

Moscow has cooperation agreements with: Moscow_sentence_778

Former twin towns and sister cities Moscow_section_62


  • Kyiv, UkraineMoscow_item_6_47

See also Moscow_section_63

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