Mount Kilimanjaro

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"Kilimanjaro" redirects here. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_0

For other uses, see Kilimanjaro (disambiguation). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_1

Mount Kilimanjaro_table_infobox_0

KilimanjaroMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_0_0
Highest pointMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_1_0
ElevationMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_2_0 5,895 m (19,341 ft)Mount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_2_1
ProminenceMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_3_0 5,885 m (19,308 ft) 

Ranked 4thMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_3_1

IsolationMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_4_0 5,510 km (3,420 mi) Q7296?uselang=en#P2659Mount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_4_1
ListingMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_5_0 Mount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_5_1
CoordinatesMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_6_0 Mount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_6_1
GeographyMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_7_0
LocationMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_8_0 Kilimanjaro Region, north east TanzaniaMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_8_1
Parent rangeMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_9_0 The Eastern Rift mountainsMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_9_1
Topo mapMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_10_0 Kilimanjaro map and guide by WielochowskiMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_10_1
GeologyMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_11_0
Age of rockMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_12_0 3 million yearsMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_12_1
Mountain typeMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_13_0 StratovolcanoMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_13_1
Last eruptionMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_14_0 Between 150,000 and 200,000 years agoMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_14_1
ClimbingMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_15_0
First ascentMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_16_0 6 October 1889 by Hans Meyer and Ludwig PurtschellerMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_16_1
Easiest routeMount Kilimanjaro_header_cell_0_17_0 HikingMount Kilimanjaro_cell_0_17_1

Mount Kilimanjaro (/ˌkɪlɪmənˈdʒɑːroʊ/) is a dormant volcano in Tanzania. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_2

It has three volcanic cones: Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_3

It is the highest mountain in Africa and the highest single free-standing mountain in the world: 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level and about 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) above its plateau base. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_4

Kilimanjaro is the fourth most topographically prominent peak on Earth. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_5

The first people known to have reached the summit were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller, in 1889. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_6

It is part of Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_7

Because of its shrinking glaciers and disappearing ice fields, it has been the subject of many scientific studies. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_8

Geology and physical features Mount Kilimanjaro_section_0

Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft); and Shira, the lowest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_9

Mawenzi and Shira are extinct, while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_10

Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_11

The Tanzania National Parks Authority, a Tanzanian government agency, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization lists the height of Uhuru Peak as 5,895 m (19,341 ft), based on a British survey in 1952. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_12

The height has since been measured as 5,892 metres (19,331 ft) in 1999, 5,902 metres (19,364 ft) in 2008, and 5,899 metres (19,354 ft) in 2014. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_13

Geology Mount Kilimanjaro_section_1

The geology of the interior of the volcanic edifice is poorly known, given the lack of large scale erosion that could have exposed the interior of the volcano. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_14

Eruptive activity at the Shira centre commenced about 2.5 million years ago, with the last important phase occurring about 1.9 million years ago, just before the northern part of the edifice collapsed. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_15

Shira is topped by a broad plateau at 3,800 metres (12,500 ft), which may be a filled caldera. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_16

The remnant caldera rim has been degraded deeply by erosion. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_17

Before the caldera formed and erosion began, Shira might have been between 4,900 m (16,000 ft) and 5,200 m (17,000 ft) high. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_18

It is mostly composed of basic lavas, with some pyroclastics. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_19

The formation of the caldera was accompanied by lava emanating from ring fractures, but there was no large scale explosive activity. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_20

Two cones formed subsequently, the phonolitic one at the northwest end of the ridge and the doleritic Platzkegel in the caldera centre. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_21

Both Mawenzi and Kibo began erupting about 1 million years ago. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_22

They are separated by the Saddle Plateau at 4,400 metres (14,400 ft) elevation. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_23

The youngest dated rocks at Mawenzi are about 448,000 years old. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_24

Mawenzi forms a horseshoe-shaped ridge with pinnacles and ridges opening to the northeast, with a tower-like shape resulting from deep erosion and a mafic dike swarm. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_25

Several large cirques cut into the ring. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_26

The largest of these sits on top of the Great Barranco gorge. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_27

Also notable are the East and West Barrancos on the northeastern side of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_28

Most of the eastern side of the mountain has been removed by erosion. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_29

Mawenzi has a subsidiary peak, Neumann Tower, 4,425 metres (14,518 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_30

Kibo is the largest cone on the mountain and is more than 24 km (15 mi) wide at the Saddle Plateau altitude. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_31

The last activity here, dated to 150,000–200,000 years ago, created the current Kibo summit crater. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_32

Kibo still has gas-emitting fumaroles in its crater. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_33

Kibo is capped by an almost symmetrical cone with escarpments rising 180 to 200 metres (590 to 660 ft) on the south side. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_34

These escarpments define a 2.5-kilometre-wide (1.6 mi) caldera caused by the collapse of the summit. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_35

Within this caldera is the Inner Cone and within the crater of the Inner Cone is the Reusch Crater, which the Tanganyika government in 1954 named after Gustav Otto Richard Reusch, upon his climbing the mountain for the 25th time (out of 65 attempts during his lifetime). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_36

The Ash Pit, 350 metres (1,150 ft) deep, lies within the Reusch Crater. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_37

About 100,000 years ago, part of Kibo's crater rim collapsed, creating the area known as the Western Breach and the Great Barranco. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_38

An almost continuous layer of lava buries most older geological features, with the exception of exposed strata within the Great West Notch and the Kibo Barranco. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_39

The former exposes intrusions of syenite. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_40

Kibo has five main lava formations: Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_41

Mount Kilimanjaro_unordered_list_0

  • Phonotephrites and tephriphonolites of the Lava Tower group, on a dyke cropping out at 4,600 metres (15,100 ft), dated to 482,000 years ago.Mount Kilimanjaro_item_0_0
  • Tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas "characterized by rhomb mega-phenocrysts of sodic feldspars" of the Rhomb Porphyry group, dated to 460,000–360,000 years ago.Mount Kilimanjaro_item_0_1
  • Aphyric phonolite lavas, "commonly underlain by basal obsidian horizons", of the Lent group, dated to 359,000–337,000 years agoMount Kilimanjaro_item_0_2
  • Porphyritic tephriphonolite to phonolite lavas of the Caldera Rim group, dated to 274,000–170,000 years agoMount Kilimanjaro_item_0_3
  • Phonolite lava flows with aegirine phenocrysts, of the Inner Crater group, which represents the last volcanic activity on KiboMount Kilimanjaro_item_0_4

Kibo has more than 250 parasitic cones on its northwest and southeast flanks that were formed between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago and erupted picrobasalts, trachybasalts, ankaramites, and basanites. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_42

They reach as far as Lake Chala and Taveta in the southeast and the Lengurumani Plain in the northwest. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_43

Most of these cones are well preserved, with the exception of the Saddle Plateau cones that were heavily affected by glacial action. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_44

Despite their mostly small size, lava from the cones has obscured large portions of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_45

The Saddle Plateau cones are mostly cinder cones with terminal effusion of lava, while the Upper Rombo Zone cones mostly generated lava flows. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_46

All Saddle Plateau cones predate the last glaciation. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_47

According to reports gathered in the 19th century from the Maasai, Lake Chala on Kibo's eastern flank was the site of a village that was destroyed by an eruption. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_48

Drainage Mount Kilimanjaro_section_2

The mountain is drained by a network of rivers and streams, especially on the wetter and more heavily eroded southern side and especially above 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_49

Below that altitude, increased evaporation and human water usage reduces the waterflows. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_50

The Lumi and Pangani rivers drain Kilimanjaro on the eastern and southern sides, respectively. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_51

Name Mount Kilimanjaro_section_3

The origin of the name Kilimanjaro is not known, but a number of theories exist. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_52

European explorers had adopted the name by 1860 and reported that Kilimanjaro was the mountain's Kiswahili name. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_53

The 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopædia also records the name of the mountain as Kilima-Njaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_54

Johann Ludwig Krapf wrote in 1860 that Swahilis along the coast called the mountain Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_55

Although he did not offer any support, he claimed that Kilimanjaro meant either mountain of greatness or mountain of caravans. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_56

Under the latter meaning, kilima meant mountain and jaro meant caravans. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_57

Jim Thompson claimed in 1885, again without support, that the term Kilima-Njaro "has generally been understood to mean" the mountain (kilima) of greatness (njaro). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_58

He also suggested "though not improbably it may mean" the white mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_59

Njaro is an ancient Kiswahili word for shining. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_60

Similarly, Krapf wrote that a chief of the Wakamba people, whom he visited in 1849, "had been to Jagga and had seen the Kima jajeu, mountain of whiteness, the name given by the Wakamba to Kilimanjaro...." More correctly in the Kikamba language this would be kiima kyeu, and this possible derivation has been popular with several investigators. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_61

Others have assumed that kilima is Kiswahili for mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_62

The problem with this assumption is that kilima actually means hill and is, therefore, the diminutive of mlima, the proper Kiswahili word for mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_63

However, "[i]t is ... possible ... that an early European visitor, whose knowledge of [Kiswahili] was not extensive, changed mlima to kilima by analogy with the two Wachagga names: Kibo and Kimawenzi." Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_64

A different approach is to assume that the kileman part of Kilimanjaro comes from the Kichagga kileme, which means that which defeats, or kilelema, which means that which has become difficult or impossible. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_65

The jaro part would "then be derived from njaare, a bird; or, according to other informants, a leopard; or, possibly from jyaro, a caravan". Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_66

Considering that the name Kilimanjaro has never been current among the Wachagga people, it is possible that the name was derived from Wachagga saying that the mountain was unclimbable, kilemanjaare or kilemajyaro, and porters misinterpreting this as being the name of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_67

In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called Kilima-Ndscharo in German following the Kiswahili name components. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_68

On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_69

He named it Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze (Kaiser Wilhelm peak). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_70

That name was used until Tanzania was formed in 1964, when the summit was renamed Uhuru Peak, meaning freedom peak in Kiswahili. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_71

Transportation Mount Kilimanjaro_section_4

The national park is accessible by road. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_72

In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro International Airport also serves as an important traffic hub. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_73

History Mount Kilimanjaro_section_5

First sightings by non-Africans Mount Kilimanjaro_section_6

The mountain may have been known to non-Africans since antiquity. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_74

Sailors' reports recorded by Ptolemy mention a "moon mountain" and a spring lake of the Nile, which may indicate Kilimanjaro; although available historical information does not allow differentiation among others in East Africa like Mount Kenya, the mountains of Ethiopia, the Virunga Mountains, the Rwenzori Mountains, and Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_75

Before Ptolemy, Aeschylus and Herodotus referred to "Egypt nurtured by the snows" and to a spring between two mountains, respectively. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_76

One of these mentions two tall mountains in the coastal regions with a valley with traces of fire between. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_77

Martín Fernández de Enciso, a Spanish traveller to Mombasa who obtained information about the interior from native caravans, said in his Summa de Geografía (1519) that west of Mombasa "stands the Ethiopian Mount Olympus, which is exceedingly high, and beyond it are the Mountains of the Moon, in which are the sources of the Nile". Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_78

The German missionaries Johannes Rebmann of Mombasa and Krapf were the first Europeans known to have attempted to reach the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_79

According to English geographer Halford Mackinder and English explorer Harry Johnston, Rebmann in 1848 was the first European to report the existence of Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_80

Hans Meyer has claimed that Rebmann first arrived in Africa in 1846 and quotes Rebmann's diary entry of 11 May 1848 as saying, Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_81

19th and 20th century explorers Mount Kilimanjaro_section_7

In August 1861, the Prussian officer Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken accompanied by English geologist R. Thornton made an attempt to climb Kibo but "got no farther than 8,200 feet (2,500 m) owing to the inclemency of the weather". Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_82

In December 1862, von der Decken tried a second time together with Otto Kersten, reaching a height of 14,000 feet (4,300 m). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_83

In August 1871, missionary Charles New became the "first European to reach the equatorial snows" on Kilimanjaro at an elevation of slightly more than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_84

In June 1887, the Hungarian Count Sámuel Teleki and the Austrian Lieutenant Ludwig von Höhnel made an attempt to climb the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_85

Approaching from the saddle between Mawenzi and Kibo, Höhnel stopped at 4,950 metres (16,240 ft), but Teleki continued until he reached the snow at 5,300 metres (17,400 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_86

Later in 1887, the German geology professor Hans Meyer reached the lower edge of the ice cap on Kibo, where he was forced to turn back because he lacked the equipment needed to progress across the ice. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_87

The following year, Meyer planned another attempt with Oscar Baumann, a cartographer, but the mission was aborted after the pair were held hostage and ransomed during the Abushiri Revolt. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_88

In the autumn of 1888, the American naturalist Dr. Abbott and the German explorer Otto Ehrenfried Ehlers approached the summit from the northwest. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_89

While Abbott turned back earlier, Ehlers at first claimed to have reached the summit rim, but after severe criticism of the claim, withdrew it. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_90

In 1889, Meyer returned to Kilimanjaro with the Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_91

This attempt was based on the establishment of several campsites with food supplies so that multiple attempts at the top could be made without having to descend too far. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_92

Meyer and Purtscheller pushed to near the crater rim on 3 October but turned back exhausted from hacking footsteps in the icy slope. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_93

Three days later, they reached the highest summit, on the southern rim of the crater. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_94

They were the first to confirm that Kibo has a crater. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_95

After descending to the saddle between Kibo and Mawenzi, Meyer and Purtscheller attempted to climb the more technically challenging Mawenzi but could only reach the top of Klute Peak, a subsidiary peak, before retreating due to illness. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_96

On 18 October, they reascended Kibo to enter and study the crater, cresting the rim at Hans Meyers Notch. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_97

In total, Meyer and Purtscheller spent 16 days above 15,000 feet (4,600 m) during their expedition. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_98

They were accompanied in their high camps by Mwini Amani of Pangani, who cooked and supplied the sites with water and firewood. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_99

The first ascent of the highest summit of Mawenzi was made on 29 July 1912, by the German climbers Eduard Hans Oehler and Fritz Klute, who named it Hans Meyer Peak. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_100

Oehler and Klute went on to make the third-ever ascent of Kibo, via the Drygalski Glacier, and descended via the Western Breach. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_101

In 1989, the organizing committee of the 100-year celebration of the first ascent decided to award posthumous certificates to the African porter-guides who had accompanied Meyer and Purtscheller. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_102

One person in pictures or documents of the 1889 expedition was thought to match a living inhabitant of Marangu, Yohani Kinyala Lauwo. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_103

Lauwo did not know his own age, nor remember Meyer or Purtscheller. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_104

He did recall joining a Kilimanjaro expedition involving a Dutch doctor who lived near the mountain, and that he did not wear shoes during the climb. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_105

Lauwo claimed that he had climbed the mountain three times before the beginning of World War I. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_106

The committee concluded that he had been a member of Meyer's team and therefore must have been born around 1871. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_107

Lauwo died on 10 May 1996, 107 years after the first ascent. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_108

It is sometimes suggested that he was a co-first-ascendant of Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_109

Mapping Mount Kilimanjaro_section_8

A map of the Kibo cone on Mount Kilimanjaro was published by the British government's Directorate of Overseas Surveys (DOS) in 1964 based on aerial photography conducted in 1962 as the "Subset of Kilimanjaro, East Africa (Tanganyika) Series Y742, Sheet 56/2, D.O.S. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_110

422 1964, Edition 1, Scale 1:50,000". Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_111

Tourist mapping was first published by the Ordnance Survey in England in 1989 based on the original DOS mapping at a scale of 1:100,000, with 100 feet (30 m) contour intervals, as DOS 522. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_112

West Col Productions produced a map with tourist information in 1990, at a scale of 1:75,000, with 100 metres (330 ft) contour intervals; it included inset maps of Kibo and Mawenzi on 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 scales respectively and with 50 metres (160 ft) contour intervals. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_113

In recent years, numerous other maps have become available, of various qualities. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_114

Vegetation Mount Kilimanjaro_section_9

Natural forests cover about 1,000 square kilometres (250,000 acres) on Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_115

In the foothill area maize, beans, sunflowers and, on the western side, wheat are cultivated. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_116

Remnants of the former savanna vegetation with Acacia, Combretum, Terminalia and Grewia also occur. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_117

Between 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) and 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), coffee also appears as part of the "Chagga home gardens" agroforestry. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_118

Native vegetation at this altitude range (Strombosia, Newtonia, and Entandrophragma) is limited to inaccessible valleys and gorges and is completely different from vegetation at higher altitudes. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_119

On the southern slope montane forests first contain Ocotea usambarensis as well as ferns and epiphytes, farther up in cloud forests Podocarpus latifolius, Hagenia abyssinica and Erica excelsa grow as well as fog-dependent mosses. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_120

On the drier northern slopes olive, Croton-Calodendrum, Cassipourea, and Juniperus form forests in order of increasing altitude. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_121

Between 3,100 metres (10,200 ft) and 3,900 metres (12,800 ft) lie Erica bush and heathlands, followed by Helichrysum until 4,500 metres (14,800 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_122

Neophytes have been observed, including Poa annua. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_123

Records from the Maundi crater at 2,780 metres (9,120 ft) indicate that the vegetation of Kilimanjaro has varied over time. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_124

Forest vegetation retreated during the Last Glacial Maximum and the ericaceous vegetation belt lowered by 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) between 42,000 and 30,000 years ago because of the drier and colder conditions. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_125

The Tussock Grassland is an area on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro that contains many unique species of vegetation such as the water holding cabbage. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_126

Animal life Mount Kilimanjaro_section_10

Large animals are rare on Kilimanjaro and are more frequent in the forests and lower parts of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_127

Elephants and Cape buffaloes are among the animals that can be potentially hazardous to trekkers. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_128

Bushbucks, chameleons, dik-diks, duikers, mongooses, sunbirds, and warthogs have also been reported. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_129

Zebras, leopards and hyenas have been observed sporadically on the Shira plateau. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_130

Specific species associated with the mountain include the Kilimanjaro shrew and the chameleon Kinyongia tavetana. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_131

Climate Mount Kilimanjaro_section_11

The climate of Kilimanjaro is influenced by the height of the mountain, which allows the simultaneous influence of the equatorial trade winds and the high altitude anti-trades; and by the isolated position of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_132

Kilimanjaro has daily upslope and nightly downslope winds, a regimen stronger on the southern than the northern side of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_133

The flatter southern flanks are more extended and affect the atmosphere more strongly. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_134

Kilimanjaro has two distinct rainy seasons, one from March to May and another around November. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_135

The northern slopes receive much less rainfall than the southern ones. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_136

The lower southern slope receives 800 to 900 millimetres (31 to 35 in) annually, rising to 1,500 to 2,000 millimetres (59 to 79 in) at 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) altitude and peaking "partly over" 3,000 millimetres (120 in) in the forest belt at 2,000 to 2,300 metres (6,600 to 7,500 ft). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_137

In the alpine zone, annual precipitation decreases to 200 millimetres (7.9 in). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_138

The average temperature in the summit area is approximately −7 °C (19 °F). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_139

Nighttime surface temperatures on the Northern Ice Field (NIF) fall on average to −9 °C (16 °F) with an average daytime high of −4 °C (25 °F). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_140

During nights of extreme radiational cooling, the NIF can cool to as low as −15 to −27 °C (5 to −17 °F). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_141

Snowfall can occur at any time of year but is mostly associated with northern Tanzania's two rainy seasons. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_142

Precipitation in the summit area occurs principally as snow and graupel of 250 to 500 millimetres (9.8 to 19.7 in) per year and ablates within days or years. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_143

Climate zones Mount Kilimanjaro_section_12

Mount Kilimanjaro_unordered_list_1

  • Bushland / Lower Slope:, 800 m – 1,800 m (2,600 ft – 5,900 ft);Mount Kilimanjaro_item_1_5
  • Rainforest Zone: 1,800 m – 2,800 m (5,900 ft – 9,200 ft);Mount Kilimanjaro_item_1_6
  • Heather / Moorland: 2,800 m – 4,000 m (9,200 ft – 13,100 ft);Mount Kilimanjaro_item_1_7
  • Alpine Desert Zone: 4,000 m – 5,000 m (13,100 ft– 16,400 ft);Mount Kilimanjaro_item_1_8
  • Arctic Zone: 5,000 m – 5,895 m (16,400 ft – 19,300 ft).Mount Kilimanjaro_item_1_9

Glaciers Mount Kilimanjaro_section_13

Kibo's diminishing ice cap exists because Kilimanjaro is a little-dissected, massive mountain that rises above the snow line. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_144

The cap is divergent and at the edges splits into individual glaciers. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_145

The central portion of the ice cap is interrupted by the presence of the Kibo crater. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_146

The summit glaciers and ice fields do not display significant horizontal movements because their low thickness precludes major deformation. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_147

Geological evidence shows five successive glacial episodes during the Quaternary period, namely First (500,000 BP), Second (greater than 360,000 years ago to 240,000 BP), Third (150,000 to 120,000 BP), Fourth (also known as "Main") (20,000 to 17,000 BP), and Little (16,000 to 14,000 BP). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_148

The Third may have been the most extensive, and the Little appears to be statistically indistinguishable from the Fourth. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_149

A continuous ice cap covering approximately 400 square kilometres (150 sq mi) down to an elevation of 3,200 metres (10,500 ft) covered Kilimanjaro during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Pleistocene epoch (the Main glacial episode), extending across the summits of Kibo and Mawenzi. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_150

Because of the exceptionally prolonged dry conditions during the subsequent Younger Dryas stadial, the ice fields on Kilimanjaro may have become extinct around 11,500 years BP. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_151

Ice cores taken from Kilimanjaro's Northern Ice Field (NIF) indicates that the glaciers there have a basal age of about 11,700 years, although an analysis of ice taken in 2011 from exposed vertical cliffs in the NIF supports an age extending only to 800 years BP. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_152

Higher precipitation rates at the beginning of the Holocene epoch (11,500 years BP) allowed the ice cap to reform. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_153

The glaciers survived a widespread drought during a three century period beginning around 4,000 years BP. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_154

In the late 1880s, the summit of Kibo was completely covered by an ice cap about 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi) in extent with outlet glaciers cascading down the western and southern slopes, and except for the inner cone, the entire caldera was buried. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_155

Glacier ice also flowed through the Western Breach. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_156

The slope glaciers retreated rapidly between 1912 and 1953, in response to a sudden shift in climate at the end of the 19th century that made them "drastically out of equilibrium", and more slowly thereafter. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_157

Their continuing demise indicates they are still out of equilibrium in response to a constant change in climate over the past century. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_158

In contrast to the persistent slope glaciers, the glaciers on Kilimanjaro's crater plateau have appeared and disappeared repeatedly during the Holocene epoch, with each cycle lasting a few hundred years. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_159

It appears that decreasing specific humidity instead of temperature changes has caused the shrinkage of the slope glaciers since the late 19th century. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_160

No clear warming trend at the elevation of those glaciers occurred between 1948 and 2005. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_161

Although air temperatures at that elevation are always below freezing, solar radiation causes melting on vertical faces. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_162

Vertical ice margin walls are a unique characteristic of the summit glaciers and a major place of the shrinkage of the glaciers. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_163

They manifest stratifications, calving, and other ice features. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_164

"There is no pathway for the plateau glaciers other than to continuously retreat once their vertical margins are exposed to solar radiation." Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_165

The Kilimanjaro glaciers have been used for deriving ice core records, including two from the southern icefield. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_166

Based on this data, this icefield formed between 1,250 and 1,450 years BP. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_167

Almost 85 percent of the ice cover on Kilimanjaro disappeared between October 1912 and June 2011, with coverage decreasing from 11.40 square kilometres (4.40 sq mi) to 1.76 square kilometres (0.68 sq mi). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_168

Between 1912 and 1953, there was about a 1.1 percent average annual loss of ice coverage. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_169

The average annual loss for 1953 to 1989 was 1.4 percent, while the loss rate for 1989 to 2007 was 2.5 percent. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_170

Of the ice cover still present in 2000, almost 40 percent had disappeared by 2011. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_171

Ice climber Will Gadd noticed differences between his 2014 and 2020 climbs. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_172

The glaciers are thinning in addition to losing areal coverage, and do not have active accumulation zones; retreat occur on all glacier surfaces. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_173

Loss of glacier mass is caused by both melting and sublimation. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_174

While the current shrinking and thinning of Kilimanjaro's ice fields appears to be unique within its almost twelve millennium history, it is contemporaneous with widespread glacier retreat in mid-to-low latitudes across the globe. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_175

In 2013 it was estimated that, at the current rate, most of the ice on Kilimanjaro will disappear by 2040 and "it is highly unlikely that any ice body will remain after 2060". Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_176

A complete disappearance of the ice would be of only "negligible importance" to the water budget of the area around the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_177

The forests of Kilimanjaro, far below the ice fields, "are [the] essential water reservoirs for the local and regional populations". Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_178

Trekking Mount Kilimanjaro_section_14

Climbing records Mount Kilimanjaro_section_15

The oldest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro is Anne Lorimor, who reached Uhuru Peak 3.14 p.m. local time on 18 July 2019 aged 89 years and 37 days. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_179

The oldest man to summit the mountain is the American Robert Wheeler, who was 85 years and 201 days when he summited on 2 October 2014. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_180

Maxwell J. Ojerholm of Massachusetts, USA reached Uhuru Peak, the true summit, unassisted at the age of ten years old on July 4, 2009 taking the difficult Machame Route. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_181

Later, Theodore Margaroli from London age 10 reached the summit unassisted by the Western Breach, the hardest but most scenic route in 2019. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_182

Despite an age-limit of 10 years for a climbing permit, Keats Boyd from Los Angeles reached the summit on 21 January 2008 at the age of 7. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_183

This record was equaled by Montannah Kenney from Texas in March 2018. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_184

The fastest ascent and the fastest roundtrip have been recorded by the Swiss-Ecuadorian mountain guide Karl Egloff. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_185

On 13 August 2014, after guiding a party to the summit the previous days, he ran from Umbwe Gate to the top in 4 hours and 56 minutes and returned to the Mweka Gate at 1,630 metres (5,350 ft) in a total time of 6 hours, 42 minutes and 24 seconds. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_186

Previous records, using the same route, were held by Spanish mountain runner Kílian Jornet (ascent in 5:23:50, roundtrip 7:14 on 29 September 2010) and by Tanzanian guide Simon Mtuy (an unsupported roundtrip in 9:21 on 22 February 2006). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_187

The female roundtrip record is held by Fernanda Maciel from Brazil in a time of 10 hours and 6 minutes. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_188

Her ascent time of 7:08 was broken on 23 February 2018 by the Danish ultramarathon runner Kristina Schou Madsen with a time of 6:52:54 from Mweka Gate. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_189

Several climbs by disabled people have drawn attention. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_190

Wheelchair user Bernard Goosen from South Africa scaled Kilimanjaro in six days in 2007. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_191

In 2012, Kyle Maynard who has no forearms or lower legs, crawled unassisted to the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_192

In 2020, a team featuring two double above-knee amputees, Hari Budha Magar and Justin Oliver Davis, summited Kilimanjaro. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_193

It took them six days to cover the 56km distance to the summit. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_194

Landscape overview Mount Kilimanjaro_section_16

Main article: Mount Kilimanjaro climbing routes Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_195

Kilimanjaro National Park generated US$51 million in revenue in 2013, the second-most of any Tanzanian national park. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_196

The Tanzania National Parks Authority reported that the park recorded 57,456 tourists during the 2011–12 budget year, of whom 16,425 hiked the mountain; the park's General Management Plan specifies an annual capacity of 28,470. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_197

The mountain hikers generated irregular and seasonal jobs for about 11,000 guides, porters, and cooks in 2007. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_198

Concerns have been raised about their poor working conditions and inadequate wages of these workers. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_199

There are seven official trekking routes by which to ascend and descend Kilimanjaro: Lemosho, Lemosho Western-Breach, Machame, Marangu, Mweka, Rongai, Shira, and Umbwe. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_200

The Machame route can be completed in six or seven days, Lemosho in six to eight, and the Northern Circuit routes in seven or more days. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_201

The Lemosho Route can also be continued via the Western-Breach, summitting via the western side of the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_202

The Western-Breach is more secluded and avoids the 6-hour midnight ascent to the summit (like other routes). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_203

The Rongai is the easiest of the camping routes. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_204

The Marangu is also relatively easy, if frequently busy; accommodation is in shared huts. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_205

The Lemosho Western-Breach Route commences on the western side of Kilimanjaro at Lemosho and continues to the summit via the Western-Breach Route. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_206

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Dangers Mount Kilimanjaro_section_17

Though the climb is not technically as challenging as the Himalayas or Andes, the high elevation, low temperature, and occasional high winds can make Kilimanjaro a difficult trek. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_207

Acclimatization is required, and even experienced and physically fit trekkers may suffer some degree of altitude sickness. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_208

A study of people attempting to reach the summit of Kilimanjaro in July and August 2005 found that 61.3 percent succeeded and 77 percent experienced acute mountain sickness (AMS). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_209

A retrospective study of 917 persons who attempted to reach the summit via the Lemosho or Machame routes found that 70.4 percent experienced AMS, defined in this study to be headache, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, or loss of appetite. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_210

Kilimanjaro's summit is well above the altitude at which life-threatening high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), the most severe forms of AMS, can occur. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_211

These health risks are increased substantially by excessively fast climbing schedules motivated by high daily national park fees, busy holiday travel schedules, and the lack of permanent shelter on most routes. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_212

The six-day Machame route, which involves one night of "sleeping low", may delay the onset of AMS but does not ultimately prevent its occurrence. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_213

Falls on steep portions of the mountain and rock slides have killed trekkers. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_214

For this reason, the route via the Arrow Glacier was closed for several years, reopening in December 2007. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_215

The improper disposal of human waste on the mountain environment has created a health hazard, necessitating the boiling of all water. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_216

Deaths Mount Kilimanjaro_section_18

According to the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, 25 people died from January 1996 to October 2003 while climbing the mountain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_217

Seventeen were female and eight were male, ranging in age from 29 to 74. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_218

Fourteen died from advanced high altitude illness, including one with HACE, five with HAPE, and six with both HACE and HAPE. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_219

The remaining eleven deaths resulted from "trauma (3), myocardial infarction (4), pneumonia (2), cardio-pulmonary failure of other underlying cause (1), and acute appendicitis (1). Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_220

The overall mortality rate was an 13.6 per 100,000 climbers. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_221

"On October 11, 2020, a fire broke out on Mount Kilimanjaro and consumed 28 square kilometres of vegetation Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_222

Mythology Mount Kilimanjaro_section_19

A legend tells of ivory-filled graves of elephants on the mountain, and of a cow named Rayli that produces miraculous fat from her tail glands. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_223

If a man tries to steal such a gland but is too slow in his moves, Rayli will blast a powerful snort and blow the thief down onto the plain. Mount Kilimanjaro_sentence_224

In popular culture Mount Kilimanjaro_section_20

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Special events Mount Kilimanjaro_section_21

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  • According to the Tanzania National Parks Authority, the first wedding performed on the mountain below the summit took place on 21 September 2014, when an American couple exchanged vows at Shira 2 Camp. In 2011, a couple had exchanged their vows at the summit.Mount Kilimanjaro_item_4_19
  • On 26 September 2014, a new world record for the highest-ever cricket match was set when a group of international cricketers played on a flat crater on the mountain at an elevation of 5,730 metres (18,800 ft).Mount Kilimanjaro_item_4_20

See also Mount Kilimanjaro_section_22

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Kilimanjaro.